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Washington standard. [volume] (Olympia, Wash. Territory) 1860-1921, January 15, 1909, Image 1

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' ► All the best brands of Im- ''
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chiiberg Olymjiia, WasiinjUi.
1908 IN
A Brief but Comprehensive
Review of the Important
Events and Tendencies
of the Year Past For
Busy Readers Who Want
to Be Well Informed.
Editor UniverjitNeWs Analysis.
Despite the Depression,
Republicans Retain Control.
Looking now calmly nuil dispassion
ately back across the field of conflict
ing Interests and balancing * forces
which shaped the American pfesiden
tial campaign of ll)u8, one Incontest
able conclusion forces itself 011 the
open mind. It Is that 11 majority of
the people became convinced in one
way or another that it Is "better to
bear the evils that they have than to
fly to others that they know not of
and to give the true* regulating poli
cies of President ltojseveit a longer
and fairer trial In the hands of his
favorite adviser, William Howard
laft. How the people became so
minded is a question to which 110 an
swer can be found to suit all kinds of
partisans. The salient facts can, how
ever, be recounted briefly and with
historical Impartiality.
On Jan. 31 was Issued the challenge
<»f the dominant personality and offi
cial of tht> party In power which was
to determine in many ways the plans
of buttle of the different parties for
the capture of the American electorate
—namely, the message of President
Uoosevelt to congress advocating his
program of radical legislation.
On June 1(5 at Chicago the Republic
ans got together. They cheered forty
minutes when Chairman Lodge eulo
gized the preaiileut «ud seated all the
Taft contestants. The thoroughness of
this operation caused It to be described
as the administration- "steam roller,"
of which Frank 11. Hitchcock was the
engineer. The only Dght was on the
court injunction plank. Samuel Oorn
pers, head of the A. P. of L., and other
leaders of organized labor, confronted
with numerous court decisions unfa
vorable to their methods and facing
lower wages or lack of work for many
workers, bad decided to
open for the jiarty whose la 1 tor plank
suited them best. Despite the warn
ings of the Gompers "cabinet" before
the platform committee the plank final
ly adopted at Chicago was not to their
liking. Van Cleave, Cannon, Crane
and other Itepubllcau leaders insisted
upon upholding the integrity of the
courts, but asserting that the rules of
injunction procedure be "more accu
rately defined by statute" and that no
injunction should issue without due no
tice "except where irreparable injury
would result from delay." William 11.
Taft of Ohio was nominated for presi
dent on the first ballot and James S-
Sherman of New York for vice presi
On July 7 at Denver the national con
vention of the Democratic party as
sembled with the knowledge that an
overwhelming majority of its delegates
were pledged to the nomination of Wil
liam J. Bryan of Nebraska. The big
gathering broke all records for continu
ous cheering when the blind Oklahoma
senator. Gore, eulogized the Nebraskan,
the demonstration lasting eighty-seven
minutes. Bryan was nominated on the
first ballot, although the names of
Johnson and Gray were presented.
John W. Kern of Indiana, with the ap
proval of Bryan, was named for second
As In the Republican convention, the
main contest had to do with the word
ing of the injunction or labor plank of
the platform. Gompers was present
and gave his assent to the plank finally
agreed upon. While asserting that the
"courts of Justice are the bulwark of
our liberty," it demanded a modifica-'
tion of the Injunction law so as to pro
vide for a trial by Jury In cases of In
direct contempt. It declared against
treating labor organizations as illegal
combinations In restraint of trade, fa
vored the eight hour day and promised
a general employers' liability law.
Bryan at once induced his executive
committee ,to say that it would reject
all coi*porate gllu, would'llmit Individ
ual donations to SIO,OOO and would
publish on Oct. 15 and dally thereafter
the names of givers of SIOO and up
ward. The final total published after
election was so'Jo,<>44 from 75,000 con
tributors. Although the Republican
convention had rejected a publicity
plank, Taft and his managers decided
to work under the New York law and
publish names and amonnts of contrib
utors after the election. Their funds
totaled $1,C55,515.
Frank 11. Hitchcock, who had engi
neered the Taft canvass, was chosen
chairman of the Republican national
committee, and George R. Sheldon was
made treasurer. The Democrats elect
ed Norman E. Mack, the Buffalo news
paper proprietor, as their national
chairman and Governor Haskell of Ok
lahoma as holder of the purse. When
Treasurer Haskell resigned, his place
was filled by Herman Rldder, editor of
the New Yirk Staats-Zettung.
