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OF C JE S A It T T 11
FKIBAY, TANliAR.Y 3, 1840.
VOL. XIII No. 654
Tur.'nAY. Dec. !M.
At 12 o'clock this Prmnlniii oftlic United
States delivered to both House of Con
gress l lip. following
Fellow Citiztns if the Senate,
nnd House of Representatives :
1 regret rhnt 1 cannot on this occasion
congratulate you Hint the past year hue
been mc of unalloyed prosperity. The
tnvnEPf f fiffi o'"1 dicaec havo painfully
i.fllictcd otherwise flourishing portions of
our country, and serious embarrassments
yot dcronge the trade of many of our cities,
'lint, notwithstanding these adverse circum
Monccs, that general prosperity which hos
been heretofore bo bountifully bestowed
upon ushy the Author oi'ull pond, t-tiH con
tinues to call for our warmest gratitude.
Especially have wo reason lo rejoice in
tho exuberant harvests which have lavish
ly recompensed well directed industry,
nnd given to it that sure reward which is
vainly sought in visionary speculations.
I cannot indeed view without peculiar
i-atisfactioii the evidence afforded by the
nasi season of tin; benefits that spnn
from Hie steady devotion of tin? husband.
man to In? honorable pursuit. io mean
of individual comfort is more certain, and
no source of national prosperity is so sute
Nothing can compensate a people for a de
pendence upon others lor the bread tlie.y
eat : and that cheerful obuiidaucu on which
the happiness of every one so much depends
is lo bo looked lor nowhere wuli t-ucn
sure reliance as in the industry ol the ugri
culmnsi ii (id the. bounties ol the earth.
With foreign countries our relations ex
hibit the same fuvorublc tispeci which wa
presented in my last n n nun I message, and
ufl'nrd co t in cd proot of the wisdom & ol
the- pacihc, jusi and Vorhrn ring policy tiilnpt
cd by the first AduiMiistiotinu of the Fed
crnl government, and pursued by lis sue
cvs-urs, The extraordinary powers vested
initio bv nn net ol Congress, lor the de.
fence of the country in nn emergency
considered so far probable as lo requite
that the Kxeciitive should possess ample
means to meet it, huvu not been exerted.
They hove, therefore, been uttended with
no oilier result Ihnn to increase, by I he
confidence I bus reposed in me, my nblign.
I ion? to inn i ti t h in . with religions exactness
the cordial principles that govern our in
tercourse with other tuitions. Happily, in
our pending quo-lions with great lintain.
out of which tins unusual grant of authority
urose, uuiliiug has occurred to require lie
-xeruuu; anil as it is about to return to thetained the same leehng. and have probably
1 .uirllullirfi I Irllril llinl 11 1 k fill lift, llPPPSKl. i prevented excesses that must have been
ty ttiuy cull l.ir Us exercise by Ihem or its'
dulegaimn lo uuuilier department ol the
For the teitlement of
bnundarv. I he prnposil iTnT promised by
GraJixjlf1iiio fur a commission of'cxplnra
tiu'n.XHtfcirvey, hur been received, and a
cournejlfiij-JCt, including also a provision
for n certain and final adjustment ot the
limits in dispute, is now belore Hie British
Government for Uf consideialiuii. A just
regard to the delicate t,tnle of ihisquestion
end a proper respect lor the natural impa
Hence ol Maine, not less than a conviction
that the negotiation has been alreody pro
tracted longer than is prudent on the part
of either government, have led me to be
lieve that the present lavorable moment
should ui. no account be buffered to pass
without putting the question Jorever at
rest. I led confident thai the government
of her llriiunie Majesty will luke ihosauie
view ol tin ciibjeci, a 1 am persuaded i'
is governed by uetires equally strong and
sincere, lor the auncaulj lermiualiuu ofthe
To the intrinsic difficulties of questions ol
boundary liner., especially llioeu described
in regmns unoccupied and but partially
known, is to be added in iur country the
embarrassment necessarily arising out ot
our Cuiistuutiou, by which the General
government is made the organ ol negotia
ting, and dieiding upon the particular in
terests of I ho stales on whose Ironliers
these lines are lo be traced. To avoid
another controversy m which a stale gov
ernment might rightfully claim to have
her wishes consulted, previously lo the
conclusion uf the cunveutiounl arrange,
tueiils concerning her right uf jurisdiction
or territory, 1 have ihuuglit u necessary to
call the intention nl the Guvurnineut of
Grtut Britain to another portion ol our
conterminous dominion, ol whichlhu divi
ion mill remains to bu adjusted. I refer lo
the line irom the euttaneu uf Lake So no
nor lo the must N Western point of the
Lake of the Woods, stipulations for the
setilettii'iit of which are lo be found in i ho
71 h article lu the treaty ot Ghent. The
commissioners appointed under thai article
by the two governments having differed in
I heir opinions, madu separate reports, ac
cording to its stipulations, upon the points
uf disagreement, and these differences ure
now lo be submitted to the arbitration of
fcotr.e friendly sovereign or statu. The dis
puted points should be settled and Hie line
designated before the Territorial Govern
ineul, of which it is one of the boundaries,
takes its place in the Union as a stale; and
1 rely upon iho cordiul co-operation of the
British Government to effect this.
