OCR Interpretation

Burlington free press. [volume] (Burlington, Vt.) 1827-1865, February 03, 1837, Image 1

Image and text provided by University of Vermont

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84023127/1837-02-03/ed-1/seq-1/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

VOL,. X No. 502
I vmir lovlnj furollipnrt tlll nm,
Lhely, spihjluly, niiinly V illi.tm ;
For li'Joc slioiild ever kill,
Tlion ninysl die, my love'y Will.
Cut iflli.it fIioiiIiI rlmiuc lo kill lliee,
Willi lli. it IM woo the liai'k ilc.it' Willy;
My heart in noiv unit cer will,
lie linked toiliinc, my li. uniform- Dill.
My Imo hii. I mull tnn'st finely nil e ,
Willi love fur mo tuv g.illanl Hilly.
Slimilil all forsake IM love ihcn plill,
Will, Willimn, Willy, Hilly, liill.
CIicpiTuI, rhrrry check 'd "nil rlinry,
Mild, majestic, modi-iM Mary
Vuid i.f n ile mill fiee A (mi Tolly,
Peaceful, prudent, pretty I'olly
'G.ijcr ilian llic gnvrfi doll,
Is my mnileM maiden Moll
'Ch.itigelf? na ill' uuf.iidiiig licdly,
If my minilful, niirilifid Molly,
The moon, llio Mars, or In illiant Snl.
Air tinitnlit comi.ucd in line, my Poll.
Adieu! I'e i-hoi nnhneV lnt vollcv,
4 Mmy, Molly, Moll,' Poll, I'olty.
Never, since the first eel I 'onw.'nt of llic
country, worn farmers in circumstances .-n
easy nnd prosperous as al the present limo ;
nnd if they arc not paying nfi' their debts,
improving their lauds and building nnd
'making provision for liic education nnd set.
tlement of their children, it is because
tiiey nro indolent, inattentive to their uf
fairs. It is true some crops in some parts
of llic country, have been less abundani
thai: in former years, j nut othois have been
more so, and it is behoved, taking the
whole into consideration. I he fruits of I hi'
earth have nnt fallen much short of its nv
eragc annual increase : and ns lor prices
of all kind? of agricultural production, ihcy
ore unprecedented 'n mir history. With
out detailing pre.-i nt prices, it niay safely
be i-tntcd, thai farmer's prnduce, especially
urticles indispensable to I Ji upholding ol
life, has advanced at least filly per com.
within the last eighteen months : and it is
lair to infer that their lands have advanced
in the same ratio for real estate, like
Blocks, rises and I'u IN in m.nket with the
amount of Ihe income it yields, or with
good management may be 'undo to yield,
its cultivator. If tins be so. it follows that
fvery farmer is nctunlly worihnt least fii"i
per cent, more than he was a year and a
half ago, nnd more Ilian he may suppose!
Iiimclf to bo worth at the present time.
Though the cnuscs ivhirii have protlu-
ced this astonishing advance in the prices
of furmer.s produce, while those of the
manufacturer have remained nonrly station,
nry, inav be concealed from Ins view : yet
hu may rest assured they are of such a na
ture as to warrant him in increased exer
tions in the cultivation of bis farm, and
the product of such fruits of the "earth as
arc necessary hi sustain life. While the
.present disposition to exchange the labors
of the field for those of Ihe workshop the
factory and the learned profess:! us enntin
ucs while the present mania for the con
struction of canals, tail roads and other
public works rages and while the pres-
cnt tide of foreign population Hows in up
on us, the present disproportion between
production and consumption will exist nm!
.prevent a material reduction in present
,priccp. Though agnctiliure is unques
tionably the most profitable business which
lis pursued under existing circumstances,
yet many farmers are complaining about
hard times. They claim that the present
high prices nffoul tlii'iii ti) laeilities for the
-acquisition of wealth, and assign as n prui.
cipal reason Ihe high price of labor but
they forget that their labor is on important
part of their capital, and that as it ndvan
ces in value their capital is increased in
amount. Phis remark, n is true, is inon
peculiarly applicable to practical farmers
men who labor with their nun hands, and
Mich arc ordinarily the mily men who ac
cumulate wealth by agiienlinre.
