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Washington standard. [volume] (Olympia, Wash. Territory) 1860-1921, December 03, 1920, Image 7

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Continued from Pagd Three.
are best maintained when the per
sonnel of the State Board tends to
remain relatively constant. A"Revolv-
Ing" board, composed of members
who enter and leave office at definit?
times and after long periods of ser
vice is highly desirable. At present,
in this state, a complete change of
six of the seven members is possible
within a single year.
Your commission is convinced that
in the interest of greater efficiency
the State Board of Education should
be reconstructed and its powers en
State Hup<'r!jilrailrnt of Public In
The constitution provides that the
state superintendent of public l:i
struction shall be "chosen by the
qualified electors of the state at the
'same time and place of voting as for
the members of the legislature" for a
Neat is
How Are These Prices on
Small Legs Pig Pork, 6-8
lbs. average 25c
Loin 25c
Shoulder Best Pig
Pork 22 j /2C
Side Pork 22i/ 2 c
Pig Head 12Y 2 C
Steer Pot Roast 15c
Steer Boiling Beef. .. .I2V2C
Liberty Steak 20c
Any Steak *.25 c
Leg Mutton 22c
Shoulder Mutton 18c
Stew Mutton 12y 2 c
Olympia Cash
Six-volt aßtteries, for all small cars .* $42.90
Six-volt Batteries, for large ears $47.30
Twelve-volt Batteries for Dodges and Maxwells $58.00
If you are wise you will pay no more, for there is no better bat
tery built than the PERMALIFE.
Guaranteed for twenty months.
Dnnnait.e f!a.nitol Phone 38/
Opposite Capitol
We are offering some extra values in our Hosiery Depart
ment. Below we list a few of the many numbers we oeer:
Everything in the Hosiery line, from Cotton Roekfords to
Pure Silks at the right prices.
term of four years. The only quali
fications required of the individual
who is to direct the education of the
children o£ the state are that he must
be "a citizen of the United States anl
a qualified elector of th's state."
No educational qualifications are
required. The state superintendent
of public instruction may not have
completed the elementary grades of
the common schools, he may not have
taught school a single day, he may
be ignorant of the public school, lis
organizat on and administration and
yet, elected on a partisan political
ticket, he is authorized "to have su
pervision over all matters pertaining
to public schools."
The practice of elect'ng the state
superintendent sf public instruction
by popular vote and after a political
canvass is tl nsound in principle and is
gradually giv'ng place to the prac
tice of making the state superintend
ency an appointive office in charge of
the state board of education. A few
principal arguments against the pres
ent plan are as follows:
(1) Under the existing plan tlio
most important educational position
in the state is a matter of partisan
politics and subject to all the vicissi
tudes of a political campaign. \
candidate at the constantly
under pressure of be r ng influenced to
act by the d'ctates of political expe
diency rather than by the dictates of
sound educational policy. The state
superintendent of public Instruction,
elected at the polls on a partisan
ticket, 's subjected to strong polit
ical influence which must, in some
degree, Influence his official acts
(2) The election of the state su
perintendent on a partisan political
t'.cket requires not only that the
choice be confined to electors of this
stata but limited moreover, to ad
herents of the dominant political
party. The number of individuals in
this state who are adequately trained
to have supervision over the educa
tion of Its children Is small. The
choice is therefore limited. Wash
ington sould be privileged to select
its state superintendent without ref
erence to state lines or political
affiliation and solely upon the ground
of professional and expert fitness.
(3) Success on a partisan political
ticket consists more in the ability to
conduct a political campaign than in
the ability to organize, supervise,
direct and administer a system
of schools. Success at the polls bears
little or no relation to ability in edu
cational work.
(4) The constitution provides tliat
the salary of the state superintend
ent shall be a fixed sum wh'.ch shall
not be increased or diminished dur
ing the term for which he is elected.
The present salary ($3,000) is 1 wer
than is paid in a number of mediocre
educational pos'tions in this state
and is not sufficient to
class, efficient service. Moreover,
the provision that the salary cannot
By Charles Sughroe
NX'i- trrn Nrwspiprr Union
be changed during a period of four
years necessarily further limits the.
choice of individuals for this high y
important post.
