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VOL. V. W. 3. MONTPELIER, VT.) ITIA.Y 31, 183G. IV JIOjLE NO. 240.
avnr.cn ov nos. johx hell,
DcltvercJ in tho Houso of Knprcscntrttivcs,
Marcli 17, 1C35.
Mr CiiAtnMAN, I desirc that I sliould
luit Ijc understood, from tlic remnrks licrc
tofore suhiiiittcd by tuo 011 tlic liill undcr
eonsldcrntion, to !io hostilc to tlio Nnvy, or
evon tosuch fortificntionsas may bc known
to lio nccessary lo tlic dofonco of our niost
iiii)ortant coinmercial and naval dcpots.
On thc contrnry, I nm dccidcdly in fuvor of
a cousidurnhlo increnso of our prcscnt nn
vnl estnblishment. Iiidccd, I do not lc
inctnber a scntiment delivcrcd by tho gcn
tleinau wlio preccdcd mo in tlio dchntc,
(Mr Clinmhcrs,) upon this point to whicli I
do not yield a licnrty conciirroncc. Wliat
I wisli to ncconiplish ly my tnotion is, thnt
wo shall fir.st sottlo and adopt soinc system
or plan of improvcincnt, in this brnnch of
tho nalional defonoc, which dinll prouiiso
u grenter degreo ofccononiy nnd cflicieney
tlian vu can hopo for utitlcr tho prcscnt
I now proposo, Mr Chairinau, to cxtcnd
thc raugo of this dcbato niucli hcyoiid thc
latitinlc nssumed in lho prcpcdinc part of
it. I proposu to reniiirk frcclv itpnti the
gencrnl policy of tho prcscnt ndininistration
us Intely dcvcloped. Tho principlcs anil
practiccs of thoso in powcr aro always
Mihjcct.s of great intcrest to tlic conntry.
Thoso oftho party whicli now control tlio
iifl'nirs of this repiiblic nrc peculiarly so at
this timc. Whilu it is mv intcntion, in !
wliat I shall say ou thcsc suhjects, to hc to tho Govcrnnicnt only shows tliat thc dc
pcrfcctly icspcctful to tho fcolings and mo-' grcu of confidcncc M whicli liis station in
ticsof thc coinmittcc, and cspccially lo ' this Houso cntitlcs liim is not givcn to hiin
thoso who ronstituto thu niaioritv of tho I hy thoso at thu hcad of afl'uirs. Btill, sir,
Ilousc of Itcpresentalivcs, yct, with thcse
limilations, it is my iutciition to intlulgctlio
- ..f" l ! ... . .
liiivilcgc of dcbato to tho ntmost extcnt of
parliamcntary liccnse.
I desircd some suitable occasion for tho
iiidulgcnce of the vcry wido rango ofrc
tnark upon which I amabout to cntcr than
the prcscnt bill. I would havo greatly prc
fcrrcd thc bill reported hy tho gentlctnan
froin Ivcntucky, (Mr Johnson,) ninking ap
inopriations for a grcat uumbcr of new
fortifications. Thc bill propos'mg on cxtm
approprintion for thc improvcment and iu
crcasc ofthc navy would havc hccn select
od in prefcrcnce lo the prccnt onc ; but,
sir, I lmve latcly had my doubts whctlier it
is intcndcd that citlicr of theso hills Bhall
lie actcd upon beforo tho close of tho scs
sion, whcn ilcba'.e will bc oot of tho (pics
tion. I kno'v the rcsponsibilities to which
1 may subjcct myself by tnnking this bill
tho subjcct ofa tedious dcbatc. I am snt
isfied that I might expect soinc better cf
fcct froni thc reuiiu ks 1 intcnd to ofl'cr, if I
had becn nioic fortunnto in tlic occasion of
theui. Ilut, sir, the timc nnd the occusion
I hnve sclcctcd, may not, afier all be of so
iHilch consciiupncc. Orcatcr skill in iar
liamcntary tactics might havo cnablcd inc
to do grcatcr justicc to my subjcct, by tak
ing u difl'crcut coursc from the onc I nni
about to adopt ; but I nm cnrotinigcd by
thcsaying ol'tho gnllant Nclsou. iipou ponic
occasion whcn tho importnnce of skill in
nnvnl Inctics was Fnoktm of : "A Captain
(said hc,) cannot bc fnr wrong, who, iu
liattlp, lays his ship nlong-s'idc of tho cnc
my." Such a discussiou as I proposo is nlways
Falutary, nnd ought to be indulgcd at cvery
tcssion of Cougrosx; in truth, it sliotild
ncvcr be omittcd. Ifnny find fault with
the dclay that is likcly to occur, lct thein
take consolation from tho motto of tho
Governmcnt iournal, which is, tliat " tho
world is govcrncd too inuch ;" n proposi
tion, howcvcr, by no means consistent with
thc nrincinles of tho nartv of which this
ioiirnnl is the orirnn.
JSut it it slinll lio in-1
qtiircd, wliy provoKc a party discussiou
unon tlio navy bill, or upon any of the np
propriation hills ? why not bring forward
some distinct proposition, iu tho f.haio of n
rcsolution? I answer, bccauso 1 pcrceivo
n sctlled purposo in llio Ilousc to prcvcnt
tho introduction of any subjcct which can
fairly givo riso to tho desircd di.-ctission
Hiiruig nie irescui sckiiou. i wuii uo
othcr proof of this ili'torniination of thc
innjority of llio Houso than the rcsolution
nfiVred by tho gcnllenicn from Viiginin,
(.Mr Mnson,) nnd ndoptcd on the '-.'(itli of
Jiinnnry. The reason allcgcd for this rcso
lution was, tho defcnrclcss coudiliou of tho
country ; thc fcnrs cntcrtnined of n wur
with FYiinco, nnd conspipitntly the grcat
iiniiortnnco of passing thu iippropriation
bills wilhout delay.