There is every reason to believe that
dislurbances like theso which lately agita.
ted tho neighboring British Province, will
not again prove the sources of border con.
teution, or interpose obstacles to the con
tinuancu of that good understanding which
it is the mutual interest of Great Bri'aiu
ond the Uniled Slates to preserve und
maintain. , ,
Within the provinces themselves trap,
quilily is restored, and on our Irontier,
that misguided sympathy in fovnrofwhal
woe deemed to bo o general effort in be
half of popular rights, and which, in some
instances, mislcl a few ol our more ine.
pericncud citizens, has subsided into a
falioiml convictmn strongly opposed to ull
uiicriiindtlling with the internal atlntrs ol
nuf neighbor. Tho people of the Uniled
V'niCB teel ns it in Hoped tney always win
n warm solicitude for the success of n'l who
"ff sincerely endeavoring to improve the
poniicnl conililion of mankind. 1 Ins gen
rnii3 feeling they cherish towards the mod
"imsiii nations; and it was natural there.
lort, that it should be awakened with
mure than cominun warmth in behalf ol
t heir immediate neighbors. But it docs
not belmig to their character, as o cummii-
nny, lo seek the gratification ol uiosc
'Cengs jn acts which violato their duty ns
cili2ens, endanger the peace of their coun
try, and lend lo bring upon it the slain ot
vmatcu faith towards foreign nations.
If, zealous lo confer benefits on others,
t'lcjjuppear for a moment to lose sight of
iie permanent obligation imposed upon
iieiv ns citizen", they arc sejdouii-long
tiisUfd. From all the information I receive
tntiitm.-dio some extent, by personal ob
solatitn, I am satisfied that no one can
row hojo to cngago in such enterprises
wijhout eicountermg public indignation,
in nddliii lo Iho severest penalties of
lie! law.
Itecttit information also leads mo lo
lidie thit the emigrants from her Majesty's
IV ivintes, who have sought refuge within
or boundaries, ure disposed to become
p-eceable residents, and to ubsiuiu Irom
aLnlleinpts to endanger the peaco of that
ci uilrv which has afforded them an nssy
hoi. On a review of the occurrences on
lilli sdes of the line, it is satisfactory to
rijleei that in ulmost eveiy complaint
ujauis. our country, the nffijnce may be
tuced to cniigrants Irom the Provinces
v 10 have niugnt refuge hero. In tho lew
nUances in which they were aided by cili.
a!n ol the United States, the acts ol these
nisguuled men were only in direct con
travention of the laws, and well known
tfishes of their own Government, but met
Villi the decided disapprobation of the
ample of the United State?.
J I regret to stale iho appearance of a
lifiereut spirit among her Majesty's sub.
eels in the Canadas. The sentiments of
fostihty to our people and institutions,
ihich have been so frequently expressed
here, nnd the disregard of our rights
vhtch have been niiiiiiiested on some oc
;asious, have, I am sorry lo say, been ap
plauded alid uiicuii raged Ijy (lie people, and
even by some uf the subordinate local au
thorities, of tin; Provinces, 'llieclnet of h -
cers in Canada fortunatelv have not enter
''"'"I " the eeace of Hie two countries.
I look lurward anxiously lo a period
when nil i h-1 rmi.u jiim,.- ivi.,.1. u. K,--..
out uf t hits condition ot our affairs, and
which have been made the subjects of com
plaint ond ruinous-trance by the two gov
ernments respectively, shull be fully ex
amined, and the proper satisfaction given
where it is due from either side.
Net lung has occured lo disturb tint liar-
moiiy of nur inlercnerse with Austria,
Uclpum. Denmark. France. Naples, Pur
tunal, Prussia, Russia, or Sweden. The
internal btale of Spam has sensibly im
proved, and u well grounded hope exists
that the return ol peace will restore to tin
people of that country their former pro.
perity, und enable t lie Government to fulfil
till its obligations at home and abroad.
