VOLUME XXXIV.-XUMBER 38.
* v~. ? .
w"s: i";r F2~A- 37
JOHN MILLER MURPHY,
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Capital National Bank,
OF OLYMPIA, WASH.
Capital, ... £IOO,OOO.
President C. J. I.ORD
Vice President N. H. OWINtiB
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BURGEON AND ACCOUCHEUR
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Olvmpla, March 29. 1894.
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, MUSIC OF THE VIOLIN".
PECULIARITIES OF A FAMOUS
A Connoltwur Who lias .Wade u
Discovery—Singular I'aclS Which
•Wasters of Kcience and .Art Have
Not Solved-Letters from Ole Hull
' mid Ktmeni'l.
Thirteen miles from New York, on
the line of the Northern Railroad of
) New Jersey, in a little hamlet con
' sitting of not more than 20 houses,
j lives a man who has found something
I which has been sought after for over
•100 years. His treasure is merely a
sound, or more properly speaking, an
appliance the use of which will pro
duce a certain quality of sound, the
lecret of which the makers of violins
from the days of Gaspard di Salo to
the present time have been searching.
His name is William Henry Brady.
The best authorities unite in stat
ing that the violin reached its present
form about. 1546. Since that time it
is acknowledged to bold the first rank
among musical instruments not only
on account of the beauty and equality
of its tone, its variety of expression of
light and shade, but alas on account
of its ability beneath the touch of a
master hand to express the deepest
and tenderest emotions. Gaspard di
Salo, who from 1550 to 1612 worked
with unceasing enthusiasm to bring
the instrument to its highest state of
perfection, may be called the pioneer
in the history of violin making. In
his work may be traced the gradual
development upon which his followers
built their reputations.
After him came Andrea Amati, the
founder of the Cremonese school, his
brother Niccolo, and his sons Antonio
and Hieronymus. The name of Guar
neri is probably familiar to every pos
sessor of a violin throughout the
world. Contemporary with Guarneri
was the great Antonio Stradivarius,
whose fame has been sung alike by
poet, artist and musician. Of an ex
ample of this greater master's skill
A marvel of the lutiat's art,
Perfect In each miouteat part.
And in Its hollow chamber thus
Tbe maker from whose hands it came
Had written bis unrivaled name—
" Antonlus Stradivarius."
These are some of the names re
vered by violin lovers, and whose pro
ductions are prized not only by musi
cians for their musical qualities, but
by these connoisseurs wlio love violins
for their beauty of form only.
There is something almost super
natural about a violin. At least that
is what violin makers have held from
the days of its early development to
the present time. It is well known
that in comparison to the great num
ber of violins turned out by the old
masters only a few were considered
worthy of being known as products of
their skill. It was all on account of a
lack of that peculiarly elusive quality
of tone which was so necessary to dis
tinguish the violin from the " fiddle."
The old makers found the same diffi
culty to contend with which frets the
modern violin builder.
Two violins may be made from the
same materials and by the same hand,
and one will possess all the qualifica
tions of a first-class instrument, while
the other will be so inferior as to be
worthy only of a place in the category
of "fiddles." To still further illus
trate: A slab of perfectly seasoned <
Swiss sycamore may be split in half
and one-half taken for the back of
one violin and the other half used for ;
the back of another instrument.
The bellies of the two instruments
may be fashioned from opposite halves i
of a slab of seasoned Swiss pine. This
rule may be followed throughout in
the construction of all of the 58 sepa
rate parta of the violin. The com
pleted instruments may have been
calipered to within a hairbreadth of
each other and be identical as to form
and dimensions, and yet upon the ap
plication of the bow one will be found
to be worth SSOO and the other $5.
One has the tone; the other has not.
Why this should be is a secret too
profound for scientists or philosophers
T 1 If- TV 3 • * • fill. . I
I found Mr. Brady in his little work
shop at Palisades Park, Bergen county.
N. J., among hie beloved violins.
He was surrounded by instruments
of all sorts and conditions, from the
common shop fiddle to a delicately
modeled and highly prized Cremona.
The old Cremona was there to be
used as a standard of excellence which
would be reached by the cheap violins
before they passed from under his
" Sometimes," he said, " I can hard
ly realize that it has been left for me
to invent the simple device which,
had it been known 300 years ago,
would have spared the old makers
many bitter disappointments. Here
it is. It isn't much to look at, is it?"
and the old gentleman took up a little
piece of metal of peculiar form and
weighing less than an ounce troy.
