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IIGil THAT TELLS ENEMY ALIENS '
THATTHEY MOST WATCH THEIR STEP
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"Notice to Enemy Aliens" Bigns have been pasted oh streets and ave
nues alone the Waterfront In coast cities warning against trespass. Our sud
Jeot. following they'ef-out'' orders must pick his. steps while on a moving
expedition to ouier quarters. -- t, .w - " -
REVIEW STREET RAILWAYS
BY MASS ACHUSETTS INSTITUTE
OF TECHNOLOGY FOR 5 YEARS
,EasiQue$irizus of Rate' of Fare, Length of Haul, Zone
. $ysteiify'arid btherTeatures Treated in an Exhaustive
; ivxanner m xuue tin o uao jlbbucu.
? V, -
It is riow Sour or' five years ago that
the Electrical Research Division of
' the Massachusetts InsUtute of Tech
nology has had under consideration
and investigation the various prob
lems of transportation.' Some, of the
.results have already attracted public
attention such as the comparison of
motor vehicles in efficiency under va
rious - conditions, one "i-wIOx, another
and with horse drawn rr: ones. - The
, latest report which .appears in "book
form and u U. I T, Research Divis
ion . Bullettin, No. 14, Concerns itself
i a i II 1 A fnw
up the basic questions of the nickel
fare, length of haul, zone system and
others in a comprehensive disens
ston, which being of Technology,
. leaves no question of bias in its find
ings. Moreover,-many facts and fig
ures are presented 'from which the
, interested reader may , arrive ' at his
. -own conclusions. :.i ''. ;v '
Some , of the statements In this vol
ume are ' of - greatest , consequence,
coming from an; authoritative source,
for example, ' the prediction of the
passing, 'of the' flat rate and the com'
Jng of a, fare based on length of haul,
, an evidence that the single fare from
one point on the line to any other one
' can no longer stand In the face of
modern methods-of business and mod
ern .extensions of transportation sys
tems. ' y . l'Jiy, :
Half-a-dozen? Tech nfen have been
engaged in the" research, Professor
Harold ender having charge In the
beginning and oi.:g61ng to Baltimore,
, his mantle fell in , Professor Dugald
i C. Jackson, 'with 'assistants, H. F,
' Thompson, Da.vi47C. McQrath, O. Rob
ert Schurlg, Thoraas.N. Buell and Ed
mond W. Bowler, ;Mr, McGrath being
employed on .the work, all the time.
It appears; thalj density of tratfio Is
the moot important factor , towards
. success,' of street railway operation,
and the; higher this, flure, the lower
are th6 proportionate investment
: charge, and. the operating; costs per
passenger.- , t .")
Density of ' traffic- is a factor that
floes not always follow expected lines,
for example it is large in medium
sfcied ciUes, but in very large cities
is likely to be-pnade less-through the
existence of long routes into sparse
ly settled suburbs. '". This density is
the expression of - theaiurober -of
I passengers carred..jjpjr; Jinlt ' of track
in a -unit of time.
Another Important factor- is the
rate of fare, for it is distinctly true
that the increasing of unit tares tends
to, discourage and decrease ' traffic,
while lowering the rate of fare always
Increases the jiumber of passengers.
A fjit rate of fare over whole cities
or over extended districts M custom
ers today almost everywhere in this
country but these investigations
show that it is in error in principle,
The nickel la a very convenient fare
but if It is to be used, limiting the
distance-which one may ride for one
-fare is ' suggested. The three cent
- fare witfcln city districts has theoreti
cally its advantages, but with Its use
-there are rather important additional
costs in collecting and in auditing, and
j difficulties in limiting the ride to
relatively short distances.
Some pf the by-products of the in
vestigations show curious relationship,
for example that the ability to take
lone rides for a single fare seems to
increase the distaned --which ie aver
age passenger rides. The uniform
fare throughout a great street rail
way J system , puts a comparatively
higher rate on short rides for the
benefit of those who take long rides.
otv.Uh it may seem that the rush
ward tendencies in costs continue,
street railways , must stop develop
ment, or else must find means for in
creasing ttalr incomes, and It is not
to be forgotten that the railway is a
private enterprise in which the stock
holders have the right to look for rea
sonable , returns on their Invest-1
' (Special to The Farmer.)
Newtown, Dec. 11 Judge William
C. Johnson of the Probate Court, was
one or the speakers at the ninth an
nual convention of the Federation of
Jewish Farmer of America, which
began its session Sunday night with
an -open meeting at the auditorium
oi the Educational Alliance, New
iotk city. The local branch of the
ieaerauon, through the national
president, Eli Greenblatt, extended the
invitation "to 'judge Johnson. The
former took prominent part In or
ganizing tne farmers' Dairy Co. of
Bridgeport, and is vice president- of
the company. Judge Johnson Is al
so greatly Interested in the coniDanv
hand, gave .time and money in estab
lishing this enterprise. The Jewish
larmers of the country pledge them
Belvea to answer the call of President
Wilson by greatly increasing their
crops in isis over that of the past
jco... .... iuo dBwisn larmers are
warm supporters of the co-operative
movements for purchaslffg supplies
and -marketing farm products which
are now a feature of Fairfield county
agriculture. Harry Garder of Step
ney and Louis Busker of Newtown at
tended the convention as accredited
delegates from Fairflel county. Some
of the other speakers who addressed
the convention Include the follow
. R. D. Cooper, president Dairymen's
League; Commissioner -J. J. Dillonv
New York State Food and Markets;
J0Durn, president Farmers'
Daily Co.,. of, Bridgeport; Hon. Jacob
H. Schlff, Leonard G. Robinson; pres
ident Federal Land Bank, Springfield,
Masa. i Alfred Jaretzki, president Jew
ish Agricultural and Industrial Aid
Society; John Mitchell, chairman
New York State Food Commission;
Marc W. Cole, secretary Million
Acres Wheat Committee, and Patriot
ic Farmers' Fund; M. Fainbera.