A3 ingnty ns we e-timate the prnles-ton
.of an agriculturist, and as prolilab'u as we
believe the business in be at the present
time, wo would advise no man to engage
in it whose hands ure too delicate to hau
.die a hoc without gloves. To insure the
farmer success lie must labor more or les
with his own hnnds, and be capable of
judging whether his wink is well or il
done, lie must nlso know whether In
ihired help pet form (hat amount of labor
which they arc in duly bound In rend
him, nnd whether the results of it will
leave him n profit after their wages arc tie
ducted, Gentlemen who have acquired
fortunes by commercial nnd prnfe-sional
Dustnese, ami who mnv be disposed to re
tire lo rurnl life, will find much amusement
in agriculture ; but they must not be di
appointed if they find but little profit.
The profiils of a farm arc in proportion lo
the amount ot labor bestowed upon it; nnd
the farmer who performs it principally with
Ins own hands and those of Ins lainily
generally grows richer and richer; while
the nno whose nanus arc loo tender lo en
dure the rays of the sun, and whoso chil
dren nro ton good to work, almost invaria
bly grows poorer and poorer.
Buckwheat Cakes. Ab this is a season, say
thn Philadelphia Pcnnsvlvanian. for long
speeches, long documents, and buckwheat
cakos, and us the. latter nro q'jilo as impor
tant and certainly moro agreeable, than either
-of the, others, wo subjoin u rccipio for tho
imaking thcroof cakos, not documents or
pcechcs which is given in a lalu number of
tho llaltimoro uazotlo. Thai paper savs, on
tho authority of ono who has tried the exper.
imcnt, that il makes decidedly bottor cakce
with half tho trouble necessary in tho usual
mode of raising them willi yeast.
"To thioo pints of buckwheat flour mixed
inlo a batter, add ono tea spoonful of catbo.
nate of boda, dissolved in water, and ono
ditto oftartaric acid, dissolved in bko man
ner first apply the carbonato, blir tho bailor
well, and then put in tho acid thus the uio
ofyeast iscnliroly supcrcded, and cakes 'ns
light ns a fetbor, aro ensured. Ono great ad
vantage is, that the baiter is ready for ba
king us soon ns it is made."
GAR. Tho attention of the public having been
some time drawn lo the manufacture of su.
gar from the beet anil having repeatedly
recommended its cultivation to farmers as
a profitable crop, wo have felt ourselves un
dcr an obligation to give llicin trie dclailsof
the process by which it is extracted. We
have, therefore, examined the best author
ties on the subject, and consulted several
gentlemen of some practical knowledge nnd
experience in the business, and the result
ofour investigation is" that Ihe process is
ultogel her more simple and less expensive
ilian has generally bean supposed, In de
scribing tho various processes in the man.
iilaclun'. we buvc carefully avoided Ihe
use of chemical terms, and substituted lan
guage which we hope will bo understood by
every rrndor.
There arc severol varieties of the beet
winch yield sugar, but the Stlesian beet is
recommended as the best and most produ.
live. This beet will come lo maturity in
all parts of the .United States, up to the
43th degree of latitude. '1,'he soil most
congenial lo its growth is a light sandy
loam, of good depth, and if free from stones
Ihe belter. Probably no country in the
world is heller adapted to the growth of
ihts rool than the alluvial meadows on the
Connecticut nnd other rivers of New Eng
land. The cultivation, however, need not
be confined to vallies, as in most of the bill
towns, lands may bo found well adapted to
Us growth. The hind is prepared for the
seed by deep ploughing and pulverizing the
surface. This is best accomplished by
ploughing in the full and leaving the laud
id furrows through the winter. In tho
spring the land should he cross ploughed
nnd harrowed, and, if the soil be light, it
will he prepared to receive the seed. The
seed may be sown as early as the season
will ndtntt. broad cast, or in drills ; but ul
innately ihe plants should be from 12 to 18
inches apart. They should be ImcJ and
kept free of weeds at tho second hoeing
they should be thinned out nnd but one
plant loll in the lull the surplus plants may
be transplanted to vacant places in the
In the extraction of the sugar, llic beets
must first bo cleaned by wa-hing or scrap
ing with a knile, and caro be taken that
all decayed parts be cut oft' They must
then be passed through the rasper anil bo
reduced to a pulp the finer they nre ras
pd the better, as it facilitates expressing
the juice. The pulp mut then be put into
cloth bags and have the juice pressed out
by n screw press. In France they use the
hydraudlic press, bui a cider, or other pros',
will answer ihe purpose, and bo attended
with much less expense. As deconposi
lion commences soon after ibeboel is oul
o the ground, and progresscsrupidly, no
time should bo lost in converting them into
After the juice is expressed, and before
it is converted inlo sugar, il must undergo
lour distinct and different processes. I.