It appeared to be made of bell
metal, and as he balanced it upon the
tips of his fingers and struck it light
ly with a pencil it gave out a sound
rather like a toy cymbal.
" The principle is well known," con
tinued the inventor. "It is that of
the sounding board of a piano. That
was not difficult to think out; but
ble<s you, there was a great deal be
sides the principle to discover before
it could be applied to the violin.
"It took years of study to teach me
that form had a great deal to do with
it. I found that the simple insertion
of a sounding board between the belly
and back of a violin would increase
the volume of tone, but at the sacri
fice of its sweetness and purity. This
would never do. I worked for five
years experimenting with different 1
forms of sounding boards before I be
gan to get some of the results sought.
I found that one form would add
greatly to the power, purity and
resonance of the £ and A strings,
while the G and D strings were ren
dered fiat and screechy. I lost many
nights' sleep trying to figure out how
to get the best of that obstinate piece
of catgut. It is needless to go into
particulars further. I subdued that
refractory G string at last, and now
listen to this."
Taking up one of several violins,
which, from their freedom from spot
or blemish, showed plainly that they
had but recently been under the touch
of the varnish brush, Mr. Brady
screwed the keys one way or another
until the instrument was in tune.
Then, picking up a bow, he drew it
with a sweep of his arm across the
strings. The result was magical. It
was as if the very air in the little shop
quivered in response to the volume of
a sound which issued from the violin.
Mr. Brady is no mean performer,
and his years of experience have
taught him a series of exercises which
best serve to test the capabilities of
For five minutes he drew from the
violin such sounds as could only have
proceeded from a very superior instru
ment. By striking the E string with
the finger a sound was produced which
carried like the sound of a bell and
died away with the same reverbatory
Mr. Brady laid it down almost re
luctantly as lie said:
" If you should tell a hundred musi
cians that that fiddle was one of a
do/.on which cost me less that sl2 for
the lot, not one of them but would
laugh in your face. But its the
truth. Strung up and varnished, that
grade of fiddle sells in the shops for
about $3.50, and that is too much for
some of them.
"Experience has taught me just
where to fix the sounding board so
that the sound waves as they play
back and forth between the belly and
back of the violin are caught up by it
and magnified and strengthened. The
acoustic properties of the instrument
are augmented, and the bell metal im
parts a softness as well as an added
strengtli to the tone.
" I am well aware of the prejudice
which has long existed against the
use of metal in the construction of
"Those who profess to be posted
will hold up their hands in holy horror
at the idea of metal touching the in
strument. I shared the piejudice for
many years until I found that as the
violin itself owed its tone value to its
peculiar form, so a metal plate, if of
the proper form, was the only mater
ial which would give the much de
sired Binging quality of tone."
Mr. Brady theu played his old Cre
mona, and it was impossible to dis
tinguish between the two instruments
in the matter of power and purity of
tone. I went the next day with the
old gentleman to a dealer in Maiden
Lane, where a SSOO Amati waa for aale.
We took along the $2 fiddle and
smuggled it into the shop. The dealer
took the Amati, which was a well pre
served specimen of the great maker's
skill, from its envelope of soft silken
wrappings and laid it tenderly upon
the counter. I asked the " professor"
to test the instrument.
He did so and drew from It its very
Then, picking up tlie $2 fiddle, Mr.
Brady played the same exercises which
he had used to test the capabilities of
the Amati. The dealer listened with
open mouthed astonishment until the
" professor" had finished. Then he
asked to see the fiddle which had not
only equalled but in some respects
surpassed the valuable Amati, not
only in power and resonance, but in
sweetness and purity of tone as well.
He asked to examine the instru
ment, and his astonishment was in
creased ten-fold when he found that it
belongod to the genus fiddle. Not
even the purfiing on the back was
real, but was merely a streak of dark
paint in imitation of the inlaid wood
which is vouchsafed to the most ordi
nary make of cheap violins.
Through the sound holes he caught
the silver glint of the sounding board,
but before he could examine it further
the " professor" gently took it from
him and replaced it in its case.
We left the dealer with the dazed,
wondering look still upon his face.