American Representative of the Mos
cow Narodny Bank, and Ely Green
blatt, president of the Federation of
Jewish Farmers of America.
The Misses Louise and Charlotte
Hartwig of Berkshire, have receded
diplomas for experts In canning op
erations front- the Storrs Agricultural
School, having completed the exten
sion course of the school.
An agent of the State Counsel for
Defense from Hartford spent two
days In Sandy Hook last week mak
ing a topoiphical survey of the
river beds of the Pohtatuck stream
and its tributaries. This work is a
part of the plan of utilizing the
water power of New England In the
production of electricity for domes
tic aa well as manufacturing uses.
James E. Campbell, the Sandy
Hook miller, has gotten his buck
wheat grinder into operation after a
period of eighteen years' disuse, and
now is receiving 'grists from as far
away as Bridgeport and Huntington.
One of the mills Is also used 'fn.
hour traffic is of great benefit to the ; grinding rye, and whole wheat flour
railways, it is to be remembered that j IDr tne farmers hereabouts, who have
the returning cars are corresponding-1 again resumed the raising of thesp
ly empty " and thus ; the balance is
maintained, - Then it is interesting to
learn that the- issue of transfers ac
tually lengthens thetrverage rides or
grains for- domestic uses. W. B
Terrill and Roy Meyers are assisting
In the work.
The students of the figh schoo;
field an open debate, Friday afternoo
With all these considerations It be-ion the subject: "Resolved, That thp
eomM evident that if the present up- U. S. government should take contro:
and Columbia Remrds
w n inn m v n -sr hi f . . n .hiibbwt in - i.
"That's the one
You want to have just that secure, decided feeling
when you buy a phonograph at Christmas or any
You are not likely to have a complete conviction
that you are buying the right instrument for your
home until you have seen and heard the Columbia
Whatever the price that you feel ready to pay, you
will find in the Columbia Grafonola a model of
such substantial value that ybu will have to give it
a place in your consideration.
From the lowest-priced Grafonola at $18 to the
handsome cabinet instrument at $250, Columbia
instruments invite and welcome comparison.
The customer who calls only at a Columbia
Grafonola store is sure to be pleased when
he hears the Columbia. The customer who
hears many instruments is convinced on
hearing the Columbia that "That's the
Columbia Graf onolai
Price $110 ,
F. E. Beach, 962 Main St. .
Geo. B. Clark Co., 1057 Main
A. Duka, 301 Hancock Ave.
one we want.
S. Finkelstein, 463 East Main
St. and 968 Stratford Road.
Howland Dry Goods Co.,
Main and Cannon Sts.
Alex Koszeghy, 1184 State St.
Lee Brothers, 1379 Main St
Piquette Piano Co., 60 Can
Otto Wissner, Inc., $23 Main
G. Cuccaro, 1618 Main St.
of the railroads of the country." Pro
fessor Hickson expressed his appre
ciation of the meritorious work of
:he students' speaking.
The basket ball team of N. H. S
-jlayed the New Milf ord High school
'earn at the town hall, Saturday night.
The visitors won the initial game here
by a score of 64 to 3. ,'
The members of the Country club
legin the winter's campaign for
funds by a whist at the home o( H.
Carlton Hubbell this Mnday night
at 8 o'clock.
The county commissioners have
paid over to Town Treasurer Frank
Wright, 1960, Newtown's share of
the license money received by them
from the six saloons In town.
' Michael Delohery, the Danbury hat
manufacturer, administrator of the
estate ; or Mary Keenan has applied
to the Probate Court for an order of
sale of property -of the estate. The
hearing is set for Dec. 17 at 10 a.
Arthur Ferris, son of Mrs. Bertha
Ferris and a graduate of the high
school has -returned from Plattsburg,
N. Y., with a commission of seoond
lieutenant. After a few days' fur
lough at home he will be assigned to
duty In the national army. ...
The December meeting of the
Equal Franchise League will be held
at the home of Miss Anna M. Becw
on December 12, at 2:30 p. m. Miss
Murray, the Fairfield county organ
izer will address the meeting. A
full attendance is requested.
The Salvation Army is starting a
campaign to raise 81,000,000 for
American soldiers in France.
A Chicago warehouse recently lees
ed byi the government, was destroyed
by fire of mysterious origin.
TOSH RJflCUL BON
District Attorney Swann has de
manded that chorus girls and cabaret
performers put on more clothes.
Cures Colds in Greirt Britain -LAXATIVE
BROMO QUININE table's
remove the cause. E, W. GROVE S
signature on box.