This wns nll plnusiblo pnoiigh, if tho
circunistnnrcs acconipaiiying nnd prcccd
ing the rcsolution had not takcu nwny thu
ground nssuuied. Tlic nnvy bill, 'than
which nnne wns of nioro inipoilniict', hnd
i.. ., . . t
becn tnkcn up nt tho instanro of thu I'luur-
mnn oftho Committco of Vays anil Mcans
on llii1 13th Jnnuarv: nnd, nlllioiiL'li all tho
rcasons for siiccdy nction upon it existcd nt
thr.t t!mo which wcro aftcrwnrds nllegcd,
yct it wns lnid ovcr the very next day, nnil
nindo to give placo fiom "day to dny, lo
rncnsurcs of inforior imiiortancc, wilhout
i.-aiiiiiuiiimi ur MMiif;j. vjm nni ui
Jnnunry, tho rrinjority of the Houso agrecd
l .. .i... nn.i
to considcr thc rpsohuion ol'tlin gpiitlcmnu
from Massnchlisi'ttH (Mr Adnius) nnd all
lho ordcrs nf the Ilousc, and ronspquently,
nll the businr.ssof ihc House wns posipmi
ed for tho purposo of hearing n discussiou
on the Jois of tho llirco million npprojirin
tion. This subjcct wns penuittcd to occu
py four or five dnys; liut thoexpcrienco ol
that discuFsion produced a vcry dccidcd
change in the Houso iu regnrd to tho pro
pricty of party discussiou in gcncnil. It
wns vrry evidcnt, thnt nllhougli the niajor
ity wcro highly grnlificd by lho cflini of
tho'iionornblu gotitletnan who oflertd lho
rcsolution, (Mr Adnins,) yct thcy did not
rclish the reply qulto so wcll. Somo un
ensiness b.'gnn to ho fclt licforc tho gontlo
tnnti froni Virginiii (Mr Wiso) coiiclndcd
liis rcmcrks; and inany of tho party bogan
to tliink tliut any inilulgcnco 111 such dis
cussions wns wrong, nnd to wondcr liow
thcy had (hllut) into tho cnor of voting to
considcr thu rcsolution. Thc rcsolution
of tho gcit'loinan froni Virginia (MrMnson)
wns in good titno to rcpair thu crror into
whicli thc party hml fallcn. It is dcsorving
ofrctnark tliat on thu cvcnitigof tiic snine
day oti whicli tlio rcsolution bj oflVircd,
thu tncsscnger arrivcd in this city, hringing
with hiin nn ofl'cr of tlic tncdiation ofGrent
liritniu in scttling tlio dill'crcncu lictwccn
this cotnilry and l'rnnco; and 1 havc silfli
cicnt ovidctico to sntisfy inc, that hcforo
tliat timc, iliforniation tlirongh soinc chnn
ncl or othcr had rcachcd this Oovcrnmcnt
that Englnnd wonld iutcrposc her good
ollteos to prcvcnt a war.
Mr Mason oxplnined, and dcnicd tlint
ho had rcccivcd any inforitintion wlmtcvcr
ofthc intcntion ofthc English Govcrninciil
to ofl'cr hcr incd'uitiou. Ilc also said tliat
thc rcsolution hnd hccn undcr ronsidcra
tion in thoCoininittcc of Foreign Rclalions
severul days hcforo iic otfcrcd it, and dcni
cd tliat ho had any othcr niotivo in oll'cring
tlic rcsolution than thu ono hu mmounccd
at thu timc
Mr Iloll rcsumcd: I inust say tliat 1 did
suppose tho gcntlcinan froin Virginia pos
sosscd S'.ino iiil'ormntion in rclation to thc
Ercucli (picstion whicli wns not in thc
knowlcdgo of llie House. I now dismiss
my suspicions, uml ucquit liiin ; liut
iRiiornnco of wliat inust havc hccn known
uic uii ciiiiiMiiui u umi inc iiuur i unc
o'clock cacli dav was the hour the rcsolu
tion fixcd for taking up the appropriati"ii
hills; tho ccrtaiuty that, liy this cotusc, tlic
dcbato on thc rcsolution ofthc guntlcman
froin iMassachusutts (Mr Adams) would ho
cut olf; and tho fiinhcr circunistanco that
othcr hills hcsiiles thosc, for thc support of
thc armyand the nuvy and for fortilications
were embraccd in that rcsolution, are suf
finicnt to justify thc npinion that it was
dcsigncd liy some of thoso whotook a part
in uetting it brought forward and adoptcd
to havo thc cflcct that 1 havc ascrihed to it.
Hcsidcs I must say to thu gentlctnan frotn
Virginia, that I cannot so rcadily forgivu
liim for liis ncglcct, al'lcr hc had st-cn that
thc approprintion hills still slcpt upon thc
tuhlc,niid tliat tlio only efl'cct of his rcsolu
tion wns to givc tho niajority of the Ilousc
an undiio control ovcr its hiisincss, to como
forward nnd niovc to rcscind it. Whcn nll
prospcct of n war with Ernnce hnd ccascd,
it was his iluty to havo takcn this coursc.
