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VOL. V. W. 3. MONTPELIER, VT.) ITIA.Y 31, 183G. IV JIOjLE NO. 240. CONGRESS. avnr.cn ov nos. johx hell, OF TE.VNF.9rK, ON TIIK NAVAL APPKOl'KIATION 151 DcltvercJ in tho Houso of Knprcscntrttivcs, Marcli 17, 1C35. Mr CiiAtnMAN, I desirc that I sliould luit Ijc understood, from tlic remnrks licrc tofore suhiiiittcd by tuo 011 tlic liill undcr eonsldcrntion, to !io hostilc to tlio Nnvy, or evon tosuch fortificntionsas may bc known to lio nccessary lo tlic dofonco of our niost iiii)ortant coinmercial and naval dcpots. On thc contrnry, I nm dccidcdly in fuvor of a cousidurnhlo increnso of our prcscnt nn vnl estnblishment. Iiidccd, I do not lc inctnber a scntiment delivcrcd by tho gcn tleinau wlio preccdcd mo in tlio dchntc, (Mr Clinmhcrs,) upon this point to whicli I do not yield a licnrty conciirroncc. Wliat I wisli to ncconiplish ly my tnotion is, thnt wo shall fir.st sottlo and adopt soinc system or plan of improvcincnt, in this brnnch of tho nalional defonoc, which dinll prouiiso u grenter degreo ofccononiy nnd cflicieney tlian vu can hopo for utitlcr tho prcscnt SVStOIII. I now proposo, Mr Chairinau, to cxtcnd thc raugo of this dcbato niucli hcyoiid thc latitinlc nssumed in lho prcpcdinc part of it. I proposu to reniiirk frcclv itpnti the gencrnl policy of tho prcscnt ndininistration us Intely dcvcloped. Tho principlcs anil practiccs of thoso in powcr aro always Mihjcct.s of great intcrest to tlic conntry. Thoso oftho party whicli now control tlio iifl'nirs of this repiiblic nrc peculiarly so at this timc. Whilu it is mv intcntion, in ! wliat I shall say ou thcsc suhjects, to hc to tho Govcrnnicnt only shows tliat thc dc pcrfcctly icspcctful to tho fcolings and mo-' grcu of confidcncc M whicli liis station in ticsof thc coinmittcc, and cspccially lo ' this Houso cntitlcs liim is not givcn to hiin thoso who ronstituto thu niaioritv of tho I hy thoso at thu hcad of afl'uirs. Btill, sir, Ilousc of Itcpresentalivcs, yct, with thcse limilations, it is my iutciition to intlulgctlio - ..f" l ! ... . . liiivilcgc of dcbato to tho ntmost extcnt of parliamcntary liccnse. I desircd some suitable occasion for tho iiidulgcnce of the vcry wido rango ofrc tnark upon which I amabout to cntcr than the prcscnt bill. I would havo greatly prc fcrrcd thc bill reported hy tho gentlctnan froin Ivcntucky, (Mr Johnson,) ninking ap inopriations for a grcat uumbcr of new fortifications. Thc bill propos'mg on cxtm approprintion for thc improvcment and iu crcasc ofthc navy would havc hccn select od in prefcrcnce lo the prccnt onc ; but, sir, I lmve latcly had my doubts whctlier it is intcndcd that citlicr of theso hills Bhall lie actcd upon beforo tho close of tho scs sion, whcn ilcba'.e will bc oot of tho (pics tion. I kno'v the rcsponsibilities to which 1 may subjcct myself by tnnking this bill tho subjcct ofa tedious dcbatc. I am snt isfied that I might expect soinc better cf fcct froni thc reuiiu ks 1 intcnd to ofl'cr, if I had becn nioic fortunnto in tlic occasion of theui. Ilut, sir, the timc nnd the occusion I hnve sclcctcd, may not, afier all be of so iHilch consciiupncc. Orcatcr skill in iar liamcntary tactics might havo cnablcd inc to do grcatcr justicc to my subjcct, by tak ing u difl'crcut coursc from the onc I nni about to adopt ; but I nm cnrotinigcd by thcsaying ol'tho gnllant Nclsou. iipou ponic occasion whcn tho importnnce of skill in nnvnl Inctics was Fnoktm of : "A Captain (said hc,) cannot bc fnr wrong, who, iu liattlp, lays his ship nlong-s'idc of tho cnc my." Such a discussiou as I proposo is nlways Falutary, nnd ought to be indulgcd at cvery tcssion of Cougrosx; in truth, it sliotild ncvcr be omittcd. Ifnny find fault with the dclay that is likcly to occur, lct thein take consolation from tho motto of tho Governmcnt iournal, which is, tliat " tho world is govcrncd too inuch ;" n proposi tion, howcvcr, by no means consistent with thc nrincinles of tho nartv of which this ioiirnnl is the orirnn. JSut it it slinll lio in-1 qtiircd, wliy provoKc a party discussiou unon tlio navy bill, or upon any of the np propriation hills ? why not bring forward some distinct proposition, iu tho f.haio of n rcsolution? I answer, bccauso 1 pcrceivo n sctlled purposo in llio Ilousc to prcvcnt tho introduction of any subjcct which can fairly givo riso to tho desircd di.-ctission Hiiruig nie irescui sckiiou. i wuii uo othcr proof of this ili'torniination of thc innjority of llio Houso than the rcsolution nfiVred by tho gcnllenicn from Viiginin, (.Mr Mnson,) nnd ndoptcd on the '-.'