Tho government uf Portugal, 1 have tin:
satisfaction lo state, has paid in (nil the
eleventh and last instalment due lo our
citizens for the claims embraced to the
settlement mado with It un the third ofment during the present year have I am
March, 1337
I lay beforo you treaties of commerce
negotiated with the Kings of Sardinia ant,
of the Netherlands, the ratifications
which have been exchanged since the ad,
jnurnmcnt nl Congress. The liberal prin
ciples ol incse treaties will recommit!
ihem to youf. approbation. 1 lint will
Sardinia is the first treaty of common
formed by that kingdom, and it will I
trust answer the expectations of the pres
ent sovereign, by aiding the developeiient
of the resources of Ins country, and sliuu j
luting the enterprise of his people, ''hut
with the Neljerlauds happily terminals a
lung existing subject uf dispute, anf re
moves irom ijir lulure commercial pier
course all apjrebensiou of embarrassment.
The King ollhe Netherlands his alio, in
father illustttion of his charac.er fir jus.
H:e, and of jus desire to remove every
ctute ol disiftislaclioii, made cytipciiea
it)iior an jmertcan vessel capped in
,1809 by a Flench privateor, anujearned
ililol Curacod where the procerus were
appropriated o tho use uf the colrny. then,
ajtd for a shod time after, under lie domin
ion of Ilollan.
The death i( tho lato Sultan hat prndtced
no ilteralioun uur relations wilt Turkey.
Our newly appointed Mui'sler llesitltrit
has reached 'Coiisiuntinuple, nnd I have
received assutances from the preie.it Rultr
that the obligations of our treaty aid thosi
of friendship will be fulfilled by himself in
ihe same spirit that actuated his ilustriutis
I regret to be obliged lo inform you that
no convention for tho seiibjnieni of iho
claims of our citizons upon Mexicj has yet
been ratine, by the Govermnom of that
country. 1 he firet convention formed lor
that purpose was not presented by ihe
Piesidunt of Mexico fur the upprubatinn of
its Congress, Irom u belief that iho Kim'
ol Prussia, the arbitrator in caso of dun0.
greenient in tho joint commission to bu
appointed by the United States und Mr. vi.
co, would not consent to luku upiiri hnnielf
that friendly uflice. Attliuuirh Hot Piitimlu
satisfied with Ihe course pursued by Mexi
co, I full no hesitation in receiving m ihu
most conciliating spirit the explanation
offered, and also cheerfully consented to u
new convention, in order to arrange th0
payment proposed, to be made to our cili-
zens, in a maunur which, while equally
just to them, was deemed lees onerous nntl
inconvenient to the Mexican Government.
Relying confidently upon tho intentions of
that Government, Mr Ellis wns directed lo
repair lo Mexico, and diplomatic inter,
cnurso hns been resumed between the iwu
countries. The new convention has, he
informs us been recently submitrd by the
President of that Republic toils Congress,
under circumstanced which promise, a
speedy ratification, a result which I cannot
allow myself to doubt.
Instructions have been given to the
Commissioner of tho United States under
our Convention with Texas, for the da
marcat ion of the line which separates us
from thai Republic. The Commissioners
of both Governments met in New Orleans
in August latt. The joint commission was
nrgani.ed, and adjourned lo convene at
tfra-mfrre-place b'ri theTwclflh of Oclober.
It is presumed to be now in the performance
of its duties.
Tho . now Government of Texas has
shown its desire lo cultivate friendly rela
lions with us, by ii prompt rcparntiin for
injuries complained of in tho case ol the
two vessels; of the United States.
With Central America a convention has
been concluded for the renewal of Us for
mer treaty with the United Stales. This
was not ratified before the departure ol our
lute Charire. d'Affaircs from that country,
and tin; copy brought by him was not re
ceived before the adjournment ofthe Sen
ate at the last session. In the mean while,
the period limited for the exchange of rati
fications having expired. I deemed it expo
dtent, in consequence of the death ofthe
Uharge d Afnnres. to send a special agent
to Central America, to close the ntTuiis of
nur mission there, and to arrange with the
Government an extension of the lime for
he exchange of ratifications.
The commission created by the. Slates
which formerly composed the Republic of
Colombia for adjusting Iho claims against
that Government, ban, by a very unexpec
ted construction of the treaty under which
it nets, decided that no provision whs
made lor those claims of citizens ofthe
United Stales which orose from captures
by Colombian privateers, and wereadjudg
ed against the claimants in the judicial in.
buna Is. This'dccisiou wil! compel the U.