I cannot forgct, citlicr, that, iustend of urg
ing tho cxccution of the oidcr ho hnd oh.
taincd, givtng a prefcrcnce to thc appropri
ation hill, hc upon scvcrnl occasions gavo
his votc to take up thc suhjects of minor
iniportuncc. Sir, thc cffcct of that rcsolu
tion was to givc an unduc powcr to the
niajority iu this Ilousc ovcr tho suhjects of
dchntc. It opcrntcd m rcstrain thc frcedotn
of discussiou; and I hnve a right, tiuder
the c.ireuinstaiiccp, to considcr that it was
so intctulcd hy thu tnnjority. I pronounce
thc coursc of procceding with that rcsolu
tion as un)reccilcntcd, iinprliameninry,
.I. I.-
auu opprcssivo to tne minoruy,
If the spirit ofthc rcsolutiuu of tho 20th
ol Januarv, shall bc rarricd out by tho
nnrtviiipowcr.it would rcsult in tho re-
cnactnicnt of tho scdition law of 1798. It cst ornamonts nnd most distiuguishcd , nppcal to you, sir, whctlier you (MrllaintT)
is foiindcd prcciscly upon thu snnic policy; chainpions of rcpiiblieaiiisni in Congrcss. 1 would not npou ri'llcctioii, lctract a sciiti
nnd we havo ouly to go n stcp or two fur- alludo to Wm. li. Giles. incnt exprcsscd tho othcr day, nnd ndmit
thcr, nnd tho objcct oflhe scdition law will I Aftcr dwclling at some lenglh upon tho tho iinportnnco of disciishing cvery pics
bc cflccted, so fnr ns rcgnrds thc frcedom I first pnrt of n conversation which liad bo-1 tion conuectcd ncnrly or rcinotely with tlic
of dcbatc in this llonse. 1 lio oliiect ol
tlio seilitiou law ot J'JH was to supiircss
discussiou, nnd to prcvcnt nttacks upon thc
party in powcr. Sucli was tho objcct of
this rcsolution.
Thero is nioro than onc circumstnnco in
tlic statn nf tho timcs, Mr Chairinau, which
iscnlculalcd to icmind us ofthc eraof 1793,
aud, that I inny not bc thought to have
i refcrrcd to that period wilhout very sufli
i i i n.. ... .!...
cicnt reason, I bcir lcnvo bricfly to nolicc
thc siniilnrity betwcen tho two prrinds of
1798 and 183(3. Tho ahcn and scdition
Inws, the proposition of tho party then in
powcr to pstnblisli a standing army, nnd lo
cicnto aud mnintain n crcat nnvnl nrmn
niPiit, wrrcrpgnrded by the republienn pnr
ty in 1798 as hostilo to thogcnius nnd sjnrit
df our frco iustitutions, nnd tcnding dccid
edly to thc introdurtion of nibilrnrv power.
Tho pnrty now in power nro iu lavor of
bolh thcso mensurcR. Tho scdition law
wns bnscd upon tho iden oftho samu inful
libilitv oftho I'rcsidcni nnd tlic pnrty then
in n mnjority m Cougress, wlncli is now
nsumcd for tlic iue.-ent oxecutive and the
pnrty now in powcr. Thcro wns said lo bo
i n I'rcnch pnriy in lliia counlry in 1798 ;
Inud mo-t slranco torclalc. it hns becn pro-
' claimpd upon this door, iu the courso of
this dpbate, that thcro is n l''relich pnrty
now iu this country. To show how the
war pnnic, aud thu nronosition for a slnnd-
! inc nnny and n eicat nnvv. was snoken of,
i i ! ,ia i ... n .......
iiimi ic.-iMvu in j,'o,nwi 10 iiuiHiimu uiu
slrikiug cniiicidcnce nf tho two ticriod, I
will rend nn oxirnci fiom ono of tho
l I 1 l-fllfl im rivtrnnl fi...... t.it rf tlin .iiui'
lliousnud rcmotistrnnrps lnid bcfnri! Con
.... Kniiiiui fi.iiii ,ui. ... hiu unu
grpss iu 1798-'99. Thc ono from which
lliis oxlract is takcn wns ndoptcd nnd for
wardcl by n ptiblip. incciing ofllicstcrn
ippubliran ycotnnn of tho grcat Stato of
"Your tnemorinlists would furtlipr bcg.
lcnvo to rcinonstrato against scvcral oftho
mcnHirrs, whicli citlicr havo bcen tidopted,
or whirh may bo still iu contpmplniion, in
poiiFctpii nco of our ncgntiation wiih tho
r'ronch rcpublir, ns produclivo ofan nn
ncccssnry increnso of tho public dcbt nnd
the introduction of nn opprcssivo systctn of
taxnnon. mcse mcasnrcs appenr to uo
fottndcd on thc alnrm which lins hccn cx
citcd nnd industriouslv circulntcd throiich-
! out the Unitcd Hlatcs, nbotit tho dnngcr of
! n Frciich iuvnsion. liut your mctriorialists
see no goott reason to ticlicvo tliat thisnlarm
is well l'otmdcd; Ibr, ndtnitting to bo truc,
wliat 1 liis hccn sa oftcn nsscrtcd of lnte,
that tho l'lcnch pcnplc hnvo becn so un
fortuuatu us to cliooso for thenisclvcs nn
E.vecutivo branch to their governmcnt,
which is proud, vain, and ainbitiotis, and
disposcd to cxcrciso iinduo influcnco or
arbitrary control ovcr tlio Lcgislntivo coun
cils of otlr country, and aro incliucd to
convcit thc powcr and rcsourccs of tlint
iintiou to such purposcs as will licst suit
their ntnbiliotis tirojects, yct it docs not
nppcar tlint tjicy liavo nny intcntion or dis
position to iuvnde this country. Your
ineiuorialhts cannot scc iu an oxncditiou to
Egypt, or ngaiustthe Jtrilisli Ecttlcinciiis in
thu East ludics, or iu tho supposcil bad
conduct of the Ercnch annics in Hwilzer
land or in Italy, uny ovidcnce of any iuteii
ti.in to invado tho Unitcd Staics, morc cs
pccially whcn it is consideied that thcy aru
dcstiltitc of n force by sca, nnd at war with
a natiouso greatly supcrior to tlicm on tho
water. Your mcniorlalists tborcforo con
cuivc that this alariu, which thcy think
must now bc considered as altogcthcr ill
foiindcd, ought not to be dccnicd n motivc
suflicicut to justify tho introduction ofa
stamling army in tho Unitcd Stntcs, nnd
thc csiablishincnt of nn crpcnsivc nuvy
which nuist greatly incrcasu the publi'c
dcbt, intioduco an opprcssivc and liur
dcusome system of taxatioti, nnd rcmovc
all hopcs from the pcoplo of cver bcing rc
liovcd from the ovils that grow out ofa
funding system."