(itli of Jiinnnry. The reason allcgcd for this rcso lution was, tho defcnrclcss coudiliou of tho country ; thc fcnrs cntcrtnined of n wur with FYiinco, nnd conspipitntly the grcat iiniiortnnco of passing thu iippropriation bills wilhout delay. This wns nll plnusiblo pnoiigh, if tho circunistnnrcs acconipaiiying nnd prcccd ing the rcsolution had not takcu nwny thu ground nssuuied. Tlic nnvy bill, 'than which nnne wns of nioro inipoilniict', hnd i.. ., . . t becn tnkcn up nt tho instanro of thu I'luur- mnn oftho Committco of Vays anil Mcans on llii1 13th Jnnuarv: nnd, nlllioiiL'li all tho rcasons for siiccdy nction upon it existcd nt thr.t t!mo which wcro aftcrwnrds nllegcd, yct it wns lnid ovcr the very next day, nnil nindo to give placo fiom "day to dny, lo rncnsurcs of inforior imiiortancc, wilhout i.-aiiiiiuiiimi ur MMiif;j. vjm nni ui Jnnunry, tho rrinjority of the Houso agrecd l .. .i... nn.i to considcr thc rpsohuion ol'tlin gpiitlcmnu from Massnchlisi'ttH (Mr Adnius) nnd all lho ordcrs nf the Ilousc, and ronspquently, nll the businr.ssof ihc House wns posipmi ed for tho purposo of hearing n discussiou on the Jois of tho llirco million npprojirin tion. This subjcct wns penuittcd to occu py four or five dnys; liut thoexpcrienco ol that discuFsion produced a vcry dccidcd change in the Houso iu regnrd to tho pro pricty of party discussiou in gcncnil. It wns vrry evidcnt, thnt nllhougli the niajor ity wcro highly grnlificd by lho cflini of tho'iionornblu gotitletnan who oflertd lho rcsolution, (Mr Adnins,) yct thcy did not rclish the reply qulto so wcll. Somo un ensiness b.'gnn to ho fclt licforc tho gontlo tnnti froni Virginiii (Mr Wiso) coiiclndcd liis rcmcrks; and inany of tho party bogan to tliink tliut any inilulgcnco 111 such dis cussions wns wrong, nnd to wondcr liow thcy had (hllut) into tho cnor of voting to considcr thu rcsolution. Thc rcsolution of tho gcit'loinan froni Virginia (MrMnson) wns in good titno to rcpair thu crror into whicli thc party hml fallcn. It is dcsorving ofrctnark tliat on thu cvcnitigof tiic snine day oti whicli tlio rcsolution bj oflVircd, thu tncsscnger arrivcd in this city, hringing with hiin nn ofl'cr of tlic tncdiation ofGrent liritniu in scttling tlio dill'crcncu lictwccn this cotnilry and l'rnnco; and 1 havc silfli cicnt ovidctico to sntisfy inc, that hcforo tliat timc, iliforniation tlirongh soinc chnn ncl or othcr had rcachcd this Oovcrnmcnt that Englnnd wonld iutcrposc her good ollteos to prcvcnt a war. Mr Mason oxplnined, and dcnicd tlint ho had rcccivcd any inforitintion wlmtcvcr ofthc intcntion ofthc English Govcrninciil to ofl'cr hcr incd'uitiou. Ilc also said tliat thc rcsolution hnd hccn undcr ronsidcra tion in thoCoininittcc of Foreign Rclalions severul days hcforo iic otfcrcd it, and dcni cd tliat ho had any othcr niotivo in oll'cring tlic rcsolution than thu ono hu mmounccd at thu timc Mr Iloll rcsumcd: I inust say tliat 1 did suppose tho gcntlcinan froin Virginia pos sosscd S'.ino iiil'ormntion in rclation to thc Ercucli (picstion whicli wns not in thc knowlcdgo of llie House. I now dismiss my suspicions, uml ucquit liiin ; liut iRiiornnco of wliat inust havc hccn known uic uii ciiiiiMiiui u umi inc iiuur i unc o'clock cacli dav was the hour the rcsolu tion fixcd for taking up the appropriati"ii hills; tho ccrtaiuty that, liy this cotusc, tlic dcbato on thc rcsolution ofthc guntlcman froin iMassachusutts (Mr Adams) would ho cut olf; and tho fiinhcr circunistanco that othcr hills hcsiiles thosc, for thc support of thc armyand the nuvy and for fortilications were embraccd in that rcsolution, are suf finicnt to justify thc npinion that it was dcsigncd liy some of thoso whotook a part in uetting it brought forward and adoptcd to havo thc cflcct that 1 havc ascrihed to it. Hcsidcs I must say to thu gentlctnan frotn Virginia, that I cannot so rcadily forgivu liim for liis ncglcct, al'lcr hc had st-cn that thc approprintion hills still slcpt upon thc tuhlc,niid tliat tlio only efl'cct of his rcsolu tion wns to givc tho niajority of the Ilousc an undiio control ovcr its hiisincss, to como forward nnd niovc to rcscind it. Whcn nll prospcct of n war with Ernnce hnd ccascd, it was his iluty to havo takcn this coursc. I cannot forgct, citlicr, that, iustend of urg ing tho cxccution of the oidcr ho hnd oh. taincd, givtng a prefcrcnce to thc appropri ation hill, hc upon scvcrnl occasions gavo his votc to take up thc suhjects of minor iniportuncc. Sir, thc cffcct of that rcsolu tion was to givc an unduc powcr to the niajority iu this Ilousc ovcr tho suhjects of dchntc. It opcrntcd m rcstrain thc frcedotn of discussiou; and I hnve a right, tiuder the c.ireuinstaiiccp, to considcr that it was so intctulcd hy thu tnnjority. I pronounce thc coursc of procceding with that rcsolu tion as un)reccilcntcd, iinprliameninry, .I. I.