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STANDARD. A. A. EAltLE, PUBLISHER. I VOLUME 1. itcrarn Selections. -I From the LonJon Times. SIR ISAAC NEWTON. I The common idea of Newton is very aue. In writing to the earliest of bis bio?rapliers, Tope expressed a desire to have some " memoirs and character of Kim n a nrivate man." The desire mfcht still be expressed. We have no intimacy with Newton. Few persons, if asked to describe the character of the man, could say no more than this that he was exceedingly absent, and that he was imperturbable almost to insipidity, perhaps quoting as an illustration of the latter characteristic the apocryphal story of the philosopher and his Httle dog " Dia-1 mond." This is not much, and jet the half of it is incorrect. Thy eotempora ries of Newton describe him a anything but hnpertnrable on certain occasion?. Locke declared thai he was "a nice man to deal with," but "a littte too apt to raise in himself suspicions where there is no ground." Fiam-teed always " found him insidious, ambitious, and excessively cov etous of prai.-e and impatient of contra diction." Whiston describes him as equally im minent, and of the mo t fearful, cautious. aaJ suspicions temper that ever he knew, j D'Alembert gives the French idea of him when he says : ' In England people wen content with Newton's being the greatest genius of his age ; in France one would j have also wished him to be amiable." Ill Newton was really uiiamiublc, it was chiefly a negative unan;:-.b'.lily. lie was Unsocial, lie was reserved, he v. asul-ent, lie was silent ; in the course of live years his secretary. Ilumprey Newton, never saw him laugh but once, and that once it is impossible to comprehend why ; worst of all to a Frenchman, he had none of the i eraees could not, like Fontenelle, begin j a treatise on astronomy by saluting a lady .nr. 1 comparing the beauty of day to a blonde and the beauty of night to a bru - nette. The only qualities in Newton that were positively iinainiable were his suspicious temper and his impatience of contradiction. All else was negative . Ilka c 'uJ -' :.u . l. exception of his piety and his veracity. He was good because he was passioidess ; and he was not lovcable, because he was void of emotion. ' Bishop Burnet says that N'ewt bad . . ,i i We can the whitest soul he ever kn -v. .i ton was utterly well believe it so. J , unworldliness ot the unworldly, and . J j content to pace about his man who ' . . . and Ins trim Lttie garden from Mia1: . ,.jnng to night, save when he turned out for half an hour to see if any body would listen to him as Lucasian Professor, tEust have nither astonished the bustling, courtly Scotch bishop. Then he was pure rts a child ; his niece tells us that he broke an acquaintance of the greatest in timacy with Vhrani because the Italian uicmw to.u li.ia some loose storv ot a . j shop Burnet's remark, however, I it much more string-nt sense j nun. Bis! is true in than this in a much m jre stringent sense than, perhaps, lie ever contemplated. Newton had the whitest rail he ever knew, sirqdy because his emotional na ture was tile ?heet of white paper which the netaphvsicians cf that period were!.i ., " , - ! tllOU-'Il Wltil Some rlilinnnr ihn in or Continually ! --liking about. i ' Sir David Brevier has done his best to prove the contrary. He even fancies that he has discovered Sir Isaac in love. Sir Isaac hi love! it is incredible it is impossible. Fancy the sedate Lucasian j Frofes.-or addressing Lady Norris like one of those fops called " pretty fellows," whom Steele shortly afterwards satirized in tLe Tutler. " Can you resolve to wear a widow's habit perpetually ?" he writes. " Whether your Ladyship should go con ' etantly in the melancholy dress of a wid ow, or flourish once more among the la xlies," that is the question, and that is .the style of courtship which Sir David, with his eyes open and all his brilliant optical reputation, attributes to a philoso pher whose soul was fixed on one idea the increase of gravity inversely as the square of the distance. Sir Isaac, we make bold to say, never had a thought of love. , in comparison with Newton, Uncle Toby's behavior to the AVidow Wadman was the extreme of gallantry and licen tiousness. It must be remembered that -Newton was a god, and Alexander the . Great used to say that two he might .have said three things reminded him - that he was a mortal, and not a god love, sleep, and food. These three things - proved the divinity of Sir Isaac, for he never spent a thought on love, took very little sleep, and as for his dinner,he nev- er eared for it and often never ate it. 