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F,S1)A, 1 EH. '21,
n UAILWAY FROM BOSTON TO OODENSttCUOH. Tho following ntlicle, prcparod in nnawcr to n lutler oflnqutry frotn gontlenicn In Og rleiitbnrgh to Joits McDurrcr., lioq. of Brad ford, has hccn dopositcd with Ihe fiocretary of tlio Slatn lntcrnnl Iniprovcmrnt Society. Wo puhlieh it for genoral informatio.i. Mr. Mcl). Uys nn clnim to tha cliaractor of a lilcrary man : "ah," raiil ho to up, "wu had nn gram mar in rny school-days o'.d Dilworth tnuglit all." Novorthclosp, Mr. MeD. is an cxporion. od cnginccr, anil liif intiniatc knowledgc of tlio topography of ihis accllon, hasonahlcdhitn to givo mtich valnabto information. To A. C. Drown, U. It, Allcn and othsrs, Ogdens burgh, N. Y. Ge.jti.cmen : Your lotler. datcd llio 20tli nlt., rcqursling my vicwa in rclntion to tlio im tiottant object of opcninjj n dircct communica lion, by a railway, Irom Tlosto.i, tho cmporiuin nf New England, to tlio outlct ollhcgrcat wcs. torn likcp, at tlio licnd of tlic rivor St. Law rcnco, I rcccivcd wllli tniich eat'mlaction, and will ondcavor to givo you my vicwi a far as I am capablci I. lly giving you n short history of tha orig inal canso oflho onterprise, what lias been done and in diing to bting tho rr.atter into publio ior. II. What furthcr may be dono to obtain sub nriiitiono to tlio ntock, III. Show tha profils to lho patriotlc stock holders who ndrnncc llio moncy to complcte tho wotk. And riRSTLT! Tlio originalcause of tho on terpriao it to bo (ound in the last war. Tho cost of tranepnrting thc munitions of war from thu seaboard m New-England, ovcr hills and tnountnins and thiongh Inkos, swnmps ly-wood lands, lo Canada linc, lcd ino to think ihat a wnlsr copirnunicatioii, lcading through New flnmp8hiro and Vermont into tho northern and estern lakcs, would bo of grot imporlanco to iho United Stntcs. Frommy knowiedge tiflho tounlry Ihat I hnd prcviously obtained from f nrvoys I lnd madc of lands and rooda in dif ftrent srctionp of tho rotito, I thought tlio Ihing niight be possible. In theycars I81C -17&. 18, I cjamincd the dilTererit vailoys in both statos, hero I thoiight it waa prob'able that a watcr eommtinicaliori mighl bo obtutncdj and in the tall oflSIS I mado u survey, at'my own ex pcnse, across thu height fh New liampshire, to eonncct Iho wateio ot Connecticut river, by a canal, with tho watcra of tho Merrimacls, by njker'a nver, at l'lymnuth. I cngagcd Dari Voung, thon an honorablc penator of Now Hampshirc, to cxplore and txaminothe roiilc, and report tho facts to Iho Ilon. Ichabod Rart Intt, of Porltnioiilb, N. H., who wua ot that timo appointed nn osont bv Qov. Plummcr to roceive euch information, by commmiicationof miernoi improvenienis, ns miglil uo tnaue in Iho diflerent scetions of tho Mate, nnd to lodga thc carno with tho Unitod Slatcs, in order to roccivo frotn the U. S. Ihcir sharc of tho bonns to be givcn by tl.u U. S. bank for internal im provemcnts in tlio flotes. This report wae mado bv Mr Iiartlult lo Ihe loffislaturoat Onn. rord, in Jnue 1S19, which was tho first infor mation givento tliogovcrnmQntof tlieaforcsaid routc. lu thcjear 1819 a grant was maduto connect, by canal, Winnipiseoge lake through Squam 'ako with Merriniack river at Plymouth, near tho mouth of Baker'a river j and in (ho jcar 1821 the grant was extended by Uakcr's river to Connecticut river. Tho urant was ci thor for a railway or a canal. This waa tho first railway grant on tbo routc. Canals at that timo wcro thotijht iho niot piucilcablc inclhod of tranportation ; Iho bcnciita of rail ways had notthcn bccr. broughtinto publicno lice. The grant ivaj called tho Qraflon cannl and, ifcomplctcd, it would have openod a wa ter communiration from Connecticut river by Bakcr's and Merriniack rivcra to Concord and through thc Middloccx canal tn Roston, which