Mr. Brady has in bis possession
something which he prizes next to his
wonderful discovery. It is an auto
graph letter from Ole Bull, written af
ter lie had been persuaded to examine
one of Mr. Brady's earlier attempts at
improving fiddles. Even then his ef
forts were bearing fruit, as was proved
by the great Norwegian violinist testi
fying that the discovery was remark
able and imparled to the commonest
fiddle a tone only found in the high
grade instruments. Another one of
Mr. Brady's treasures is an unsolicited
letter from Edward Kemenyi, the
great Hungarian violinist and the ac
" Hew to the Line, Let the Chips Fall AVhere They May."
OLYMPIA, WASHINGTON: FKIDAY EVENING, AUG. 10, 1894.
i knowledgcd successor of Ole Bull,
i Kemenyi marvels at the discovery and
| declares that it will " do away with all
Mr. Brady has no idea of ever turn
ing his discovery to any pecuniary ac
count. He seems satisfied to know
that he has his treasure safe in his
keeping and has repulsed the ad
vances made by capitalists who have
recently learned of his discovery. To
use his own words, ' I have forever
done away with ' fiddles,' and that is
enough for me."
In looking for the beneficial results
from the late strike trouble, says the
Portland Telegram, the most gratify
ing incident was the promptness and
earnestness with which ttie masses
rallied to the suppqrt of the govern
ment. There can be no mistaking the
sentiment which has been aroused
among the intelligent and patriotic
masses of the American people by the
conflict between the forces of law and
of anarchy. We come out of the con
flict more thoroughly a nation than
at any time in our history. The sen
timent is overwhelming and its ex
pression all but universal that, cost
what it may, order must be observed,
the supremacy of the law vindicated,
and the authority of the government
upheld. Here and there a discordant
uote may be heard, the defiant cry of
some anarchist or the wretched plea
of some demagogue, but it is drowned
in the universal acclaim of approval
of the firm stand taken by the Presi
dent in the discharge of his duty to
uphold the constitution and the laws.
It is a striking proof of the unanim
ity of public opinion in this respect,
that the press, without distinction of
party or polities, spoke with one voice
in support of the President. The Dem
ocratic Governor of Virginia and the
Republican Governor of Ohio uttered
the same sentiments of loyalty. The
Republican Senator from Minnesota,
Mr. Davis, and the Democratic Sena
tor from Georgia, General Gordon,
stood on the floor of the Senate the
same day and nude ringing speeches
in support of the President's firm pol
icy. There was no section or politics
in the general rally to the support of
the government when it becamo a
question between the government and
no government. The veteran who
wore the gray in the late civil war of
fered hia services to fight alongside
of the Grand Army veterau in defense
of the government. The gravity of
the crisis through which the country
was passing was universally realized.
The Pullman strike and the Debs boy
cott were lost sight of. The lbbor is
sue was merged in the greater issue
that had arisen. It was no longer a
question between capital and labor,
but between the government and re
bellion. It was not a question of work
and wages, but of the safety of human
life and property,and the maintenance
of that peace and good order which
are the foundation sfones of all civi
lized society. And when it reached
this issue the whole body of patriotic
American citizens, regardless of wheth
er they lived in the North or in the
South, rose up as one man and said
that the government should be up
held. This creation of a national sen
timent, and this rallying together of
all classes to the flag which floats as
the symbol of law and order, is itself
compensation for the losses that the
country has suffered.
Well (• Kitw.
To clean your lace curtains, place
thenl in a large tub with lukewarm
water, into which half a pound of fine
ly shaved soap and a little household
ammonia have been added, and allow
them to soak over night. In the
morning wash carefully with your
hands and rinse them in a tub of
clean, warm water, and then in water
containing bluing. After pressing out
all the water possible spread your cur
tains over sheets on a an un
occupied room. When they are al
most dry dip them in hot starch and
fasten them again to the sheets, pin
ning them with pins in such a way
that the pattern of the border will be
brought out. Open the windows of
the room and leave your curtains
pinned to the sheets on the floor un
til they are perfectly dry, when they
will be ready for use. If you want
them an ecru shade rinse them in
weak coffee instead of bluing.
Hot Water (or Uwi.