I bcg lcavc uUo to read a paragraph (rom
tho Hcport of tlio Sccrctany of the Nnvy,
in 17flt, upon the subji'ctof incrcasingthis
nnn of tho National dcfencc. Taking cnrc
to ornit tlio dutc, this report might vcry
propcrly havo becn copicd and scnt to
Congrcss as a stibstitlitc for thc (loclrini.'s
and rccommendations of thc last spccial
"Tho protcction of our coast; tho fccu
ritory of our cxtcnsivo country fiom inva
sion iu sonieof its wcakcr pnrts; thesafcty
ofour importnnt commercc; and, our fu
turc pence, whcn tho mnritime nations of
Etiropo war with cnch othcr; nll scein to
dcmaud that ournaval forcu should bo nug
tncntcd ; so inucli nugmcntcd, indccd, ns
to tnnkc the tnost powerful nations dcsiro
our friendship, tho most unprinciplcd rc
spcct our ncutrality. Thc peaccl'ul char
nctcr of Ainerica will nfl'ord to tho world
suflicient sccurity that wo shall not bc easi
ly provokcd to carry tho wnrinto tho coun
try of nn cnciny ; and it wcll bccotncs tho
wisdom of America to provido n chcap do
fcnco to kccp it froin otirown."
I might further corroborato whnt 1 havo
said of tho strikiiiL' rcsciublnnce lictwccn
the docirines nnd incidenls of tho crn of
1793 nnd tho prcscnt period, by cuioling
frotn thc report of tho Sccretary of Wnr,
tnado in 1706; but it is only n repctition ol
the same views, npplicd to thc nrniy, cm
lirnced in :hu extruct I have just cited.
liut, sir, thcre was n panie got up in 1798,
nlso. To show upon whnt ground this
panic was crented, nnd how it was mct by
tho lcaders of the republicnn party of that
il.iv. 1 will rcnil an cxtract fiom a eotem-
Iporary publicntion ofoneof tho niost dis
tinguishcd of that party, n son of Virginia,
son's aduiinistrnlion, wns onc of thu grcat
rome tho subicct of n newsiiapcr ihsctis-1
sion, ilr Gilcs procccdcd tlius:
"I reirinrkcd tlint I ulwnys had bcen, nnd
stdl was, n frieiid of the Umon ; yct, if the
ineusurcs proposcd were to be adoptcd ns
n pcrmimout system, I would rather see n
separation of tlic Union, upon prnpcr nnd
pncilic nrrnngeincnts, than to bo perctual -
ly Riibjcct to all the permcioui consetpicn-
ccs, which, in tuy opinion, would necessa
rily flow frnm thcm. I considpicd disun.
ion ns n dcplorablo cvont ; but lcss deplora
ble tlinn n pcrpctuity of cxicnsiro arinics
perpetuity ot expcnsivunnvics perpctu-
ity of cxccssive debts pcrpctuity of e.xces-
sivo inxcH auu an llio oppicssivu cuusc
iupiiccs rcsiilting tlicrefrom. I explained
luriher, by stiy'mg that I hopcd thesti pro
iositions would ncvcr bo inatiircd into
jmliticnl systcms; lhnt I trusti'd thc consti
tutioiinl corrcctivo would f.oon bo npplicd ;
that after the people should licconio ap
prizcd oftho nrtificc ofcxcitiiiguud playing
ofl" their prcjudipps iu ono jinrt (ol tlio
Union agninst tlicir pipjudipcs iu nnothcr,
nftcr thcy should bccomo fntigucd with thc
ynrious dclusions prnctiscd upon Ihcin by
intcrcstcd partisans, they will listcn tn tho
vnicn of nitPi'Pst, nnd,"in n rcgulnr niid
rnnstitutiniinl wny, rclicvo thoniselves from
their opprcssions, ifthcy should, tiufnrlu
nntcly boHystcmaii?cd."