i one of the propoRcd routcs for Ihe railway. In tho winter of the naine ycar, I mado a communicalion to the War Department at Vathington, by Iho IIon.Thos. Whipple, M. C. from N. II. and tho Hon. Daniol Wcbotor, of Ropton, Ihat a canal or watcr communicalion oould be ex'cnded frotn Boston, on tho routo ofuresitid to Connecticut river, and by Pas tHmpsic tivcr to Inko Memphremagog in Can ada; and that llitic was a probability that a water communicalion could bo lound by Mont pelier down Onion river into lake Champlain. On this information boing givcn in Boston by the Ilon. Daniel Wcbster, a convcnlion was rjillcd and a committco choscn to convone nt Concord, N.TI. with euch inhabitantB of that ctale as wiehcd to promoto this great enterprise: bat uot mceting with tho encouragcmcnl from somc of tlio inhabitants of N. II. cxpccled, the tommittee turncd thcir altcntion towards rnnk ing improvemcnts from Boston westcrly, in Ibeir own ttato, towards Connecticut river. Qov. Clinlon being at Washington thusame wintcr, and sceing the communicalion that I had miii and lodged at tho War Department, olicited histon Dewit Clinton jr., who was ap pointed a civil enginecr, lo call on mo for an nsMstant, and to cxamine the sevcral canal routca prnpOBcd, as far as timo would admit that stason, by actual survey; which wasdone ni far'&s possible in the summer of 18S5, and a report was made to tho War Department in the wiuter foltowiiic, from which, tozclhor with other surveys madc that euimiicr and prcvious by priiate nubscriptions, it made it certain that i water communicalion could lio opcned thro' New England into the northern nnd wcftcrn lakea. Tho Erie canal havins becn onened in ils whole cxtcnt through New York thesame ynr. New England -was all alivo lo the cnter prizo, and tho government of Ihe U. S. at that timu being friondly to intcrnal improvemcntp, tho ncxt summer eent Col. John J. Abcrt.wilh cight cng'miers under 1ns cornniand, to maku furlhrr surveyK and examino tho soveral routcs applifd for to Iho (J. S, Government lo be eur vovod, either for canals or water comraunica- tions, Irom tho mouth of Connecticut river lo tha mouth nf Knnnebcc river inclusivo. nnd from the sea ihore through New England to Canada line and to lake Champlain, nnd to ex t'.ui tho survevs mado the year bcloro bv Mr Clinton in Vermont, into New liampshire to Winnipisoogo lakea survey having been pre viounly madu from tliut lako to the tido watcr nt Dover, a dislaneo of 29 miles. Col, Abert. uuer examining mo rouio, oroereu Jicut. Mn. coinb, one of Iho cngiiiecrr, to make a survey IroinConnocticut river at llavcrhill. bv Olivrr- inn ftrvam, Bakei'a rivor nnd Squam lake to lake Winntpiscogoj and l was emploved by the etute of N. II. on Its pait to assiM fa'ui Macomb ln niaaiiig thc survey last aforrsui J which was done in nart in Ihe year 1826. Inlhe year 1897, Qov. Clinlon and the hon. Jarnse Uillhouse calkd on mo lo civo ihcm a history of thc survevs 1 had assistcd in making with Clinlon and Macomb, Ibetwo years prc. vious, togethcr with ntnpogrnphical deecriptlon ofthe whola country from Cnnadn jino tothc sea, througli Vermont and New IJampsliirc. Whon done, Gov Clinton ohscrvcd lo Mr Ilill houso Ihat ho knew all about tho cnuntrv be weon Ogdcniburgh and lake Chaiiiplain, and I... . ..! .. ... rniln.t.l .h,l wnnlil lio a fino llilng fortho north part of tlio Ptato of ", 'New Yotk, thal if it waa cnmod tlironch 1 Nuw Englniid, it would ovonluolly nrovc to N. I'.uglonu ol sltnllar advantagc tliiilllio i-.fie ca nal H ns lo the slutc of Now Yotk, nnd mako Botton in commcrco stcond to tho cily of Now ! Yotk, as wcll as be of grcat imporlanco to the Unilru sintcs ns a imlitary commtimcaiion through Now Englnnd Into thc Nurthcrn nnd Wcalern lakcs, In tho ycars 1827-38 Lleut Macomb was ordcrtd by Col Abcrt to Burtey