Hot water for cows is the maxim of
the French dairy farmer in the depart
ment of Finisterre. They claimed to
have proved by experiments that when
cows drink hot water they produce
one-third more milk than when they
are refreshed with cold water only.
Caution must, of course, be observed
in adopting the new system. Avari
cious dairymen must beware of scald
ing the throats of their cows in their
haste to avail themselves of this dis
covery, which is vouched for by our
consul at Brest. "She proportions, we
are told, are half a pail of boiling wa
ter and half a pail of cold.
LIKE a ship without a rudder is a
man or a woman without health and
the necessary strength to perform
the ordinary duties of life. When
the appetite fails, when debility, and
a disordered condition of stomach,
liver, kidney, and bowels assail you,
take Ayer's Sarsaparilla.
One ot the Benefits.
THE STRIKE OF 1877.
MUCH MORE VIOLENT THAN ANY
Its Victims Numerous-The Loss
Xlauy millions of Dollar* lts
Consequences Widespread His
tory Hepeuts Itself In Nome Par
People's memories are short. It is
common to see the statement that the
great railway strike was unprecedent
ed, and that the violence and disorder
which attended it wore never before
equalled. This is all nonsense. All
great strikes are accompanied by more
or less violence. This is one of their
most unfortunate features. This one
lias been no exception to the rule, but
when the number engaged in it is
considered, it makes an exceedingly
favorable comparison with other
strikes. Indeed it has been quite
peaceable in comparison to the big
coal strike. Compared to the great
railway strike of 1877 it has been
a rough frolic. The Springfield Re
publican recalls the events of the
strike of 1877 as follows:
A brief review of the leading events
of July, 1877, will duly bear out this
claim. The strike of that year began
on July 14 on the Baltimore and Ohio
railroad, and within three days the
militia of West Virginia was in the
fieldj while within lour days the
United States regulars had gone to
their assistance. On the 30th the
Maryland militia was called out and
in a riot in the streets of Baltimore
the soldiers killed nine and wounded
20 or 30 more. On the same day the
strike burst upon Pittsburg, where the
most terrible scenes were to be enacted,
in comparison with which nothing in
our history can be mentioned. The
mob there defied all authority, and on
the 21st the sixth division of Pennsyl
vania militia arrived to maintain
Marching through the streets the
soldiers were stoned by the mob, aud
their answering volleys killed sixteen
and wounded many more. The mob
then broke into the gun shops and
some 5,000 returned fully armed to do
battle with the raw and ill-trained
militia. The troops retreated to a
railroad round-house and tnere the
mob, now grown 20,000 strong, at
tacked them. Three or four cannons
had been obtained, and these the mob
trained on the round house. Unable
to dislodge the soldiers, whose answer
ing shots were occasionally fatal, the
mob ran blazing oil cars up against
the round-house in the endeavor to set
it on fire. These tactics were tried in
various ways, the accompaniment be
ing a saturnalia of fire and destruction
of railroad property wherever it could
be found. Finally, the militia were
forced to retreat from their furnace
like fortress, and, escaping across the
Allegheny river, under fire of the
rioters, they disbanded in wretched
humiliation. The mob was now su
preme in Pittsburg. Depots were
burned together with 2,000 freight
cars and 125 locomotives, and thous
ands of the inhabitants gave way to
the mad spirit of plunder. Between
18,000,000 and $10,000,000 worth of
railroad property was destroyed. The
entire militia of Pennsylvania and
400 regulars under General Hancock
were at last on the scene, but too late
to be of much service.