- auu opprcssivo to tne minoruy, If the spirit ofthc rcsolutiuu of tho 20th ol Januarv, shall bc rarricd out by tho nnrtviiipowcr.it would rcsult in tho re- cnactnicnt of tho scdition law of 1798. It cst ornamonts nnd most distiuguishcd , nppcal to you, sir, whctlier you (MrllaintT) is foiindcd prcciscly upon thu snnic policy; chainpions of rcpiiblieaiiisni in Congrcss. 1 would not npou ri'llcctioii, lctract a sciiti nnd we havo ouly to go n stcp or two fur- alludo to Wm. li. Giles. incnt exprcsscd tho othcr day, nnd ndmit thcr, nnd tho objcct oflhe scdition law will I Aftcr dwclling at some lenglh upon tho tho iinportnnco of disciishing cvery pics bc cflccted, so fnr ns rcgnrds thc frcedom I first pnrt of n conversation which liad bo-1 tion conuectcd ncnrly or rcinotely with tlic of dcbatc in this llonse. 1 lio oliiect ol tlio seilitiou law ot J'JH was to supiircss discussiou, nnd to prcvcnt nttacks upon thc party in powcr. Sucli was tho objcct of this rcsolution. Thero is nioro than onc circumstnnco in tlic statn nf tho timcs, Mr Chairinau, which iscnlculalcd to icmind us ofthc eraof 1793, aud, that I inny not bc thought to have i refcrrcd to that period wilhout very sufli i i i n.. ... .!... cicnt reason, I bcir lcnvo bricfly to nolicc thc siniilnrity betwcen tho two prrinds of 1798 and 183(3. Tho ahcn and scdition Inws, the proposition of tho party then in powcr to pstnblisli a standing army, nnd lo cicnto aud mnintain n crcat nnvnl nrmn niPiit, wrrcrpgnrded by the republienn pnr ty in 1798 as hostilo to thogcnius nnd sjnrit df our frco iustitutions, nnd tcnding dccid edly to thc introdurtion of nibilrnrv power. Tho pnrty now in power nro iu lavor of bolh thcso mensurcR. Tho scdition law wns bnscd upon tho iden oftho samu inful libilitv oftho I'rcsidcni nnd tlic pnrty then in n mnjority m Cougress, wlncli is now nsumcd for tlic iue.-ent oxecutive and the pnrty now in powcr. Thcro wns said lo bo i n I'rcnch pnriy in lliia counlry in 1798 ; Inud mo-t slranco torclalc. it hns becn pro- ' claimpd upon this door, iu the courso of this dpbate, that thcro is n l''relich pnrty now iu this country. To show how the war pnnic, aud thu nronosition for a slnnd- ! inc nnny and n eicat nnvv. was snoken of, i i ! ,ia i ... n ....... iiimi ic.-iMvu in j,'o,nwi 10 iiuiHiimu uiu slrikiug cniiicidcnce nf tho two ticriod, I will rend nn oxirnci fiom ono of tho l I 1 l-fllfl im rivtrnnl fi...... t.it rf tlin .iiui' lliousnud rcmotistrnnrps lnid bcfnri! Con .... Kniiiiui fi.iiii ,ui. ... hiu unu grpss iu 1798-'99. Thc ono from which lliis oxlract is takcn wns ndoptcd nnd for wardcl by n ptiblip. incciing ofllicstcrn ippubliran ycotnnn of tho grcat Stato of lYniiRylvunin: "Your tnemorinlists would furtlipr bcg. lcnvo to rcinonstrato against scvcral oftho mcnHirrs, whicli citlicr havo bcen tidopted, or whirh may bo still iu contpmplniion, in poiiFctpii nco of our ncgntiation wiih tho r'ronch rcpublir, ns produclivo ofan nn ncccssnry increnso of tho public dcbt nnd the introduction of nn opprcssivo systctn of taxnnon. mcse mcasnrcs appenr to uo fottndcd on thc alnrm which lins hccn cx citcd nnd industriouslv circulntcd throiich- ! out the Unitcd Hlatcs, nbotit tho dnngcr of ! n Frciich iuvnsion. liut your mctriorialists see no goott reason to ticlicvo tliat thisnlarm is well l'otmdcd; Ibr, ndtnitting to bo truc, wliat 1 liis hccn sa oftcn nsscrtcd of lnte, that tho l'lcnch pcnplc hnvo becn so un fortuuatu us to cliooso for thenisclvcs nn E.vecutivo branch to their governmcnt, which is proud, vain, and ainbitiotis, and disposcd to cxcrciso iinduo influcnco or arbitrary control ovcr tlio Lcgislntivo coun cils of otlr country, and aro incliucd to convcit thc powcr and rcsourccs of tlint iintiou to such purposcs as will licst suit their ntnbiliotis tirojects, yct it docs not nppcar tlint tjicy liavo nny intcntion or dis position to iuvnde this country. Your ineiuorialhts cannot scc iu an oxncditiou to Egypt, or ngaiustthe Jtrilisli Ecttlcinciiis in thu East ludics, or iu tho supposcil bad conduct of the