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The voice of freedom. [volume] (Montpelier, Vt.) 1839-1848, December 07, 1839, Image 1

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E. A. ALLEN, Publisher, Published under the sanction of the Vermont Anti-Slavery Society. C, L. KNAPP, Editor
From the Emancipator.
To the Committee on behalf of the African
Agreeably to your request, I proceeded to Hart
ford, on the 18th inst, for the purpose of attending
the trial of the Libel for salvage against the Afri
cans, brought by Lieut. Gedney, U. S. N., and
the various claims and questions which have been
engrafted thereon. In stopping for a few hours
ot New Haven, where I met our esteemed friend
Dr. Madden, I was grieved to learn that the Af
rican interpreter, James Covey, who was so kindly
permitted by Captain Fitzgerald to remain in this
country to assist at the trial, was quite unwell, and
not able to go up in the evening boat, as had been
arranged. As it was then too late to see any one
in town, I addressed a note to Mr. Townshend,
urging that Covey should be -sent in the morning
boat at every hazard short of life and death ; and
I have reason to Relieve that Mr. T. urged his at
tendance as far as n due regard to humanity would
allow, but the very respectable physician who was
in attendance, remained of the opinion that he
could not safely take the journey. I will now give
you, from my notes, an account of the
The U. S. District Court was opened by the
Hon. Andrew T. Judson, District Judge, at the
appointed hour. It was a special session, appointed
expressly to try the case of the Amistad. Messrs.
Isham and Brainerd, of New London, appeared
in behalf of Lieut. Gedney, the libellant, who
grounds his demand upon meritorious services,
rendered in rescuing and preserving the schooner
Amistad and her cargo from the hands of Jinqua
and other Africans, in whose possession said ves
sel and corgo were found. The two Spaniards,
Ruez and Monlez, had, at the September term, filed
a claim to the vessel and cargo as their property,
and employed, as their counsel, Messrs. Ingersoll
and Hungerford; but neither gentlemen appeared
on this occasion, thus giving color, nt least, to the
report, that the Government of the United Stages
had kindly volunteered to maintain the Spanish
claim against liberty, and that the Spaniards had
wisely concluded to abandon their cause to such
powerful advocacy. Mr. Hollabird, the District
Attorney for Connecticut, appeared on behalf of
the United States, as the patron or protector of
the claims of the Spaniards.
R. S. Baldwin, Esq., informed the court that he
proposed to interpose a plea in abatement to the
jurisdiction of the court. This was a "several"
plea, in form, and set forth briefly the facts in re
gard to the Africans; that they were natives of
Africa that they were kidnapped, and transported
to Cuba bv Dersons to them unknown that they
were never domiciled in Cuba, but were thence
embarked by Ruiz and Montez, their pretended
owners, whither thev knew not that, animated
bv the natural love of liberty, thev took possession
of the vessel, with the desire and intention of re
turning to Africa that, hence, neither the consti
tution nor the laws of the U. S., nor the law of
nations, nor treaties with any foreign power, re
ouire our courts to reenrd them as property tha
when taken by Lieut. G. they were ofFCulloden
Point, within three quarters of a mile of shore,
and consequently within the District of New York
that a large number, twenty or more, were upon
the shore, within the bodv of the State of New
York that they were withdrawn from the juris
diction of the District of New York, to that of Con
necticut, and were liken by the marshal to the
jail at New Haven, and subsequently to Hartford,
where they were subjected to further process
concluding" with the allegation, that from all the
facts in the case, the District Court of Connecticut
had no jurisdiction over them whatever.
Isham, for the libellants, said it was strange that
counsel should appear in this manner, and not dis
close for whom he appeared. If he was acting
on behalf of either of the libellants, or claimants,
he should have no objection j but he did not un
derstand that to be the case, and he should object
tn thn (rpnitpman's nnnearinr at all on behalf of
the Blaves. He would ask, who are the parties
here? The libellants ask for salvage on these
slaves, as the property of these claimants ; that is,
that the court shall order the owners of this prop
erty to pay us a reasonable compensation for hav
ing saved their property. It is not now a ques
tion to be ae-itated here, whether this vessel and
fnrrrn. inrl.irlinrr the slaves, are the property of
the claimants, for by their very claim they have
admitted it; and we are agreed, that if any sal
vage is due, it is due from Messrs. Montez and
Ruiz, as the o.wncrs of the property, to Lieut.