'He kept neither dog nor cat in his chamber," says Humphrey Newton, " which made well for the old woman, his bed-maker, she faring much the better for it, for in a morning she has sometimes found both dinner and supper scarcely tasted of, which the old woman has very pleasantly and mumpingly gone away with." While speaking of food, wc niay men tion, in passing, as a set-off to the nega tions of Newton's animal and emotional nature, his one physical enjoyment. He liked fruit, and could eat anj quantity of it. As a boy, we find him in his account-books spending his money on cher ries, tarts, and marmalade. This latter taste seems to have grown with him, for he was always very fond of a small roast ed quince for supper, lie was as fond of orange peel as Dr. Johnson, and used to take it boiled in water for his breakfast instead of tea. Apples, too, appear to have been a favorite fruit of his ; one of his letters exhibits' hiiu longing after ci der, and making great endeavors to se cure some grafts of the genuine " red streaks." Perhaps it was one of those favored " red streaks" that falling from the tree suggested the system of the world the universality of the law of gravita tion. Other enjoyments Newton had none which were not purely intellectual. Even as a boy he never joined in the games and amusements ot bis companions. e find him making dials, and water-clocks, and wind-mills; and on the day of the great storm of 1 G58, when Cromwell was drawing his last breath in Whitehall, and Goodwin stood by his bedside, assuring him that his soul was safe, and Bates went soft and sad from room to room ; and the trees in St. James's Park were uprooted by the tempest, Newton, in his sixteenth year was jumping about in the gale to measure the force of the wind; In more advanced years his amusements were still more severe; When weary of his other studies, the differential calculus and the irregularities of the moon, he u refreshed himself with chronology and all the dry details of lustrums, Olympi ads, and the expedition of the Argonauts. T-VitVi aifh nlpjusiires it will not be sur prising that we return to npe,4 say that his asthetical nature was utterly blank- He had a perfect horror of poet ry, and would have echoed the sentiment of his friend Barrow, that it is an ingen ious kind of nonsense." He showed his regard for sculptor when he said of his friend, the Earl of Pembroke, that he was " a lover of stone dolls." And his opinion of painting expressed in an anecdote which we do not profess to comprehend, but which, according to the interpretation suggested by Sir David Brewster, implies that he considered pictures nothing but "dirt.' As we look farther into Newton's char acter, we find everywhere the sairie ab sence of color, the same whiteness that .(jj, uurnei observed. ,p. c;men of it ;s presented atlvk.0 t0 his young friend, Bishop Burnet observed. One curious in a letter of Francis As ton, who was about to set out on his travels. " If you are affronted," wrote the phi losopher, " it is better in a forraine count ry to pass it by in silence, or with a jest, , ' - . , ' uuii icitu-u; ior m me nrst case your credit's ne'er the worse when you return into England, and come into other com pany that have not heard of the quarrell. But, in the second case, you may beare the marks of the quai-rell while you live, if you outlive it at all." Here is a lily liver with a vengeance dissuading his youug frieud from a quarrel on the ground, not of high Christian principle, but of un manly fear. If the truth must be spoken, Newton was a coward. It is the most amazing thing to read how frightened he was to face the public. He could never bear publicity. This was partly the re sult of a timid disposition which made him shrink from criticism, but partly also it was the result of a self-absorbed and un sociable nature that was all in all to itself, and felt no need of human sympathy. When, shortly after writing the above letter to Frrncis Aston, he was asked for permission to publish one of his papers in the Philosophical Transactions, he gave his consent, on condition that his name should be withheld. " For I see not," he writes, " what there is desirable in public esteem, were I able to acquire it and maintain it. It would, perhaps, increase my acquaintance the thing which I chiefly study to de cline." This appalling self-absorption is without a parallel in the history of the uuman inmd. After