Ercnch annics in Hwilzer land or in Italy, uny ovidcnce of any iuteii ti.in to invado tho Unitcd Staics, morc cs pccially whcn it is consideied that thcy aru dcstiltitc of n force by sca, nnd at war with a natiouso greatly supcrior to tlicm on tho water. Your mcniorlalists tborcforo con cuivc that this alariu, which thcy think must now bc considered as altogcthcr ill foiindcd, ought not to be dccnicd n motivc suflicicut to justify tho introduction ofa stamling army in tho Unitcd Stntcs, nnd thc csiablishincnt of nn crpcnsivc nuvy which nuist greatly incrcasu the publi'c dcbt, intioduco an opprcssivc and liur dcusome system of taxatioti, nnd rcmovc all hopcs from the pcoplo of cver bcing rc liovcd from the ovils that grow out ofa funding system." I bcg lcavc uUo to read a paragraph (rom tho Hcport of tlio Sccrctany of the Nnvy, in 17flt, upon the subji'ctof incrcasingthis nnn of tho National dcfencc. Taking cnrc to ornit tlio dutc, this report might vcry propcrly havo becn copicd and scnt to Congrcss as a stibstitlitc for thc (loclrini.'s and rccommendations of thc last spccial messnge. "Tho protcction of our coast; tho fccu ritory of our cxtcnsivo country fiom inva sion iu sonieof its wcakcr pnrts; thesafcty ofour importnnt commercc; and, our fu turc pence, whcn tho mnritime nations of Etiropo war with cnch othcr; nll scein to dcmaud that ournaval forcu should bo nug tncntcd ; so inucli nugmcntcd, indccd, ns to tnnkc the tnost powerful nations dcsiro our friendship, tho most unprinciplcd rc spcct our ncutrality. Thc peaccl'ul char nctcr of Ainerica will nfl'ord to tho world suflicient sccurity that wo shall not bc easi ly provokcd to carry tho wnrinto tho coun try of nn cnciny ; and it wcll bccotncs tho wisdom of America to provido n chcap do fcnco to kccp it froin otirown." I might further corroborato whnt 1 havo said of tho strikiiiL' rcsciublnnce lictwccn the docirines nnd incidenls of tho crn of 1793 nnd tho prcscnt period, by cuioling frotn thc report of tho Sccretary of Wnr, tnado in 1706; but it is only n repctition ol the same views, npplicd to thc nrniy, cm lirnced in :hu extruct I have just cited. liut, sir, thcre was n panie got up in 1798, nlso. To show upon whnt ground this panic was crented, nnd how it was mct by tho lcaders of the republicnn party of that il.iv. 1 will rcnil an cxtract fiom a eotem- Iporary publicntion ofoneof tho niost dis tinguishcd of that party, n son of Virginia, ;r- ut-1 son's aduiinistrnlion, wns onc of thu grcat rome tho subicct of n newsiiapcr ihsctis-1 sion, ilr Gilcs procccdcd tlius: "I reirinrkcd tlint I ulwnys had bcen, nnd stdl was, n frieiid of the Umon ; yct, if the ineusurcs proposcd were to be adoptcd ns n pcrmimout system, I would rather see n separation of tlic Union, upon prnpcr nnd pncilic nrrnngeincnts, than to bo perctual - ly Riibjcct to all the permcioui consetpicn- ccs, which, in tuy opinion, would necessa rily flow frnm thcm. I considpicd disun. ion ns n dcplorablo cvont ; but lcss deplora ble tlinn n pcrpctuity of cxicnsiro arinics perpetuity ot expcnsivunnvics perpctu- ity of cxccssive debts pcrpctuity of e.xces- sivo inxcH auu an llio oppicssivu cuusc iupiiccs rcsiilting tlicrefrom. I explained luriher, by stiy'mg that I hopcd thesti pro iositions would ncvcr bo inatiircd into jmliticnl systcms; lhnt I trusti'd thc consti tutioiinl corrcctivo would f.oon bo npplicd ; that after the people should licconio ap prizcd oftho nrtificc ofcxcitiiiguud playing ofl" their prcjudipps iu ono jinrt (ol tlio Union agninst tlicir pipjudipcs iu nnothcr, nftcr thcy should bccomo fntigucd with thc ynrious dclusions prnctiscd upon Ihcin by intcrcstcd partisans, they will listcn tn tho vnicn of nitPi'Pst, nnd,"in n rcgulnr niid rnnstitutiniinl wny, rclicvo thoniselves from their opprcssions, ifthcy should, tiufnrlu nntcly boHystcmaii?cd." I lieso tnools nnd n'lcrcnccs cstnhlii'li liovond cavil the truth of whnt I hnvo said , , , as to tnn eiosu rcscinnianco netwccn tne parties in powcr iu 1798 nnd nt the prrsrnt IIIUIIIUIIIl I IHJ (MllllWUY I". III IIIU ..mm..... rIM.n ...... 