Gedney as the' salvor. The only parties before
the court are the parties in interest, and these par
ties have no question between them as to the prop
erty. Lieut. Gedney has been accused of seeking
a decree of the court that these slaves should be
Bold here, in Connecticut, at public auction, for his
benefit, or to test their value. But we ask no
such thing. The owners say it is their property,
and we believe it is their property, and we de
mand such per centage as the court shall decree
to be reasonable for having saved their property.
What disposition shall be made of these individ
uals can be settled hereafter, by the proper author
ity, but it has nothing to do with the case. We
pity the condition of these Africans as much as
the gentleman himself, but that has nothing to do
with this case. Had the question been left to the
proper parties, without this interference, it would
have been amicably settled long since. I submit
to the coutf. therefore, that the Africans have not
now that kind of interest which gives them a right
to appear to embarrass this case, which is between
other parties.
Baldwin, in reply, thought it a most extraordin
ary proceeding, that objection should be raised a
gainst the admission as parties in this case of the
persons woo are most aeepiv wieieswu
i -
the demand that these individuals should be treat
ed, not 83 persons, having rights, but as property,
as the mere chattels of other persons. JLhe
bellant even alleges their value in money to be
Sao.UUU, and lor the service rendered, not to hu
inanity, in saving so many lives of his fellow men,
but to the " Snanish eentlemen," in savincr their
property, he asks this court to go into an inquiry
to ascertain their value, and to pursue the usual
measures of an Admiralty Court in regard to prop
erty saved from the perils of the seas. And now
he denies the right of these individuals to appear
in court and deny that they are the properly he
alleges them to be. Unless they are property,
Lieut. Gedney has no foundation for his libel, and
this court no foundation for proceeding in regard
to them, for no process is against them in this
court as persons.
The constitution and laws of the United States
have not vested this court to pass a decree in this
case against these persons in any other capacity
except as property. If, then, the court award sal
vage to Lieut. Gedney, a per centage on all the
property claimed, and if Ruiz and Montez claim
these persons as property, and they are not allow
ed to come in and prove that they nre persons
and not property, and therefore not subject to a pro
cess that lies only against proyerty, it is plain
that their dearest rights are to be sacrificed with
out a hearing, j -
This court will remember that we have once
applied to your honor, silting in another court, on
writ of habeas corpus, and we wished then lor
an opportunity to make proof that these persons
were entitled to be free ; but the Circuit Court said
that the whole question was regularly before the
District Court where we could be heard in full.
But now the doctrine of the gentleman is, that we
are not to be heard in this court. We could not
be heard under the good old writ that was made
for the very purpose of guarding the rights of men;
and now if we nre to be debarred a hearing in this
court, it will be rendered impossible for these per
son to obtain redress in any court whatsoever.
Surely, the gentleman will not press his objection.
And how can the gentleman say he does not
ask the court to sell these persons? He asks the
court to seize all the property. The persons I
represent are claimed to be a part of the property.
And then he asks this court of Admiralty to pro
ceed in the usual manner, which is to order the
whole property to be sold, and the proceeds to be
divided according to the decree. If the court
decide these persons to be property, they must be
treated by the court as property, and nothing but
And now we ask the court to look at this ques
tion of jurisdiction, and determine at the outset
whether the constitution and the laws have given
any authority to treat these persons as property.
We call the "attention of the court to the obvious
difference coniemplated by the constitution, be
tween the rights of American citizens who hold
slaves, and foreigners. These individuals for
ivhom I appear, stand before this court, on the face
of the proceedings, just as an Englishman or a
Spaniaru would stand, who was claimed as prop
erty by an Algerine slaveholder.
Isham. That I shall not deny.
After some remarks by Isham in reply, and a
few suggestions of the District Attorney, the
Judge decided that the plea should be received
remarking at the same lime, that upon the trial of
the plea of ltirisdiction, the parties would not be
permitted to go into the general merits of the
case, hut that the evidence must he conhned to
ihe simple question, whether the seizure was made
within the district of New York, or of Connecticut.