The commission believes that the
state superintendent should i-e
chosen by a state board of education
removed as far as possible from par
tisan politics. He should be chosen
without regard to state lines; shou'.d
be well endowed and thoroughly
trained and experienced In the fle'd
of public education. He should be
the professional advisor of the state
board of education and under its
direction he should inspect, super
vise and administer public education.
Financial Support and Educational
The lessening of the purchasing
power of money and the correspond
1 ing increase in the cost of all com
modities has vitally affected the op
eration of the public schools of the
state and nation. The general prog
ress of civilization and the greater
demands on the character of educa
tion call for different and bettv
schools, more and better qualified in
structors, more divers fled equip
ment and supplies, and make a
greater demand upon the taxpayers
than ever beforp in their history
There was a time when it seemed
proper to devote a small proportion
ate amount of the public funds to
education, but this has been changed
and we recognize that educat' n is
the most important matter of the
state and we must now pay *for the
type of citizenship we would have in
the future.
What Funds Are Now Raised for
Up to the present time funds for
the common schools of the state have
been derived from the following
(1) Interest and other income
from the permanent school fund, sup
plemented by a state tax sufficient to
produce a sum equal to SIO.OO per
child of school age residing within
the state. For the year, 1919-1920
this amounted to $3,643,445.00 and
was equivalent to $17.16 for every
pupil in average dally attendance.
(2) From a county tax to produce
a sum equal to SIO.OO per child of
school age residing within the county.
For the 1919-1920 this amount
ed to $3,593,565.00 and was equva
lent to $16.92 for every pupil in
average daily attendance.
(3) From special district taxej
levied upon all the property in the
separate school districts, not, how
ever, exceeding ten (10) mills of the
assessed valuation, except by a vote
of the electors when it may be in
creased to twenty (20) mills. For
the year 1919-1920 this sum for all
the local districts amounted to $lO,-
567,739.00 and was equivalent to
$49-76 for every pupil in average
daily attendance.
* The total amount from these threa
sources was $17,804,749.00 and was
equivalent to $83.83 for every pupil
in average daily attendance
Fpr the comparison we find that
in 1909-1910 the state contributed
$2,625,823.00 or $16.82; the county
$1,698,144.00 or $10.86, and the
local districts $4,284,623.00 or $5.;.-
13; making the total from all sources
$8,605,590.00 or $55.13 for every
pupil in average daily attendance.
The greater demand for school
funds was recognized by the legis
lature at the special session held in
March of this year, when it increased
the amount which Should be contri
buted by the state from SIO.OO to
$20.00 per child of school age, but
even with this additional aid few of
the districts in the state are enabled
to operate without recourse to spe
cial elections and asking the voters
to permit levies beyond the ten (10)
mills authorized by statute.
Inequality of Present System.
While there is a demand for more
money for education, there is no
doubt but that the present methods
of raising and apportioning the
funds has much to do with the un
equal opportunity afforded the child
ren of the state to gain that educa
tion. Under the present system of
taxation there aro school dstricts,
which, either because of larger
amount of wealth and extent of terri
tory within their boundaries, be
cause of smaller school population,
are enabled to provide modern build
ings, pay good salaries and maintain
efficient schools and yet escape with
little or no local tax levy, while
adjoining districts without this
wealth and property must tax them
selves to the utmost limit and then,
can only inadequately provide for tlvs
children in their districts.
It is really amazing to note the
difference in the matter of valuation
and taxation in different parts of the
state, for instance we have a valua
tion per pupil in average dally atten
dance in count'es as follows: Frank
lin county, $12,670; Adams county,
$12,630; Skamania county, $11,800;
Grant county, $10,290; Kitsap county
$1,652; Island county, $2,110; SteA
ens county, $2,692; Whitman county,
The valuation per teacher as fol
lows: Adams county, $171,200;
Franklin county, $166,400; Kim;
county, $141,900; Island county,
$41,080; Wahkiakum county, $47,-
900; Okanogan county, $48,750.
And tax levies as follows: Kitsap
county, 26.24 mills; Stevens county,
22.66 mills; Snohomish county 21.67
mills; Jefferson county, 10.19 mills;
Columb'a county, 11.25 millsjClailam
county, 10.58 mills.
