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MICKIE, THE PRINTER'S DEVIL
SCHOOL CODE ROARI> PRESENTS REPORT Continued from Pagd Three. are best maintained when the per sonnel of the State Board tends to remain relatively constant. A"Revolv- Ing" board, composed of members who enter and leave office at definit? times and after long periods of ser vice is highly desirable. At present, in this state, a complete change of six of the seven members is possible within a single year. Your commission is convinced that in the interest of greater efficiency the State Board of Education should be reconstructed and its powers en larged. State Hup<'r!jilrailrnt of Public In struction. The constitution provides that the state superintendent of public l:i struction shall be "chosen by the qualified electors of the state at the 'same time and place of voting as for the members of the legislature" for a Neat is Coining Down How Are These Prices on PORK Small Legs Pig Pork, 6-8 lbs. average 25c Loin 25c Shoulder Best Pig Pork 22 j /2C Side Pork 22i/ 2 c Pig Head 12Y 2 C Steer Pot Roast 15c Steer Boiling Beef. .. .I2V2C Liberty Steak 20c Any Steak *.25 c Leg Mutton 22c Shoulder Mutton 18c Stew Mutton 12y 2 c Olympia Cash Market 210 W. FOURTH ST. WHY PAY Six-volt aßtteries, for all small cars .* $42.90 Six-volt Batteries, for large ears $47.30 Twelve-volt Batteries for Dodges and Maxwells $58.00 If you are wise you will pay no more, for there is no better bat tery built than the PERMALIFE. Guaranteed for twenty months. MCNEILL BATTERY STATION Dnnnait.e f!a.nitol Phone 38/ Opposite Capitol MEN'S HOSIERY We are offering some extra values in our Hosiery Depart ment. Below we list a few of the many numbers we oeer: HEAVY KHAKI WOOL SOX 50c HEAVY GREY WOOL SOX 60c FINE QUALITY WHITE WOOL SOX 65c BLACK CASHMERE DRESS SOX 50c COTTON DRESS SOX 25c Everything in the Hosiery line, from Cotton Roekfords to Pure Silks at the right prices. GOTTFELD'S 211 EAST FOURTH STREET term of four years. The only quali fications required of the individual who is to direct the education of the children o£ the state are that he must be "a citizen of the United States anl a qualified elector of th's state." No educational qualifications are required. The state superintendent of public instruction may not have completed the elementary grades of the common schools, he may not have taught school a single day, he may be ignorant of the public school, lis organizat on and administration and yet, elected on a partisan political ticket, he is authorized "to have su pervision over all matters pertaining to public schools." The practice of elect'ng the state superintendent sf public instruction by popular vote and after a political canvass is tl nsound in principle and is gradually giv'ng place to the prac tice of making the state superintend ency an appointive office in charge of the state board of education. A few principal arguments against the pres ent plan are as follows: (1) Under the existing plan tlio most important educational position in the state is a matter of partisan politics and subject to all the vicissi tudes of a political campaign. \ candidate at the constantly under pressure of be r ng influenced to act by the d'ctates of political expe diency rather than by the dictates of sound educational policy. The state superintendent of public Instruction, elected at the polls on a partisan ticket, 's subjected to strong polit ical influence which must, in some degree, Influence his official acts (2) The election of the state su perintendent on a partisan political t'.cket requires not only that the choice be confined to electors of this stata but limited moreover, to ad herents of the dominant political party. The number of individuals in this state who are adequately trained to have supervision over the educa tion of Its children Is small. The choice is therefore limited. Wash ington sould be privileged to select its state superintendent without ref erence to state lines or political affiliation and solely upon the ground of professional and expert fitness. (3) Success on a partisan political ticket consists more in the ability to conduct a political campaign than in the ability to organize, supervise, direct and administer a system of schools. Success at the polls bears little or no relation to ability in edu cational work. (4) The constitution provides tliat the salary of the state superintend ent shall be a fixed sum wh'.ch shall not be increased or diminished dur ing the term for which he is elected. The present salary ($3,000) is 1 wer than is paid in a number of mediocre educational pos'tions in this state and is not sufficient to class, efficient service. Moreover, the provision that the salary cannot THE WASHINGTON STANDARD. OLYMPIA, WASHINGTON. FRIDAY, DECEMBER 3, 1020 By Charles Sughroe NX'i- trrn Nrwspiprr Union be changed during a period of four years necessarily further limits the. choice of individuals for this high y important post. The commission believes that the state superintendent should i-e chosen by a state board of education