I lieso tnools nnd n'lcrcnccs cstnhlii'li
liovond cavil the truth of whnt I hnvo said
, , ,
as to tnn eiosu rcscinnianco netwccn tne
parties in powcr iu 1798 nnd nt the prrsrnt
..mm..... rIM.n ...... 11... !.. .1...
powers nssunicd bv nuu lor tlic E.vrrutive,
.. .1 !!.... ! l...: ...
in tlio policy in rclation to n siauduii: nr
my aud n grcnt nnvnl cstaliliahmnit, nnd iu
niany oftho practiccs oftho paity thcuand
now in iiower. fiir, tho docirines aud
praeticpH of the pnrty in powcr in 1798, I
nflirm, nro viudicnicd nnd justiflcil hy tho
courso nnd piiiiciplcK oftho ono now tn tho
nseendency. Tho gcntlciuan from Massu
clnlVotts, (Alr Adanis) is not so incnnsi.steut
nssome of his formcr frionds havo suppos
cil hiin to bc. Ho is now supporling lho
prindiplcs to which hoadhorcd during his
own ndministratinn, nnd whir.h lio is also
iuipcllcd to siistain by tlio niost powerful
nnd intcrcsting uonsidcratious nrising out
of tlio rccollcction who it wns tlint held thc
rcins of Govcrnnicnt of 1793. Tho gcu
tlcinnn froni Mnssnchttsclts hus not chaiig
cd his principlcs, liut tho dominant party
havo hccoinc conorts to his docirines and
policy. I infcr tlint lio is now ongnged to
support tlicm in all their mcnMires; but this
is n dcclaintion I feel, upon rcllcctioti, I
havc no right to tnakc.
liut, sir, nlnriniug nnd datlgernus ns
wcrc thc prctcusinus ol the fcdcral party iu
1798, it was lcss daugcrous to tho cotmtiy
and its institutious, than tho onc which is
now secking to pcrpctuntc its powcr and I
ma.vims. Tho party in powcr in 1798, had '
tln. frnnkncss and inanliiicss lo nssuino nnd
avuw their principlcs. They tipcnly pro- i
claimcd tlicm, delendcd tlicm witli courago1
nnd fiimlly fellby theui. liut sir, the party i
now in powcr shrink froin thc open nvowal
of llioir rcal principlcs. Thcy assumu tho i
mask of rcpublicans ; and white tliey prac-1
tico upon soinc ol tlio most oilious maxiuis
of tho party iu powcr in it'.m, llicy do all
iu the iiiinic of dcmocrncv nnd liberty
Ifnny onc slinll objcct to this discii.ssiou
bccnuso it savors ol prcsideiit-iuuking ; if
nny gcutluman shall bo dcltidcd by the
opinion that topics dircctly conncctcd with
politics of the day should bo oxcludcd li oin
this hall, 1 ask liim to rcllcct for a momeut
upon the fact tliat uo subjcct at this day, of
iniportuncc, ilocs or can arise in Loiigrcss
which is not sustaincd or opposed, nnd
fiually dccidcd, upon principlcs aud niotives
which entcr dircctly and dccply into tlio
presidoutial canvass, aud nltimalcly dccide
that i-isuc,
And, whcn, sir, tlio nction ol i
tliis Ilousc, nnd so grcat a proportion ofthc
buaiucss of tho Ilousc, are diclatcd nnd
coiitrolled bv liarty views, nnd lo deprcss
or iidvauco thc jirnsprcts of onc orthc othcr
of tliecniididutcs for tho picsidcney, shall
it lio held improjicr to spcak out, to nvow
opculy, and viudicato iu ilcbale llie inotivcs
nnd principlcs which nctually goxcrn our
votcsr Sir, docs not uvcry guntlcman
know that tho vcry first biisiiicss of the
scssion I incan thuelcction of tho iirinci
pal ofliccrs of the Ilousc, nnd that ono
cspccially, who is known to posscss grcat
powcr aud influriicc iu shapiug nnd direct
ing tlic cntiro busiucss of thc scssion was
dccidcd tipongrotmdsintimately conncctcd
with prcsident-niaking ? I hopo I mny bo
pcrmtlti d to rcfcr to this part of tlio nction
of tlio IIouso witliout ofl'ence, siuco I can
do so witliout tho slightcst fccling on my
part agaiust any portion of tho uienibcrH
who composc it. That clcction, sir, was
openly claimcd nnd boasted of iu thc col
uinns of thc party jiress as a tcst ol the
Etrcngib ol'iho imrty atlachcd to thc inter
csts of the Vico l'lcsident.