In different districts in the state
the disparity is greater than the
county averages. For instance: dis
trict 86 in Adams county has a valua
tion of $286,440 and an average
daily attendance of pupils of only
four (4), while in district 69 of
Cowl'tz county the valuation is only
$21,940 and the average daily atten
dance of pupils is 24; the valuatJcn
in one district being over $70,000 per
J pupil and under SI,OOO per pupil in
the other. . Again, ; .n district 57 in
Lincoln county, which has a one
teacher school, the assessed talua
tion Is only $18,218 while distrioi
101 in the same county, which has
also a one teacher school, has an
assessed valuation of $657,280, or
thirty-five (35) times as much as in
state which are levying twenty (20)
mills and over.
These high and low valuations
and the h'gh and low tax levies are
reelected, not only in the unequal
opportunity for education afforded
the children, but to a great extent
also, in the unequal cost of educa
tion in different parts of the state.
For instance; the cost per pupil in
average daily attendance for eight
different counties was as follows:
Franklin county, $121.8<!; Grant
county, $118.94; King county, $103.-
61; Skamania county, $103.29;
Kitsap county, $49.19; Island county
$52.82; Stevens county, $61.03;
Asotin county, $62 28.
And in eight different local dis
tricts as follows:
No. 117, Grant county, $918.10;
No. 25, Franklin county, $845.75;
No. 2, Lincoln county, $573.75; No
42, Walla Walla county, $569.10;
No. 21, Wahkiakum county, $27.57;
No. 51, Stevens county, '528.21; No.
21 San Juan county, $28.30; No. 23,
Kitsap county, $29.36.
Because of purely arbitrary boun
dary lines and varying wealth why
should one district have a low tax
levy, spend a large amount for its
the other district. There are twenty
one (21) districts in the state which
are levying a one mill tax, or less;
sixty-nine (69) districts levying not
more than a two mill tax, and on the
other hand there are one hundred
eighty-eight (188) districts in tho
schools and provide lavishly for tho
children within its borders, while a
neighboring district, because of these
same arbitrary boundary lines and
less wealth, is called upon to pay
a high tax levy and yet have only
sufficient funds to maintain ja. poor
school? The contract between
wealthy districts with good schools
and poorer districts with scarcely
any support is too great. It is a
condition that prevails generally
throughout the state and must be
How Can Conditions bo Gencrally
What remedies can be suggested
that will overcome the present in
equality in acquiring the funds for
the common schools and give a
greater and more educational oppor
tunity to all the children of the
(1- A more equitable system cf
He Puts Up a M Sa
taxation that will not only be spread
upon the property now upon the as
sessment rolls, bht upon other prop
erty forms of wealth which Is now
escaping its just share of the coet
of education and other burdens of
the state. Wh'le the commission
does not consider this one of its
problems, it does feel that measure's
to this end should be considered by
the legislature.
(2) Raising a larger portion of
the cost of education by a tax levy
equally upon all the property within
the state. By constitutional enact-j
ment the state guaranties to all the|
childred of the state an equal oppor-i
tunity for education, but because or
the difference in value of property, j
this is imposs : ble when the funds
are raised in the several school dis
tricts. In 1909-1910 the state con
tributed $16.82 per pupil or 30.5 pe-
I cent of the total amount of $83.3:1
paid for education in the common
schools. With $20.00 per census
! child this would have made $34.52
per pupil or 41 per cent of the total
: for 1919-1920. This amount and
j percentage will not hold good, how-
I ever, for the year 1920-19"21, becausg
, the cost of the schools for the prea
j ent year, as shown by the estimates
of the different districts will approxi
mate SIOO.OO per pupil. On this
.basis the contribution from the state
would be the same; viz., $34 -32 per
pupil, but only 34 3 per cent of the
total cost of the schools. $30.00 per
census child would yield about 50
I per cent under the present cost of
j (3) By apportioning the money
I derived from the state not only upon
the basis of attendance, bht also up
on tho basis of teachers. Last year
there were two hundred fifty-two
(252) schools with five pupils or
less and theree will always be schools
where the attendance will be small,
but because of the small attendance
they should not be deprived of hav-
I ing a good teadher and the pupils
of having the opportunity to acquire
' a good education. The apportlon-
I ment upon teacher basis more nearly
I guarantees a good school.The county
fund is now apportioned two-thirds
on the basis of attendance and on 1;-
third on teacher basis, and the appor
tionment of the state fund the same
' way will give a more equal opportune
Ity to the pupils in the small schools
of the state.