Del't-cation. '2, Evaporation. 3 Clarifica
Hon. -1. Concentration.
Tho composition of the beet juice docs
not differ cs-cntiallj from that of the cane
it combines with the saccharine matter
small quantities of malic or acetic acid,
wax and mucilage, which must be extrac
ted before evaporation is commenced. The
first piocess. therefore, is to purify thojuice,
which mtiil b; done by neutralizing the
ncid, decomposing the wax nnd congnla-
ling the mucilage, and hence is called de
fecation. All Ibis may be done by hentiug
and mixing with it the milk ul lime in about
l he proportion of 1G grains irny weight to
the gallon. 1 he milk ol lime is prepared
bv slaking quick lime with hot water,
and reducing il to the consistence of cream
Tho-juice inn! bn heated to about 1G0 do.
r ahrcnheit, nnd Ihe milk ol lime
poured intii it and thoroughly mixed by
tirrtng wi'h a stick. Alter it is intimate
ly mixed, the stirring must be stopped nnd
the mixture fullered to resl for n short
lime. Il must then be heated to the boil
ing point, winch will throw the impurities
upon ihosiirfacu in the form of scum, when
the boiling must be stopped. When the
j ii icu has become clear it must be drawn
uf) Iroin below, by means of a cock, or the
scum must be skimmed off from the top
caro being taken tn either case to effect n
complete separation.
The next process in the minufacltiro is
to dissipate I ho water, which is done by
boiling away," us it is commonly called
but in technical language, evaporation. If
in llic process of defecation an excess ol
lime has been used il should be extracted
This may be dnnu by a mixture of sulphu
rtc acid nnd water, in the proportion uf one
ol the lormnr to forty four of llic latter
This mixture, put in contact with the lime
causes an effervescence, by which the lime
is thrown oil' and (he cessation of which is
a sure evidenco that the time is neutralised
Some manufacturers 6ny that a small por
lion oi lime should be allowed to remain
and others that tho whole should be ncu
Utilized. Ah practical men differ on tin
point, sve may safely conclude it is not
very material.
The juice is boiled down till it is redu
ced to about one fifth or ono sixth of ils
original quantity. For this purpose pans
or Kettles may be used ; but it will bo seen
that those vessels which present the great
est surface tn tho fire, and give the least
depth to thejuino, will best facilitate cvap
oration. As the water evaporates, flasky
substances will separate from thojuice nnd
collect in a while foam on thu Eurfaco,
which must be skimmed off ns it appears.
To promote their separation, Ihe boiling is
commenced with a mnderato fire, which is
subsequently increaicd as they disappear.
iSomclimcH tho whim nr R ,caien n--
idle blood, is ndded for thu samo purpose
During the boiling the juice will rise in
frolli and flow over thu top of llio pan, un.
less prevented by occasionally throwing in
n smell quantity of eume fntty substance.
Butler is commonly used, but tallow, lard,
&c. will nnswor the snme purpose. It not
only causes nn immediate subsidence but
hastens evaporation.
After being defecated and evaporated,
the juice is ycl in a degree impure, and t lie
object of the next process is to sepcrate it
from its remaining impurities, and hence is
called clarification. This consists in filter
ing it through animal churcoal grnnulatcd
burnt bunes broken to grain". and is per
formed in the following mariner. Tubs, or
vats in the form of those used for leaching
ashes fire made of wood or metal, and fur
nished with a cock inserted near the bot
tom. The size uf the vols is immaterial ;
but those of the following dimensions will
be found most convenient 2 feet b inches
deep 1 foot 0 inches in diameter at the
top nnd 1 1 inches at the bottom. They
may be four sided or round ; but those
mndu of staves and hooped with iron hoops
we should think the cheapest, and on some
accounts the best.