liut, Mr Chairinau, it hns of latc liccomc
morc importnnt than at nny (oruicr ciiod
in the history of tho Govcrnnicnt that this
subjcct of piesidcut-making should be
takcn up scriously, aud mado a part of thu
regular busiucss of Congrvg!). liy forcc of
tliat system of pnriy urgam.ation aud dis
cipliue which is now rapidly maluring nnd
sprcudiug itsclf ovcr thu country, it must
soon como to pnss, (if, indccd it is uot now
thc rase) that the clcction ofa l'rcsidclit
will dctcrmiuo cvery othcr qucstion of
public policy or public intcrest for nt lcast
Ibur ycnrs, and perhaps eight. If this be
so; if it be truc that cvery thing is to bc
scitlcd by the ili'crrcs of tho party, nnd that
tho iTcsiilent, as tlic liead ot the pariy, is
only tho organ tlirongh which their dccrce
is to bo coinniunicatcd to Congrcss, then I
prf sidciitinl eli'ctiou .' I rcpcat
lhnt il'ihc
! doctriuo is to be I'stablishcd, that uo mcui
! hcrof lliis Houso who profcssi'B lo bnlong
, to the pnrty in powcr can voto ngaiust n
( mcasuro rccnniniindcd citlicr pujiliclvor
privatcly by tho rrcsidcnt,wiihout incuring
tho iinputntion of dcscrting his parly, (nnd
1 mch 1 bclievo is thc rigor of the new sys-
lem of pnrty tnctics m opcrulion;) il wliat
cver the l'rcsident rccnmniciids cannot bc
rcsistcd by tho pnrty who (irofess to support
liim, I nsscrt thnt tl'iis subjcct of presideuti
mnking is thc first nnd most iniporlnut thnt
cnn nnd ought to occupy ourattPiition. If
the rcsult ofan clcction is to nuuihitatc the
indcpciidcnt powcr of nction by CVingre.-s,
. nnil put uvcry ihiug iuto thc linuils of llio
! I....u!.lnnt r,rti titiet. !t ia tl.im nni milt l
X 11.(1110 iii i, miv,, ii ,iiij. i J
nsscrt tho light nnd dispuss the tpicstion
here, liut tn do it prouiptly, frcely nnd fully;
nnd it shall not bo niy fault "if it is not
iIoiip. Thcro is strong rcnson to bclieve
thnt tho obligalions of party aro held so
sarrcd thnt nono who bclong lo the niajority
ilaro lo do nny nct which ihc I'rpsidcnt
should foibid, or to fnil in ihc support of
wlialovcr ho sliould rcpomuieiul llmowo
notlntely seen lho forco of this oblignlion
to be so'slrong in tho House, thnt tlio nb
soluto powcr of pcncn nnil of war wns
rcady to be yielded up, in cfl'crt, iuto tho
handsof oue maii ? Couiiug to this House
undcr the p.Mraordinary pnrty plcdgcs
usual in populnr clcctinusol latc, I hojie it
will not ho roL'iirded as inniropcr or diro
Bpcctful to ask, iftho l'rcsident hnd, during
the Into crisis, snid " wo must havo wnr,"
would tho pnriy iu this llotibchnvo had thc
jiowec to guhiMiy it ? War wo must then
iiavc had, aud tho moral powcr was not in
lliis Houso to rcsist it, lintccr may havo
hccn tho privnlu opinion of lmnorahlo
membcrs of thu wisdom of biich a incns
ui u.
No occnsion can bo nioro nppropriato
for tho discussiou of tho principlcs nnd
practiccs of thu Governmcnt tlinn lho ono
prcscntcd bv tho npproirintion bills, pro-
scntcil ns n wholo. It im proposcd lo
incrcnto thu nnnuul evpcnilituro for tho
inilitary dcfcnr.es of tlio conntry nnd intcr
ual iiiiprovcmcnt tcn inillioiiH iu ono ycar.
It isn new crnin tho history of thegovcrn
ment. extravngant ti propositiou is
tuiknown in our annnls. Tho rcsults ol
this now policy nro beyond tho kcn or
conccption of mnny; but thoae who plnnncd
it iinucrstood tlicm well ouougli, tliough it
may not ho dcsirnblc to their intercsts to
nvow tlicm nll nt once. Tho first inevitalilo
result ol'tliis policy, if it rIiiiII be sanctioncd
by oii"ress, will'bo tho introduction in n
sliort period, ofan incrcascd and opprcssivo
system of taxation. An incrcascd atuiunl
oxpcudituro ol'ten tuillious muy bo mct for
n l'ew ycars from tho prcscnt sourccs of
revenuo ; but tho public lands urc now in a
stnto of such rupid exhnustion that vcry
soou wo will liiul our revt'iiue from this
qunitcr rcduccd ton milliou orlcss. Thc
puli'ic works which wo nro now nbout to
cnuiincucu must be carricd on, nnd funds
will havc to bo raiscd to support thoso
whicli inny bo conipleted in the incnn timc.
Thcneoiucsa new and incrcascd system of
luxi.tion, ns n itiattcr ol coursc, witli its
usual coursc ol cvils. Jiut wliat will hu
nioro bcnous conscmicnco is, tho grcat
iucreasc ofthc army aud nuvy, whicli cannot
liiil to follow the mloption of this now and
extravagnnt policy. Whcn all the navy
yarilH,nnd all the new fortilications proposcd
to bc t'Stablishcd, shall be complctcil, a
standing army ol lcss than liftccn or tweniy
thousaiid incn would not bo thoiight ol, or
toleraled, undcr the new impulso which is
soon to bo givcn to tlio inilitary spirit.
Ilidcrd, lcss tlinn ihntnunibcr would not hu
snfticicntto gunrd our westcrn frouticr, nnd
nt tho enino timo sccurc so mnny l'oriificn-i
tions on tlic sca coast ogninst surtiri'se. As
to thc navy, nftcr such gigimtic prcparntions ;
for thc improvcnicut nnd incrcaso of it ns '
aro now proposcu, will a nnvy ot less tlinn or nntional dishonor, tlio linard ol Dotli
ono hundrcd ships nf wnr iu cominission be nnnerrsonrily incurrcd could not fnil to ex
rcgardcd as at all adniissiblo for a counlry cito a fcclintr of dcen rcnroach. I earnest-
of such rcsourccs, of such character and 1
importnnce iu tlio scnlo of nations ? Such !
nro tho views ofgrandcurniid power which
nrc now begiiiningto cxcrciso nu iniporlnut
influcnco ovcr the coursc of mnny of tho i
leading iiicli in powcr. Some opinion may
bo formed ofthc uiHiiuificcnco oftho iiro-
jcctsol thc party from Ihc dcclaration upon
tlus subjcct ol tlic gcntlcman lroiu I.orK
(.AlrCanibrelciig,) madcinthe courso of his
rcmarKS upon tlic rcsolution ot tlio gcnllc
niaii from Massachusctts (Mr Adams.)