having been em broiled ia a trifling optical discussion with a uuicn physician of the name of Linus, INTo More Oomproiixiso witli IttASBURGH, VERMONT,' FRIDAY, JANUARY 23, 185G. he writes as follows to one of his friends ; u I see I have made myself a slave to philosophy ; but if I get free of Mr. Linus' business I will resolutely bid adieu to it eternally, excepting what I do for my private satisfaction, or leave to come out me." That sentence represents Sir Isaac to the life. All his pursuits were for his own private satisfaction ; he shunned man kind ; and there is not one of his discov eries that would ever have been published if it had not been dragged into the light by his friends, while he looked on, fret- tlno- and muttering at the intrusion. Of ""a him it may be said with truth, w hat was never truly said of Milton, " His soul was like a star, and dwelt apart." Dwelling thus apart, and viewing with singular apathy all that men most prize in public esteem and private sympathy, it was natural th?.t Newton thould look with stoical contempt on all the objects of human ambition. Love he needed not ; honor he sought not ; above all things he despised wealth. Master of the mint, money had no charms for him. Specu lum metal, for his reflecting telescope, was to him the most precious of metal. The bursting of a soap bubble, when pur suing his experiments on color, gave him more concern than the loss of 20,000 on the bursting of the South Sea Bubble. His indifference wasextended to his latest biographer, who has not condescended to hint at the less. Sir Isaac thought more of a lens and a prism than of all the in gots at the Mint and all the diamonds in Amsterdam. He parted with his money freely so freely, indeed, that his biogra phers have regarded it as a proof of sin gular generosity. It was nothing of the kind ; it was no more generosity than is the act of the poor savage who gives awav inestimable treasures for a glass bead or a little bit of mirror. What cared he for wealth ? He had no interest in human life , he had no sub lunary pleasures which money could pur chase, except pippins and red streaks. He gave it away to anybody who asked for it. In one of his absent fits he had his pocket picked of more than 3,000, and suspected a nephew of the celebrated William Whiston ; he made no efforts to -- " 1 -il- li'll n rt CTclr(fl how much he had lost, only replied ; "Too much." He was so far imposed upon that he paid 4,000 for an estate in Wilt shire worth only the half of that sum ; he was told that he might vacate his bargain in equity, and he declined the trouble. " I have seen," says honest Humphrey Newton, I have seen a small pasteboard box in his study set against the open win dow, no less, as one might suppose, than 1,000 guineas in it, crowded edgeways, whether this was suspicion or careless ness I can not say ; perhaps to try the fi delity of those about him." It was certainly carelessness J but poor Humphrey (how vividly he remembers it all !) felt sorely tempted when he saw, "as one might suppose" for he was too honest to count them "no less than 1,000 guineas' '-crowded edgeways," and it was a help to bis fidelity to believe that the trial was intended by his master his master, to whom, when at the head of the Mint, a duchess all in vain offered a bribe of G,000. At one period of his life Sir Isaac gave some study to alchemy, and we might suppose, from one of the sen tences in the letter to Francis Aston, from which we have already quoted that he had thought of transmutation as a means of money-making. He recom mends his young friend to inquire on the Continent about transmutation, these " being the most luciferous, and many times luciferous experiments, too, in phi losophy." This letter, however, it must be re membered, was not written long before his circumstances were such as to give him some anxiety, and he was glad to escape his weekly payments as a member of the Royal Society. If ever he thought of money-making, it was only to pay his frugal buttery book and buy putty for his lenses and oranges for his sister. He gave away his money without concern ; he was even offensive in his liberality, and quarreled with persons who refused his purse. Think of Sir Isaac taking a handful of guineas at random out of his pocket and offering it as a fee to a physi cian like Cheselden ! We have not said anything of the con troversies which brought Newton into contact with his fellow-men, and put his manliness to the test ; and we must leave it to others to adjust all the