July 28, at Cincinnati, Taft delivered
"Hew to the Line, Let the Chips Fall "Where they May."
tiis speech of acceptance. lie
accepted itit' role of "me too" by de
fending tin Roosevelt policies in their
entirety and explaining that his work,
If elected. w<tuM lie to tarry ou those
reforms in detail.
Aug. 12, at Lincoln, Neb., Ilryan wns
notified of liis nomination and sounded
the keynote of his campaign in the
question, "Shall the people rule?" In
subsequent speeches he gave great
prominence to the bank guaranty plan,
to the popular election of senators and
to campaign publicity before election.
He made a special bid for the labor
vote on the injunction plank. He
would destroy nil trusts controlling
over 00 per cent of au Industry.
1 ' lit gffiding the degression as the be
ginning o{ the breakdown of the cap
italist system and claiming the army
of Id!* workers as their asset, the So
cialists of America went into the cam
paign with better weapons lhan ever
: before.- On May JO the Socialist con
vention met at Chicago. -For the first
| time the Socialists of America af-
I tinned llkeir position Oil.specific que9-
j tlons of policy. The convention noin-
I United on the first ballot unanimously
( Eugene V. Debs for president and Beu
i jamin Ilanford for vice president, the
same ticket"'put" up by the Socialists In
The Prohibition,sts, conscious of the
great strides their cause had made on
the local option Issue in many states,
nominated Eugene W. Chafiu of Illi
nois and Aaron S. Wat kins of Ohio
July 15 at Columbus, 0., on a plat
form containing many radical propos
als besides that against the sale or
manufacture of intoxicants.
Oil July 28 at Chicago the first na
tional convention of the Independence
| party, outgrowth of the league organ
ized by Editor Hearst, named Thomas
I 1,. Hlsgen of Massachusetts and Johu
I Teiaple Oraves of Georgia on a plat
j form containing most of the radical
I Ideas of the Democrats and some more
i radical. Opposition to Bryan was Its
The People's party April 3 at St.
Louis again named i .tnas 1". Watson
of Georgia as Its standar 1 bearer along
with .S. \J". Williams of Indiana, al
though It did npt put a ticket up In
all of the states.
On Sept. 15, at Columbus, 0.. Hearst
stirred up.the hitherto calm current of
the campaign by reading Into his
speech the first batch of a series of
letters which litid been stolen from the
i files of the Standard Oil company and
which threw n sinister light on the ac
tivities of various public men, notably •
Foraker, Bailey, MacLnurln, Sibley,
certain Pennsylvania judges and ex
| Governor Stone, -who was urged to np-
I point them. Most of the letters were
i written by Vice President Archbold of
■ the trust and contained divers certill-
I cates of dej>oslt for large sums of
money. At the same time Hearst re
| l tea ted the story of the alleged attempt
i to bribe former Attorney General Mon
, nett of Ohio wherein Haskell, the Dem
i ocrntic treasurer, was made to figure.
As governor of Oklahoma Haskell also
I was accused of protecting a legal
j branch of the Standard. Foraker at
( once withdrew from the campaign, and
the president Issued & hot statement
-condemning the Ohioan and gave out
an old letter showing how Taft had re
fused to deal with Foraker; theu com
pared this course to that of Bryan and
Haskell. Bryan replied, demanding a
hearlug for Haskell, and then ensued a
bitter verbal duel on personal and
party issues. Haskell resigned, but
protesting Innocence, as did ulso Du
Pent, the powder trust head, from the
Chairmanship of the Republican speak
ers' bureau. Both the president and
Taft took the ground that publishing
names of contributors before election
would be to invite unfair and partisan
criticism ot candidates.
tiotnpers appealed to all unions in
the A. F. of L. to give moral and finan
cial support to Bryan. Si>enker Cannon
was the special target of the .Gompers
battery, and "Cannontsm" became a
national issue, many candidates for
congress being pledged against Cannon
as the next speaker.