A 6trniner slnnding on legs, nnd covered
with coarse cloth, must first be placed in
the bottom of thu vat and filled with the
charcoal about 100 pouuds will bo neces
sary for a vat of the above dimensions.
The charcoal must Ihcn bo cevcrcd with
another strainer nnd cloth, and the vat filled
with evaporated juice, or, as it is then
called, sirup. After standing long enough
to leach through the charcoal, the cock
must be turned and the sirup be slowly
drawn off, and the vat ro-litled as fast as it
is emptied. The charcoal must be changed
twice a day; but il may be washed and re
burnt, nnd, thus prepared, it will answer
for another filtration. This may be re
peatcd until il is consumed.
The next process is to solidify the sirup
and hence is called concentration. To
accomplish this il must be again evaporat
ed until it is brought into a proper slate
for chrystalizaiiun. As il is important
that evaporation should cease as soon as it
arrives ot this point. Chaptul gives the fol
lowing rules fur ascertaining the fact. "I,
Plunge a hkimmer into thu boiling sirup,
and upon withdrawing it pass thu thumb
of the right hand over ils surface, mould
the sirup which adheres lo the thumb
Iwpen I lint nnd I lo foru-flngor, till ihe tcni-
poralure be the same as that of tho skin-
then separate the thumb and finger sud
uuni u inc uoiung ue not compioicu, no
thread will be formed between Ihe two:
if there be n filament Ihe boiling is well ad
vanced; and the process is completed as
oon after as the filament breaks short, and
the upper part, having the sonn-trnnspa
roncy ol born, curls itsell into a spiral --2
I he second mode ol judging ot the complc.
t ion ol the process is by observing the
time when the sirup ceases to moisten thu
sides of the boiler, and then blowing fur.
cibly into a skimmer which has just been
mtnersed in it if bubbles escape through
i he holes uf the skimmer which ascend into
the air in the same manner as snap bub
bles dc, thu liquor 13 considered to be
sufficiently boiled."
When thn concentration arrives at this
point tl o sirup inns', be taken from tho boiler
and poured into large pans, for the pur
pose of cooling. The puns must be placed
in the air and the sirup occasionally stirred
durring the process of cooling, which will
be completed in about two hours. On ex
amination, tho bottom and sides uf the
pan will bo found covered with a thick bed
of cbrystals, having but lit L lo consistence;
the surliice ol the sirup, a crust will
also be formed. To promote chrystalization
or, as it is more pioperly called, graining.
a linn bed of brown sugarts sometimes put
upon the bottom ot tho cooling pan in
order lu make n nucleus about which (he
chryetnlized matter may gather.
After llio sirup is cooled und chrystnl-
ized, or grained, all (hat remains is to sep.
nratu the sugar from the molasses, nnd it is
fit for domestic consumption or market.
l o ellect this sopcrotion moulds, ns ihcy
nre called, must be prepared in the form of
dutecnling vats, with the lower end drawn
to a point as to leave a hole ofthrec fourths
of an inch in diameter. These may be
iiindo of wood, metal or earthen ware, nnd
their capacity may bo regulated according
to the convenience of tho manufacturer.
Those used in the sugar facturies in Franco
usuallv are large enough lo contain five or
six galluns. They ore ulso used in the re
fining process. Before using t hum. if of
wood, they must be soaked several bonis
in water, nnd dried a short time before they
are filled with sirup. Thus prepared, and
with a curl; in Ihe holu nt the point, they
must be filled, or nearly filled, with dim
talizcd sirup, nnd secured in an upright no
silion, over a pan or tub of sufficient size
to receive the quantity of molosses it nun
tains. After slnnding from 12 to 3G hours,
according to circumstances, (ho cork
withdrawn and the molasses permitted to
drain off. It will nl first drain off rapidly;
but soon cense to flow in any considerable
qtinntily. To hasten it separation from
the sugar, which takes place slowly, the mass
mut bo pierced with an iron spear, by
thrusting it into the hole nl thu point, which
will givu it vent und cnuso it to drain off.
This operation must be repealed as often
ns is necessary, and until all the molasses is
After having remained long enough (o
have (ho molasses run off, the sugar is du
Inched from Ihe sides of the mould with a
knife, the moulds are set on the floor in a
reversed position and led fur two or three
bouts when, by lifting from the floor and
giving it a shake, the loaf will separate
from Ihe mould by furco of its own weight.