anothcr routo applied for from Kcnncbeo river, in llio stato of Maine, by Androscoggin rlvcrand river Ln- moilla intn Iaka (Jliamplaln, across vcrinonl nnil New llampihiro, north of llio proposrd railvray routo. Not being sntnficd wllh Iho routc, hc roairncd in tho falt of 1828 to havo inu eliow lilm tho summit lovrla ol thu touto across tho statc, aurveycd by Clinlon, olso of llio routcs to ho eurvcycd Irom Montpelier, by Wclra nnd Wails rivers, lo Connecticut river. Iln pavo Wells river Iho prcfercnco for a cannl nnd Wnils rivor tlie preference for n railway, on tho cxammation ot both. Macomb cxpcctcd to rclurn in the ppring to mako tho survey from Montpelier by Wells river to Connecticut river, nnd flnish tho sur- cy bo had commcnccd in New Hampshirc, from Haverhill by Bakcr: river to Merriniack river and to Winnipiscogo lake, as a plan of a cannl routo could thcn bcmadu from Boston to Burlington, nnd a watcr communication from PottBinouth and Dover, through Winnipiseo ge, to unito with tho canal roulc at Plymouth, N. II, Mo aho statcd that if a canal shuuld be onened ho had no doubt that Government would tako a good sharo ofthe etock, asit was considered a great object at tho War Depart ment to havo a cannl communication frotn thc Navy Yard nt Chnrlctown into lako Cham plain. Uo also statcd that lio had no doubt but that tho cost government was at in trans mitting munitions of war into tho lake, in tho last war, n-ould havo built tho cana'. In tho summer ofl8it-3i), n'p J D Gra ham was sent, with threo cnsinccrs undcr his command, inetcad of Licnt. Macomb, to make and complcte tho surveys as aforcsaid through Vormont and New Hampshirc ; md I wascal lcd on again, as nn assistant and civil cnginccr, both on tho part of N. Humpshiro & Vermont, to mako tho survcys through bolh stalcs, ond complcte the survey bcgun by Macomb in '20, aud finUhcd by Graham in 1829-30. I will hero obscrve that it is an univcrsal practico throughout the United Statcs, to havo tho etatcs on Iho routo furnish thaUSangin ccrs with an atsistant, who is well acquaintcd with tho lopograihy of tho cottnlry thro' which tha survcys oro to bo made. I wish furthcr lo ohscrvo that, frotn tho formcr survcys mado by thaU S cnginecrs in 1825-2G-27-2S nnd '29, on the diflerent routcs through Now England, this was thought to ho thc licsl nnd mosl feas ablo routc, at tho war dcnartmcnt, for a cannl or watcr ceminunication Irom lako Champlain lo Iho sca; othcrwisc tho department would uot have sent cant Graham, ono nl thebcst cn. ginrcrs in tho servicc, again, in 1830, to make and complcte llio survevs, 1 lns routo mnst in genpral provo best for thu railway, with tho ex. ceplion of Waits river instcadof Wells river. Fiom tho successful cxiicrimcnts rcDeatcdlv mado, in this country and Europe, duiing tho scven years thcn last pasl, by having locomot- ivo cngnifs run on iron raus, it waa thouglit by tho public that railway wero n grcnt improvc monton canals; and in Octobcr, 1830, a con vcnlion wns called nt Montpelier, for Iho pur posc of taking into conpideration the proposed railway irom liosion lo v'gdensburgli, in iicuot Iho cnnai. At tliat convontion a commtttxo was choscnto cxamine and report to the public tha practicability of a tonle, which report wns mado and publishcd, and was favorablo to tho enterprtzo, 1 ho committoe reportcd thc prac ticability of two routca between Montpelier & Concord : tho ono by White river in Vermont and by Mnscomy & Black watcr in N H, which Irhail call tho south routc; Ihoolhcrisby Waits river in Vermont nnil aners and iMernmack rlvcrsm N IT, which I sliallcall tho north routc The rommilteo found, hy cstimalinz tho scver- al diptanccs on bolh routr'S, tho North routo to bo a fow miles thc nearcst, but gavo no prefer- enco, ti re commended mo survey ol notli routes. On tho snpposilion, howcvcr, that