On Nov. 3 the voters of the nation
had their say. The extent of the Re
publican victory can be best remem
bered by the statement that Taft car
ried every state that Roosevelt did In
11(04 except Nebraska, Colorado and
Nevada. Furthermore, Taft Invaded
the solid south with small pluralities
In Maryland and Missouri and large
gains "In other southern states. The
popular vote stood: Taft, 7,037,076;
Bryan, 0,303,182; Debs, 447,051; Chafin,
241,202; Hlsgen, 83,186; Watson, 33,871;
Gllhnus (Socialist-Labor). 15,421; total,
14,852.231). The total vote in 1904 was
13,510,7(18. Several states In the Taft
column elected Democratic governors
—Harmon In Ohio, Marshall in In
diana and Johnson in Minnesota. Taft
raptured the Democratic stronghold of
New York city. The Republican major
ity in congress was reduced to 47,
the total being 21!) and the Demo
cratic 172. The senate's Republican
complexion was unchanged.
The early monthn of the lons session
of congress were devoted chiefly to the
Republican wrangle over the terms of
1 currency bill. The Aldrlch relief
measure finally went through the sen
nte March 28 despite the all night fill
buster of La Follette, to propitiate
whom the railroad bond feature had
been cut out. La Follette named an
oligarchy of fourteen wealthy men
who, he snld, actually ruled the na
tion. The Vreolund bill. In which
clearing house associations were made
the channel of the new currency Issue,
was passed by the house, and then a
compromise between that-and the Ald
rlch bills, with provision for a Joint
commission to report on permanent re
forms, was adopted by both branches
and signed by the president.
Under the president's prodding the
pterllng liability bill was advanced by
the majority and passed unanimously
In both houses. This holds Interstate
carriers Ila Life for Injuries to employ
ees and abolishes the rule burring
eoiupetiSJtii.:i when the negligence of
a fellow employee can be proved.
The Democratic filibuster was met
by a gag rule and daily recess until
the majority had accomplished its
purpose. This included provision for
two new battleships Instead of the
four urged by the president, higher
pay for army otlicers and privates and
a liability law to protect employees in
tlie service of the government. The
house failed to pass the anti-injunc
tion and anti trust amendment to tlie
Sherman law desired by the president
In the interest of labor, "in God We
Trust" was restored to the gold coins.
The total appropriations of the ses
sion reached the record figure of sl,-
804.000.8 M.
Congress reassembled Dec. 7 and re
ceived the final Itoosevelt message. In
which executive control of legalized
trusts was advocated and judges were
urged to heed the will of legislators ac
cording to present day standards. A
bitter controversy arose over ono pas
sage which intimated that congress
had confined the secret service to the
treasury department because members
did not want to be Investigated. The
senate moved an investigation of the
secret service, aiu* the house demanded
proof of the president's assertions.
Uncle Sam Insists
Upon Carrying a Big Stick.
The administration's foreign policy
has exemplified well this year a fa
vorite saying of the president, "Speak
softly, but carry 11 big stick." Tbts
nation has preserved good feeling to
ward other nations, but at the same
time has sent its battleship fleet to the
nntlpodes and devoted much thought
and money to navy nnd army better
March 11 nt Magdaleua bay the
fleet ended Its voyage around the
Horn, In commnnd of Kvnns. and wn»
wildly welcomed till along the coast to
San Francisco. Evans then gave up
the commnnd to Sperry, nnd 011 July
7 the fleet sailed from San Francisco
on its record breaking naval practice
cruise, visiting Hawaii, New Zealand,
Australia, Japan, China and the Phil
ippines before the year's end.
The war department changed heads
July 1, Luke E. Wright succeeding
On May 5 the state department con
cluded a five year arbitration treaty
with Japan. On Nov. 30 notes were
signed containing an agreement with
Japan for concert of action in main
taining the stntus quo In tlie a
virtual alliance.
The trensury In January hnd n defi
cit of $10,000,000, which grew to SOO,-
000,000 by the end of the fiscal year.
The postofflce department, by order
of the president, ruled that pai>ers In
foreign languages must submit trans
lations mid authorized i>ostmasters to
exclude papers containing Incitement
to murder, arson and treason. In May
the parcel ltmlt to England was raised
to eleven pounds, and Oct. 1 the postal
rate to that country wns lowered to 2
cents, later the same to Germany.
On Aug. 14 the president appointed a
commission, headed by Professor L. 11.
Bailey of Cornell, to gather data look
ing to betterment of farm life.
May 13 to 15 at the White nouse the
first conference of state governors nnd
noted men met the president to dis
cuss the conservation of national re
sources, the conference making n new
element of nntional unity. This body
reassembled Dec. 8 and approved a
great scheme of waterways by a bond
Old World Rulers
Had a Nerve Racking Year.