The head of 1 he loaf will retain n degreo of
moisture and a portion of molasses, and,
- - ),. .hnuld cut offand thrown
into thojuice intended for the next clarifi
cation. The molasses, also, when a suffi
cient quantity is un hand, should be again
concentrated in order In obtain nil the
chryslallizablc sugar It contains. By the
loregotng processes the beet is converted
into brown sugar, tho kind which is con
sumed in the largest quantities in most
families. In (be tnnntifactvro of loaf, or
lump, sugar there is another process called
refining," but being foreign to our present
purpose we omit it.
"Boiler be nut of llic world than out of
tho fashion," it sometimes said; and not a
few whom we meet with, appear to believe
the maxim Innr Colds are very much in
fashion itowa-days: we find few people
who nro fo unfashionable as to bo entirely
without them. Yet there are n few who
seldom suffer. Perhaps they were educa
ted wrong. I will therefore mention n
met bud by which nearly every individuol
may be so trained ns to tnke cold readily.
Let him be kept, during the first years
of his life, in n very warm room, without
ever going out of it. Let htm wear a cap
during the first months, and be tightly ban.
dagcil. Let no water touch him except
what is quite warm, nor even then with
out a little spirit or 6omc other drug mixed
with it, and never, in any event, wash an
thing but his hands. Let him be dressed
constantly in flannel, even in mid-summer.
Let htm sleep in n feather bed with his pa.
rents; nnd see lhat his head and face are
completely covered ; nnd bo sure to let him
sleep, always wbcro both a fire and a lamp
are burning.
When he is a little older, and begins tn
take solid food, sec that his food is ns hot
ns he can swallow it. Do not let him go
into tho monstrous habit of eating cold
food. True ho will naturally prefer it, but
never mind lhat. Both children nnd adults
prefer many tilings that are bad for them,
iliSFaid; and is not thw a sufficient rca
son fur you? Let his drink also be hot,
and gently aromatic :f possible. Or at nil
events let ilbu a of a kind which iscnlcula-
ted to induce free perspiration, such as lea.
coffee, chocolate, or warmed toddy. See
that he goes out but little, nnd if at all,
lhat he h well wrapped in flannel. You
must got him a rocking horse, &c. that he
may prefer to play in the bouse. Do you
nut know that if he goes out ho will ine
vitably be sunburnt.' A drop or two of
ram tuny also '"'" or lie may gel
un nanus into cold water; or perhaps we!
his feet. If lie goes to school, or to
church, you should by ail means get up
horses anil n narrincro lor hnn mul xhniiM
be well protected from the nir.
A he advances through childhood, if
you find that n constitution, naturally 6trong.
resists, violently, ail your efforts, still do
not be discouraged. Persevere in your
course. Remember that the husbandman
hath long patience, and waiteth for the
early and latter rain to bring forth the ap
propriate fruits of iiis labor. You cun
hardly expect to sow to-day and reap to
morrow. Above all, do not lay aside the
flannel, the hot food, the hut drink, or the
feather bead; and do not suffer him to
wash in cild water.
I f you perceive indications of success if
your child begins to snufllu occasionally,
lo havered eyes, or a little deafness; if
Ins skin leols dry and hot, and Ins breath
is feverish you have now an opnorunilv
of doing vour work much faster than ever
before Do not call a physician anybody
can doctor for a cold. Do not diminish his
lood; "stuff u cold," you know. Make
htm eat ull you can; and if his nppelttc
tails increase it with something gently bit
tor. You can cheat him lo take bitters
tor once, uy disguising mem in sugar or
something of the kind. Plv him well with
hot stimulating drinks, of which hot toddy
is tho best; bul common (en. or even sage
tea, will answer. Only contrive to heat
hisf.ystcm nil you can occasionally induce
a profuse perspiration. Above all, guard
against anything which favors a moderate
and cqwit perspiration, nnd against ulMi
ue ncu and cool water, lor ihese inighl throw
off the cold immediately ; nnd what then
would become of your skill at curing ?