That gentlctnan exprcssed n hopc that, in a
sliorttimc, wc would sco tho 'navy ol this
counlry placed on n footing to copo with
tho most powerful ninritimo powcr of Eti
ropo ! Who docs not sco from nll this that
wo aro to ha"c an incrcascd laiill'in duo
scason, uud that thc mnnngcrs oftho party
nre prcpariug to claim tho support of the
manufncturiug intercsts ?
liut if wc should bcsntisfled tlint it is tho
truc policy oftho country to ndopt the plnn
of dcfending tlio country by fuiiiiicntions,
no innttcr nt wliat post; to increnso tho nnny
nnd navy, al the risk even ofan incrcnscd
system oftnxntion ; nill the iiiquiry nnd
discussiou which I proposc to go into will
be nf grcnt iinportancc. The system of
public dcfcncc, may bc wisc and prudent
in itsclf; but tho timc and thc rnanncr of
of carry mg it into execution may nnd docs,
demund n scparato cousideratinn. The
iuiprovcmcut of the navy, and thc new for
tificnlions projectcd, it is cstimnteil, will
rcipiiro nn aniiual expcndilure of tcn mil
lions for tcn ypars ; iimking a totnl of one
liundrcd niillinr.s. The fnithful nnd judi-
cious npplication ol tlus vast tuuil. Isuppos-
ing it to bo sctlled that it shall be cxpendcd
upon thcso obiccts) bccomes n subjcct of
tho dcciiest intcrest to the wholo counlry.
Tho counlry hns n right to inquirc who nro
tho ngcnts nnd public Fcrvants nbout to be
cntrustcd with lho disburspincut of this
cuorinous ciqiital ? Aro thcy faithful? Arc
thcy conipctcnt ? Have they proved thein
nclvcs so upon post trinl ? Sir, a grcnt pre
liuiiunry qucstion is to bo settled bcforo wo
add tcn tnillions to tho usual nnuuiil ex
pcndilure? It is n quest on of confidcncc
in public servnnts ns well ns nf cxpcdicncy.
Who are they thnt dcnimid from tho rep
rcsciitntivps oi'tlie pcoplo this signal mnrk
of conlidcncc to plnco len luillions iu
their hnnds during tlie prcscnt ycar, moic
ilinu nt any former period ? Aro they the
sanip public scrvants who hnve had chnrge
of ihc public defenccs during our lnte dilli
pullips with Frnnco, nnd tiuder whoso su
pprintcndcnce tliey hnvosufl'crcd dccny nnd
dilnpidntion? liy whnt titlo do thpy nsk
this cxtrnordinnry evdenco of confidcncc?
Sir, thcy nsk for luoncy aud inercased
confidpnre; wo ilcmnud bcrutiuy into past
condiict. They nsk for rcward for iiast
mcrit nnd servic'p; it inny bccomo our duty
to nrrnign thcm ns dclinqucnts beforc the
tribimnl nf the public, instcnd of pouriug
tlic trcnsury into their Inps. To voto nion
cy, is the lcast iliflicult nnd most plcasnnt
duty of a rcprespntntive of tho people; it
rpqiiircs nciihcr expcricncc, industry,
tnli'iils, nnr fulelitv in mcmbcrs. liut, si'r,
tn see nnd to piov'ido that it shall bo fttitli.
fn ly expcndcd, nnd applied to objccts of
pulilic ulility, is n moru ilitlirult ns well ns
moro importnnt pnrt of our liutv. 1 nm
nwnro that upon this qucstion ofcoufideucc
aud conipelcncy of tlio nuhlic. oflicers ol'
tlio Govcrnnicnt, ns well ns tho policy of
innuitig inrgo ujiproprinitonstor imiuiiug up
tho defenccs ot thocouiilrv, llicre isn rundy
nnd conelusive nrL'umciit nt haiid iu the
ininds of mnny. 1 kunw wcll eiiough thnt
nll nbjcctioiis nro intcndcd to bo mct nnd
liut down here, nnd bcforo tho people, by
liolding up forllicirduo regnrd and ncquies
ccnco tho scntinicnt nnd iccoiiuneiidutinn
of tho Into Mieciid messnge upon Erpnch
afl'mrs. It sliould bo boruu iu uiilid thnt
25,000 copics of that nicssage wero nrder
cd to bo printed by this House; nnd in n
wcck Irom tlio dato ol tlint ordcrtlio wholo
j uumbcr wa snid to bo published, nnd nt
tho disposal of mcmbcrs, wlio", nt tho
snmo timc, thcrc wcro docuincnts ordcrcd
to be printed nt the cotnmcncemcnt of tho
sesVion which hnd not bcen furnishcd. It
is ensy to pcuctrato tho dcsign of this un
usunl dcspntch. That docuincnt wns cx
pcctcd to givo tono to public scntiment,
genernlly nnd spccdily. Tho cffect of it
upon tlns JIouso, nftcr it hnd had timo to
o rcturncd upon it tlirongh n thousand
channcls, wns rclicd upon to pnss tho bill
nocessary to carry this new policy of tho
odtninUtration into cxccution. I bcg lcavo
to rcntl a fiinglc pnrngrnph of this messnge,
tliat I tnny submit a l'ew reinarks upon tho
singulnr character of it.
"1 inny bo pcrmittcd,! trtist, ntthis timo,
witbont u suspicion of tho most rcmoto de
piro to throw ofl ccnsuro from the Exccu
tivo, or to point it to nny othcr dcpartraent
or branch of thc Governmcnt, to rcfcr to
tho wani-of cfTcctive (lreparation in whicli
our country was found at tho lato crisis.