removed as far as possible from par tisan politics. He should be chosen without regard to state lines; shou'.d be well endowed and thoroughly trained and experienced In the fle'd of public education. He should be the professional advisor of the state board of education and under its direction he should inspect, super vise and administer public education. IV. Financial Support and Educational Opportunity. The lessening of the purchasing power of money and the correspond 1 ing increase in the cost of all com modities has vitally affected the op eration of the public schools of the state and nation. The general prog ress of civilization and the greater demands on the character of educa tion call for different and bettv schools, more and better qualified in structors, more divers fled equip ment and supplies, and make a greater demand upon the taxpayers than ever beforp in their history There was a time when it seemed proper to devote a small proportion ate amount of the public funds to education, but this has been changed and we recognize that educat' n is the most important matter of the state and we must now pay *for the type of citizenship we would have in the future. What Funds Are Now Raised for Education. Up to the present time funds for the common schools of the state have been derived from the following sources: (1) Interest and other income from the permanent school fund, sup plemented by a state tax sufficient to produce a sum equal to SIO.OO per child of school age residing within the state. For the year, 1919-1920 this amounted to $3,643,445.00 and was equivalent to $17.16 for every pupil in average dally attendance. (2) From a county tax to produce a sum equal to SIO.OO per child of school age residing within the county. For the 1919-1920 this amount ed to $3,593,565.00 and was equva lent to $16.92 for every pupil in average daily attendance. (3) From special district taxej levied upon all the property in the separate school districts, not, how ever, exceeding ten (10) mills of the assessed valuation, except by a vote of the electors when it may be in creased to twenty (20) mills. For the year 1919-1920 this sum for all the local districts amounted to $lO,- 567,739.00 and was equivalent to $49-76 for every pupil in average daily attendance. * The total amount from these threa sources was $17,804,749.00 and was equivalent to $83.83 for every pupil in average daily attendance Fpr the comparison we find that in 1909-1910 the state contributed $2,625,823.00 or $16.82; the county $1,698,144.00 or $10.86, and the local districts $4,284,623.00 or $5.;.- 13; making the total from all sources $8,605,590.00 or $55.13 for every pupil in average daily attendance. The greater demand for school funds was recognized by the legis lature at the special session held in March of this year, when it increased the amount which Should be contri buted by the state from SIO.OO to $20.00 per child of school age, but even with this additional aid few of the districts in the state are enabled to operate without recourse to spe cial elections and asking the voters to permit levies beyond the ten (10) mills authorized by statute. Inequality of Present System. While there is a demand for more money for education, there is no doubt but that the present methods of raising and apportioning the funds has much to do with the un equal opportunity afforded the child ren of the state to gain that educa tion. Under the present system of taxation there aro school dstricts, which, either because of larger amount of wealth and extent of terri tory within their boundaries, be cause of smaller school population, are enabled to provide modern build ings, pay good salaries and maintain efficient schools and yet escape with little or no local tax levy, while adjoining districts without this wealth and property must tax them selves to the utmost limit and then, can only inadequately provide for tlvs children in their districts. It is really amazing to note the difference in the matter of valuation and taxation in different parts of the state, for instance we have a valua tion per pupil in average dally atten dance in count'es as follows: Frank lin county, $12,670; Adams county, $12,630; Skamania county, $11,800; Grant county, $10,290; Kitsap county $1,652; Island county, $2,110; SteA ens county, $2,692; Whitman county, $21905. The valuation per teacher as fol lows: Adams county, $171,200; Franklin county, $166,400; Kim; county, $141,900; Island county, $41,080; Wahkiakum county, $47,- 900; Okanogan county, $48,750. And tax levies as follows: Kitsap county, 26.24 mills; Stevens county, 22.66 mills; Snohomish county 21.67 mills; Jefferson county, 10.19 mills; Columb'a county, 11.25 millsjClailam county, 10.58 mills. In different districts in the state the disparity is greater than the county averages. For instance: dis trict 86 in Adams county has a valua tion of $286,440 and an average daily attendance of pupils of only four (4), while in district 69 of Cowl'tz county the valuation is only $21,940 and the average daily atten dance of pupils is 24; the