(4) Changing the method of ad
ministration in the smaller districts
of the state by placing them under
the control of a county board which
would have charge of all the schools
in the county except those in the
larger c'ties. Take for instance King
county; here f we have twenty-two
districts levying a tax of twenty tbiils
or more and seventeeen districts levy
ing a tax of five mils or less; in one
district the tax was only two mills
while another district which was con
nected with a Union High School
paid a thirty-nine mill tax. Under
a larger district plan there would be
no district or locality levying a low
miliage tax on a high valuation,
because the tax would be spread over
all the districts and a nine mill tax
would have produced aU the money
expended in this enlarged county
district last year. This plan of ad
ministration and taxation would cer
tainly effect a great saving on the
purchase and distribution of supplies,
would standardize many phases of
school work, and even tho all the
smaller schools were continued,
■would result in better schools, better
supervision, better teachers, longer
tenure for teachers, better opportun
ity for the pupils and would pluce
all the schools of the state upon a
higher standard of efficiency.
(5) By increasng the statutory
provision of levying taxes in the 100.l
district from ten to fifteen mills en
the assessed valuation. Under the
present laws nearly nil districts are
required to hold special elections f<„-
authority to levy beyond tha ien
mills, and even though greater state
aid is provided, it will undoubtedly
bo necessary for many districts to
levy more than ten mills to continue
their schools upon the present basis.
.In view of the findings your commis
sion submits the following recom
c ety First" Notice
Coiuity and District Admlnistraton.
First: That the county and dis
'trict school administration be io
organzed to prov'de:
(1) That each county, outside of
districts containing cities of the first,
second or th'.rd class (population
over 1500) be organized for educa
tional purposes as a single unit known
as the County School District.
(2) That districts containing first,
second or third class cities (popula
tion 1500) shall be first class dis
tricts with the option of becoming a
! part of the County School District.
| (3- That in each County a county
i Board of Education of five members
1 be elected from as many sections of
' the county with power to appoint a
County Superintendent of Schools
who shall also be Superintendent of
the County School District.
(4)That the county Board of Edu
cation provide, preferably at the
county seat, adsquate office room,
clerical and supervisory assistants.
(5) That all present school dis
tricts that do not contain cities of
the first, second or th'rd class (pop
ulation over 1500) shall become sub
districts with one elected trustee
with certain well defined powers.
(6) That, as far as practicable,
there be uniformity in the matter of
olect.ons, taxation, distribution of
funds, the powers of boards and sup
erintendents, the selection of theacb
ers and business management for first
class districts and for the County
School Districts.
Stiito Department of Education.
Second: That the State Depart
ment of Education be reorganized
to provide:
(1) A State Board of Education of
seven lay members to be appointed
by the Governor for terms of seven
years, said board to have legislative
and judicial powers In educational
(2)A State Superintendent of Pub
lic Instruction appointed by the
State Board of Education without
restriction as to place of residence or
political affiliation and for such term
and at such salary as the Board may
determine. (This will require a Con
stitutional amendment).
(3) A state department with ade
quate supervisory divisions to com
pletely cover the field of educational
Financial Support.
(1) That a larger per cent of the
cost of the common school education
be raised by a state wide tax. t
(2- That the state school funds
and the county school funds be appor
tioned one-third on the basis of
teachers and two-thirds on the basis
of attendance, the attendance of all
pupils in high schools to be counted
as one and one-half times the actual
(3) That all the school districts
in each county, except those in cities
of the first class and other cities
containing a greater population than
1500, be administered as one county
school district, and the funds for th>»
op ration of all the schools in this
county school district to be levied
equally upon all the property within
this county district.
(4) That school districts be
allowed to levy up to fifteen (15)
mills of the assessed valuation of the
property wthin the district for
current expense, instead of up to ten
(10) mills as now authorized.
In formulating bills to meet the
above recommendations it is the in
tention of the Commission to provide
for a minimum school term, parental
schools, building requirements,
health education, and other matter
of school administration.
Respectfully submitted,
Wedding at Avery Home.
A pretty home wedding was solem
nized last Thursday afternoon at the
home of Mr. and Mrs. N. W. Avery
when Mrs. Avery's sister, Miss Ruby
Scott, became the bride of Leroy
Harris Tin- service was read by Rev.
R. Franklin Hart. After a short
wedding trip Mr. and Mrs. Harris
will make their home in Montana.

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