GREAT BRITAIN.—The government
of King Edward began the year with
a program of radical legislation, In
cluding old age pensions, frankly in
tended as a sop to socialism, which
•bowed signs of rapid growth along
with the Increase of the vast army of
the unemployed. Asqulth took the
reins April 5, when Premier Itanner
tnan retired on account
illness. Asqulth carried through the
age pension bill July 20, the plan of
which Is $1.25 a week to all over sev
enty years of age whose Income Is un
der $l5O a year, to take effect Jan. 1,
15100. The Asqulth government encoun
tered a boisterous campaign for wo
man suffrage, the suffragettes organiz
ing huge parades and rushes on the
parliament to attract attention, many
women choosing prison terms rather
than give bonds to keep the peace.
Alarm over the signs of coming revolt
throughout India has Increased, with
numerous acts of violence against the
ruling Britons. CANADA felt the ef
fects of the American depression In
decreased exerts and In a halt In her
Industrial development. The general
elections Oct. 20 sustained the Laurter
government. A great historical pag
eant marked the tercentenary of Que
bec, the Prince of Wales attending.
GERMANY. The German people
will remember the year 1008 as mark
ing the end of their kaiser's absolute,
personal rule and the beginning of
ministerial responsibility to tbe relchs
tag. This revolution tbroagb tbe
power of public opinion voiced in tbe
radical press and in parliamentary ac
tion of nearly all parties came to ft
head in October, the occasion of the
outburst being an authorised inter
view In the London Telegraph in
which the kaiser told of his refusal to
Join a secret coalition against England
during the Boer war and of sending
war plans to the queen. It was like
the last straw. The relchstag called
Von Eulow to account, and Wlllhiiu
imile concessions.
TURKEY.—The leaven of democ
racy showed signs of working even In
the European stroughold of autocratic
Islaui. The sultan of Turkey saw his
army turning from him under the In
fluence of the Young Turk party and
thus powerless, he put into effect tne
hitherto dead letter constitution of
lS<«i and culled into being a national
parliament at Constantinople. This
body met amid rejoicing Dec. 17.
TIIB BALKAN'S. —Ou Oct. 5 the
whole status of southeastern Europe
as fixed by the treaty of Berlin (ISTSI
was suddenly altered. Bulgaria pro
claimed its independence, with Prince
Ferdinand as its czar and at the
same time by concerted arrangement
Austria announced to the powers that
she proposed to annex completely the
former Turjji sh provinces of Herze
govina and Bosnia, while the Turkish
Island of Crete moved toward a union
with Cr* -co. War seemed unavoid
able then, and the clouds still lower
In the diplomatic sky as a gloomy
omen of what the new year may have
In store. The prompt action of the
powers on motion of Russia In agree
ing to hold a conference to readjust
the balance In the Balkans, the open
ing of negotiations between Bulgaria
and Turkey and the military Impo
tence of Servla and Montenegro com
bined to prevent an immediate out
break. Later Turkey began a boycott
of Austrian goods, and all the Balkan
states prepared for war.
PORTUGAL—The ferment of Re
publicanism in the Portuguese mon
archy lifter long restraint found vent
in the assassination of King Carlos and
Crown Prince Luis Feb. 1 while they
wore riding in the streets of Lisbon.
The younger son, Manuel, who was
slightly wounded, succeeded to the
throne, and-the hated Premier Franco
fled the country. Subsequent elections
showed the Conservatives still in n
large majority.
MOROCCO.—On Aug. 24 the oft re
peated story of the defeat of Sultan
Abdul Aziz by the forces of the pre
tender, Mulai Halld, proved to be true,
and the latter demanded recognition
of the powers as the sultan. That was
where the German emi»eror made a
peck of trouble by recognizing nafid
without consulting the nations In the
Alireclrns conference. France firmly ob
jeeted, Spain seconded, nnd the kaiser
"came down." Then they all towed
to Ilnfld together.
PERSIA. The Radical first parlia
ment at Teheran under the constitu
tion granted In 100T was wiped out of
existence lu n bloody battle with the
shah's soldiers June 23, 4<io persons be
ing killed In the streets, the parliament
buildings battered down and some of
the Radical leaders executed. The rev
olutionists captured and held Tabriz.
JAPAN.—The Japanese government
gave the American fleet a wonderful
reception, the mikado and the presi
dent exchanging most cordial greetings.