The outbreak at Pittsburg was so
extreme that the troubles of that en
tire month have come to be known
in a general way as the Pitts
burg riots; yet, as a matter of fact,
the field of disturbance spread over the
entire country from New York to
San. Francisco. It is impossible to
trace the strikes in chronological order
or in detail, but mention of some im
portant events will suffice to indicate
the range of the convulsion. In
collision between the militia and
mobs at Buffalo and Reading, 12 riot
ers were killed and 43 were seriously
wounded. In Chicago, on July 26,
there was an encounter between the
police and the mob more sanguinary
than any like encounter during the
past few days, in which 19 were killed
and many wounded. In St. Louis a
great mob surrounded the quarters
of the militia and police aud dared
them to fire. In San Francisco a
huge mob took possession of the city,
and on the same day of the Chicago
riot a bloody battle took place be
tween the rioters and the reorganized
vigilante under ex-Governor Coleman,
to whose courage was due the preser
vation of Nob Hill from fire and
plunder. In New York a great meet
ing was held to express sympathy with
the strikers everywhere, but there was
no violent outbreak in that city. At
Columbus, ()., a mob forcibly closed
all mills and industries, and in many
other places through the field of dis
turbance all industry came to a stand
still. Fully 190,000 men were on
strike, and at St. Louis, Chicago,
Indianapolis, as well as at Eastern
cities, there was a complete embargo
on the railroads. Some 6,000 to 7,000
miles of road were at one time or
another in the hands of strikers, and
to name the companies " tied up"
would require much space in this
When it was all over—and it passed
with the suddenness of a tornado—the
militia of nearly a dozen States had
been in the field in co-operation with
the United Stales army; between 50
and 75 rioters had been killed and
I fully 100 wounded in conflict with the
soldiery, while the destruction of
property all over the country has
never been calculated. Following
the railroad strike came a miners'
strike in which 40,000 laid down their
picks, but this was devoid of much
violence or bloodshed, although
several were killed in a riot at Scran,
In comparison with the great in
dustrial rebellion of 1877 that of the
present year, as thus far developed,
seems almost like boys' play.
CLEVELAND AS A POLITICIAN.
How he first Wei Senator Vorman
-A Story by Daniel Manning.
When Senator Gorman of Maryland
arose in the United States Senate and
told of his experience with President
Cleveland on the compromise tariff
bill there were Democrats who re
called the first meeting of the two
men, and led the New York Sun to
relate this interesting story:
It was 10 years ago, almost to a day.
Governor Cleveland had just been
nominated by the Democratic conven
tion at Chicago. Senator Gorman had
been made Chairman of the National
Democratic Committee. He had
never seen Mr. Cleveland. The Mary
land statesman had met all of the
great Democratic leaders in the na
tion. He was the personal friend of
Daniel Manning, who probably more
than any single man in New York
Stale brought about the nomination
of Mr. Cleveland at Chicago. Gover
nor Cleveland had been formally no
tified of his nomination, and the
headquarters of the National Demo
cratic Committee had been opened in
New York City. The story that is
now told of the first meeting between
Governor Cleveland and Chairman
Gorman was told to a Sun reporter by
Mr. Manning in the Western National
Bank almost immediately after Mr.
Manning retired from Mr. Cleveland's
cabinet as Secretary of the Treasury.
" I do not think 1 shall ever forget
the first meeting of Mr. Cleveland and
Mr. Gorman," said Mr. Manning. " We
all had faith in Cleveland's running
abilities, but it was necessary to bring
Mr. Gorman and Mr. Cleveland to
gether, and I undertook the task. I
was then in Albany, but in constant
communication with Mr. Gorman.
Gorman, as you know, is a cool, suave
individual, and Cleveland is like a
great big pepper-pod. Cleveland was
unaccustomed to the ways of national
statesmen, and it was with diffidence
one night, just after national head
quarters had been opened in New
York, that I wrote to Gorman and in
vited him to come to Albany as my
guest. I told him that I wanted to
introduce hint to Governor Cleveland,
the candidate of the party, and I well
recollect that in my letter I said to
Gorman that he would meet a rather
' heady' individual. Well, Gorman
came up to Albany two or three nights
afterward, and I took him around to
see Cleveland. Cleveland was bluff
and hearty, and Gorman was as cordial
as his cool nature would allow. They
began to talk as to the plan of cam
paigu. Gorman said very politely:
" ' Governor, I have come to see you
to ascertain your wishes about the
conduct of the campaign.'
Oh, bosh,' said the Governor. ' I
know nothing of those matters. Run
it to suit yourself. You know about
affairs of this kind. Do as you think
'"Do you really mean that, Gover
nor?' replied Mr. Gorman. 'AmI to
use my own judgment, and follow my
" Why, certainly,'said the Governor.
'Why not? I don't know anything
about such things.'