microscopic details of authorship and copyright which these controversies involve. But it is impossible to pass without reprehension the unfairness with which Newton treated his opponents lluygens and Hooke, Ltib- neitz and Flamsteed. It is a just retri bution that Newton's corpuscular theory of light has succumbed before the undula tory theory defended by lluygens and Hooke ; that his law of double refraction has been displaced by that of Huygen's ; that his theory of the inflexion of light has been forgotten for Ilooke's ; and that his method of fluxion;, which raised the greatest din of all, has been supplanted by the deferential calculus of Leibnitz. For one thing in these controversies we may be proud of Newton. His jealousy was absurd, all generosity was forgotten ; but he never descended to the atrocious frauds which disgraced his opponents, Bernoulli, Leibnitz, and Wolf. Such was Newton as a man. Glorious in his intellect, with a Hy rather intel lectual than devotional, he was a stoic without the merit of a stoic, for he had no feelings to contend with. It is very sad dening to find that the two most splendid names which science can boast of belong to men so deficient in their moral natures as Lord Bacon and Sir Isaac Newton. In the former we find a positive moral obliquity, which would awaken pity were it not joined to so majestic an intellect that it excites terror and despair of human nature. In the latter we find simply a vacuum iron intellect on every side sur rounding and maintaining the tremendous gap within. We have no desire to mor alize on the fact. We have simply en deavored to give a faithful representation of Newton's character, believing that no possible good can result from the fulsome flatteries which are heaped on his name. When the cotemporariesof Newton hailed him as a god, they declared, in very bril liant phrase, that he was not a man. AlfECDOTE OF WASHINGTON. Towards the fall of tke year 1775 Gen. Washington and staff visited Chel sea on horseback to view t'ae features of the land thereabouts. They went from the camp in Cambridge, through Med- ford and Maiden, and stopped by the way for rest and refreshment at the residence of Mr. John Dexter, situated in Maiden by the brook, just before you enter the central village on the north side of the old road leading fvo" Iedford. This house was fifteen rods from the street, and distinguished for Its convenience and the beauty of its situatioa, having many stately elm trees growing by the roadside near, and was thus well calculated to tempt a troop of weary horsemen on a summer's day to dismount, to enjoy the coolness of the shadi and the hospitali ties of the mansion. Here Washincrton and his suite alighted, and after hitching their horses under the trees, entered the house by invitation of Mr. Dexter and partook of refreshments. When the party came out to renount their horses, one of the gentlemen accidentally knock ed off a stone from one of the walls which ran along from the house to the street outside of the rows of trees. Washing ton remarked to him that he had better replace the stone. The officer, having remounted, replied, "No, I will leave that for somebody else to do." Washington then went quietly and replaced the stone himself, saying, as he did so, "I always make it my rule, wlien visiting a place, to leave things in as good order as I find them." This incident was related to us by Cap lain Richard Dexter, who was a witness of the facts related, and at the time about nineteen years of age. Bunker Hill Au rora. CSf" A Virginia Postmaster has been inquiring of the Department the meaning of the little "picture stuck cn the letters ;" and another official, in Iowa, desired the Department to sustain him in a decision he had recently made against a " fellow" who insisted that 1 them pictures of Washington, on the letters, paid the pos tage." An editor in Iowa has become so hollow from depending upon the printing business alone tor bread, that he projoses to sell himself for stove pipe. CaJ Let misfortuuo do her worst, if s he bring not the conciouness of crime or dishonor to her aid, her victim may defy her. Maeuiage. When sacrifices were of fered to Juno, who presided over mar riage, the gall of the victim was thrown behind the altar, to bhow that no such thing ought to exist among married per sons. 6 A frozen heart is precisely upon a par with a frozen potato, and one is worth just about as much as the other. Oln v oiy. PBEDICTI0N OF THE FIRST ECLIPSE. BT I'ROF. 0. MITCHELL. To those who have given