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"THE INVIOLABILITY OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS IS THE ONLY SECURITY 6F PUBLIC LIBERTY."
J, IIOLCOMB, Editor & Publisher.
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due is paid. J. Holcomb.
October 18, 1845.
From the Youths' Monthly Visiter.
Father ! I come back to thee
Lo ! a bruised and broken reed ; '
In my hour of utmost need,
While my heart is weak and worn,
Viih contending passions torn,
While I meekly bow before thee,
To my lost estate restore me.
Father ! I conn back to thee :
From the world's wide, cheerless waste,
Doth my weary spirit haste,
Like the dtooping-pinioned Dove,
To regain the Ark of Love;
Nestling on thy pitying breast,
13idniy fluttering; spirit rest.
Father! I come back to thee:
When the world h brightest, sweetest,
When the rosy hours are fleetest,
' All conspire with vain endeavor
From ihy love my heart lo sever ;
Vain the toils they spread around me,
Thou with stronger chain hast bound me.
Fathet ! I come back to thee :
Oh ! if in an evil hour,
Yielding to the tempter's power,
1 forget the vows 1 make,
And my chosen rest forsake
May ihy spirit whisper low
To my heart this sacred vow !
OR A MM A II.
The following article we copy from an old
manuscript for the benefit of our juvenile
1, Three little words we often see
Are Articles, a, an, and the.
2. A Noun's the name of any thing,
As school or garden, hoop, or swing.
3. Adjectives tell the kind of noun,
A3 great, small, pretty, white or brown.
4. Instead of Nouns the Pronouns stand ;
John's head, his lace, my arm, your hand.
5. Vf.rbs tell of something being done;
To read, write, count, sing, jump or run.
6. How things are done, the Adverbj tell :
As slowly, quickly, ill or well.
7. Conjunctions join the words togeihet ;
As men and children, wind or weather.
8. A Preposition stands before
A noun j as in or through a door.
9. The Interjection shows surprise ;
As oh ! how pretty, ah I how wise.
The whole are called nine Parts of Speech,
Which Reading,M'riling, Speaking leach.
Children. Ye stand the nearest to
God, ye little ones ! The smallest
planet is nearest to the sun.
Making "twain one flesh" is supposed
to mean, in modern parlance, tho mixing
of pig and puppy in the manufacture of
England's Growth. The wife of
n poor weaver in Clryton, Eng., lately
had twins. The mother is only 19 years
of age, yet in little more than three years
has presented her husb'ind with seven
children. Muss. Spy.
From Clay's Truo American.
An Appeal to all the Followers of Christ
In the American Union.
To all the adherents of the Christian
religion, Catholic and Protestant, in the
American Union, the writer of this arti
cle would respectfully represent, that he
is but a single individual of humble
pretentions, struggling with honest zeal
for the liberties ol his country and the
common rights of all mankind. EIo sets
up no claims to piety or purity of life, I
but whilst he is himself subject to all (he :
infirmities of our common nature, he be
lieves in an omnipotent and benevolent!
God, over-ruling tho universe by lixed
and eternal laws. He believes that man's
greatest happiness consists in a wise
understanding and a strict observance
of all the laws of his being, moral, mental
and physical, which are best set forth in
the Christian code of ethics. IIo be
lieves that the Christian religion is the
truest basis of justice, mercy, truth and
happiness known among men. As a pol
itician especially does he regard Chris
tian morality as the sole basis of nation
al and constitutional liberty, Ho be
Icivesthat the liberty of conscience was
the antecedent of civil liberty, and that
to Christianity did our fathers owe the
emigration from the Old World and our
national independence in the New. lie
bclcivcs that there is now a crisis in the
affairs of our nation which calls for the
united efforts of all good men to save us
from dishonor and ruin.