11... !.. .1... powers nssunicd bv nuu lor tlic E.vrrutive, .. .1 !!.... ! l...: ... in tlio policy in rclation to n siauduii: nr my aud n grcnt nnvnl cstaliliahmnit, nnd iu niany oftho practiccs oftho paity thcuand now in iiower. fiir, tho docirines aud praeticpH of the pnrty in powcr in 1798, I nflirm, nro viudicnicd nnd justiflcil hy tho courso nnd piiiiciplcK oftho ono now tn tho nseendency. Tho gcntlciuan from Massu clnlVotts, (Alr Adanis) is not so incnnsi.steut nssome of his formcr frionds havo suppos cil hiin to bc. Ho is now supporling lho prindiplcs to which hoadhorcd during his own ndministratinn, nnd whir.h lio is also iuipcllcd to siistain by tlio niost powerful nnd intcrcsting uonsidcratious nrising out of tlio rccollcction who it wns tlint held thc rcins of Govcrnnicnt of 1793. Tho gcu tlcinnn froni Mnssnchttsclts hus not chaiig cd his principlcs, liut tho dominant party havo hccoinc conorts to his docirines and policy. I infcr tlint lio is now ongnged to support tlicm in all their mcnMires; but this is n dcclaintion I feel, upon rcllcctioti, I havc no right to tnakc. liut, sir, nlnriniug nnd datlgernus ns wcrc thc prctcusinus ol the fcdcral party iu 1798, it was lcss daugcrous to tho cotmtiy and its institutious, than tho onc which is now secking to pcrpctuntc its powcr and I ma.vims. Tho party in powcr in 1798, had ' tln. frnnkncss and inanliiicss lo nssuino nnd avuw their principlcs. They tipcnly pro- i claimcd tlicm, delendcd tlicm witli courago1 nnd fiimlly fellby theui. liut sir, the party i now in powcr shrink froin thc open nvowal of llioir rcal principlcs. Thcy assumu tho i mask of rcpublicans ; and white tliey prac-1 tico upon soinc ol tlio most oilious maxiuis of tho party iu powcr in it'.m, llicy do all iu the iiiinic of dcmocrncv nnd liberty Ifnny onc slinll objcct to this discii.ssiou bccnuso it savors ol prcsideiit-iuuking ; if nny gcutluman shall bo dcltidcd by the opinion that topics dircctly conncctcd with politics of the day should bo oxcludcd li oin this hall, 1 ask liim to rcllcct for a momeut upon the fact tliat uo subjcct at this day, of iniportuncc, ilocs or can arise in Loiigrcss which is not sustaincd or opposed, nnd fiually dccidcd, upon principlcs aud niotives which entcr dircctly and dccply into tlio presidoutial canvass, aud nltimalcly dccide that i-isuc, And, whcn, sir, tlio nction ol i tliis Ilousc, nnd so grcat a proportion ofthc buaiucss of tho Ilousc, are diclatcd nnd coiitrolled bv liarty views, nnd lo deprcss or iidvauco thc jirnsprcts of onc orthc othcr of tliecniididutcs for tho picsidcney, shall it lio held improjicr to spcak out, to nvow opculy, and viudicato iu ilcbale llie inotivcs nnd principlcs which nctually goxcrn our votcsr Sir, docs not uvcry guntlcman know that tho vcry first biisiiicss of the scssion I incan thuelcction of tho iirinci pal ofliccrs of the Ilousc, nnd that ono cspccially, who is known to posscss grcat powcr aud influriicc iu shapiug nnd direct ing tlic cntiro busiucss of thc scssion was dccidcd tipongrotmdsintimately conncctcd with prcsident-niaking ? I hopo I mny bo pcrmtlti d to rcfcr to this part of tlio nction of tlio IIouso witliout ofl'ence, siuco I can do so witliout tho slightcst fccling on my part agaiust any portion of tho uienibcrH who composc it. That clcction, sir, was openly claimcd nnd boasted of iu thc col uinns of thc party jiress as a tcst ol the Etrcngib ol'iho imrty atlachcd to thc inter csts of the Vico l'lcsident. liut, Mr Chairinau, it hns of latc liccomc morc importnnt than at nny (oruicr ciiod in the history of tho Govcrnnicnt that this subjcct of piesidcut-making should be takcn up scriously, aud mado a part of thu regular busiucss of Congrvg!). liy forcc of tliat system of pnriy urgam.ation aud dis cipliue which is now rapidly maluring nnd sprcudiug itsclf ovcr thu country, it must soon como to pnss, (if, indccd it is uot now thc rase) that the clcction ofa l'rcsidclit will dctcrmiuo cvery othcr qucstion of public policy or public intcrest for nt lcast Ibur ycnrs, and perhaps eight. If this be so; if it be truc that cvery thing is to bc scitlcd by the ili'crrcs of tho party, nnd that tho iTcsiilent, as tlic liead ot the pariy, is only tho organ tlirongh which their dccrce is to bo coinniunicatcd to Congrcss, then I prf sidciitinl eli'ctiou .' I rcpcat lhnt il'ihc ! doctriuo is to be I'stablishcd, that uo mcui ! hcrof lliis Houso who profcssi'B lo bnlong , to the pnrty in powcr can voto ngaiust n ( mcasuro rccnniniindcd citlicr pujiliclvor privatcly by tho rrcsidcnt,wiihout incuring tho iinputntion of dcscrting his parly, (nnd 1 mch 1 bclievo is thc rigor of the new sys- lem of pnrty tnctics m opcrulion;) il wliat cver the l'rcsident rccnmniciids cannot bc rcsistcd by tho pnrty who (irofess to support liim, I nsscrt thnt tl'iis subjcct of presideuti mnking is thc first nnd most iniporlnut thnt cnn nnd ought to occupy ourattPiition. If the rcsult ofan clcction is to nuuihitatc the indcpciidcnt powcr of nction by CVingre.