Suites to apply to tho several Governmenis
lormerly uniled, for redress. With ull
these New Grenada, Venezuela, and
Ecuador, a perfectly good understanding
xils. Our treaty with Venezuela is
fa 1 1 1 1 1 u 1 1 v carried into execution, and thai
country, in the enjoyment of tranquility,
is gradually advnncing in prosperity under
the guidance of its present distinguished
I'.t-oijc,,,, GcuufHi racz. wuif r;ctidor.
a liberal commercial convention Iiuh Ihlelv
been concluded, which will he transmitted
lo the Senate at an early day.
i.u on; ureai American fjinpiro of
Brazd our relations continue unchanged, as
does our friendly intercourse with the
other governments of South America the
Argentine Republic, and the Republics of
Uruguay, Chili, Peru, and Bolivia. The
dissolution ofthe Peru Bolivian confedera
tion may occasion some temporary incon-
violence lo our citizens in thai quarter,
OJi i no outigations on the new Govern
iipnts which have arisen out of that Con
bderati lo ob-erv its treaty slipula.
ions, will no doubt be soon understood
and it is presumed that no indisposition
will exist lo fulfil those which it cuntructod
with the U. Stales
The financial operations of tho govern
happy to say, been very succnssful. The
dilhculties under which Iho Treasury Do
pariment bus labored, from known defects
in the existing laws mlative to tho safe
keeping of the public monies, a"ravated
by the suspension of specio payments by
several df tho banks holding public depos.
ites, or indebted to public officers for notes
received in payment of public dues, hnvn
been surmounted to a very gratilyieg ex
tent. The largo current expenditures
havu been punctually met, and the faith of
the Government in all its pecuniary con.
cerns has been scrupulously maintained.
The nineteen millions nf Treasury rtole
authorized by the aci of Congress uf Ilia7,
and the modification? thereof, with a view
lo the indulgence- of merchants on ilteir
duty bonds, und of the deposito banks in
the payment of public moneys held oyihcm
have been so punctually redeemed ai to
leavo less than ihe original leu millions
outstanding at uny otto time, nnd tho
whole amount unredeemed now fall Khun
of three millions. Of these the chief pur.
lion is not due till next year, and the whole
would have been already extinguished
could the Treasury hove realized Ihe pay.
mcnto duo to it from the banks. If those
due Irom luein during the next year shall
bu punctually made, and if Cnng'csi shall
keep the appropriations within Ihuesliiuates
there is every reason to believj that all
the outstanding Treasury not.'-) can be
redeemed, und tho ordinary expenses de.
frayed, withuut imposing on thopcuplu any
additional burthen, either of leans or in
creased taxes.
To avoid this, and lo keep tie cxpemli
tires within reasonable bounds, is a duty,
stcuud only in importance to Hut preserva
tion of our national character and the pro.
lee ton of our citizens hi their civil ami
polrical rights. The creaticu, in tune of
poauj, of a dubt likely io Income pernm
nuiil,!, an evil fur which theru is no eqmv
alunt The rapidity with which many of
the Sales! are apparently approaching In
mis ciiiuuioii, admonishes us of our own
duiie.1, m n manner too imprcssivu lo be
disrega-ded. One. not the least important,
is to kep the Federal Government always
in a cordiliou to discharge with eusu and
viffor, is highest functions, should their
exercisobu required by any audden con.
juncture jf public affairs-tt condition in
wuicli wo are always exposed, and which
inn occur when ills least expected. To!
tliwend, il is imlispeiHnble that UH finances
should be ttiiiriimiuel'ed, nntl its resources,
ns far as practicable, unincumbered. No
circtiinsiance could present greater nbsla.
clJL- in the accomplishment of these vitally
titiportantio'jjecls, than tho creation or an
oiietotH ni'iotml debt. Our own oxperi.
mice anil klsn that uf other nations, have
demonstrated the unavoidable and fearful
intilllV Vtll which n nuhtin ilnht in
increased, yhen the government has once
s irrcndereditsclf to the ruinous practice uf
supplying lit supposed necessities by new
liaus. 1 he struggle, therefore, on our
art, lo bd successful, must be made nt the
threshold, lo make our efforts effective,
icvero econony Is necessary. 1 his H ttio
urest provisitn for tho national weltare ;
and it is at tin same time, Ihe best prescr.
varjvo of th'i principles on Which our
irisilltu'inns rest, '" Siniplicity antf ecniioiny
in tho affairs nf.Slate have never failed to
chasten and iiiugorate Republican princi.
p!es, while thc'u have been ns surely snu-
verled by natirnnl prodigality, under what.
ever speciou8pretcxls it may have been
introduced oiUnslcred.