CHINA. —On Nov. 13 Emperor
Kwang Seu and the dowager empress,
who had been for a generation the
real ruler of China, died. I'u Yl, the
infant son of Prince Chun, had been
designated ns heir to the throne, nnd
the regency was seized by Prince Chun.
the verge of war. but finally the Issues
were laid before the new Central
American court of Justice, which was
set up May 2ii nt Cartago, Costa Rica,
with all the states represented.
VENE7XKJ.A added Holland to the
list of lu r "don't speak" neighbors by
ex|>elliiig the Dutch minister for some
indiscretion, nnd the Dutch were hot
for coercion. They began war Dec. 13
by capturing the Venezuelan coast
guard ship, .Mix. Shn'per. the American
minister, finally broke off relations and
quit the country owing to tlie failure
of the Castro government responding
to the overtures from Washington ns
to a settlement of claims. The Vene
zuelan minister later was recalled
from Washington. President Castro
sailed for Europe the last of November.
CUBA rose to her new opportunity
with orderly elections In December,
Jose Miguel Gomez, the Liberal leader,
being chosen president.
HAITI wns torn by two revolts, that
led by Juneau and Firmln In January
being crushed, but the second, under
Antolne Simon, resulting In the b!o<xl
less capture of Port au Prince nnd the
fall of the Nord Alexis government
Dec. 2. As the forces of Simon ap
proached the capital the officers of
Alexis deserted and the people turned
against him, so that he was barely
aide to escape with his life on board
a French warship. Simon took posses
sion of the city nnd on Dec. 17 was
elected president by the Haitian con
Rays of Hope Follow
Year of Business Distress.
Everything is relative. While busi
ness conditions In this country nre
still far from what they were two
years ago, the end of 1908 presents an
encouraging outlook in comparison to
that which capital and lultor faced
Inst January. Then 338,000 freight cars
were Idle, thousands of mills and fac
tories were closed, at least 2,000,000
wage earners were unemployed, other
millions worked on part time or at re
duced wages, goods on hand could not
be sold at a profit, railroad and indus
trial stocks were battered In price al
most beyond recognition, and at high
rates of Interest little money could be
enfVed from hiding. Fear possessed
the business community on the eve of
a presidential campaign In which both
the old parties were considering radi
cal measures for scaring off the bogy
of socialism. Processions of the un
employed marched In the larger cities
and gave authorities a case of nerves.
A large number of strikes resulted
from wage reductions, but few were
The railroads were between the dev
il «f reduced tratiic and the deep sea
of a threatened general strike. Their
only apparent relief, If they hoped to
pay salaries and dividends, was to
raise freight rates. Here they met
the opposition of the shippers backed
by the preliminary investigation of the
Interstate commerce comlsslou. The
Southwestern association did advance
rates In July, and sonic southern lines
reduced wages, while nearly all lines
laid off men. In December came the
general announcement of a 10 per cent
In reuse to take effect Jan. 1. 1909.
12. 11. Ilarrlman in March took full
possession of the Georgia Central,
which with a new connecting link gave
him a cross continent system.
"n April 28 Cleveland's three cent
f ire municipal street railway system
went Into effect, hut hardly was It
started when a bitter strike was called
to enforce a former contract for wage
Increase. Itiots nnd car dynamiting
• led up the lines for weeks, but tlie
city finally won. A deficit the first
two months gave way later to a sur
plus, but the public, dissatisfied with
the service, voted In the Oct. 2 refer
endum against the municipal fran
chise, and a few weeks later the com
pany was thrown Into a receivership.
Secretary Wilson reported the value
of all crops to the farmer to be $7,772.-
tHio,t**t, a new record, corn heading the
list with 2,t!43.(M1.0t10 bushels.
Jan. 1) New \ork celebrated the com
pletion and operation of Its first East
river tunnel and of Its first Hudson
river tunnel from Iloboken Feb. 2,">.
Philadelphia's s2<i.<H«»,(«ki Market
street subway was opened July 30.
The ocean speed record was lowered
repeatedly by the big Itrltlsh turbines,
the I.usitania finally doing the best
western trip In 4 days 15 minutes.
Regulation of Trusts
and Pursuit of Grafters.