both routes arccqual as rcspccts a direct communication betwccn Montpelier ond Concord, Ihpre aio somo considcralions favorablo tothenorth routc that ousht to ho thousht of in locatmz a rai way, viz: by laying tho railway on Iho north routc in N H, you connrct a watcr communi cation from tho valley of Uakcra river Ihrou Squam and Winnipiseoge lakcs to Porlsinouth in llie eastern part ol r u, u by railwny lliro' tho whole ol Iho slato ol Alnine, nnitin" with the railway at Plymouth, N II. on Ihe eastern b'kIo of tho Vhito Mountains : and bv lavintr otit the railway by Waits river, on the north roule in Vermont, you conveno Iho whole val ley of Connecticut river, whilo by laying the raitwavon thc Bonlh routc you only convcno the inhnbitaats below tho mouth ol White riv er, as tho distanco from White river up tho valley ofthe Connecticut to thc mouth of Waits river is 27 milcs, thcnce on Iho north routo lo Montpelier 30 iniles, makin" thc wholo diet- nnco 57 miles tbo same ihat it is called Irom the mouth of White river to Montpelier onthe south routc. You also nbliso thu inhabitants north of Waits river to go 81 milcs inslcad of 30 to cct to Montpelier by tho railway. This is in addition to tho nreat obstruction to a rai way into the stato of Moine, which must cnrno into the valley of tho Connecticut north of Wnits nver. Ilcrc I will obscrvo that a rnlway is now in contcniplulion through thc wholo valley of thc Connecticut and as tnc railway irom said val ley lo Ogdcnsburgh will cnablcthe inhabitants of the wholo valley to pass through Waits and Unton rivcrs into the wes'.ern lakes, thc roads Ihus located must be of grcat bcncfit lo cach othcr. I will furthcr (tate that a iailwayi9 now laid out, and a great part ol il complctcd, from Boston ucstto the valley ol tho Connecticut, which must provc a bcncfit to tho routo up lhc river and thro' Vermont into tho lakcs. 1 vvill alro observo that a railway is now complctcd from Providcnco, 11 I, to Boslon, which will cnahle tho inhabitants ofllhodo Island to pass thro' uoslon to Ugdcnsburgh ; also a railway from Boslon lo Lowell is made and complctcd, and tho grant cxtendrd to Concord, llio slnck takcn up, the eurveys principally madc, and it issuppoecd will be complctcd in about two ycars, which will opcn a railway on the dircct routo towards Ogdennburgh nearly 70 milcs. I will furthcr obscrve that a railway is in con tumptation from Boston on thcseacoast to Port larni, Moine, llicncctn Belfast, and from llicnco to 0.ucbcc, L C. Tho survcy are now miV -ing througli tho wholo ropte. If this railway is completed, a railway will surely be cxlendcd east from Bclfast on Ihe coasl into the Britiah provincc of New Brunswick, und by a railway from Portland Mc. to join with tho Ogdcns. burgh railway at Plymouth N II which routo I know to be practicablo from a cuivey I for mcrly mado for a rood through ihat country a communication would be opcned Ihroughlhe wholo tlate nf Maino. Lct this join thc grcat natinnal railway at Plymouth N H. ond pa;s thro' the dcep valley of Bakcr's river into the valley nf tho Connecticut at lloverhil), about fivo miles nbovc tho mouth of Wail'a river al Bradford, Vl Ihcre unito with the ndditioria! improvemcnts in the wholo valley of Connecti cut rivrr, nnd pas Ihru' the yullryn of Wails and Onion rivcrs ihus the whole eix N. Eng land slatcs will unito with thu transportaliun frotn tho cily of N Y thro' Iho northern cunal, nnd the wlinls tiass thro' llia north Datl of Is 1 on th grcat national railway to tlio outlot of llio weslem lakes - llienco Ihto' tliom to thefar west, rir by tlio railway in uppct canaan, now ni contomplation, fur unitinglakoOnlario witli lake ilurou, thro' n tine lertile anu levci coun try. Thus you havo tho tncans by which you might pais thro' in a day to the eliorcs ol lako Lluron, and by a