"' Do you really mean what you
say, governor?' again inquired Gor
" Why, certainly,' said the gover
"'All right,'said Gorman, and the
next morning he went back to New
"Two or three weeks after this
meeting it came to my knowledge
that Governor Cleveland had written
a document bearing on the campaign,
I cannot tell you, for certain reasons,
what that document was, but I be
lieved it would have an important in
fluence, and not a very good one at
that. So I wired to Gorman, asking
him to come immediately to Albany-
He came on a fast train and met me,
and I told him of the contents of the
campaign document that Governor
Cleveland had written. He was as
tounded, and he hurried up to see the
Governor. At that conversation Gor
man asked the governor the nature of
the document, reminding him pleas
antly at the time of his former words,
that he, Gorman, was to run the cam
paign. Gorman added that if the
document was of any importance, it
would do no harm to submit it to the
Chairman of the National Committee.
" ' All right,' says Cleveland, and he
banded out the document, saying,
' What do you think of that, Gor
"Gorman read the document over
very carefully, and then, without a
word, he Hung it into the grate, saying.
' That's what I think of that docu
"It was a little chilly in Albany
that night, and there was a fire in the
grate, and the document began to
burn. Cleveland jumped out of his
chair and hopped up and down in his
anger, shouting:'No man alive can
burn any document of mine. What
do you mean, sir?'
" ' Why, governor,' said Gorman, as
coolly as you please, ' you said I was
to run this campaign according to my
own discretion. The document that I
have just thrown into the lire is about
as unwise a manuscript as ever came
under my notice.'
"Cleveland meantime was tramping
about in his rage, but Gorman was as
cool as an iceberg. Finally Cleveland
began to laugh at himself. He re
membered his remark to Gorman on
the first interview, and the two men
parted friends, but not until Cleve
land had told Gorman that he was the
coolest sun of a gun he had ever
If Senator GortJlan could have got
hold of the letter Mr. Cleveland sent
to Professor Wilson, lie might have
found a fire somewhere in Washing
ton, even in July.
An Fx print re Blonder.
Debs was an expensive contingent
both to the laboring man and the
His strike cost the railroads, in logs
of business and destruction of prop
erty, about $5,312,000.
It cost railroad employes, those who
struck and thousands who were laid
off on account of a strike with which
they had no sympathy, about $5,000,-
It cost wage-earners forced out of
work in industries dependent upon
the railroads and other wage-earners
who struck in sympathy with the
American Railway Union, about sl,-
It cost the United States govern
It cost for the maintenance of State
military forces about $750,000.
And the Pullman employes, who
had lost about $200,000 through their
own strike before Debs' organization
took up the fight for them, have lost
It was Pullman employes vs. Pull
man; then Debs vs. Pullman, Debs
vs. railroads, Debs vs. the United
The total cost of this sympathetic,
four part affair is in the neighborhood
ef $13,612,000 up to date, aside from
the $3,000,000 or $4,000,000 of perish
able goods—meat, fruits and the like
lost by delay in transit or in conse
quence of the refusal of the railroads
to accept freight for shipment. To
that should be added, if it could only
be calculated, the loss to the general
business interests of the country, all
affected to a greater or less degree by
the paralysis of the railroads.
Then it cost a number of lives, the
wounding of many persons, the im
prisonment of many.
Work lor Rainy Days.
By far too many farmers and their
laborers consider the rainy days as se
cred to rest and inactivity. The thrif
ty, successful farmer however, usually
has plenty of indoor work planned for
this inclement weather. The harness
is to be cleaned and properly oiled, the
stable floors are to be mended, tools
and wagons repaired, gates made, the
compost heap in the basement han
dled over, and a hundred other little
jobs attended to. The team may need
shoeing; if so, let a man take them to
the shop. He will do more favors in
the future than if kept working on
the farm all the time, and these little
things show that you have confidence
in him. He will fully appreciate the
situation, and not find fault if, in the
rush of work, late hours sometimes
find him in the field, and will look af
ter your interest in the proper care of
live stock and the attention to details
that will make many dollars difference
in your favor at the end of the year.
The tasks planned for a rainy day
should be such as can be done under,
or near shelter. In the latter case,
the intervals between showers may be
utilized. It rarely pays any farmer to
work out-doors when it is raining.
Wbs Is Benefited most V
The Interstate Commerce Commis
sion, organized by the Federal govern
ment for the purpose of studying rail
road statistics, recently completed a re
port on their operations in the Uni
ted States. It appears that there were
1,890 railroad corporations in the
United States during the year ending
June 30,1893. They received in that
period nearly half a billion and a
quarter of dollars. They carried 593,-
5(50,612 passengers over 14,229,101,084
miles and transported 745,119,482 tons
of freight a distance of 93,588,111,833
miles. These operations were con
ducted on 176,461 miles of railroad.