Theso considerations cannot bo lost upon
a people who hove never been iimltoutivo
to the effect of policy upon tho institutions
they have created for themselves j but ot
mo present moment i heir lorcH is aug
meiited by ihe necessity which n decrens
ing revenue must impuso. The check'
lately given io importations if nMicle
subject to duties, the derangcmelts) in Ihe
operations nl internal trade, and especially
the reduction gradually taking place in
our tnrtti ol duties, all tend lo essen our
receipts, indeed it is probable; I lint the
diminution resulting from the last cause
alone, will not fall short of livi millions of
dollars in the year KM",, as tie filial re
duction of ull duties to twetty per cent
I lieu lakes filed. Ihu while revenue
then accruing Irom thecustoiM. and from
Ihe sales public, if nnt more, will itniloiibt
edlv bu wanted to delray lau necessary
expenses of the coveriuneit under the
iuojI prudent aduiinislraliiii of affairs,
These are circuin-lnuces tint impose Ihe
necessity of rigid econurny, ind require its
Prompt nnd constant exurcue. With the
L'gwlaluro rast tho power and duly of so
adjusting the public expenditure as to pro
mom this mil. By ihe ptovisions of the
ConsiiiutKUi, it is only in consequence ol
appropriations made by law, thai money
can he iiruwo from the Treasury ; no
siimce has occurred since 'hejesiablishinenl
ol the government, nt winch Iho Lxecu
live thouirli a component part of the
L"gis!alive power, has interposed
objection in an appropriation bill on the
sole around of "Is extravagance. His
duly in tins respect has been lullillrd by
requesting such appropriations only as ihe
public service may lie reasonaliiy expectru
to require. -In ihe present earnest direction
of the public mind towards this subject,
bnlh the Executive and tho Legislature
hov.' evidence of Ihe strict responsibility U
w'lnch they will be held ; and while I am
coiircious of my own unxinm efforts to
perform with fidelity this portion of my
public funciinns, n is o soii'aclion tome to
be dblu to count on a cord al coupeiation
from you,
At the lime I entered iimn my present
duties, our ordinary dub. iriemonts with
Oiit including those on account of ihe'pub'
lit! debt. Ihe pu-t uflice, am the trust funds
in chargn nl' the (ioverntient hail been
latgely increased by approinalioti-'f r tho
removal ol Ihe Indians lor epellliio Indian
hostilities, and for other h; w urgent expen
se! which grew out of an o'erflnwiig trea
sury. Independent of the redemliuii ol
the public debt und trusts, tho gnss ex
peadtlurr's nf sventeeti und eighteen mil
limn in I U3t and ion.'), by thesn causes.!
swelled to twenty nine mtllons in 11131) :
anil iho appropriations for 1)37, trade pre
viously to the 4tli of Murtji, ca.ised the
expenditure, to rise In lli very large
amount of ihiriy three mi llnis- We were
enabled during ihu year 11311, notwith
standing tin; continuance ( nur Indian
embarrassments somewhat t reduce this
amount : ami l hut for ihe present
yeai ll!20, will not in ail pnbiibilily. ex
ceed "G millions, or six uiiiliuis less than
it was hist year Wnhii det'rtninatioii so
far as depends un mo to cuainuu this re
dii'iilon, I havo directed ihe j.-i unites for
HMO to be stibj tcled tuhe Everest scru
tiny and to bu limited In Ihu j,aasjulu re
quirements to the public sis vice. They
will hi found less than die eiienditurei uf
11139 by over five millions of ddl.trs.
The precautionary measiirea.vhicli will be
reooiirnended by thu Secritary of the
Treasury to protect (faithfully the public
credit unless the floctualioinund contin
gencies to which our receipts anil expen
ditures are exposed, and eiircially in a
commercial crisis like thu present, are
commended to your early attention.
On a former occasion your attention wot
invited to various considerations m favor
of u pru etnplinn law in behalf of the set
tlers un thu public lauds ; and aho of a law
graduating thu prices fur such lauds as
had had long been 111 the market untold
in consequence nf their inferior quality.
Th execution of the Act which was pas-eed
nil luu first subject has been all ended with
huppivtl consequences, 111 quieting titles,
anil securing improvements to the indus
trious; and it has also, lo u very great ex
tent frimi Or frauds which wuru practised
under previous pre-emption laws, (t has
at ihe same litne, us was anticipated, con
tribultd liberally during tho present yeur
of the receipts of t ho Treasury.