dircct route across' the lako in a stcnmbuat, you can pass to tho falls of St. Mnrys, or to Iho outlot of Inko Michigan, in n nolhur, making only about thro daya Ifrom Boston to lhc old furt ofMiehllitiluciiiac, whcro tho news ofthadcclarationol wardid notrcach for ncatly three tiionlhs nftcr il vas dcclarcd ln Juno 1812. Thorailway InUppcr Canada will bo complctcd by that provinco nl suro us timo cxisls, as it maitcs a saving of 8 cr 10 days bo il frotn BufTiilo, nnd U:n or twclvn from Ogdcns biirah. in nassin!! Iho citcu'Uous nuto thro' lako Erio to gel into lake Michigan. Uy tho great improvemont ol tha Wclland catal, round Iho falls of Ningra, Boslon will cct tht trado of lako Erio soor.cr than New York can, by tho Erie canal, togothcr with four or fivo vcatcrn statcs and tho far west, tapping tho rivcaOhio, AVa- and opcnlng thojugular vcin oi thlir commcrco to flnw through thcso grcat laketto Ogdcns burgh, and by Iho national railwiy to Boston. i navo uuu givcn you a msioryoi wnai, nas jccn done and is now doiii, in Itow England and in Canada, by thoscwTio nroiwnko lolho enlcrprizo ; but as thoro aro somcaslccp, who would be wcll wisiicrs u liicy uaj any belicl in llio accnmplishmcnt ofthe object, it may bu ncccssary lo show them what miybo done, n- grcenliiy lo llio seconu proposiuor, II. Tor.how what mjit de doni, il bocomes ncccsssry to havo a plan & survcyof tho whole route from Boston to Ogdcmbirgh : thcn I would show 1 Thatamcrc hantin Boston, hnvitcbu coods fromEuropoCcIndia ontho wharf one day, can, bythia routo, havo thcmthcnettdny at Ogdons bnrgh, rcady to rcship on tho western lakcs j that guods cannot bo conviycd in less than doublotho limo from tho ctty of N Y, as they must havo two or inoro Blipments, or mo canal boats mtit bo towcd llirough the Hudson and lake Champlain by stcim boats. 2 Thnt you can ptss from BoJton by this railway to lako Champlain at Burlington, and llicnco hy Montrea! and Grand river to tho Northern occan, in less timo than from tho city orN Y, orany ollerportin Iho U. S. 3 That hy thii railway goods from Europe can be trarisnorlcd from Boston into tho west ern lakcs SiUpper Canada, inorcthanamonth Booncr in lliosnring and latcr in llio tait, than througli Ihcgiilf of St. Lawrencej nnd moro than n fnrlnight sooncr in llio ppting nnd Iater in Iho fall than by the Erio canal on accnunt of ice in the canal and in tho lake at tho hcad ofit.andtho dangcrnus passago through tbo gull orat L.awrcnce in Ihe spring and tall. That goods from Boston, by this rnilwny, can pass throuMi lake Outario c tho Wclland canal into Inko Erie a nun.bcr nf days sooncr any timo olyear than they can liyllio t.rie ca nal fiom New York, and with losi cxpense. S Show thc rcciprocnl cxchanzc bctwcon inillion9 of inhabilanlsin North Amcrica in tlio east and west; that cach ono may onjoy tho comforts and blessings of tho otlicrby llits rai 1 wav communicalion thc fish and salt ofthe east cxchangcd for llio flour nnd poik of th'e west, lhc becl and bnttur of tho west fur tho coltnn and woolcn manufacltircs of tha east. thc luxurics of Europe and the Indias for lhc 6kins and furs oflho far west. C That the incrchants from Ohio and othcr western statcs can pass with thcir goods thro' tho lakcs and by this railway to Boslon and back, tvvicc, in less time than they cando down thc river lo New Orleans and back once, aud with less than half tho expcnsc. 7 Show that in trnnsportinr'froin Ohio.Kcn tucky, Michi'ian, InJiana, lTlinois and Wis consin, down tho river thro' lhc warm climate lo New Orleans, llioflour eour., Ihcbeerspoils llio pork tnints nnd Ihe hutlcr and lard inelt whcn in tranBnnrlino- casterlv. thro' lako Onta rlo and this railway, It all viould be carricd to Boston in pafcly. 