The remainder of the day was consumed in the
examination of witnesses upon this point.
Wednesday, JSoceinber 2v.
The court held its session this morning in the
City Court Room. In consequence of the ab
sence of a material witness on the part of the Af
ricans, the intepreter who is detained by sickness
at New Haven, and to accommodate Messrs. Ish-
and Brainerd, counsel for the libellants,
details of slavery and the slavetrade in Cuba, and ed for sale, often or generally placed in the Barra
with the class of persons carried from Africa and cones ?
brought into that island as slaves. That he has Ans. They are not.
seen the negroes of the Amistad in the custody 3. Are not lawful slaves in any part of the
of the Marshal of New Haven, with the excep- island placed in the Barracones?
tion of the small children, and examined and ob- Ans. At Havana they are not, I cannot say
served their appearance, manner, and language, what is done elsewhere, but on whatever part of
ana nas no uouot wnaiever cut mat tnose negroes tne coast the slave trade is carried on there must
have been recently imported from Africa, and are be Barracones; they are things that belong to it,
of that class called Bozales. That he spoke and are exclusively for it. When creole slaves
with one of them and repeated in the Arabic lan- are sold in the country, they are sold on the es-
guage, a lviohamrnedan rorm oi prayer, anu ine tates or with them.
words 'Allah Akbar,' or God is great, were imme- ' 4. Is not the use of native languages often con-
diately recognized by the negro, and some oi me tinued lor a long time on certain plantations ?
words of the same prayer.were repeated after him Ans. I should say the very reverse if this
by the negro. That deponent addressed another was the fact. It has been a matter of astonishment
negro standing by the former in the ordinary to me to observe the shortness of the time in which
terms of Oriental salutation, 'salaam Aleikown, their native language is disused by the African
or, peace be with you ; and the man immediately negroes, and the Spanish language adopted and
replied, "P. leikown Balaam, or, with you De acquired.
peace. 5. Was not the limit of your duties at Havana ;
The deponent has seen and has now before and therefore the circumstances alluded 'To 'may
him a document, purporting to be a permit of li- not have been within your knowledge?
cense, called a traspaeso, for the removal of forty- Answer On the subject of slavery in Cuba,
nine negroes from Havana to the Amistad, bound and of the condition of the negroes held in slavery,
to Porto Principe, granted to Don N. Ruiz, where- I believe I am as fully informed as any foreign
in those negroes are called 'Ladinos,' a term giv- or can be. I have visited a great many estates,
en to negroes long settled in Cuba, and acclima- and made many journeys into the interior,
ted there, and introduced before 1Q20 ; a term to- 6. How many Barracones are there at Havana,
tally inapplicable to Bozales, or negroes recently and how many in other parts of the island ?
introduced. This document is dated the June Answer There are five or six at Havana, out
2Gth, 1S39, and bears the signature of Espeleta, side the walls, and contiguous to the Governor's
the Captain General of the Island. country house. Wherever the slave trade is car-
He has also seen another document similarly ried on '.hey must be established for its use. For
signed, purporting to be a permit or traspasso for instance, in the vicinity ofMatanzas there is one,
three negro children, likewise called Ladinos, da- and others orv other parts of the coast,
ted June 22d, 1839 and which name of Ladinos 7. After lhe negroes are andedi are ,h nol
is totally inapplicable to Bozal African children, bona fide transferred by sale, without any inter
who could not have been ong settled and acch- fPrence of the Snanish nnthr.ritiPS. nn.ftho miv
mated to Cuba. He has further seen an endorse
ment on the said document, purporting to be a
permission lor the removal ol the said negroes
and appears signed by Martinez &c Co. But de
ponent does' not know the hand writing of Marti
That the custom, on landing the negroes ille
gaily introduced by the slave traders of the Ha
vana, is to take them immediately to the Barra
cones, or slave marts) which are fitted up exclu
sively for the reception and sale of Bozal negroes
, - ..ii ,j n r -j cn o me iniiiiucM cviucutu ui miiii.ii