The American smile of 11)07 when
Judge Landis lined the oil trust $20,-
240,000 for taking Alton rebates cer
tainly came off July 22 last, when
Judge Grosscup and associates of the
court of appeals at Chicago reversed
Lmdls 011 the assumption that the line
was excessive and not based 011 good
law. What the chief hunter of the big
octopus had to say of that particular
turn In the road was that the merits
of the case had not been touched and
he would "regard It ns a gross miscar
riage of justice If through any techni
calities" the quarry should escape. The
president at once had the motion for a
rehearing made. This was denied, and
the famous case goes up on appeal to
the supreme court.
Rut in the meantime the government
pack was in full cry along other paths,
the chief of which led toward the dis
solution of the Standard Oil company.
Sept. 10 at Philadelphia Judge Gray
and associates on the circuit bench
sustained the right of railroads to own
nnd operate coal mines, holding the
commodity clause of the Hepburn bill
to be despotic and confiscatory.
Federal suits were also started
against the Ilarrlman railroad trust
and against the powder trust, while
numerous fines were imposed 011 rail-
Mads and other corporations under the
Klklns law for rebating. On March 23
the supreme court, 8 to 1, Invalidated
the Minnesota and North Carolina rate
laws, holding that federal courts had
the right to review and to stay execu
tion to protect stockholders. The Ala
bama rate law was held up by the cir
cuit court pending Investigation of
reasonableness of rates. Pennsylvania
two cent rate law was invalidated by
the state supreme court. On Nov. 31
the Vulted States supreme court ruled
that the order of the Virginia railroad
commission fixing a two cent passen
ger rate was subject to review and
must be tried liefore the highest state
court before seeking federal interven
tion. In December the circuit court of
appeals enjoined the tobacco trust from
contiuuliig interstate traffic.
Farly In January the supreme court
knocked out the employers' liability
law because It was not confined to lu
terstate corporations. Ou Jan. 25 it
ruled that membership in a union
might Justify dismissal of Interstate
railroad employees. On Feb. 3 In the
famous Hanbury hatters' boycott case
It decided unanimously that the boy
cott as a method of fighting capital is
illegal when declared against goods in
interstate traffic. President Gompers
and other A. F. of L. officials were en
joined from publishing an "unfair list."
On March 1) the California supreme
court vacated the conviction of former
Mayor Schmitz, and he was freed ou
heavy bail covering other charges after
having been coufiued ten months.
When 111 November his pal, Ross Ruef,
was brought to trial the desperation of
the graft forces showed itself In the
act of one discredited saloon niau,
Haas, who shot Heney In court-
Though Heney was seriously injured,
he recovered to continue the fight with
Increased public sympathy. Ruef was
convicted Dec. 11 nnd faced a prison
term. Four of Pennsylvania's capltol
grafters were convicted In February
and sentenced Dec. 18 to two years in
prison and s.">oo fine each.
On Nov. t> at New York Charles AV.
Morse, the millionaire whose Illegal
banking practices were believed to
have start(*l the financial panic of
l!Mi7, was brought to stern Justice with
conviction and a fifteen year sen
tence. At the same time sentence for
his banking associate, President Cur
tis of the Hank of North America,
was suspended.
Pittsburg was shocked by a series
of banking explosions and defalca
tions, two of which stand out as col
lossal crimes. On March 23 Ilenry
Heiber, teller, and John Young, audi
tor of t-bo Fh rroors' Deposit National
bank, were arrested for the misuse of
over u million of the bank funds, in
June they were sentenced to ten years
each. On May 7 William Montgom
ery, cashier of the Alleghany National
bank, was accused of diversions which
ultimately ran up to $1,350,000, Includ
ing some state funds. lie was sen
tenced to fifteen years in prison.
Kentucky's tobacco Night ltidcrs
made additional raids In spite of the
troops sent out to check them, and on
Oct. 20 a band of dispossessed squat
ters on iCeelfoot lake, Tennessee, kid
naped Captain Itankiu and Coionel
Taylor of Trenton. They hung the
former, but the latter escaped by
swimming the lake. Troops were call
| ed out, and many arrests were made.
I The most serious race riots of tho
! year occurred at Springfleld, 111., Aug.
j 14 and 15, when u wild mob killed
nine persons, injured eighty and burn
ed houses occupied by negroes. Troops
were called out nnd the leaders
brought to justice.
The last of the Idaho eases against
miners' officials ended with the ac
quittal of George A. IVttlbone In Jan
uary. Harry Orchard, the confessed
murderer of Governor Steunenburg,
whose testimony implicated the min
ers, received a death sentence, which
later was commuted to a life term.