8 That tbo grcat lake Ontario lics ro deep in lhc carlh Ihat it docs not frceio ovcr in tho wintcr the surfacf of which is only 231 fcct abovo tha levcl of lhc ocean, aud ils bottom moro than 250 feet below lhc occun's surlace and bv a covorcd railwayfrom its outlct atOa dcnsburgh to Boston, goods can pass from I!os ton into that lako throimliout tho year. 9 That Icss mnncvtlinn it cost to huild Iho Erie canal will huild Iho covcrtil railway thc whole distanco; and that Iho chiinney ot th stcam carcan be casily allored cr amended so ns to ptcvcnt any danger to the covering from tho lire ncccssary to inovc tho cnginc, 10 That tho distanco by thu railway from Boston tn Ocdcnsburch ia less by- W miles than from Albany to Bufluln by the Erio cannl Tho whole dislancc of iho Erio canal is 303 milcs, 11 That less than thrco milllona will huild tho wholo railway, and the incoint ol il thrco yeais will covcrit Ihe wholo dislancc. 12 That by a covcrcd railway, from Bost on to Ocdensbur"li, Uoslon eccurcs the trad of that grcat open lake llirough the wintcr. white Iho llnuson nver, thc h.ne canal and Ih nver bt L.awrcnce are al, Irozcn ovcr . aslcc under thcir wintcr blankcts. 13 That in transpurtin" the railway cars a croBs lake Champlain in the wintcr on thu ice, whcn tho steamboat cannot run, horso power will wcll answer tho purposc, or by stcam boats with icc cuttera an opcn channel may be kcpt lliro' tho ice the ditlanco being oniy a bout lll miles. 14 That tho cattle of ihousands of hills an llioflour, pork and butter of inillions of furm crr. can be tranBportcd from tho srcat west to thc occan by Ihis railway bitlcr than by any othcr communicalion possible at prescnl know to man. 15 and lastly, to convinco all of the fact show the two creat ranses of mountains o highlands, cxtondingfroni north to soulh, thro' New Englend from Canada linc to tho occan and Connecticut river running the wholo dist anco bclween, all parling the great woslern lakcs trorn tlie eastern occan. 1 hon sriow tho Iwo crcat culps that naturo has becn dic ging out for thouEands of ycars across these mounlain rangcs, loavinga deep vaneyinracl rangc, lo beimprovcd ny lhc incustry ol man Ihousands ol lect below Ihe grcat mountai runge : lhc ono is whern bakcr's nver rune thro' iho Whilo niountnm rangj in tho low of Hurnncy, N II. bttwcen Stinson's mountai nnd Curdigan mountain : thc olher is wherc Onion river ruus thrn' tlie Green mountain ranga in Vermont, about M milcs below Mont ptlifr, bctwcen Mansfield mount.iin and Cam el'a Rump. Andiil nny then do not bclicve what naturo husdone towards Ihe acconiplish mcnl of this enterprise, let them cee in ihete gulfs tlicmatks ofthe waler futls mado by tlu'se rivers nn Iho Ipilgrs in Ihe siues ot tho ninun tains, hundreds of fcct abovo thcir prcscnt hcds, whore t och rivcc now pas'rngi nily through its sepcrato rango, witliatluw cnrrf nl,al tlie d.'ptl ol tho basc ol llio mnuntains nn euch nUe Bakers river runnin? in n soulhcaiterly dirrr Hon throuzh Ihe Wiuto mountain rnn;e, nu Onion rivor rnnning in n wirlwcstrrly dircc lion througji Iho Green mountain rnngo ma From Ihe Montreal Ilcrald uf Iho SSth ull learn Ihat llio comiiiuy has been nlroadv inconiora lcil It uialo tlua roail anl Ihat a comniiltee of thu provinrial leplainr liuvo iiul reported Co incrraae ils capilal lo 600,000. I herc spoms evfry frob aui.iiv uini miii ruau, rniiw in icjlgui, will r SWfl VUill, kinff nn openinc throush both for & communi ctttion eithur for a canal or railway to pass from Ihe grcat Amaricnn Mcditorranran of Ihe west to tho Atlanlicoccnn of tha east. Thoio who will nctbclicvein tho complcling of tho rail road, aftcr secliignll llns, mtittba lcft in thcir unbclief, 1 pass to thoso who will not only bc liovo, but advanco tho money lo huild Iho rail way and rcccive tho grcnt reward, not only for thoir own bcncfit, but fortho benelitof milllons yct unborn. To thoso I would show Iho prof its and roward of thcir enterprisr, ngrccablyto mo iniru proposition, III. I would provo to Ihcm that this railway cnnnot bo rivalled hy any othcr in Now Eng- nu.ns uiEio is no place ln Ci 11. nor ln Vt, hcro llioso two crcat ranccs of mountains mc so complctely cut thro to thcir bottom as In tho vailcys ol liakors and Union rivcrs, and both polnting oui a routo in a good dircction lor loa- icu cars to run lliro' llio whole distanco from oston lo lako Champlain, withoul lhc hclpof siauonory ongine. 