Slavery is our great national sin, and
must be destroyed or we are lost. From
a small cloud not lurcer than a man's
hand it has overspread the wholo Hea
vens, I hree millions of our fellow men,
all (if our religion be not a fable) chil
dren of the same Father, are held in ab
solute servitude and the most unqualified
despotism. By a strange oversight or
self avenging criminality of our fathers,
an anti-republican, unequal, sham rep
resentation has given the slavcocracy a
concentrated power, which subjects the
additional fifteen millions of whites of
this nation to the caprice and rule of
some three hundred and fipy thousand
slaveholders. 1 hey monopolize the prm
cipal offices of honor and profit, control
our foreign relations and internal policy
of economical progress. Ihey have
forced us into unjust wars national bad
faith and large and unnecessary expen
ditures of money. They have violated
lime after time the National and State
Constitutions They have trampled un
der foor all of the cardinal principles of
our inherited liberty Ireedom ol tlie
press- liberty of speech trial by jury
the habeas corpus and that clause of the
Constitution which gives to the citizens
of the several States the rights and priv
ileges of citizens of each Stale. 1 hey
have murdered our citizens imprisoned
cur seamen and denied us nil redrer
in the courts of national judicature, by
forcibly and illegally expelling our em
bassadors thus failing in the comity ob
served sacred by all nations, civilized,
and savage, till nowl All this have we
home, in magnanimous forbearance, or
lame subserviency, till remonstrance is
regarded as criminal, and it has become
the common law of the land, in all the
Slave States, to murder in cold blood,
and in a calm and ''dignified manner,"
any American freeman who has the spir
it to exercise the constitutional and nat
ural and inalienable rights of free
thought and manly utterance!
Now in the namo of that religion
which teaches us to love our neighbor as
ourself to do unto others as we would
have others do unto us to break every
yoke and let the oppresed go free, we
pray every follower of Christ to bear tes
timony against this crime against man
a id God; which fills our souls with cru
elty and crime stains our hands with
blood and overthrows every principle
of national and constitutional liberty, for
which tho good and great-souied patriots
of all nges laid down their lives, and for
which our fathers suffered, bled, and di
ed. We pray you to set your faces ngainst
all those professed followers of Christ,
who betray him in the house of their
friends, and make God the founder of an
institution which causes the most refined,
enlightened, and "respectable men" in
tho State of Kentucky, where Slavery
exists in its most modified and lenient
supremacy, to raise tho black and bloody
flag of "death to liberty of Speech and
We pray you in the namo of liberty
our country our common humanity
and the God of all, who is no respecter
of persons-to come lo our help!
We know that in J77t5 the pravcrs of
the Church went up from the closet, tho
altar, and from tho field of battle to the
Great Arbiter of the destinies of war;
wo believe that a ti no of equal danger
and awful responsibility is at hand, and
wo now ask that tho prayers of the uni
versal Church be uttered in tho cause of
Liberty once more.
And as we bclievo that it is not only
our duty to pray, but to act, we respect
fully subtuit for your serious considera
tion the following suggestions:
1st. That nil ministers of religion, all
over tho Union, either in their sermons
or in their prayers once on every Sab
bath solemnly warn their hearers against
the special sin of Slavery.
2d. That in nil religious journals a
column be devoted to slavery ils econ
omical statistics and to moral remonstrance.
3d That in all addresses of religious
I bodies, oral of written, when moral con--ductis
touched upon, that solemn and
'special denunciation of slavery be made.
I 4th. In the exercise of the elective
1 franchise, that each Christian will hon-
I estly endeavor so to use that great and
responsible privilege as by all honorable,
just and constitutional means, to destroy
' Slavery in this nation.
I Wo suggest with great diffidence for
the consideration of Christians a Board
of Home Missions, founded as follows:
A common treasury sustained by all
sects of Christians, to be located in tho
city of New-York. From this shall be
sustained, at fair wages, as many mission
aries, in the same Slates, as the funds of
the Society, or the interest thereof, when
invested in stocks, will sustain. 1 . Let
an equal number of each sect represen
ted bo elected. 2. Let tho ministers
living in Slave States be preferred if they
can be procured. 3. Lot them be in
structed never to speak of Slavery in Ae
presence of Blacks or slaves. 4. Lot
them for the present bo confined to the
States of Maryland, Virginia and Ken
lucky. Let them be instructed to
preach in the counties where there are
the fewest slaves. 5. Let them be men
of ability and, though not fanatical, self
sacrificing and well versed in the politi
cal and economical bearings of slavery
as well as in its moral influences, so that
they may be able to show the non slave
holder, how Slavery impoverishes his
family excludes them from schools,
churches, the honors of. the Stale and
(the general advantages of civilization.