In round numbers 800,000 employes
of all grades are supported by these
roads, making one person in every
ninety of the population of the United
States. Accepting the stated capital
izations which the companies have
reported, it appears that on an invest
ment of $10,500,000,000 less than one
per cent, of dividends were paid. It is
calculated that out of every dollar
that was received by the railroad com
panies, 75 cents went to their em
IN Germany 89,600 families paid in
come taxes on incomes from 150 to
210 pounds sterling a year; 82,400
paid on 210 to 480 pounds, and 26,800
paid on incomes above 480 pounds.
THEY ARE HAPPY OVER PROS
PECT OF BIG CROPS.
j Better Times Seem to Be at Hand
A Better Outlook in tbe Ureal Pa
louse Country—Tbe Stock Like
wise In Uood Condition.
A business man of Portland, wlio
lias been traveling through the East
ern part of this State, gives a glowing
account of the prospects for bounteous
crops this season. His trip extended
through the wonderful Palouse coun
try and as far as Spokane.
" The people of Washington are go
ing to have a good year of it," said
this gentleman to a Telegram reporter
a few days ago. " I doubt if many
other places in the country will pull
through 1894 as well. No communi
ties are reviving from business depres
sion better than they. In Eastern
Washington business of all kinds has
been distressed and is considerably so
: yet. But it is in the great grain sec
tions, from which big crops will be
reaped, that times are reviving and
the people are Incoming greatly en
" "One thing in the people's favor is
that the great body of tliem are not
in debt. The merchants tell me that
they have refused to trust their custo
mers in the hard times, even at the
cost of losing a little trade. The farm
ers and others have gone through the
year without running up a bill with
their dealers, aud the result is good
for all concerned. With the heavy
harvest coming on, the farmers, if
they can get any price at all for their
products this fall, will be in good
shape, for they will not have to be
paying last year's bills all this wiDter.
The merchants confidently look for
ward to a lively fall trade, for the pro
ducts of the agricultural districts will
do the work.
" Naturally, as the price of wheat is
low, the farmers want help as cheaply
as it can be had, and on the other
hand, the laborers want as much for
their work as they can get, looking
only at the heavy crops and not the
price that they will bring. Even if
the land owners can get enough out of
their crops to cover the expense of
cultivating them they will be satisfied,
for the times for the past ten months
have not been such aa to warrant busi
ness men in any line to entertain high
hopes about great profits and commer
" During the strike the Palouse
country was as effectually cut off from
the outside world as if it had been
walled in. They lived through it se
renely, and were undisturbed by wars
or the ceaseless conflict being carried
on in the outside world. Harvesting
will not begin in that part of the
country for nearly a month. I assure
you it was comforting to travel through
that great agricultural empire, see the
numberless fields of grain and hear
soil-tillers and the town merchants
talking of big crops and coming pros
" All the stock ranges are in fine
condition, and there is abundant green
grass for the herds, of which all appear
to be in first-class condition. Gener
ally the wool crop, I was informed,
was heavy and the outlook was very
Comparison of Taxation.
In answer to the query, " How does
the debt of the United States and the
amount of taxation compare, per
capita of population, with those of
other countries?" the American Econ
omist published the following:
According to calculations at the
census bureau, the debt of the United
States amounts to $45 per family of
nine persons, or $9 per capita. On a
similar basis of calculation, the debt
of Germany is S4OO per family of five
persons, or SBO per capita; the debt of
France is 1381 per family, or $76 per
capita; of Great Britain it is $337 per
family, or $67.40 per capita. The aver
age proportion of customs and inter
nal revenue paid by each person in
the countries mentioned below during
the years 1882 to 1890 was as follows:
Australia ... $15.00 Portneal. ... »M«
Argentine 13.50 Uernmny ti #9
France 13.90 Austria M.3J
Ureal Britain . .. 9.70 Denmark ti-JK
Holland 90S Canada ti.uu
ll»ly .. . H. 96 Belgium . 5.71
Spain 8.55 United State* kit
It will thus be seen that, on the
census bureau's basis of calculation,,
both the per capita of debt and of rev
enue contribution is less in the United
States than in any of the other coun
Kates to the >'alr.