1 would also show that this railway. whcn completed, is not to bo cquallcd in tho known worfd, connccling moro than 1000 miles ofsen shoro with moro than 1 0,000 inilceof lakcshore, thro' thcso gulpha across the great mountain rnngca ln u uislnnco ol about 31U miles, lo gcthcr with Iho addition of an ovcr opcn lake of 190 milcs morc, llience by tho Wolland ca nal, now npcncd for ship navigaticn, into lhc vnsl chaln of lakes to tho north and wcjt, on tho shorcx of which I will vcnturo (o ,ay that nunurcus oi ciuos, towns nnu vu:"2'- afo yct to ho built within one contury. 1 would lurlhcrshow thc tonnage ot thc 71 awrencc thc tonnoco and numbcr of slcnm- boata on Iho Ohio nnd Mississippi rivers Iho tollago of tho Ohio and Chctnpeako. tho Erio nd iNortncrn canals, and that Ihe tollago of ho hrio canal alono is moro than a m I on this'ycnr.nnd incrcasingyearly, niitherjof which ii nutn dropin liiobucket wncti rotnparcd with us ranwar. I would laslh show them how llia trndn of this champion railway will cut nff tho head of thc river bt uawrenco and cnter thc grnalliikes ko a cinnt, taking tho Ohio nnd Misissippi rivcrs by the forctop, and thc commcrco ofthe North, tho West and far West,' together with thotisands of ships on tho lakes lo pass with thoir carcocs to Oadcnabnrcb, from thenco by ihousands of tone daily, to pass on Iho nreat national railway lo Bolton ; k. instnad of Bos ton being leconl to Now York, itmustbccomo no ol thc grcatcst cmporium? ol tlie woild. I ahall add no moro at prcscnt. but remain ours, most respcctfnlly. JOHN McUUFI' ISE, Civil Enginocr. Bradford. Vt. Jan. 20, 1837. .Jn offlce'holdtrD. .1. Jl. Duck. Our Wnsh- ington correspondcnt last weck wtoto us that Mr. Buck tcslincd bcfoio tho comrnitlce of in. ostigalion Ihat his pay as a Clork commen- ccd whilo ho waa a moinber of the legislaluro of Vormont. This waa bad enough for an of- fice-holdor holding a scat in tho logielature, to wliicli, by lhc constitution of Vermont, ho was not enlitlcd, nnd at tho same timo draw- ng pay from tho Gcncral Government forser- viccs which he was not perfonning unless, pcrchanco, the rral sereice for which govern ment paid him was in fighting for " tht part j" hcre in Vermont I Indeed, wa aro not sure that ho was cntitlcd to pay, cvon on tho last suppnstlion : ono of his greatest spccchcs in our lcgisluturo at that time was for an incorpo- ratton, with a capitalof $3,000,000. But bad as our correspondcnt lopiesents Col. Buck, wo find that nnother telle a worsostory. Tho fol lowing is from the correspondcnt of tho N. Y. Couricr and Enquirer : Thcv (tha commilteci havo exam'ined a MrDuck r v. inuni) wliowo caie aCRidcntally came up b fure them, and Is onu oT tho numerous cases sus ncctt'd to exist herc individuals have reccivcd navmentfrom tlie treasurv, withoul ncrforminr' anv dtily and this caso dcmonjir.Ues iho impossibilily of makinq "specific charses." Tlie examinalion of anollier wuness lea !o the cxaminiunn orlVlr Uuck, irom wnosc lesumony u nnpears inai in juiy ibao ho was appointod to a Llerks!iii in ono ot tha pub lic otTiccs in this city, at a salnrr of twclre huudrcd dollars per nnnum that ho was elcclcd a mcmbcr ol Iho l.eislaturo ol Vermont, whero Ihe parly re nuircd his serviccs ihat ho actcd in ihe canacitv of a legislator for fivo or six weeks, and como lo aeningion aoout mo