Wo believe that a scheme of this kind
would do infinite good. There could be
! no pretext for. violence on the part of
blave-holders, because tho Blacks would
never hear. It would arouse a generous
I shame in the bosoms of our own Clergy
! and force many to make sacrifices in the
cause of Religion and Liberty.
I Now once more in great yearning of
spirit for the liberty of our country the
happiness of mankind and the glory of
Uod, wo pray you to question each one
his own conscience. Never let it bo
said that our country called on us for
help, in great wo, and none heeded her
We ask all the friends of Constitution
al Liberty, and pure Christianity, to give
he above an insertion in their Religious
and Political Journals--a request never
before made by us C M. CLAY.
Lexington, Ivy. Dec. 9th. 1343.
To the Teachen of Common Schools in
the several School Districts in the Stale
of Vermont :
It is doubtless within your knowledge
thnt at the last session of the Legislature
of this State, an act was passed having for
its object the improvement of our common
school?. As a step preliminary to the
adoption of measures well adapted to se
cure tli e accomplishment of this purpose
in all iis parts, most, completely and suc
cessfully, it seems desirable, if not ind is
pensably necessary, to obtain some further
and more minute knowledge of their ac
tual condition. And some of the informa
tion sought can be obtained conveniently
from no other source than yourselves.
And it is for thispurpnse.in connection with
others yet to be named, that I now address
vu, on tn r own behalf and that of the
county superintendents of your respective
counties respectfully and earnestly so
liciting you to co-operate with us, as you
can do, in no small degree, in that work
of improvement in which, we cannot per
mit ourselves to doubt, you feel an inter
est. We wish, in the first place,- lo ascertain
'he amount of time during which the sev.
eal scholirs in your respective schools
shall actually t.ttend. The most conven
ient method to determine this perhaps will
be iho following. Write down on a sheet
of paper at the left hand side of the page
the nanviS of your pupils, and then rule
tho pnper perpendicularly until you
hive six spices to the right of each
name. In these spaces you Cin, at eve
ning for tho several days of the week,
mark with n pencil the attendiace of ihe
pupil. At the close of tho week you will
add up ihe number of days which each has
attended and set do'.vn the number to the
total of the previous week erase and
set down the new to!al in place of thai of
the preceding woek. The following would
b.- the form :
C. H II 1
P.M.... I I 1
1 1 i
If your school should have continued for
soma length of lime when you re
ceive this, you will set down the
daily attendance previous, with as
much precision 09 your memory, or other
means will enable you to do it. If you
cannot, however, approach near to accu
racy, you may omit this, and commence
at the lime stating in your return? at
what period of your school you commenc
ed taking the account.
At tha close of your school you will
make out an abstract of the results so n's
to give the number of scholars that have
attended for different periods of time, no
ling each difference of ton days in '.he fol
lowing' form supposing your school to
have continued 14 weeks or 77 diys :
Length of School, 77 days. Number
of scholars that have attended lire school
70 davs and upwards 10
GO '"' ' less th in 70 .... 12
50 " GO 7
j and so on, giving as the last ilem the num.
I ber who have attended less than 10 days.
You will then subjoin to this a state
ment of the principal school books in use
in your schools (information in regard
lo which, we wish to obtain) naming
first, under their respective heads, those
which are most used in the school, as fol
Webster's, Town's, Marshall's.
Higher classes Porter's Rhetorical
Re ider Emerson's First Class Reader, &c.
Middle Classes Second Class Reader,
Lower Classes Easy Lessons, Third
Smith's Grammar, Kirkham's Gram
Higher Classes Adams', Thomp
son's. Lower " Colburn's, Emerson's
History of the U. States.
Comstock's, Olnisicad's &c.
You will also, at the close, stale wheth
er your scholars have been competently
supplied with books whether the school
ha3 a black-board whether any kind of
apparatus for illustration. And any fur
ther statements which you may see fit to
add, in regard lo the condition of the
school, will be deemed accep'ab'e. This
should then be signed in tho following
13. F. W. , Teacher
in District No. 8.
Wilmington, March 2, 184G.
It should then be directed to the county
superintendent for the county in which
you have taught, and be deposited with
the town clerk ; or it may be left with the
district clerk or prudential committee to
be forwarded, if not convenient to you to
send it directly.