From the nalure nf our inslilulions, the
muvcments nf tke Govcrnnicnt in vrevaratxon
for hnsiililkn must cvcr he too stow for the
erigencies of unexnccted war. I subuut it
then to you, whether tho first duty we own
to the pcoplo, who hnvo confidcdtous their
powcr, i not to placo our country in sucli
nttitude ns ulwnys to be so nmply supplicd
with tho mcnns of self-dcfcnco ns to all'ord
no inducciucut to other nations to prcsunio
upon our forbearnuce, or to expect impor
tnnt advantagcs from n smUlen nssault, ci
tlicr upon our commercc, our scnconst, or
our iuterior frontier. In caso of thc com
tnencemcntof hostilitics during tho reccsp
of Conprcs?, tho timo incvitatily clapsing
liulorc tliat hoily could uo called to''etlicr,
cvcii undcr thc niost lavornblc circum-
Etances, would be prcgnnnt with dnngcr,
nnd, if we cscnpad wilhout signal disnstcr
ly ricommcntl to you, thereforc, to malcc such
provhions, that in no fulurc timc shall tre be
ifound wilhout amvlc mcans to repcl nggrcss-
io)i, evcn alUioujiii tt may come upon ua
icithoul n nolc of waming. AVe arc now,
fortunatclj', no situatcd, that tlic cxpcndi
turc for this purposc will not be fclt ; nnd,
if it wcrc, it would bo npprovcd hy thoso
from whoni nll its nmnns nrc dcrivcd, and
lor whoso bcncfit only it should bo used,
with a libcral cconoiny and nn enlightencd
Hcro, sir, wo havc n distinct nvowal that
thcro has bcen n gross ncglcct somewhere.
Tlint is snmctliing gnincd ; but it is left
doubtful whi'ther it is Congrcss or the Ex
ccutive that is chnrgcnblc with the ncglcct
which is so mnuifcst as to cnll for a full
ncknowlcdgmcnt. It is evidcnt, however,
tlint the cflcct of thc umimer of this ndinis
sion is to shipld tho dclinipients, whoever
thcy niny bc, nnd to charge the defcnceless
condition in our country at thc lnte crisis
to tho nnture of our Governmcnt. I slinll,
hcforo I sit down, cndcavor to viudicato
our form of Governmcnt from this chnrgc,
at lcast so far as ronccrns the lato dcfnult.
I pledgc myself to show who were tho
renl dclinqucnts, nnd wliat wcrc their ein
ployments whcn they should have liecn
taking caro of thc public safcty nnd inter
csts. Ilut thcre nppcnrs to tne to bo nn
inconsistcncy in tho passngc I hnvo just
rcad, whicli I rannot omit to point out. In
ono part of thc paiagraph thc scntiment is
exprcssed :
" Fi om the nature of our instilutions.
the movemcnls of the Governmcnt in prcpar-
(inons jor nosiumts viusi cver uc 100 sioiv
for the cxig enc.es of uncxpcclcdtcar."
ln nnotlicr nart of thc sainc pnrncrnpli.
wc find this scntence : " earneslly rt com
mtnd to you, thcrcfore, to viake such provis
ions, that tn no futurc timc shall we le found
u ithout ample means to repcl uggression, cvtn
althnvgk it may come upon us icithoul a nofe
of warning."
Now, sir, I do not know tliat it is proper
to considcr this pussngo ns lho result of
dclibcratiou, or to criticise too closely n
nnpcr whicli, liko many of tho samo kind,
linvc oftcn to be drawn up witliout nfl'ord
ing timo for close or nccurnto revision; but
it is mnnifpst tlint this docuincnt wns intcn
dcd nnd expcctcd to produce r.'sults of tho
grentcst iinportnnco to lho country. It wna
douhtlcss intcnded to jircparo nnd recon
cile tho public mind to tho chnngo of poli
cy by tho party in power, nnd to givo jiop
ulnrity to tho projcct of expending tho
siirpliisrcvcnue upon such objectsas would
rniso us to tho first rnnk ntnong nations in
inilitary nnd nnvnl powcr. 1 regnrd it,
thereforc, ns entircly proper to point out
nny inconsistcncy which mny iinpair tho
cflcct of it. It would be idle to voto n hun
dred millions to tho public dcfcncc of tho
country, if it bo truo tlint, by rcnson of tho
nnture of our Governmcnt, it is impossiblo
thnt tho country can cvcr bo.put into a
counition to tncet the enicrgency of sud
den wnr.
Mr Chairman.I regnrd tho timc ns pnr
ticulorly propitious to n gencrnl review of
tlio rnnduct nnd principlcs of men in pow
er, cspccially in refercnco to tho public
defenccs. Tho rrench qucstion is nt nn
end, nnd we rnn nnw jnquire iuto tho con
diict of the public. ofliccrs who nre rcspon
sible for theui, and hold thcm up nnkcd to
thc world, wilhout tho risk of exposing
our wcnkness to n pulilic cnciny. A timo
ot peace, too, it is said, is tho tune to prc
pnro for wnr. Tliiu is lho greai ninxim
upon which tlio new policy of tho ndmin
istratinn is cxpcctrd to bo suppnrtcil. A
true and wiso tuaxiin it is, but ono wliiclt
is only Imlf understood by those in whoso
mouihs wo most frequcntly find it. JNlnny
supposo thnt tho only propnrntinn for wnr
cnnsits in incrensiiig our inilitary and na
vnl cstnbliliments. The grent niinistor of
tho fourth Henry of Fmncp, wlio wns
Riirnnmed tho Grcnt, understood tho full
importof thismaxim. Thebcst, thetrucst,

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