Caleb Powers, four times tried in
eight years for the murder of Governor
Goebel, was pardoned by Governor
Willson of Kentucky.
Science. Sociology,
Religion and Other Data.
Continuous mechanical flight as a
human feat has been publicly demon
strated to the satisfaction of the
world by the two American aviators.
Wilbur and Orvilie Wright, giving as
surance of new military weapons and
promise of practical commercial ap
plications. Having finished their se
cret trials at Kill Devil hill. North
Carolina, last May and having receiv
ed patent protection here and abroad,
the Wrights made public the details
of their work. Wilbur then took one
machine to I.e Mans, France, and Or
vllle another to Fort Myer, Va., for
official trials in September. Orvilie
scored first, making a record flight of
1 hour 14 minutes 2<> seconds prior to
the fatal trial of Sept. 27, when the
aeroplane, carrying the inventor nnd
Lieutenant Sclfridge, fell with a
broken propeller, killing Selfridge and
breaking several of Wright's bones.
T-ater Wilbur sailed the air alone 1
hour and "1 minutes and oil Oct. 10
took along one man for 1 hour min
utes 45 seconds, winning SIOO,INHJ for
the invention from a French syndi
cate. Farmuu nnd Delagrauge also
made successful aeroplane flights in
Frahce. the former winning the Arch-
Deacon prize for the first circular
mile, while the tetrahedron machine
of Hell nnd Baldwin at Ilaramonds
port, N. Y.. was tlown short distances.
Count Zeppelin of Germany again
led the world In the dirigible balloon
field, although Ills series of flights
culminated Aug. 1 In the burning of
his huge rigid gas airship at Mayence,
where he had paused in a storm for
repairs after a continuous journey of
201 miles la 11 hours. With popular
aid he built another ship. In which he
made more flights In November, win
ning tlie kaiser's praise and selling his
invention to the government.
The dirigible liailo: n built by Thom
as W. Ha Id will on o»'.i; i.tl tii:il at
Fort Myer. Va.. in Atigu. t attained a
speed of 11). 10 miles an hour ou a two
hour trip and wits bought by the war
department for J i.O'iO.
lJoth the pan-Anglican conference and
the Lambeth conference at London
went 011 record for socialism. The
Methodist general 0 u e at Balti
more look advanced ground for indus
trial reforms and prohibition, but re
fused to change the code of discipline.
The Episcopal diocese of New York
made 11 working arrangement with or
ganized labor, tin the other hand, the
American Catholic society sharply con
demned socialism. The first assem
bling of the Catholic hosts lu this
country took place in Chicago lu No
vember. the occasion being the celebra
tion of the transfer of the United
States from a mission country to a
country with an independent national
Signs of a coming unification of all
churches were seen first In the warm
Interchanges between the Methodist
Episcopal conference at Baltimore and
the Methodist Protestant conference at
Pittsburg, In the union motions be
tween the latter and the Congregation
al aud United Brethren, In the union
favored by the Presbyterian general
conference at Kansas City with the
Reformed church and finally In the
first meeting of the great federal coun
cil of the Churches of Christ In Amer
ica at Philadelphia In December. This
council also took advanced ground for
practical social reforms.
American athletes won a majority of
the events In the Olympic games at
London In July. John Ilayes being the
Marathon winner. In November he
was beaten by Dorando la Madison
Square Garden, New York, and on Dec.
15 at the same place Dorando was
beaten by Longboat, the Canadian In
dian. The baseball leaders were the
Chicago Cubs and the Detrolts.
Famous IHTSOUS who died In 1008
were: Charles Emory Smith, Edmund
C. Stedman, Edward A. McDon
ald, August WllhelmJ, Louise de la
Ramee (Oulda), Kedficld Proctor, sen
ator from Vermont: William Plnck
ney Whyte, senator from Maryland;
William B. Allison, senator from Iowa;
Francois Coppee, Ilenry C. Potter,
Murat Ilalsted, Joel Chandler Harris,
Bronson Howard. Ira I). Sankey, Dan
iel Colt Gllinnn, Charles Eliot Norton.
Donald G. Mitchell, Grover Cleveland,
Henry Campbell-Bannerman and Vlo
torlen Sardou.
An Impedirr.cr.t to F!r.in Speaking.