Hisrony of tiif. Earth. The earth itself
relates its own history. No hisloran ovor
composed such a narruli.o of extraordinary
events, or depicted ibnm in such intelligible
characters. Tho geological history or tho
earth tells os lhatlbcio was a poriod when
there was not a living being upon tho surface
of the glnbj. Tho primary rocks liave not
yet been found to contain a single fossil, or
any vestigo f animal life. Tho first forms
of lifo that wero placed upon tho habiltblo
globn seems to havo bocn of tho inoslsimplo
kind ; and successive generations of those
grew up and polished, lived and died, bufuro
Doings ol moro complicated slructuro wero
introduced. The scale of being commenced
willi simple living fibre or lubu like tho pol
ypi, with an i7iborent tenacity of life, that
docs not holong lo organizations with moro
instruments of sense, moro complexity of
structure, or moro extent of powers, Lichens
mosses and ferns, appear to havo been a.
mong llio first specimens of vegoUblu exis
tencc. Tlio different strata of llio earth aro
vast pages to the ecological history of an-
cieiit and unnumbered days, which exhibit tho
rccreinonu ol extinct species ol animated
beings, lhat successively inhabited tho earth
and the ocean ; of which wo know that thoy
have been, bul coated to ho. Wbolo gcuoia
lions of beings lhat once wore, have perished
without leaving any progony;ar.d tho only
memorials which thoy havo loft of themselves
aro in llietr (onus or skeletons that have
been prosrved in tho ancient stratifications
ol llio globe. Fellows' Jietigtonof the Um
Tho candles you sold mo last, wero very
bad,' said ouutt, to a tallow chandler.
Indued, sir, I am vury sorry fur lhat.
Yes nir, do you know thoy burned to the
middle, und would burn no longer!' 'Good
heaven, vou surnrtso mo ! what sir did
thoy go out! 'No sir, no, they burned
Tho debalo having closed, and the question
being nbout to be taken, Mr WEBSTER
roso and addressed the Senate as follows:
Mr President: Upon the truth and jus
tico of the original resolution of the Senate,
and upon llic nutliorily of the Senate to
pass the resolution, I hnd nn opurlunlty to
express my opinions nt a subsequent period,
when llio President's protest wns before us
Those opinions remain altogether unchun.
And now, hnd tho Constitution secured
the privilege of entering a Piiotf.st on the
journal, I should not say one word on this
occasion; although if whnt is now propo
sed shall be accomplished, I know not what
would have been llic value of such a pro
vision, however formally or carfully it might
have been inserted in tho body of that in
Bul as there is no such constitutional
privilege. I can only effect my purpose
by thus addressing the Senate ; nnd 1 rise
therefore to mnko that PROTEST in this
manner, in the lace of the Senate, nnd in
the face of the country, which I cannot
present in any other from.
I speak in my own behalf and in behalf
of my colleague; we both speak ns Sena
tors from the State of Massachusetts, nnd
as such we solemnly prutbst ogains this
whole proceeding.
Ve deny Hint Senators from other Slates
have any power or authority to expunge
any vote or voles which we have given
here, and which we have recorded, agree
ably to the express provision of the Con
stitution We have a high personal interest, and
the Stntc whose representative we are, has
also n high interest in the entire prcservn
lion of every part and parcel of thu record
uf our conduct, ns members of the Senate.
I his record the Constitution solemnly
declares shall be kepi; but the resolution
belore the senate declares that tins record
shall be expunged.
Whether subterfuge nnd evasion, nnd as
it appears (o us, the degrading mockery of
drawing black lines upon thu journal, shall
or shall not leave our names nnd our votes
legible, when this violation of the record
shall have been completed, still the term
to expunge,' nnd the terms 'to keep,' when
applied to a record import .ideas exactly
contradiction ; as much so ns llic terms 'to
preserve' nnd the terms 'to destroy.'
A ioniil ...I, ioIi ia yiwrwjfi7, e nnt n m
cord which is kept, any more thnn a record
which is destroyed can bo n record winch is
preserved. The part expunged is no Ion
ger part ot i lie record; it has no longer a
legal existence, it cannot be certified
a part of the proceeding of the Senate for
any purpose of proof or evidence
The object of the provision in ihe consti.
till ion, ns we think, most obviously is, that
tho proceedings of tho Senate shall bo pre.
servcu, in writing, nol lor the present onlv
not until published otsfy, because a copy of
ine prmieu journal is nol regular legal evi
dence; but preserved indefinilly; prcsorv.
cd, as other records nre preserved, till dcs.
troved by lime or accident.