-s, . nnil put uvcry ihiug iuto thc linuils of llio ! I....u!.lnnt r,rti titiet. !t ia tl.im nni milt l X 11.(1110 iii i, miv,, ii ,iiij. i J nsscrt tho light nnd dispuss the tpicstion here, liut tn do it prouiptly, frcely nnd fully; nnd it shall not bo niy fault "if it is not iIoiip. Thcro is strong rcnson to bclieve thnt tho obligalions of party aro held so sarrcd thnt nono who bclong lo the niajority ilaro lo do nny nct which ihc I'rpsidcnt should foibid, or to fnil in ihc support of wlialovcr ho sliould rcpomuieiul llmowo notlntely seen lho forco of this oblignlion to be so'slrong in tho House, thnt tlio nb soluto powcr of pcncn nnil of war wns rcady to be yielded up, in cfl'crt, iuto tho handsof oue maii ? Couiiug to this House undcr the p.Mraordinary pnrty plcdgcs usual in populnr clcctinusol latc, I hojie it will not ho roL'iirded as inniropcr or diro Bpcctful to ask, iftho l'rcsident hnd, during the Into crisis, snid " wo must havo wnr," would tho pnriy iu this llotibchnvo had thc jiowec to guhiMiy it ? War wo must then iiavc had, aud tho moral powcr was not in lliis Houso to rcsist it, lintccr may havo hccn tho privnlu opinion of lmnorahlo membcrs of thu wisdom of biich a incns ui u. No occnsion can bo nioro nppropriato for tho discussiou of tho principlcs nnd practiccs of thu Governmcnt tlinn lho ono prcscntcd bv tho npproirintion bills, pro- scntcil ns n wholo. It im proposcd lo incrcnto thu nnnuul evpcnilituro for tho inilitary dcfcnr.es of tlio conntry nnd intcr ual iiiiprovcmcnt tcn inillioiiH iu ono ycar. It isn new crnin tho history of thegovcrn ment. extravngant ti propositiou is tuiknown in our annnls. Tho rcsults ol this now policy nro beyond tho kcn or conccption of mnny; but thoae who plnnncd it iinucrstood tlicm well ouougli, tliough it may not ho dcsirnblc to their intercsts to nvow tlicm nll nt once. Tho first inevitalilo result ol'tliis policy, if it rIiiiII be sanctioncd by oii"ress, will'bo tho introduction in n sliort period, ofan incrcascd and opprcssivo system of taxation. An incrcascd atuiunl oxpcudituro ol'ten tuillious muy bo mct for n l'ew ycars from tho prcscnt sourccs of revenuo ; but tho public lands urc now in a stnto of such rupid exhnustion that vcry soou wo will liiul our revt'iiue from this qunitcr rcduccd ton milliou orlcss. Thc puli'ic works which wo nro now nbout to cnuiincucu must be carricd on, nnd funds will havc to bo raiscd to support thoso whicli inny bo conipleted in the incnn timc. Thcneoiucsa new and incrcascd system of luxi.tion, ns n itiattcr ol coursc, witli its usual coursc ol cvils. Jiut wliat will hu nioro bcnous conscmicnco is, tho grcat iucreasc ofthc army aud nuvy, whicli cannot liiil to follow the mloption of this now and extravagnnt policy. Whcn all the navy yarilH,nnd all the new fortilications proposcd to bc t'Stablishcd, shall be complctcil, a standing army ol lcss than liftccn or tweniy thousaiid incn would not bo thoiight ol, or toleraled, undcr the new impulso which is soon to bo givcn to tlio inilitary spirit. Ilidcrd, lcss tlinn ihntnunibcr would not hu snfticicntto gunrd our westcrn frouticr, nnd nt tho enino timo sccurc so mnny l'oriificn-i tions on tlic sca coast ogninst surtiri'se. As to thc navy, nftcr such gigimtic prcparntions ; for thc improvcnicut nnd incrcaso of it ns ' aro now proposcu, will a nnvy ot less tlinn or nntional dishonor, tlio linard ol Dotli ono hundrcd ships nf wnr iu cominission be nnnerrsonrily incurrcd could not fnil to ex rcgardcd as at all adniissiblo for a counlry cito a fcclintr of dcen rcnroach. I earnest- of such rcsourccs, of such character and 1 importnnce iu tlio scnlo of nations ? Such ! nro tho views ofgrandcurniid power which nrc now begiiiningto cxcrciso nu iniporlnut influcnco ovcr the coursc of mnny of tho i leading iiicli in powcr. Some opinion may bo formed ofthc uiHiiuificcnco oftho iiro- jcctsol thc party from Ihc dcclaration upon tlus subjcct ol tlic gcntlcman lroiu I.orK (.AlrCanibrelciig,) madcinthe courso of his rcmarKS upon tlic rcsolution ot tlio gcnllc niaii from Massachusctts (Mr Adams.) That gentlctnan exprcssed n hopc that, in a sliorttimc, wc would sco tho 'navy ol this counlry placed on n footing to copo with tho most powerful ninritimo powcr of Eti ropo ! Who docs not sco from nll this that wo aro to ha"c an incrcascd laiill'in duo scason, uud that thc mnnngcrs oftho party