The rate for admission to tl.e Inter
state Fair, which opens at Tacoma, in
afew days, have been fixed as follows:
Season tickets admitting a lady ami
Season ticket, one gentleman, $6.
Season ticket, one lady, sl.
Children under 7 years of age, and
accompanied by pan uts or guardians,
Children between 7 and 14 years,
single admission, 25 cents; season
ticket for season, $3.
Regular admission, 50 cents.
Exhibitors' tickets for their em
ployes for the season will be sold at
Exhibitors and concessionaires will
be admitted free on tickets to lie pro
vided, which will contain their photo
Regular admission tickets will !»•
I sold to railroad and transportation
I companies at 20 per cent, discount.
WHOLE NUMBER 1,i!04.
! PreMilcnt, CaMifrr,
A. A. PHILLIPS, L. TL ..•! VM,KR.
% HP Prrsidcnt, A-.'t •'.►liipr,
JOHN F. GOWKY. F.M.I.oHEY
FIRST NATIONAL BANK
OF 01YMPIA. WASHINGTON.
A General Banking Business Transacted
Special; attention tml.l to Collection*. Tela
graphic transfers of money.
Capital, • 1100,01)0
Surplus, ..... 33,000
A. IT..Steele, T. M. Reed, John P'. Go*ey,
A. H. Clumber*. A. A. Phillips, w. M. Ijidd,
Geo. D. Shannon
Olympla. Mareli 13.1594.
The following desirable
Is for sale AT COST'
8 No. 4 Light Oaborn mowers
1 H.Tootli Oaborn Harrow,
1 Coatea' Lock-Lever Rake,
STOCK OF HARDWARE
Including all kinds of Stoves.
Nortli side of Fourth street, corner
T. N. FORD,
• • GENERAL . .
113 Wnt Fourth Street.
OLYMPIA, - WASH.
- - AGENTS FOR - .
Tit Sn Firt Offer of loidoi, itMti - . $0,031,000
Hf Surdiu Anwueo fo. of Loidoi, iiwU -21,911,000
Tlo Aatritu In. ft. of PUtklpfa. uorti - . 2,(12.000
TW flnii bivuee ft. of Brooklri, autti - 5.000.000
California Wine Do.
225 MAIN STREET.
WOLU N < ?"*P*rt' AU T l»'orm thecitlrenaof Ol.vm
pla that they are now prepared to iup
oly the family trade with
PURE WINES « LIQUORS.
PARTIAL PRUE LIST.
£ Table Claret
?W teWiMl «»
::::::::::: \ $
whu > k V a 50.3 60 and 460
c, '" ora| a winca at the very lowest
Uooda r°° m * ud •*?' r 1,1,11 attaehed.
rharjre. l ° " y " ,rt 'ft of
Jal ?'- '**■ '' l M, E n S a' g er.
PROPRIETOR OF THE
679 Fourth St., Olymyla.
FINE WINES, LIQUORS
FRESH BEER ALWAYS OR TAP
R. d. PRICKMAN
—IS SHOWING A—
BEAUTIFUL UK OF 6000$,
Both atasdard and aoval.
MAIN ST.. BET. FIFTH AND SIXTH
l.«c«l ■nl Tr«wrllng
'TO represent our well known house. Yon
1 need no capital to represent a rlrm that war
rants nur»erv aftH'k flrat clhf« am! true to name.
Work all Ike year, flon i Hr month to
tlit right man. Apply ouick. statin* ago*
I. L. MAY Ato .
! X«r»rrjlfi. Flsriiti lid .Vd*«ri. sr PAUL, MINN
This house is responsible
April 14.10tnt. m
HOBART G. HAGIN,
; Manager of Tliuiston Cuuntv Abstract.
WILLIAMS BLOC K.
| Olympia, Wash., Oct. #, ISM. tf
WESTSIOE MILL CO.,
Rcugh and Dressed Lumber, Sash,
Ilioors. Nails. Cement l.ime. Laths,
Shingles. I'nkets. etc
_ Kstimates Furnished on Mill Wora of ill Kinds
I City OfTl. e-Fourth street bridge. teVidion#
' No. 11. Mill—West Olympia. telephone No. 5
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