Every ono must see that mailers of the
highest importance depend on tho peiuiau
ent preservation uf the journals of the two
Houses, what but tho ournals show that
bill haye been regularly passed into laws,
through ihe several sluges; what but the
tournal shows who are members, or who i
President, or Speaker, or Secretary, or
UlerK ot the body." What bul the journal
contains ine prnoi, necessary lor iheiustih
catiun of those who act under our authority,
and who, without the power of producing
sticti proot, must stand ns trcsspassers.'
What but tho journals show who is appuin
'.cd, nnd who reiectcd, bv ns, on thu Pres
ident's nominntion; or who ie acquitted, or
who convicted, in trials on impeachment?
lu short, is there, at nnv time, nnv other re
gular nnd legal proof of any net done by ihe
senate than ihe )ournal itsell?
I he idea, therefore, that the Senate is
bound to preserve its journal only until it i
published, nnd then may nltei, mutilate, or
destroy it at pleasure, appears to us ono of
the most extraordinary sentiments ever ad
We arc deeply grateful to thoso friends
who have shown, with so much clearness,
that all the precedents relied on to justify
or to excuso this proceeding, are cither not
lo the purpose, or, from the limes and cir
cumstances at and under which they hap
pened, are no wuy entitled to respect in n
free government, existing under a written
constitution. Bul; for ourselves, we stand
nn ihe plain words of lhat constitution it
self. A thousand precedents elsewhere
made, whether nncient nr modern, can net
Iher rescind, nor control, nor explain away
these words.
The words are, that "each House shall
keep a journal of ils proceedings." No
gloss, un ingenuity, no speciuus tutcrprcta
Hon, and much less can any lair or jusl
reasoning reconcile the process of cxpung
with the plain moaning ol thrsc words,
lu the satisfaction of the common sense and
honest understanding of mankind.
If tho Senate may now expunge ono part
of the journal uf n former session, it may
with equal nutliorily, expunge nnother part,
or tho whole. It may expungu the entire
record of any one session, or uf nil sessions.
11 seems to us to be inconceivable how
any man can regard such n power, and its
exercise at pleasure, as consistent with
tho injunction uf (ho Constitution. It can
make nn diflerencc what is the complete
ness or incompleteness ol thu net of nx
ponging or by whnt means dune ; whether
by erasure, obliteration or defacement; il
by defacement, 08 hero proposed, whether
one word or many words are written nn
tho face of tho record; whether Itttlo ink
is shed on tho pnpor; or whether annv part
or tho whole ortho original written jour
nal may yet by possibility bo traced t II
tho act done bo nn act to expunge, lo blot
out, to ohlitoralo, to erase tho record, thou
I the record is expunned, blotted out, oblit
' crated and erased. And mutilation and l
tcration violato the record as much as oblit
eration or erasure. A record subsequently
altered, is not the original record. Il no
longer gives a just account of tho proceed
ingsoftho Senate. It Is no longor true.
It is in short no journal of the real and
actual proceedings of the Senalo, such an
the Constitution soys each House shall
Tho constitution, thcrpfurc, is in our
deliberate jugement. viulated by this pro
ceeding, in the most plain and open manner.
Tho Constitution moreover provides that
tho yeas and nays, on any question, shall
at tho request of one fifth of tho mcmbera
present, be entered on the journal. This
prnvission most manifestly gives a personal
right to those member who may demand it
to the cutry nnd prcservntion ot their votes
on tho record of the proceedings of tho
body, not for one day or one year only, but
for nil time. There the yens nnd nnys aro
lo stand forever permanent and lasting
proof of the manner in which members
have voted on great and important ques
tions before them.