nre prcpariug to claim tho support of the manufncturiug intercsts ? liut if wc should bcsntisfled tlint it is tho truc policy oftho country to ndopt the plnn of dcfending tlio country by fuiiiiicntions, no innttcr nt wliat post; to increnso tho nnny nnd navy, al the risk even ofan incrcnscd system oftnxntion ; nill the iiiquiry nnd discussiou which I proposc to go into will be nf grcnt iinportancc. The system of public dcfcncc, may bc wisc and prudent in itsclf; but tho timc and thc rnanncr of of carry mg it into execution may nnd docs, demund n scparato cousideratinn. The iuiprovcmcut of the navy, and thc new for tificnlions projectcd, it is cstimnteil, will rcipiiro nn aniiual expcndilure of tcn mil lions for tcn ypars ; iimking a totnl of one liundrcd niillinr.s. The fnithful nnd judi- cious npplication ol tlus vast tuuil. Isuppos- ing it to bo sctlled that it shall be cxpendcd upon thcso obiccts) bccomes n subjcct of tho dcciiest intcrest to the wholo counlry. Tho counlry hns n right to inquirc who nro tho ngcnts nnd public Fcrvants nbout to be cntrustcd with lho disburspincut of this cuorinous ciqiital ? Aro thcy faithful? Arc thcy conipctcnt ? Have they proved thein nclvcs so upon post trinl ? Sir, a grcnt pre liuiiunry qucstion is to bo settled bcforo wo add tcn tnillions to tho usual nnuuiil ex pcndilure? It is n quest on of confidcncc in public servnnts ns well ns nf cxpcdicncy. Who are they thnt dcnimid from tho rep rcsciitntivps oi'tlie pcoplo this signal mnrk of conlidcncc to plnco len luillions iu their hnnds during tlie prcscnt ycar, moic ilinu nt any former period ? Aro they the sanip public scrvants who hnve had chnrge of ihc public defenccs during our lnte dilli pullips with Frnnco, nnd tiuder whoso su pprintcndcnce tliey hnvosufl'crcd dccny nnd dilnpidntion? liy whnt titlo do thpy nsk this cxtrnordinnry evdenco of confidcncc? Sir, thcy nsk for luoncy aud inercased confidpnre; wo ilcmnud bcrutiuy into past condiict. They nsk for rcward for iiast mcrit nnd servic'p; it inny bccomo our duty to nrrnign thcm ns dclinqucnts beforc the tribimnl nf the public, instcnd of pouriug tlic trcnsury into their Inps. To voto nion cy, is the lcast iliflicult nnd most plcasnnt duty of a rcprespntntive of tho people; it rpqiiircs nciihcr expcricncc, industry, tnli'iils, nnr fulelitv in mcmbcrs. liut, si'r, tn see nnd to piov'ido that it shall bo fttitli. fn ly expcndcd, nnd applied to objccts of pulilic ulility, is n moru ilitlirult ns well ns moro importnnt pnrt of our liutv. 1 nm nwnro that upon this qucstion ofcoufideucc aud conipelcncy of tlio nuhlic. oflicers ol' tlio Govcrnnicnt, ns well ns tho policy of innuitig inrgo ujiproprinitonstor imiuiiug up tho defenccs ot thocouiilrv, llicre isn rundy nnd conelusive nrL'umciit nt haiid iu the ininds of mnny. 1 kunw wcll eiiough thnt nll nbjcctioiis nro intcndcd to bo mct nnd liut down here, nnd bcforo tho people, by liolding up forllicirduo regnrd and ncquies ccnco tho scntinicnt nnd iccoiiuneiidutinn of tho Into Mieciid messnge upon Erpnch afl'mrs. It sliould bo boruu iu uiilid thnt 25,000 copics of that nicssage wero nrder cd to bo printed by this House; nnd in n wcck Irom tlio dato ol tlint ordcrtlio wholo j uumbcr wa snid to bo published, nnd nt tho disposal of mcmbcrs, wlio", nt tho snmo timc, thcrc wcro docuincnts ordcrcd to be printed nt the cotnmcncemcnt of tho sesVion which hnd not bcen furnishcd. It is ensy to pcuctrato tho dcsign of this un usunl dcspntch. That docuincnt wns cx pcctcd to givo tono to public scntiment, genernlly nnd spccdily. Tho cffect of it upon tlns JIouso, nftcr it hnd had timo to o rcturncd upon it tlirongh n thousand channcls, wns rclicd upon to pnss tho bill nocessary to carry this new policy of tho odtninUtration into cxccution. I bcg lcavo to rcntl a fiinglc pnrngrnph of this messnge, tliat I tnny submit a l'ew reinarks upon tho singulnr character of it. "1 inny bo pcrmittcd,! trtist, ntthis timo, witbont u suspicion of tho most rcmoto de piro to throw ofl ccnsuro from the Exccu tivo, or to point it to nny othcr dcpartraent or branch of thc Governmcnt, to rcfcr to tho wani-of cfTcctive (lreparation in whicli our country was found at tho lato crisis. From the nalure nf our inslilulions, the muvcments nf tke Govcrnnicnt in vrevaratxon for hnsiililkn must cvcr he too stow for the erigencies of unexnccted war. I subuut it then to you, whether tho first duty we own to the pcoplo, who hnvo confidcdtous their powcr, i not to placo our