The uassuL'O uf 11 graduation law, with
the guards before recommended, would
also, I am persuaded, add considerably to
thu revenue fur several yeurs, and prove
in other rutpects lustuud benclieial
Your eaily oiiiBideratiuu of thn subject
if. ihurefuru once more earnestly icquesled
Hie prcccul condition of tliodclcncw
our principal seaports anil nav,y yards, as
represented by tin? accoinponying report
ol the S' Crelary of War, colls for Iho ear
ly and serious attention ot Uongress ; anil,
as cnnneciitiL' itself intimately with .this
subject I cannot recommend too strongly lo
your consideration the plan submiuieu uy
that officer for thu organization ot the null
tia of the Uniled States;
In conformity with the expressed wishes
of Congress, an allempl won made In the
spring to tcrininalu the Florida war by ne
gotiation, It is to bo regretted that ihese
humane intentions, should have been trus-
(rated, und that the effort to bring these
unhappy difficulties to n satisfactory con
clusion should havo failed, But, after en
tering into solemn engagements, wild the
Commanding Ueuerol, the Indians, with
out any provocation, recommenced their
acls of treachery and nui'dor. Tho re
newal ot hostilities in that Territory ren
tiers it necessary that I should recommend
to your favorable consideration the plan
which will bu subnniled to you by the
Secretary of War. 111 order In enable that
department to cunduct them lo a success
ful issue.
(laving had an opportunity of personally
inspecting a pottion of llielroops during the
last summer it gives ma pleasure 10 bear
testimony lo iho success of the effort to
improve their discipline, by keeping them
together in as large bodies as the nature
ol our service will permit. I recommend,
therefore, that commodious and permanent
barracks be constructed at the several pusis
lU'stgn-itpil by Iho Secretary of War.
Notwithstanding tho high state of their
discipline and excellent police, the evils
result ing to 1 he service Irom the deficien
cy of company officers, were vry apparent
and I recommend that the staff officers be
permanently separated from Ihe line.
The navy has been iifpl'iilly and honnrn
ably employed 111 protecting Ihe rights and
properly of our citizens, wherever (he
condition of affairs seemed to require its
presence- With the exception of uno in
stance where an ouroge, accompanied by
murder, was committed on a vessel of the
United States while engaged in a lawful
commerce, nothing is known to impede or
molest the enterprise ol our citizens on that
element where iiis so signally displayed.
On learning this daring act of piracy,
Commodore Reed proceeded immediately
to the spot, and receiving no satisfaction
either in Ihe surrender of the murderers or
Ihe restoration of the plundered property.
intHcted severe and merited chastisement
on the barbarianu.
It will bo seen, by the report nf tho Sec
re'ary ofthe Navy, respecting Ihu disposi.
lion ofourli;)s ifwnr ihu it h-.j heeii
deemed necessary 10 station a compe
tent force 011 the coast of Africa, lo pro
vent a fraudulent use of our fhg by for
eigners. Recent esperieuco has shown that the
provisions 111 nur existing laws, which re.
lalo In the sale and transfer of American
vessels while abroad, are extremely defec.
live. Advantage has been taken of these
defects, lo give to vessels wholly bcloniin"
to foreigner?, and navigating the ocean, an
apparent American ownership. This char
ucier has been so well simulated as to
affird litem comparative security in pros
editing the slave trade, 0 traffic cmpholi
call y denounced 111 our statute, regarded
with adherence by our citizens, and of
which ihe effectual suppression is nowhere
more sincerely desired than in the United
Slates. 1 hese r.irciitii-tatieed make
proper lo recommend your early attention
a cireful revtsiun of those laws, so that.
without impeding the freedom and I'd I cttie
of our navigation, or impairing an nnpo tant
branch ot industry connected with it, the
integrity and honor of our 11 jt may
carolully preserved. Information derived
from our Consul ut ilavanna, showinr the
necessity ol this, was communicated lo a
committee ofthe Senutc, near the close o
Ihe last session, but Ion late, as it appeared
to be acted upon. It will be brought, to
your notice by t.he proper department, with
additional communications' from other
Thu latest accounts from tho Exploring
hxpedilion represents il as proceeding sue
ccssfully in its objects, and promising ro
suits no less useful to trade and navigation
than to science
The extent nf post roads covered by mail
lervice mi Die tirst ol July last, was about
133 999 miles, and the rate ot annual trans.
pnrtatioii upon them 31 -180,073 miles.