But it is now insisted that Iho votes of
ihe members, taken by yeas and nays, snd
thus entered on the journal, os matter of
riget, may still be expunged so thnl, that,
which it requires more than four fifths;
of the Senators to prevent from being put
on the journal, may nevertheless be struck
oft nnd erased, the next moment, or ot ony
neriod afterwards, bv the will of a mora
majority; or. if this be not admitted, then
the absurdity is adopted of maintaining,
that this provision of ihe Conttitutiun is
fulfilled by merely preserving tne yeas ana
nays on tho journal, nfler having expung
ed and oblituraled the very resolution, or
ihe very question, on which they wero
given, and to which alone they refer ; leav
ing the yeas and nays thus a mere li6t or
names, connected with no subject, no ques
tion, no vote. Wo put it to tho Impartial
judgment of mankind, if this proceeding bo
not, in this respect also, directly anu pai
pnbly inconsistent with ihe Constitution.
Wo protest, in the most solemn manner.
that, other Senators have no authority, to
deprive us ofour personal rights, secured
to us by the constitution, either by expun
ging, or obliterating, or oeincing, ma
record of our votes, duly entered by yeas
nnd nays, or by expunging and obliterating
tho resolutions or questions on which
those votes werg given nnd recorded.
we nave seen, wuu ueup uuu unnom
pain, the legislature of respectable states
instructing ilia Senators ot those states to
vole lor and support tins violation of tho
journal of the Senate ; and this pain is in
finitely increased by our full belief, and
ciitirc'cunviuiion, that most, if not all those
proceedings of slates had their origin in
promptings from Washington ; that they
have been urgently requested and insisted
on as being necessary to tho accomplish,
moot of the intended purpose ; and that it
is nothing else but the influence and power
of the executive branch of this government
which has brought the legislature of so
many of the free states of ibis Union to quit
the sphere of their ordinary dutiesr-for tho
purpose of cooperating 60 to accomplish a
measure, in our judgment, so unconstitu
tional, so derogatory lo ihe character of
the Senate, and marked will) so broad an
empression of compliance with power.
But this resolution is to pass. We ex
pect it. Thai cause which has been power
ful enough to influence so many state legis
latures, will show itself powerful enough,
especially with such aids, lo securo tho
passage of tho resolution here.
We make up our minds lo behold lha
spcctaclo which is to ensue.
Wo cullcct oursolvcs to look on, in si
lence, while a scene is exhibited which, if
wo did nut regard it as a ruthless violation
of a sacred instrument, would appear to
us to bo litlle elevated above the character
of a contemptible farce.
This scene we shall behold, and hundreds
uf American citizens, as many as may
crowd into these lobbies and galleries, will
behold it also : with what feelings I do not
undertake to tay,
But we protest, we most solemnly rno
test, against the substance and against
the manner of bis proceeding, ogainst its
proceeding, ogainst its object, against its
form, and ogain-t its effect. Wo tell you
lhat you hove no right to mar or mutil&to
tho record of our votes given here, and ro-
corded according to the constitution; Wo
tell vou that vou may an well erase tho
yeas and nays on any other question or
on all questions and resolutions, na on tins;
wo tell you that you have just ns much
right (o falsifiy the record, by so altering it
as to make us oppear lu have voted on any
question, os we did nol vote, as you havo
to erase a record, anu mai:e mat pago a
blank, in which our votes, us they were
actually given and recorded, now stand.
Tho ono nroccedtng. as it appears to us, is
as much a fnlsificat ion of the record as tho
Having mado this PROTEST our duty
is performed, Wo rescue our own names,
character, and honor from oil participation
in this matter: and whatever the way
ward character of the times, tho headlong
and plunging spirit of party devotion, or
love of powor, tuny bavu been able lo
bring obnut elsewhere, wo desire to thank
Gotfthat they have not, ns yet, overcomo
thu lovu uf Liberty, fidelity lo truo rcpub
lican principles, nnd n sacred rogard for
the Constitution, in that Stale whoso vill
wns drneched to n mire, by tho first and
best blood of llic Revolution.
Massachusetts, as yet, has not been con.
quered: nnd winio wo nave uiu uunur m
hold seats Here ns nor aenoiurn, wo nan
never consent to a sacrifice cither of her
bta nr our own : wo shall never fail to
opposo what wo rognrd as a plain nnd open
violation oil he uoiisiiiuuuu oi inu country
and wo should havo thought ourselves
wholly unworthy of her il wo hnd not
with ull the solemnity and earnetnass in
nur nower. protestsd seatnst the adop
tion of the resolution now before the 8'

xml | txt