uuuers un soiu, ceneranv lor a uenuu oi & ui o
weeks, that among the slave traders of Havana
one of the houses, the most ope 1 engaged and
notoriously implicated in the slave trade trans-ac
tions, is that of Martinez & Co., and that the cus
torn of this house is, like all other slave traders of
the Havana, to send the negroes they import inio
the island, immediately alter landing, to the Bar
That deponent is well acquainted with these
slave marts, and on the 24th September last he
ference of the Spanish authorities, or of the mixed
commission f
Answer When negroes are introduced at all
from Africa into the island of Cuba, they are ille
gally captured and illegally enslaved. And it un-
lortunately happens that the Spanish authorities,
receiving an impost of ten dollars a head for each
negro thus introduced, which is called a volunta
ry contribution, but is in reality a tax, which has
no legal sanction for its imposition, never to inter
fere to stop this contraband trade and transfer, but
connive at it,-and collude with the slave-traders;
is the number of
illegal introductions having been for the last three
years, fiom twenty to five and twenty thousand a
year into the island of Cuba. As to the interfer
ence of the Commission, once the negroes have
been landed, it is nol to be looked for ; their ju
risdiction extends only to cases of violation of the
treaty, brought before them by lhe cantors of slave
ships; but ihe cognizance of all transgressions of
the Spanish law on Spanish soil, in ihisas in eve
ry other case of crime, belongs to the captain-pen-
went to one situated outsiue me wausoi Havana, The District Attornev obicctcd to some of the
called the" Miscricordia, and kept by one Riera, statements in the denosition Iwino rpcpivprl 71,
were allowed to stand, on the understanding that
humane feelings, and his explanations of some
matters that have been censured, are worthy of
regard. He has a difficult part to fill at this time,
to meet the claims of humanity and the orders of
his government. On the question, what is neces
sary for the health of lhe prisoners, he says he is
officially bound by the directions of his medical
adviser, Dr. Hooker, who is a gentleman f ivre
proachable character, and of high professional
standing, being a professor in Yale College, And
if he were to incur expenses which, the physioian.
declares needless, he might become liable to have
his accounts rejected. He has also to keep forty
men in safe custody, "and under due subjection.,
and at the same time, to allow them the indulgen
ces that humanity requires. It is" necessary that
he should maintain his authority in the prison ;
and Jus understanding or belief that the coats which
havgpieen referred io, were sent in as an act of
express defiance of his authority, is given as the
reason . why they were taken away from the pris-.
oners and sent back. "Another reason was, that
furnishing coats for two only created jealousy and
uneasiness in the rest, who were clamorous ta
know why they had no coats.
lhe girls are now, very properly, removed to
a room below. As 1 did not visit their present
apartment, 1 cannot speak of it, ,lhe Marshal
gaveus to understand that the man, Bernah, who
is said to talk a little English, and Becah, a Tim-
manee man, shall no longer be excluded, as they
have hitherto been, from access to the interpreter,
and to the instructions of the benevolent teachers.
By the way, a good limmanee interpreteris want
ed, and might render essential service, in commu-
eating with this Bee-ah. It is believed that the
Africans are making as good progress as could
well be expected in the acquisition of knowledge.
The indefatigable researches of Professor Gibbs,
are producing1 many valuable results. I hope
that now all things may go on harmoniously, be
lieving that neither the public nor any committee
who represent them, desire of those in charge any
concessions that are needless or incompatible with
their otneial duty, and that the Marshal is deter
mined to do whatever he deems necessary for the
health of his prisoners. Joshua Leavitt
Ministerial Independence.
Our readers were informed some few weeks
since of the dismission of the Rev. Mr. Pierpoint
from Hollis Street Church, Boston, for his fearless
exposition of the sinfulness of using and trafSiin
in Ardent Spirits. One general burst of indigna
tion from the press throughout the country has
been expressed against this proceeding ; and Mr.