valuatJcn in one district being over $70,000 per J pupil and under SI,OOO per pupil in the other. . Again, ; .n district 57 in Lincoln county, which has a one teacher school, the assessed talua tion Is only $18,218 while distrioi 101 in the same county, which has also a one teacher school, has an assessed valuation of $657,280, or thirty-five (35) times as much as in state which are levying twenty (20) mills and over. These high and low valuations and the h'gh and low tax levies are reelected, not only in the unequal opportunity for education afforded the children, but to a great extent also, in the unequal cost of educa tion in different parts of the state. For instance; the cost per pupil in average daily attendance for eight different counties was as follows: Franklin county, $121.8<!; Grant county, $118.94; King county, $103.- 61; Skamania county, $103.29; Kitsap county, $49.19; Island county $52.82; Stevens county, $61.03; Asotin county, $62 28. And in eight different local dis tricts as follows: No. 117, Grant county, $918.10; No. 25, Franklin county, $845.75; No. 2, Lincoln county, $573.75; No 42, Walla Walla county, $569.10; No. 21, Wahkiakum county, $27.57; No. 51, Stevens county, '528.21; No. 21 San Juan county, $28.30; No. 23, Kitsap county, $29.36. Because of purely arbitrary boun dary lines and varying wealth why should one district have a low tax levy, spend a large amount for its the other district. There are twenty one (21) districts in the state which are levying a one mill tax, or less; sixty-nine (69) districts levying not more than a two mill tax, and on the other hand there are one hundred eighty-eight (188) districts in tho schools and provide lavishly for tho children within its borders, while a neighboring district, because of these same arbitrary boundary lines and less wealth, is called upon to pay a high tax levy and yet have only sufficient funds to maintain ja. poor school? The contract between wealthy districts with good schools and poorer districts with scarcely any support is too great. It is a condition that prevails generally throughout the state and must be remedied. How Can Conditions bo Gencrally Remedied. What remedies can be suggested that will overcome the present in equality in acquiring the funds for the common schools and give a greater and more educational oppor tunity to all the children of the state? (1- A more equitable system cf He Puts Up a M Sa taxation that will not only be spread upon the property now upon the as sessment rolls, bht upon other prop erty forms of wealth which Is now escaping its just share of the coet of education and other burdens of the state. Wh'le the commission does not consider this one of its problems, it does feel that measure's to this end should be considered by the legislature. (2) Raising a larger portion of the cost of education by a tax levy equally upon all the property within the state. By constitutional enact-j ment the state guaranties to all the| childred of the state an equal oppor-i tunity for education, but because or the difference in value of property, j this is imposs : ble when the funds are raised in the several school dis tricts. In 1909-1910 the state con tributed $16.82 per pupil or 30.5 pe- I cent of the total amount of $83.3:1 paid for education in the common schools. With $20.00 per census ! child this would have made $34.52 per pupil or 41 per cent of the total : for 1919-1920. This amount and j percentage will not hold good, how- I ever, for the year 1920-19"21, becausg , the cost of the schools for the prea j ent year, as shown by the estimates of the different districts will approxi mate SIOO.OO per pupil. On this .basis the contribution from the state would be the same; viz., $34 -32 per pupil, but only 34 3 per cent of the total cost of the schools. $30.00 per census child would yield about 50 I per cent under the present cost of operation. j (3) By apportioning the money I derived from the state not only upon the basis of attendance, bht also up on tho basis of teachers. Last year there were two hundred fifty-two (252) schools with five pupils or less and theree will always be schools where the attendance will be small, but because of the small attendance they should not be deprived of hav- I ing a good teadher and the pupils of having the opportunity to acquire ' a good education. The apportlon- I ment upon teacher basis more nearly I guarantees a good school.The county fund is now apportioned two-thirds on the basis of attendance and on 1;- third on teacher basis, and the appor tionment of the state fund the same ' way will give a more equal opportune Ity to the pupils in the small schools of the state. (4) Changing the method of ad ministration in the smaller districts of the state by placing them under the control of a county board which would have charge of all the schools in the county except those in the larger c'ties. Take for instance King county; here f we have twenty-two districts levying a tax of twenty tbiils or more and seventeeen districts levy ing a tax of five mils or less; in one