but little at tention to the subject, even in our own day, with all the aids of modern science, the prediction of an eclipse seems suffi ciently mysterious and unintelligible. How, then) it was possible; thousands of years ago, to accomplish this same great object, without any just views of the structure of the system, seems utterly in credible. Follow me, then, while I at tempt to reveal the reasoning which led to the prediction cf the first eclipse of the sun, the most daring prophecy ever made by human genius. Follow, in im agination, this bold interrogator of the skies to his solitary mountain summit withdrawn from the world surrounded by his mysterious circles, there to watch and ponder through the long nights of many, many years. But hope cheers him on, and smooths his rugged pathway. Dark and deep as is the problem, he ternly grapples with it, and resolves never to give over till victory crcwn3 his efforts. He has already remarked that the moon s track in the heavens; crossed the sun's and that this point of crossing was in some way immediately connected with the coming of the dread eclipse. He determines to watch and learn whether he moon, in each successive revolution-, crossed the sun's path at a different point. If the sun in his annual revolution could leave behind him a track of fire, marking j his journey among the stars, it is found that this same track was followed from year to year, and from century to centu ry, with undeviating precision. But it was soon discovered that it was far differ ent with the moon. In case she, too, could leave behind her a silver thread of light, sweeping round the heavens, in completing one revolution, this thread would not join, but would wind around among the stars in each revolution, cross ing the sun's fiery track at a point west of the previous crossing. These points of crossing were called the moon's nodes. At each revolution, the node occurred further west, until, after a cycle of about nineteen years, it had circulated ia the oinw flimtinn entirely around the eclip tic. Long and patiently did the astrono mer watch and wait ; each eclipse is du ly observed, and its attendant circum stances are recorded, when, at last, the darkness begins to give way, and a ray of light breaks upon his mind. He finds that no eclipse of the sun ever occurs, un less the new moon is in the act of cross ing the sun's track. Here was a jrrand discovery. lie holds the key which he believes will unlock the dread mystery ; and now, with redoubled energy, he re solves to thrust it into the wards, and drive back the bolts. To predict an eclipse of the sun, he must sreep fprward from new moon to new moon, until he finds some new moon which should occur while the moon was in tne act ot cros;cg trom one 8;de to the other of the sun's track. This cer tainly was invisible. He knew the ex act period from new moon to new mcon, and from one crossing of the ecliptic to another. With eager eyes he seizes the moon's places in the heavens, and her age, and rapidly computes where she crosses at her next change. He finds the new moon occurring far from the sun's track ; he looks around another revolution ; the j tors are stii! our masters, in science and place of the new moon falls closer to the j its applications the order of precedence sun's path, and the next year closer, un- is reversed, HHd our own age has been til, reaching forward with piercing intei- more prolific and amazing than the ag lectual vigor, he at last finds a new moon ! gregate of all the ages which have cone which occurs precisely at the computed time of the passage across the son's track. Ilere he makes a stand, and on the day of the occurrence of that new moon, he announces to the startled inhabitants of the world, that the sun shall expire in dark eclipse. Bold prediction 1 Myste rious prophet ! With what scoin rnu-.t the unthinking world have received this solemn declaration ? I low slowly do the moons roll away, and with what intense anxiety does the stern philosopher await the coming of that day w hich should crown him with victory, or da.Ji him to the ground in ruin or disgrace ! Time to him tnoves on leaden wings ; day ufter day, and, at bust, hour after hour, roll heavily. The last night is gone the moon lias disappeared from his eager riyp iti tier niiiiroiich to t!i sim. mio Hie y y - i l 1 dawn of the eventful day breaks iu beau ty on the slumbering world. This daring man, stem in his faith, climbs ulone to his rocky home, ami greets the sun as be rises and mounts the