country in sucli nttitude ns ulwnys to be so nmply supplicd with tho mcnns of self-dcfcnco ns to all'ord no inducciucut to other nations to prcsunio upon our forbearnuce, or to expect impor tnnt advantagcs from n smUlen nssault, ci tlicr upon our commercc, our scnconst, or our iuterior frontier. In caso of thc com tnencemcntof hostilitics during tho reccsp of Conprcs?, tho timo incvitatily clapsing liulorc tliat hoily could uo called to''etlicr, cvcii undcr thc niost lavornblc circum- Etances, would be prcgnnnt with dnngcr, nnd, if we cscnpad wilhout signal disnstcr ly ricommcntl to you, thereforc, to malcc such provhions, that in no fulurc timc shall tre be ifound wilhout amvlc mcans to repcl nggrcss- io)i, evcn alUioujiii tt may come upon ua icithoul n nolc of waming. AVe arc now, fortunatclj', no situatcd, that tlic cxpcndi turc for this purposc will not be fclt ; nnd, if it wcrc, it would bo npprovcd hy thoso from whoni nll its nmnns nrc dcrivcd, and lor whoso bcncfit only it should bo used, with a libcral cconoiny and nn enlightencd forecast." Hcro, sir, wo havc n distinct nvowal that thcro has bcen n gross ncglcct somewhere. Tlint is snmctliing gnincd ; but it is left doubtful whi'ther it is Congrcss or the Ex ccutive that is chnrgcnblc with the ncglcct which is so mnuifcst as to cnll for a full ncknowlcdgmcnt. It is evidcnt, however, tlint the cflcct of thc umimer of this ndinis sion is to shipld tho dclinipients, whoever thcy niny bc, nnd to charge the defcnceless condition in our country at thc lnte crisis to tho nnture of our Governmcnt. I slinll, hcforo I sit down, cndcavor to viudicato our form of Governmcnt from this chnrgc, at lcast so far as ronccrns the lato dcfnult. I pledgc myself to show who were tho renl dclinqucnts, nnd wliat wcrc their ein ployments whcn they should have liecn taking caro of thc public safcty nnd inter csts. Ilut thcre nppcnrs to tne to bo nn inconsistcncy in tho passngc I hnvo just rcad, whicli I rannot omit to point out. In ono part of thc paiagraph thc scntiment is exprcssed : " Fi om the nature of our instilutions. the movemcnls of the Governmcnt in prcpar- (inons jor nosiumts viusi cver uc 100 sioiv for the cxig enc.es of uncxpcclcdtcar." ln nnotlicr nart of thc sainc pnrncrnpli. wc find this scntence : " earneslly rt com mtnd to you, thcrcfore, to viake such provis ions, that tn no futurc timc shall we le found u ithout ample means to repcl uggression, cvtn althnvgk it may come upon us icithoul a nofe of warning." Now, sir, I do not know tliat it is proper to considcr this pussngo ns lho result of dclibcratiou, or to criticise too closely n nnpcr whicli, liko many of tho samo kind, linvc oftcn to be drawn up witliout nfl'ord ing timo for close or nccurnto revision; but it is mnnifpst tlint this docuincnt wns intcn dcd nnd expcctcd to produce r.'sults of tho grentcst iinportnnco to lho country. It wna douhtlcss intcnded to jircparo nnd recon cile tho public mind to tho chnngo of poli cy by tho party in power, nnd to givo jiop ulnrity to tho projcct of expending tho siirpliisrcvcnue upon such objectsas would rniso us to tho first rnnk ntnong nations in inilitary nnd nnvnl powcr. 1 regnrd it, thereforc, ns entircly proper to point out nny inconsistcncy which mny iinpair tho cflcct of it. It would be idle to voto n hun dred millions to tho public dcfcncc of tho country, if it bo truo tlint, by rcnson of tho nnture of our Governmcnt, it is impossiblo thnt tho country can cvcr bo.put into a counition to tncet the enicrgency of sud den wnr. Mr Chairman.I regnrd tho timc ns pnr ticulorly propitious to n gencrnl review of tlio rnnduct nnd principlcs of men in pow er, cspccially in refercnco to tho public defenccs. Tho rrench qucstion is nt nn end, nnd we rnn nnw jnquire iuto tho con diict of the public. ofliccrs who nre rcspon sible for theui, and hold thcm up nnkcd to thc world, wilhout tho risk of exposing our wcnkness to n pulilic cnciny. A timo ot peace, too, it is said, is tho tune to prc pnro for wnr. Tliiu is lho greai ninxim upon which tlio new policy of tho ndmin istratinn is cxpcctrd to bo suppnrtcil. A true and wiso tuaxiin it is, but ono wliiclt is only Imlf understood by those in whoso mouihs wo most frequcntly find it. JNlnny supposo thnt tho only propnrntinn for wnr cnnsits in incrensiiig our inilitary and na vnl cstnbliliments. The grent niinistor of tho fourth Henry of Fmncp, wlio wns Riirnnmed tho Grcnt, understood tho full importof thismaxim. Thebcst, thetrucst,