district the tax was only two mills while another district which was con nected with a Union High School paid a thirty-nine mill tax. Under a larger district plan there would be no district or locality levying a low miliage tax on a high valuation, because the tax would be spread over all the districts and a nine mill tax would have produced aU the money expended in this enlarged county district last year. This plan of ad ministration and taxation would cer tainly effect a great saving on the purchase and distribution of supplies, would standardize many phases of school work, and even tho all the smaller schools were continued, ■would result in better schools, better supervision, better teachers, longer tenure for teachers, better opportun ity for the pupils and would pluce all the schools of the state upon a higher standard of efficiency. (5) By increasng the statutory provision of levying taxes in the 100.l district from ten to fifteen mills en the assessed valuation. Under the present laws nearly nil districts are required to hold special elections f<„- authority to levy beyond tha ien mills, and even though greater state aid is provided, it will undoubtedly bo necessary for many districts to levy more than ten mills to continue their schools upon the present basis. Recommendations. .In view of the findings your commis sion submits the following recom mendations: PAGE SEVEN c ety First" Notice Coiuity and District Admlnistraton. First: That the county and dis 'trict school administration be io organzed to prov'de: (1) That each county, outside of districts containing cities of the first, second or th'.rd class (population over 1500) be organized for educa tional purposes as a single unit known as the County School District. (2) That districts containing first, second or third class cities (popula tion 1500) shall be first class dis tricts with the option of becoming a ! part of the County School District. | (3- That in each County a county i Board of Education of five members 1 be elected from as many sections of ' the county with power to appoint a County Superintendent of Schools who shall also be Superintendent of the County School District. (4)That the county Board of Edu cation provide, preferably at the county seat, adsquate office room, clerical and supervisory assistants. (5) That all present school dis tricts that do not contain cities of the first, second or th'rd class (pop ulation over 1500) shall become sub districts with one elected trustee with certain well defined powers. (6) That, as far as practicable, there be uniformity in the matter of olect.ons, taxation, distribution of funds, the powers of boards and sup erintendents, the selection of theacb ers and business management for first class districts and for the County School Districts. Stiito Department of Education. Second: That the State Depart ment of Education be reorganized to provide: (1) A State Board of Education of seven lay members to be appointed by the Governor for terms of seven years, said board to have legislative and judicial powers In educational matters. (2)A State Superintendent of Pub lic Instruction appointed by the State Board of Education without restriction as to place of residence or political affiliation and for such term and at such salary as the Board may determine. (This will require a Con stitutional amendment). (3) A state department with ade quate supervisory divisions to com pletely cover the field of educational effort. Financial Support. (1) That a larger per cent of the cost of the common school education be raised by a state wide tax. t (2- That the state school funds and the county school funds be appor tioned one-third on the basis of teachers and two-thirds on the basis of attendance, the attendance of all pupils in high schools to be counted as one and one-half times the actual attendance. (3) That all the school districts in each county, except those in cities of the first class and other cities containing a greater population than 1500, be administered as one county school district, and the funds for th>» op ration of all the schools in this county school district to be levied equally upon all the property within this county district. (4) That school districts be allowed to levy up to fifteen (15) mills of the assessed valuation of the property wthin the district for current expense, instead of up to ten (10) mills as now authorized. In formulating bills to meet the above recommendations it is the in tention of the Commission to provide for a minimum school term, parental schools, building requirements, health education, and other matter of school administration. Respectfully submitted, W. J. SUTTON, Chairman A. S. BURROWS, Secreta'-y W. M. KERN MRS. MARK E. REED ALFRED LISTER Wedding at Avery Home. A pretty home wedding was solem nized last Thursday afternoon at the home of Mr. and Mrs. N. W. Avery when Mrs. Avery's sister, Miss Ruby Scott, became the bride of Leroy Harris Tin- service was read by Rev. R. Franklin Hart. After a short wedding trip Mr. and Mrs. Harris will make their home in Montana.