heav- ens, scattering brightness and glory in Ids path. Beneath him w spread out the populous city, already teeming with life and activity. The busy morning hum I TERMS, 81,25 IX ADVANCE. NUMRER 4. rises on the still air, and roaches the watching place of the solitary astrono mer. The thousands below him, uncon scious of his intense nnxiety, joyously pursue their rounds of bisine3 their cy cles of amusements. The sun slowly climbs the heavens, round and bright, and full orbed. The tenant of the mountain, too, al most begins to waver in the sternness of his faith, as the morning hours roll away. But the time of his triumph, long delay ed, at length begins to dawn a pale and sickly hue creeps over the face of nature. The sun has reached its highest point, but his splendor is dimmed; his light is important element of civilization. Ar fceble. At last it comes ! Blackness is Jthtir Tonr, who traehd iu Lancashire eating away his round disc ; onward, with England, iu 1770, has incidentally pvea slow but steady pace, the dark veil moves, an account of the state of cne of tin'; Ua jker th--MiW.W nights ; the'g'or.m j road' at that time, and his f!eserip deepens : the ghastly hue of death cov ers the universe ; the last ray is gone, and horror reigns. A wail of terror fills the murky air ; the clangor of brazen trumpets resounds; an agony ot. despair dashes the stricken millions to the ground, while that lone man, erect on his rocky summit, with arms outstretched to heav en, pours forth the grateful gushing of his heart to God, who had crowned his ef- forts with triumphant victory. Search the records of our race, and point me, it you can, to a scene more grand, more beautiful. It is, to me, the proudest victory that genius ever wc.i. It was the conquering of Nature, of Ig norance, of Superstition, of Terror, all at a single uiow, ana tnac mow strucK ey a sinjrle man. And now, do you demand the name cf this wonderful man ? Alas what a lesson of the instability cf earthly fame are we taught in this simple recital. He who had raised himself immeasura bly above his race, who must have been regarded by his fellows as little less than a godj ffho had inscribed his fame on the very heavens, and had written it in the sun, with a "pen of iron, and the point of a diamond ;" even this one has perished from the earth ; name, age, country, all are swept into oblivion ; but the proud achievement stands. The monument reared to his honor stands ; and although the touch of Time has effaced the Ictter- irg of his name, it is powerless, and can- not destroy the fruits of Lis victory. A thousand years roll by ; the astron- omer stands on the watch-tower of Bab ylon, and writes for posterity the records of an eclipse ; this record escapes de struction, and is safely wafted down the stream of time. A thousand years roll away; the old astronomer, surrounded by the Uerce but wondering Arabs, again writes and marks the day which witness es the sun's decay. A thousand years roll heavily away ; once mere the astron omer writes, from amidst the gay throiig that crow ds the capital of Europe. Kee oru is compared wun record, date with rcil tLflt wlicn Franklin, in 17.",4, pro date, revolution with revolution, the past jccted a plan of union for these colonics, and the present together; another strug- j w;!n Philadelphia as the m-tropolis, he gle commences ; another triumph is won. L;lve as a reason for this part of the phn. Little did the Babylonian dream that he j that Philr.delp hia was situated about half was observing for one, who, after a hq.se j way between the two extremes, and of three thousand years, should rest upon this very record the successful solution of one of Nature's darkest mysteries. LOCOMOTION. A recent writer in the Xorth Ameri can Review calks attention to the curious ulai m:e m me nue arts and m speculative thought, our remotest ances- j before us. "It is not likely," he observes, "that the world will ever see a more pcr- ; feet poet than Homer, a grander states- man than Pericles, a sublimer or more lu'"'"luu'sl" rl"vT w.an i K.U., a . . 1-1 1 f, . .cuipior rquai 10 i niuias, a painter supe rior to Raphael Certain it is, that the lapse of twenty, or five-and-twenty cen turies, has given birth to none who have surpassed them, and to few who have ap proached them." But in the practical arts of life, all this is reversed. "Take two points only, the mo-t obvious and the nio.