Thu number of post offices 011 that day was
t welre thousand peven huudred and eighty,
ami on the thirtieth ultimo, thiiteen Ihous.
ami and twenty eight.
I'he revenue ol tho nost offico denart-
ment for iho year ending with the 30rli of
Juno last, was four millions, four hundred
and seventy-six thousand, six hundred and
ihirly-oight dollars, exhibiting an increase
over the precediog year nf two hundred
and forty one thousand, five hundred and
sixty dollars. Tho engagements and lis.
btlities of iho department for the same pa.
riod, are lour million, six hundred and
twenty. four Uiousand, 0110 hundred and
seventeen dollars,
The excess of liabilities ever tho reve
nue fur tho last tiro years, has been met
out of iho surplus which had previously
I accumulated. The cash on hand on thu
I3ih nil, mo, was about $107,701 95, and
the current incomo of thu department va
ries vary little from the ralo of current ex
penditures. Most of iho service suspend
ed last year has been reslored, and most of
the new routes established by tho act of
thu 7th July, I33U, have linen set in opeta.
tion at an annual cost of 4130 003, Not
withstanding the pccuniaiy d'llicullies of
the country, Hie revenue uf the department
appears to be increasing; and unless it bu
seriously chocked by the recent suspension
of payment by su ni.iny bunks, it will be
able not only lo maintain Ihu present mail
oIlatTVico, bet m a jlwil tuuu tu e.vcnd 11
It is ttratifvitiL' to witness the promptitude
und fidelity with which llio ngeins of ihu
department in general perform their pub
lic duties.
Some difficulties have arisen in relation
to contracts for the transportation nf mails
by mil road and steamboat companies. It
appears that Ihe maximum of compena.
tion provided by congress for ihu trnns
portutinti of malls upon niilroarls is not
sufficient to induce some uf Hie companies)
to convey them at such hours as are r r qui
red for the accommodation ofthe public
Il is one of thn most important duiies of
iho general Government to provide and
maintain for the uso of tho people of Iho
slates the best practicable mail establish
ment. I n arrive at Hint end it is indis
pensable that the post office department
shall be enabled In control the honrs nt
which the malls shall be carried over rail
roads 09 it now does over all other roads.
Should serious inconveniences ariso from
tho inadequacy ofthe compensation now
provided by law, or from unreasonable
ness in the demands made by any of thu
rail roatl companies, ihu subject is of such
generol importance as lo require tho un
mediate attention nt congress,
In relation to steamboat lines, Ihe most
efficient remedy is obvious, and has been
snggesied by the postmaster general.
The war and navy departments alreadv
employ steamboats in their service, ami
although it is by no means desirable that
the government should undertake the
transportation nf freioht or passengers as
a business, there can be no reasonable ob
jection Id running boat?, temporarily.
whenever it may bu necessary to put down
attempts at extortion, to be discontinued
as 60011 as leasouoble contracts can bo
The surigcFtinns of tho postmaster rren.
eral relative lulro inadrqoacy of tho legal
allowance to witnesses in case of prosecu
tions for mail depredations, merit yonr
serious consideration. The safely ol tho
mails requires that such prosecutions shall
bo efficient, and justice to tho citizen whose
time is rt quired to be given to the public.
demands nut only that his expenses shall
be paid, but that he shall receive a reason,
able compensation.
1 he reports from the wnr, tia'vy, and
post office departments), will acenmpany
this communication, ond one from tho
treasury department will bo presented lo
congress in a lew days.
From a report inad. in December of
last year, by Ihe Secretary of S:ate, In
the Senate, showing the trial docket of
each of the circuit courts and iho number
of miles each person hns to travel, in Iho
nerferinini!' nl' Ins duties, a great Ine
quality appears in tho amount of labor
assigned to each judge. Thn number of
terms to be held in each of the courts
composing the ninth circuit, tho distoncen
between Hie places at which they nt. and
from ihencu to ihe seal of government,
are represented lo bo such as to render it
impossible for the judge to perforin in ra
manner corresponding with public exige'n.
cies, Ins term and circuit duties. A Tevi.
sion, therefore of the present arrangement
of tho circuits seems to be called for, and
is recommended to your nniic.