Pierpoint has received deserved honor for his in
dependence. The Hollis street Church is Unita
rian, lhe Christian Register, a Unitarian r,a-
accompanied by a person well acquainted with this
establishment; and there, in the absence of the
owner, conversed with the factor or major doino
of tire latter, who said to deponent that the ne
groes of the Amistad had been purchased in that
Barracone by a person from Porto Principe ; and
their admissibility was to be hereafter decided
I here are several incidents connected wiih the
proceedings, which are important to be known
which will be reserved for another report. It
but just to remark, that the deportment of th
These persons are libelled as property, and only
as property. The libellant comes with bis de
mand, founded on his " meritorious service," ren
dered not to these individuals, but to certain oth
er persons claiming to be the owneis of these per
sons, who now come in to question the jurisdiction
of the court over such an extraordinary claim.
Th very foundation of tha whole proceeding is
whose engagements rendered it impossible for
them to remain in the city after Thursday, the
Court decided to arrest the proceedings in their
present stage, and adjourn the whole matter as it
now stands, to the 7th of January, 1810, when its
session will be holden at JNew Haven.
In the afternoon, the Judge held a session at
his chamber in the City Hotel, for the purpose of
receiving the testimony of Dr. Madden, which
was declared bv Messrs. Staples and Baldwin to
be material to their cause, as the Doctor was
about to sail immediately for Europe. This testi
mony was taken in writing, reserving all ques
tion as to the admissibility of the whole, or any
part of it, for determination hereafter. The cross
examination was conducted by Hollabird, United
states District Attorney, acting for the govern
ment. After the testimony was given in, Dr. M.
requested of the clerk a copy of the testimony,
that he might show to his government what he
had done, and for no other purpose. The clerk
assented, and the scrivener commenced coyping,
when the judge interposed, and said that it was ir
regular'to give copies of testimony taken in this
manner, before even its admissibility was deter
mined. In consequence of this order, measures
were immediately taken to prepare, from the Doc
tor's memoranda, and the notes of a reporter, as
perfect a transcript as possible of the whole testi
mony. And then, as one of the daily papers of
lh is city had obtained and published what prolcs
sed to be an abstract of the testimony, (and which,
it is believed, were furnished by an officer of
the court, as no other persons likely to furnish it
were present,) which abstract presented quit an
inadequate view of the testimony, it seemed plain
ly necessary to publish the whole, which, it is be
lieved, will be found hereafter to be nearly verba
tim wiih that in the hands of the court.
From tho New York Commercial Advertiser.
Dr. Madden testified
That deponent is a British subject who has been
resident at Havana during three years apd up
wards; had held official situations there during
that period for three years ; the office he at pre
sent holds as superintendent of liberated Africans,
and for one year that of British commissioner in
the mixed courts of justice. That his duties and
avocations made him well acquainted with the
speaking of their fate, this factor made use of the judge towards the Africans and their counsel, w
expression, "che lastima,' or, what a pity it is, perfectly fair and honorable, worthy of his office
which surprised the deponent out me man lar- and satisfactory to l ie friends of humnnitv. V
.1 i. I i.: ir I 1 ...,.- , , . ' , ... ,
uier i'Anim:i.-u uimaw-u, uiiu me ngici c . a hcm- make tins remark-, because il is due. and because
ed.it proved, was the loss of so many valuable many will wish to know how the fact is, and with
1 1 ! 1 1 .1 1
necroes who were likely io oe executed, as ne
thought, in ihe United States.
That the house cf Don Pedro Martinez &,Co
continue openly and notoriously engaged in'the
illegal traffic, and has negroes to be sent to these
Barracones. That the trespasses or permits for
all such negroes are commonly and usually ob
tained at the Havana, simply on application to the
authorities. The "Bozal" negroes are called
"Ladinos," and no examination is made by the
n rr r 1 r
vjovenior, ur nuy uuicer oi ins, miu me uuiu vi , , , ,, ,
. , ' . r.i f ,u order to see the keeper, Co . Pendleton, but did not
i V u r i V ii i t i-u succeed in find ng h m. I found the prisoners
movnl of the negroes fnlselv rnl pd Ladinos. on the , b .. . . .. 1 .
out any reference to what is past, or what may be
to come.