But we hope for more from you by way
of aiding in the advancement of our school.,
than the mere furnishing of statistics, as a
preliminary to certain future measures
having this great object in view. It is
your privilege to commence the work of
improvement directly, during the present
winter. By increased diligence and fidel
ity in the discharge of the duties of your
important trust, some fruits may be gath
ered in of that harvest of benefits which it
is hoped we may reap in full and rich
abundance. But your earnest, anxious
and unwearied efforts will be constantly
demanded in order to secure this desira
ble result. Your plans and means of
usefulness must be studied and devised not
merely in the school-room, but in your
hours of retirement from the immediate'
duties of your charge. Study out methods
of enlivening tho interest of your pupils,
of encouraging their hopes, and urging
them onward in the pursuit of knowledge.
E ideavor lo make the school-room their
most attracting pluce of resort, the spot
where their fondest interest shall centre,
and where their most delightful and ener
getic efforts shall be displayed. This
may be done ; for there is implanted in
ihe human mind a craving for knowledge,
which is no less active in early life, than
in more mature age; and the attainment
ol that knowledge must ever be delightful
unless some extrinsic circumstances ren
der the process of its acquisition repulsive
As or.e of the means of accomplishing
the general purpose in view, aim always,
in the first place, to secure and fix the at
tention of your papils, in all their exer
cises. S'J long as (hoy are habitually
heedless and listless they cannot be mau
ing an v sulis antial progress. And here
very much is depending upon your own
efforts and skill. A wandering mind can
not be effectually "called back" by mere
' remonstrance. J o eflect the purpose
of enchaining the pupil s attention, you
must make his exercises interesting by
your illustrations, or by nt limes varying
your mode of instruction. We cannot
here go into details, and in the main the
proper method of proceeding must be left
to your own judgment and ingenuity.
We will however illustrate our view bv
a few specific example.
In spelling, as ihe exercise is ordinarily
conducted, after ihe individual has spelled
hi3 word, his mind may be and often is,
keeping company with "the fools'
thoughts," until his" "turn" comes again.
But this mole of procedure might be
varied to the following. Lit ihe word
be put out, and after wailing a few sec
onds, name, or point to the individual
whom you would select to spell it; and
proceed in this way without reference to
the order in which your pupils stand.
You may, in addition to this, require each
one of the class who thinks a word mis
spelled, to declare it by saying " wrong."
If" wrong'' is pronounced by more than
one of the class, select one of them to spell
it again. Under this arrangement you
can, if you choose, have one place of hon
or, "the head" but we would recom
mend, in order to avoid too much con
fusion or inconvenience that it should
only be taken, unless an individual
shall spall a word correctly, after hnv.
ing alone pronounced thu previous spell
ing " wrong," or when all others who
have pronounced " wrong" shall have
failed to spell it right. In this way we
believe not fttily-tlvtt an exercise which is
ordinarily dull may be made a most lively
and interesting one, but that the pupil
would form the habit of attending to each
word as it is put out, even though this
mode of procedure were only occasionally
resorted to. And the effect might be ren
dered still more certain and decisive, by
requiring each pupil to pronounce his
opinion on the spelling of each word,
whether " right," or "wrong;" but this
perhaps would occasion too much confu
sion to admit of its adoption as a frequent
practice, unless in very small schools.
We are aware that tho whole mode of
teaching spelling, as ordinarily practised,
is by many condemned as unnatural ; but
in regard to this, as well as other points,
we would say it is not to be expected
that established practices can be broken
up at once, even though obviously better
might be substituted. And if in any case
belter modes of instruction have already
been introduced than what our remarks
would sern lo contemplate, we rejoice at
it. Our suggestions are intended lo ripply
to what is supposed to be the general con
dition of our schools, and to be adapted to
the supposition that complete revolutions
cannot be ihe work of a moment.