1 think it pioperlociill your intention la ilm
power assumed by territorial legiilatmes 10 autho
rise the issue nf Imnds by rorpunue eompaiiie on
the giMniiiiee of thn leniiorv. Cuiijiiesa ps.-ed
law in IS3G, pinviding 1h.1t 'nn an of.i luiritorial
legislaiiire iiicoiporiiliiig lnnk tliiuld have ilia
force nf law until appioved by (Jungles ; bur aci.s
uf n eiy exceptiniuble character, piriiuu-ly pas
sed by ihe h-iji.slainie nf Florida, weie ruffeied n
remain in force, by viilue of kIii'cIi h.inils may b
is-ued lu 11 eiy laiae amount by ih.jse institution
upon ihu faith of ihu leniiory. A le.-utiuum in
tended 10 be a joint one, paused iho neii.uo l ihu
same fessiuu, cpiessinr ihe tense of (Jungles
that the laws 111 question ought mil to re.nani in
force, imIcm amended in many material nspects ;
but il failed in t lie house of lepiesentiilitcs fir want
of lime, and the dashed iinieno'inenis li.ue mil been
mado. The iiueiests invoked 111eofcte.il inipor
lanre, and the subject deterus 011r early und
caieful attention.
The continued agitation of llie qiiMtinn rel.ilivn
lo I lie best made uf keepinj; ami difliinsin dm
public money, siill injuiiuiisly hAVcis the husmesn
ofthe ruiiulij. The suspension ufs-jieeie pannem
in 1837. icmleied the its'- uf di-p.isiie hank, us
pieseiibed by the acls ofl836, 11 source inllit-r uf
embarrassment than aid, und of necessity placed
ihe custody of most of ihe public money afi'envardi
collecied, in charge of the public, otlicers. Tha
new secuniirs for its safely which ibis lequiied,
eie a pi iiiciial cause of my roaveniiij 1111 extra,
session of Confess, but in consequence of a di,a-(reein'-ni
between ihe two hon.., neither ihen,
nor 111 any Mili-riirni period, has iheie been anv
legislation on the sul jei i. J'he effort made at iho
last ses-ion to ohiaiii 1 he nudimiiy 0f Coiijieii to
punish ihe ue of public money fur privale purpo
ses, hs a ciime, n measure upended under oilier
jmeriiineniri imh sinnal u.U:... i.
successful from diversities uf upiimin in' that body,
iioitviihslaiidiiiL' thu nnxielv dnulul r,,i, i, ; ,,.
Hlfoid ever practicable seemity. Tw ,ejul of
(his is mill lo leave 1 lie nimody of ihe publio mo
ney willlullt llluse S.lfesil.ilih wJurl, Ii .i lieen fur
several ) ears oaniesily desned by the executive,
and, as a remedy is only m be found in the uciiuii
of the If "islamic, it inipases on me iho duly of
" 1 . .- ,u "" 1,18 propnety nl passing 11
law, providing lor ihe safe keeping uf llie public
moneys, ami especially m usk that iia use for pii-
vaie purposes ny any olticers entrusted widi il, may
Imdeelaied lo bo 11 felony, punishable with penal
lies piopoiiiuurd 10 thu magniiudo 01 the offence.
I'heso ciiciunstanccs, added to known defects hi
the existiii" hms, and unusual deiiiimenipMi ;.. ,t...
geiieial operations of nude, h ive during iho last
on co )e. irs, 111111:11 uici eiiseii ilm ililltciiliics attend,
ant on the-colleciiun, krepin und dinbiirsemeiii of
ihu ieenue, and called fonh eoiiespoudini exer
tions fiuin ihosu having ihem in chaige. HaiioiU
ll.ese hae been eiitceosful beyond rxpectal iun.
Un sums hae been cuHemed ami di.burreil bv
iho several departments with unexpected vIicmiiU
ueis and eu.e j iran-leis have been leadily made 16'
every pan uf the Uniun, howevtr distant ; tho de.
....,u. u uue 1 i,ir less man inishi MV0 been
anticipated, fioui thu iibsi ueu ol iidtouaic Iriral
.eslra.nls : su.ro the ..nice. i of .he e.t.ry ,m,
ul oflica deparimems vveio charged with the cu.
lody of must ol tho public monejs received bv
ihem, Ihe. a have been collected i.v.sis imlbun
of dollars, nnd. rxcl,h.M .he c.uo of iho late col
lector of New o,k, tho as.eSaie atuouat oflo.sis
sustained 111 llm colleeliou caunol, it isbelie.ed.
exceed m.y ihonsand dolla,,. Th d,f,lCa,iti
of the late culltctur al 1h.1t city, nf ,,u txlri.l UM
'ciiiuumaiicrs vf ulin.li conjrerj h.u been fully in-

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