While at Hartford I took the opportunity to
have a very tree and friendly conference with Mr
Wilcox the U. s. Marshal, in record to the cor.
dition and treatment of the Africans. And on re
turning lo New Haven, I visited the jail, in com
-.i ii( ii .
pany wun two nigniy respectable and nnpartia
citizens of that town. I called several times in
simple replication of the buyers, on the payment
of the fees, and no oath required of them.
That to apply for these permits, and obtain
them, representing liozal negroes as Liadinos, as
in the present case, is a fraud on the part of the"
purchaser, which cannot take place without con
nivance at the trade, and collusion with the slave
generally, in the same condition described bv ihe
correspondent of the American. I hey were clad
in cheeked cotton shirts, and cotton and wool
trowsers, with woollen stockings and thick shoes
They also had each one n blanket. Of the suffi'
eie-ncy of this clothing, under the circumstances of
the case, the public will form their opinion. A
few of them had an under-shirt of white cotton
enough ; one of them
LrilUtjl 5 J tllw llul I ui me UUUJU! Ilici IIU I cvci c I rni 1
V . i- .f- me rooms were no; enougn ; one oi them was
m, . .,J . . -r, ' , -,, ii ventilated by the breaking ol a pane of class, but
7i v .u .-: a ,iJ. the air left a very disagreeable savor in my mouih
troduced, are by these means carried into the in- , 3 j r i - i
r.,n L i,.,iMi. cl,., TKm .W nnd throat, that remained for several hours, and
rro:; r :::rLr:- : :Kas not removed until I had taker, food. The
r . .i. . i c citizens o INew Haven have some interest in
or common, that sanctions the introduction of any , , ,u , . ...
, ' if...,. ... r guarding against the occurrence of a lail-fever in
neirroes uoui rtiiuu iui me ijiiiijijc ui tai i mu . ,. r. i i i , ,
.L.5L .i :.. .i,... ;i Ia a tneir town' from having so large a number of hu-
INCH! JIUU 01UVCI V III lliai ICIUliU, auu iuuct.um.iir I. T. lit'. 1 I
ly that no negro is legally held there in slavery, " "n,fmed aM r, n'ld sehc,nnS
...u- u iU icon su- ftn atmosphere. 1 ho sick room is about li
tu, u:, r ;.,; a. L. fT.o,i;c fect bJ' 10 anJ quite lllSh between joints. There
. r i ,u -f . . , are four bunks or boxes of rough board, two on
ri.nt.ir hv the British cruisers on thornns nfCu- llie .fl0r' .and the 0th?IS ov lhem. ' the height
hafThnt rlnnonent has had char, in hi. official 01 l?b0Ul !?Vee ,c.et- .Ai,ey fomlvel and seven
r L l uo r ri . '"cries wide, and eacli one is occupied by two sick
.iL b,jl fu , r 7: A mtn Iheir clothing is the same as the others.-
rr j i a. :,,-: r nave cood medical auihontv, that two sick men
these negroes, can snenk confidently as to his orTin- uSht ntt t0 be Put ' n ? Ule 8nm8 wpcciftlly
e .i e u .u . u one so narrow : anu mat persons a ccted with a
of the ages of such persons that having exam- , . , . v , , V. .1 . i . .
, i r .. i . . . r complaint in the bowels, ike that described by
med those of the Amistad. he s ates the ace of U . ... . . . '
Sato be about 17, Ba about 21, Snkiawa about I ."fr! V? W".y ! 'Tf '"
io ..k. on nT; .u,. ih Nnma kni leyuiur pun u. u.uii i.ieuicu: ireaimeni
20 Sbum. The The Mars al told me tha the prisoners ha
aces of the other, deponen? had not time to take uTSn "f T If T'
note of. With respect to the jurisdiction of the hey ,e wl cn Hy washed their shirts, which
mixed commission at the Havana, deponent srvs
., ... ,J , . rc. i, . n;,wu kets had not been washed
grues cajjiuieu in bluvb Miijia ui opuiiisn 11 man
cruisers are brought before it by the captors for ad
Cross examined, by Wm. S. Hollabird, Esq., U.