In reading, if a word is miscalled, or
mispronounced, you may occasionally
call on one of the class to correct it. But
the more reliable and practible method for
fixing the attention of all, in this exercise,
would b, perhaps, to have it understood,
especially if the reading be descriptive or
historical, I hat one or more of Ihe class
will be called upon at the close of tho les
son, to give a general outline or statemrnl
of what has been read. So too, their opin
ions should occasionally be asked in re
gard to subjects or topics embraced in tho
lesson, I hey should be engaged not on
ly in ascertaining what the author means,
but in inquiring and deciding whether he
is correct whether his statements, his
views or opinions nre just and proper
whether ihey are in accordance with those
generally received. By these means not
only will the attention be enlisted and con
centrated, but another important end will
be gained that of keeping the reflecting
and reasoning .lowers in active exercise.
It is true that by proceeding in this way
your pupils will go over less ground in a
given time ; but the great end and purpose
of rending will be much more surely al
ia ined. For the object is not, merely to
acquire a quick and ready association of
the sound of words wHi ihe le'ters which
compose them as they appear on paper.
If it were so, then rapid reading would be
and unfortunately it is loo often sunrio?-
ed to be the ultimatum of acquisition.
And under this view the unreasoning par
rot might, for ought we can tell, become
as good a reader us the beet. We admit
that the acquisition of this facility for read
iness of association which has been spoken
of, is an incidental, andjiot an unimpor'
lam ooiect. ism it is oy no means the
prominent and ultimate one. This o ict
is to gather ideas and that (no not only
in such a form ns to nuke them most clear
and intelligible to ourselves, but in such
a way as (o communicate them most clear
ly and distinctly to others. Your pupils
then should bo taught to read intelligently
and intelligibly : and this great n.d can
never be secured by mere familiarity of
association between letters and sounds.
We have lingered upon thu topic, and
pressed it the more strongly and earnestly
upon your attention, because our school
reading is so often or perhaps we mighi
almost say is so universally bad.
But we have not lime to illustrate the
application of the principle to other
branches of study. You will, however,
(ind ample scope for the exercise of your
ingenuity; And we wou'd say to you-
do not fear to break away from the dull
routine of every day practice, so you can
excite attention, quicken thought, give ex
ercise to reason, or accomplish some oth
er useful purpose always guarding, how
ever, that your proceedings do not degen
erate into levity or frivolity; To call into
exercise the imagination of your pupil
may at suitable times bean object worth v
your attention. The systematic cultiva
tion of this faculty of the ntiud has rarelv,
if ever, been attempted or thought of;
but a certain degree of liveliness and nc-
livity of imagination, may contribute much
to ihe enjoyments of ordinary social life,
and we believe in cultivation should not
be lost sight of in n complete system of
education. It would, however, he im
poilanl that it should receive culture, as
well as cullitation that a right direction
should be given it, ns well as
nnd notivi'y be increased.
As an example of the mode of employ,
ing this faculty, you might suppose that
a wounded deer, or bird, leturris to her
young, and enquire of your pupils wh.il
conversation thev think would ensue if
the animals could reason nnd converse.
This case would exercise the imagination
m n'nly upon moral subjects. Or again
you misjlit suppose the qualities of certain
animals lo bo transferred to o'hers the
eagle, for instance, to possess the strength
of the elephant, or ihe bear ihe agility of
the fox or nntelopo Brid inquire what
would be ihe probab'e consequences. And
here you would lay open that wide world
of beneficence which Providence has dis
played in the proper distribution of its
various gifts, to the several varieties ol
living beings wisely adjusting nnd har
monizing its favors lo each, in such n
manner ns not to interfere with the com
petent security and preservation of the
rest. Again you might suppose changes
and transformations to take p'ace in ihe
natural world, whether animate or inan-
imate perhaps a change of some of na
ture's laws and these cases might com
bine, in their solution, more exerci e of
the reasoning powers involving ihe ope
ration of those laws so far as the pupil's
knowledge of them extends.
These specific examples are given, be
cause they may better and more distinctly
convey our meaning than could be dona
by any general statement. Exercises of
this character, if adapted as they should
be to the capicity of your pupils, will af
ford you an opportunity lo convey to them
much useful information, and will be high
ly interesting and pleasant. We have no
doubt that by means of their introduction
even allowing that no other ultimate
good were attained many a reluctant
urchin, who now "creeps unwillingly to
school," would be induced to quicken his
steps, and hie to the school-room witn
alacrity and delight.