-t signal locomotion and the trans mission of intelligence. At the earliest period of authentic history, men traveled as fast as in the year 183. Ninirodgot over the ground at the rate of ten or lui. to ri,i'..a ... !.,,, V.,..,.T . I I .... r..cf.. 1u-m I i w ia ' h 't-1' " . " i ' hi i . . u . . i i t - we raided the maximum of speed from ten miles to seventy. The first rij tl.-ou-! sand years did nothing, or next to nothing the next six years did everything j reached the limits of possible achievement ' w this direction ; for no one imagine that any greater speed is attainable, or would J he bearable." I Sudden and recent thi improve n.rnt in locomotion 1 been, it is difficult to realize fully the grca:nes of the change that has taken place. Not only were our ancestors without th". an ar.s of rapid transit from point to point, a centu ry ago, but such faeilitieas they possess ed were rendered nearly Useless, by the want of roads. Even in Europe, with ! the exception of a few military road.;. there were no channels of communica tion ltcLween distant place, snve by wa ter. Such road as thf y had were im practicable, and the constant recurrence of desolating wars diverted the minds of J both princes and people from this nm-r will answer for many other road- both of England mid the continent. Our own country was scarcely lrn, and of course j.a j n) roa,s f iVny extent Yoiiiii' I say3 . "I know not in the whole range of language, rrm? sufficiently expressive to describe this infernal road. Lei me most seriously caution ail travelers who may accidentally pror'se to travel this terri- tc couutry, to avoid it as you would tne devil, for a thousand to one, they wili j tjle;r nects or r,mbs"by overthrows or breaking down. They will meet with ruts, which I actually measured, four feet deep, and floating with mud only from a wet summer. What therefore must it be after a winter? I passed three carts bro- ,,n jown w;in:n t! e milts ef etecia- The time consumed bv comino! riers over such routes is, now-a-!ay, in credible. The postman from ft' IViik to Edinburgh, a distance of less than forty miles, was always a fortnight in gang and returning. We are told that the massacre of the Jews in London, at the coronation of Richard the First, was not known at Stamford, Norwich, or York, until several months had elapsed. Even as late as 1835, there were only seven coaches that ran daily from the capital cf England to that of Scotland, and until several years within the present century, the internal transport of nearly all the I traiic 0f ( Jrcat irita; -as performeJ by j wagons, at the slowest rate, and at an enormous expense. The charse for car riage averaged alxut thirty cents a ton, per mile. Of course, all bulky articles were excluded from exchange. These articles are now carried over the sain ground, the same d'.st incc, at the rate of two cents per ton. The speed of the wagons, then, did not exceed twenty-four miles a day; steam cars now run thirty miles the hour. In our own country, quite fts tnaiked changes have taken place, within the same period. How queer it sounds, to ; u;( he conveniently reached, even from Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 18 day? ! Now, the journey uny be made in than twice as many hours. On the Hii. of June, 1771, John Adams made ti e following entry in Lis diary, at Middle town, Conn.: 'Looking into the almanac anl st;lrtk;(. Sm.reme Court at I ,s- 4 whh on the 18th day of June. I thought it was a week later, 2"th; so that 1 1 ave only next week to go home, one hundred and fifty miles. I must improve ctery moment. It is twenty-five miles a day, it I ride every day next week." Think of such a man as John Adams being tart!ed at the idea of Lading only a week l travel a hundred and titty miles ! Bur there wa3 nothing strange alxmt h in & rz , t;M()(e o3J8. For years aft,.r ,e uing of the present century, the mail liu. between New York and Albany was H Jays. Emigrants to the Genesee Val ley, only twenty years ago, were some times twenty day in reaching their r.ew purchases. There is a book still extant, written by a Lady, within the memory of middw-flged persons, to describe a jx-rii-ous journey he made, from Boston to New York. Similar in-tances might be adduced without end, in illustration of the surpri-ing improvements which have Ix-t u uiaite in ilie mean ot locomotion, wllnn 1 J Who said it. We do not know who ' naid this Good ihing : " People who sup- Ie that a good prayer w preferred to K0"'1 doubtfc-w imagine that God Las "earing u.a-i eyo.ght. j Cjf I' ls aked, how can the laboring j man find time for self-culture? Iuwer. - ' that an earrit j-urpoee fiii'ht time.