S. District Attorney.
1. Are you acquainted with the language of
any African nation or tribe ?
since thev were first
given out not even those of lhe sick. Why
should not the rules of the- navy be observed with
regard to cleanliness ol these people, especially a.
to washing their blankets, and cleansing the floors
wiih hot sand ? The Marshal also assured me
that it was his intention, immediately after the
court, to furnish al! the prisoners with such cloth
inc as was worn by the six individuals who were
brought lo Hartford, that is, with baize jackets and
Answer. I am not acquainted with the dia
lects of the African tribes, but am sliahtly acouain
ted with the Arabic, and in those parts of Africa pea coats. If this is done, and the needful regu
where' Mahommedanisin prevails, the Drincisal Nations enforced with regard to cleanliness and
fnrms of nraver are reneated in that lanruaffe. air. the public outSt to be satisfied.
2. Are not lawful slaves in Cuba, when offer- The Marshal is regarded as a man of kind and
per, sustains Mr. Pierpoint and utters the follow
ng noble fen t :.ents on the independence of the
pulpit, f hey deserve to be written, in letters o
gold. Me. Wtdeyan Journal
The minister, who suppresses and tranmles
down one impulse, that becomes and exalts him
as a citizen, a Christian, a man, is fals to him
self andhis people. Without freedom he is noth
ing and can do nothing. He may talk and exhort.
But it is only the sounding of brass. He is no.
longer a living toul. His higher life has departed.
The law of .ath is working within him. And
nothing but what is sickly, unreal, powerless can
proceed from him. The moment one drop of tiro.--id
it y, subserviency enters his raind, the Holy Spir
it is resisted and grieved. lis true power is blight,
cd. It is no longer the temple of the living God.
Those that are in their graves hear iut his voicsb
and come forth. He is there himself and emits
only hollow mutterings. He is the most pitiable
actor on earth. Angels blush and weep as thev
behold him amid his miserable mockeries wita
a wronged, shrinking, shackled, crushed spirit pro
claiming those truths, that fill heaven with rap
ture and inhabit the throne of the Almighty. Ho
takes counsel of flesh and blood, when about es
saying to put fo il) that quickning energy, that
should redeem souls from all baseness and bond
Is he the minister of Christ of him who
said ' fear not them that can only kill the body,'
whose spirit entering into h&ly souls makes them
sons of God and is subverting all tyranny ? No 1
lie is not the minister of Christ. He does not
know him. He has lost the element through
which alone he can be perceived and felt. Ha
cannot preach him who is the power of God. He
can be preached only so far as the raind is as free
as truth andahe highest influences can make it..
The least shadow of servitude quenches a portion
of the beams that fall from his sun. There is
nothing we so much need as fearless, noble men,
who will do and. dare all things for conscience
and truth's sake. We have flatterers and impos
tors in abundance. They abound on every side.
They are poisoning every fountain that nurtures a
people' greatness and glory. Multitudes nro de
ceived and deluded. Every breeze is laden with
the babblings and cajolings of selfish, reckless am-,
bition. The father of lies and hypocrites is estab-
ishing his empire over us. The sacred fire burns
feebly among us. No living coahj descend and
touch timid lips. How refreshing is one word of
simple sincerity ! O that God would send us a,
goodly company of prophets, who would count not
their lives dear unto themselves, and whose insnir-
ed words mighf thrill through tho hearts of this
great people ! Will we drive honesty and truth
Irom their last refuge ? Will we compei them
back to heaven ? Will we bring the pulpit into
bondage? Will we seduce the oracles of Godl
and turn his service into a farce ? Will we bleak
the hist link thai binds us to what is real, ever-
asliimly divine ? v ill we cast away the last
morsel of true bread ? Have we partaken so deep
ly of forbidden fruit, and listened so long to vren,
voices, that we imagine we .Tre like unto nods and
can then determine for ourselves what is good and
what is evil? In the name of all that is fearfu
solemn and hopeful, in ourcondition and destinies,
we beseech you, brethren, reverence the indepen
dence of the pulpit. Tamper not with the free
dom of your ministers. Encourage them to preach
with boldness. We allow they may abuse their
frecdom. But there is little danger of it far
more reason to fear that they will come short of
iis demands. There is a limit to forbearance.
But bear long before you do or say any thing, that
may impair their faith and force. It is a sad. thing

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