It is perhaps a prevailing fault among
teachers that ihey lake loo limited views
of ihe purposes of education. They loo
often seem to think that when they have
taught their pupils to read, wrile, cypher,
parse, &c, they have accomplished all
that devolves upon them, and that the
,vork is done. Now these attainment? do
not, by any means, ensure a proper edu
cation. It is true they carry with them
a certain kind and amount of knowledge :
but not necessarily any effectual ability to
acquire more: and, much less do they
make it certain, that this knowledge,
whatever be its amounl, shall be turned
hereafter to any useful purpose. The
pupil who has merely made the attain
ments spoken of, cannot be called educat
ed any more than he who has learnt that
horse-nail is drawn out by repeated
strokes of the hammer, first on one side
and then on the other, can be said lo havo
learnt the trade of Ihe blacksmith. You
have then much more to do than merely
to hear your pupils spell, read and recite.
You have to instrurt ihem to communi
cate to them from the great book of na
ture, and lo prepurejhem to glenn further
lor themselves, Irorri tbat same book
knowledge, useful nnd substantial knowl
edge thai shall be " enduring ns time, and
... O t
lasting as eternity."
But the view we have taken of educa
tion, thus far, reaches only to I hat branch
of it which pertains to tne cultivation of
the intellect. In its full and proper scope
it embraces every machinery, agency or
influence which rpera'ts in the grand
process of establishing ihe physical con
stitution, developing the mind, and form
ing the character in short, moulding
Ihe man in all bis parts, bodV mind and
soul. It aims at developing and bring
ing forth to vigorous nnd healthful ncinm
nil the powers nnd facultits whirl) our
Creator has given us. It should fit us
for all the active duties of coming life fit
us to act well our part in "the great
drama of human existence." An able
writer, in pointing out the prib of a dtf
cient or incompVte educa'iori, says, "ed
ucation in our schools, oeght lo embrace
it, if it docs no', the intellectual, morl
iir.ti physical training of ihe young, all
that make? the man or ruins t! e chile1.
If we cultivate the moral nature at the
expense of the intellectual, we make f
the child a weak, hair-brained tnthusiast,
and set him r;floal upon the sa of life,
wi hout sufiicient intellectual ballast to
preserve trs hark amid ihe breakers ihnt
surround it; amid the waves that dash
and the tempests that beat. If we culti
vate the in'el'eclual nnd neglect the rr.ot
al man, we furnish him with a weapon
for evil. We sharpen the powers of mind
only that he may be more successful in
effecting mkchief lo the community. If
we cherish the physical nature nt the
hazard of both inieliectual and moral, we
strengthen the animal and sink the man.
It is only when children nre educated
.villi reference 'o their three fold nature,
and to the complicated, unerring laws
which govern thai nature, that they are
rightly educated. It is only then that
they are reared up to be what God in
tended they -hotild be, men of strong in
tellect, strong hearts, and strong h.-nds ;
men fitted, trained nod qualifkd lo serve
the s'ate, the church and (he world."
Under this view of the subject, nnd it is
doubtless a correct one, the developement
and culture of ihe physical rtt.cl moral ns
well ns intellectual nature of your pupil-,
is to be provided (or. Nature herself,
however, has substantially providid for
physical growth and lt velcpement ly
essential nnd intrinsic laws over whicri
we have little control, except so fur as
these may be perverted, and the purposes
of nature thwarted by our ignorance, or
caprice and folly. It is true that you m,iy
direct your pupils to such sports" and ex
ercises as will lend to secure lo ihem ro
bust bodies, hardy frames, supple joints
and active imb?. Yet in the main,rta.
lure's own irrepressible promptings are
sufficient for these ends, nnd the most de
manded ol you will be lo guard agair.st
adverse nnd counteracting agencies.
The care of the health of your pupils
while ihey are under your immediate
charge, enmes clearly within the scope of
vour duties. It should be a just mailer
of reproach lo yr,u if they suffer in this
respect, Irotn any neglect or inattention of
yours, or in consequence of any cot tin
gency against which ordinary prudence
or foresight could guard them. Endeav
or lo Keep them as comfortable in ti e
school room as its constnitjtion nnd condi
tion will allow. We admit that vou can
not be held responsible for all the ill
health, the colds and coughs which may