"Dow.i I.i I'iUe county," said an Ar
kansas state-mian, "we had a trial I
attended once where a man named
Joinson was on the stand. Joiusou
was fjr t'.i.- defense. and the way he
was sotting things straight was a cau
•"litre," said the attorney for the
pro e.-utlni when he tojk Joinson In
han.l, "I want you to stop prevaricat
ing. Don't you know you are under
"'Stop what';' asked the witness.
" 'Stop prevaricating.'
"The witness drew himself up with
great dignity. 'Well,' he said, 'l'd like
to know how a man can help prevarl
eatin' when he's lost two front teeth T "
That ou" .American forests abound in
plants which jtossess the most valuable
medicinal virtues is abundantly attested
by scores of the most eminent medical
writers and teachers. Even the untu
tored Indians hud discovered the useful
ness of many native plants before the
advent of the white race. This informa
tion, imparted freely to the whites, led
the latter to continue investigations until
to-day we have a rich assortment of most
valuablo American medicinal roots.
Dr. Pierce believes that our American for
ests In most valuable medicinal roota
fo« tbe most obstinate and fatal d!s
--ea*-N. tf lnv«»ttvat« them:
of this conviction, lio
CUfta t fTirl.nl hi lUfi "f"..ild^''MtXjalubl
covery,- wlil.-li lias nruven llsrlf to he ti.e
most efficient v much lnrir liver Invllfor-
ii.rir and regulator, and blo< T
Cleanser knmn to medical vlenre. l>yspei>-
81*. or lnUi£i*sliun. torpid Afunctional
and even valvular and other affection* of
the heart yield to Its curative action. Tho
reason wh V It cures these and many other
affections. Is clearly shown In a little boolc
of extracts from the standard medical woi t>a
which ts mailed frre to any address by Dr. K.
V. Pierce, of ltuffalo. N. Y.. to all sending
recuest for the same.
Not less marvelous. In the unparalleled
cures It Is constantly making of woman's
many txxrullaraffectlont. weaknesses and
Fa is amply attested
by thousands con
tributed patTfiift who have been
cured by It of rat.-.rrhal m-lvlc ruins" nalr.fTlT
atl«>n of uterus
after other advertised inedicines. and
pbyslclano bad failed.
Both the ahovo mentioned medlrlnes are
wholly made up from the gh«*erlc extracts of
native, meilicinal roots. The processes em
ployed In their manufacture were original
with Dr. Pierce, and they are carried ou by
skilled chemists and pharmacists with tho
aid of apparatus and appliances specially
designed and built for this purpose. Both
medicines are entirely free from alcohol and
all other harmful, habit-forming drugs. A
full list of their ingredient* is printed on
each but tie-wrapper.
lias a well assorted and relia
ble stock of
Drugs, Patent Medicines
And Related Sundries
Suuh as Toilet Soaps, Complexion Pow
der, Perfumery. Itrn-lu s for tlie hair, the
teeth and clothe*; Dressini; and Fine
Com lis. Mirrors Nursing Bottles aud Fix
tures. »tc., »te.
In seho'ars' sii/)|>li ( s. Tal.lets, Slates.
Pencils. Pencil Shar[>enerß. Pens, P«
holders. Colored Crayons, Coiii|>osition
and Note llooks,
In short such v »ri ty as is to he found
in a vvell-rettuliited I>i and Stationery
Store, all otlered at lowest prii*es. con
sistent with <|iialitv, with prompt and
efficient service assured to all patrons.
►r« i.T« >T« »T« »T« •!. »T< iTi »7« A A »»« AA A A
I,T J. A. Graham Frank L. Weston 2
* I
|G& W |
»5 and Baths §
■g &
»2 I'or G.«HI Workmanship, Clean- &
»J liness and Fair Treatment £
ig give us a trial.
| 125 East 4th St. Olympia, Wash, >
General Blacksmithing,
Sole agents for Olvmjiia and Thuratoc county
for the celebrated
Wagons and Carriages
Corner Third and Columbia Streets.
Olympia, Wash.
Fine Watch and J ewelry Re
213 E. 4th St. Olympia, Waah
I'riK. Seo.
Corner Washington and Sixth Street*.
Abitracts, Drafting and Blue-Printing. [City
and Township Plats.
Phone Black 11. 10t.
Attorney at Law
Suite 214 Safe Deposit Building Olympia
Artistic Tailor,
Is showing a
Both standard and novel.

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