nrsi ol uecember tliat he receivcd payrnent out oflho trcasury from July un til Uecember, dcductinc iho five or six weeks that his own xtalc paid him, thus pockcting tliree or four nunureu uoiiars lor servicas rcnuereu, tvinist he was romforlnblv eniovin? Lho summer'a brezp in th doiijlitful Green 'Mounlains oflho palriutic stato of vermont. rioiwiinsianuing tnc pariicuiaruy ol Iho a- hovc account, wo aro inclincd to think ourown correspondcnt in the righl, both bccausc his account is moro favorablo to Mr. Buck, tvho was oncc ccrtuinly a vcry good anti-Jackson man, and withal a very strong polilical friend of ours, to say tho lcast, and bccausc it bet- tor agrecs with thc knowlcdgo wo previouUy had of tho matter. Near the uloso of theses sion of our legislature, in 1835, Mr.B. inform cd us that he had reccived an appointmcnt as Clerk nt Washington, with a handsomo sala ry ; ihat ho should givc up his seat in tlio le gislature nr.d soon leavo Vermont. Our im. prpssion is that hcdid not leave his seat, though ho pcrhaps did ask lcavcof abscncc. IJowcv er ihe fcct may bo cs lo this point, wo suppose thcre can bo no quesllon of the impropriety of government in paying him for scniccs which he did uot pciform. White on this snt.jacl wc wish to say that wc havo bcen told that Col. Buck wa? at Chelcea in .Septomber last that httoted at the state rltctlcn, and that ho was exccedingly activo at the polls, particularly concerning the qualification of a prion whosc right to vote was then, nnd is now, soriously doubtod. Whether or not Ihe committre ill tukc surh mattrrs inlo considtiation, wc do not know ; it eecins lo u', hnwever, thnl tht pioplt will not rtli6h a comnc of things like tliis. Jf. ,U. Whltnty again. This man has pub lishcd a card in lho Washington Globe, con cerning his aflair with Peylon in lh cotnmlt tec room, nnd the result has hren that Pnyton has takcn up tho matter in the llousc and pro vcdMr. Whitney's card false. Pnylon was angry and uted liarsh languagc, for which he apologiild to tho cominitteo ; hjt did not draw any wcapon. Whitni'y dclibeiatcly in Fiillcd him, and thc committco nnnnimotisly rr fuscd lo leccive his insulling answer lo Poy ton's ijucstion. A mr morial is about to bo prescntrd lo Con gtesii, from Upicr Canada, praying the repoal of dutics on Canadian produco and allowing a drawback on goods irnported into tho U. S. dvaliucd for Canada. From Wushlngton. RIondat, Fcb. . This is pctition day dcrisircly cnllcd " bUtk .Vonday," ns it is tho day on which hosts of mcmorials aro poured into Congrcss nn the subjoct of slavcry. Monday the Ctli was distinguishcd, as a day abovo all olhers for cxcitcmcnt in both houses of Congrcss. In tho Sonate, n vcry largo numbcr ofpctitions fortho abolition olslavery in the Dislrict woro prcscnlcd hy Messrs. Tiplon of Indiann, Preu tiss and Rwifl ol Vermont, Ewing and Morrii of Ohio. Wall of New Jersey. Knicht of Rliodo Island, Buchanan of Pannaylvama, and Davis and Webnter of Massachujutts, Mr. Calhoun ohjcctod lo thcir rcception a dcbate ciisucd, in which Mcssrj. Calhoun, Tipton, Ewing uf 0., Swifl, AVall, Buchanan, Morris, Mubbard, Prcston, Southard, Bonton, Wcb ster, Cuthbcrt and King of Gno., took pnrt. As wo intcnd to publish this dohato hercaftcr, Wo shall only rcmnrk now that Mossrs. Wcb stcr nnd Southard acsertcd that Congrcss had alrcady excrcised tho power to regutatt tho commcrco in slavcs ainong the stalcs ; Mr. Calhoun mainlalned llmt slavory was not an ttlt in tho prcsont state ofocicty; and Ihat Mr. Kivcs of Virginia admilted Ihat II was an etil : theso fow words couipris tho gist of much of tho irrogular but intcresling discus- (ilon iu thc Scnato. Mr. Bayard moved thnt the quertion of rcceiving tha pctitions bo laid on tho tablo! carried, Ycas Bayard, Benton, Black. Brown. Bu chantm, Calhoun, Clnylon, Ciitbbert, Etcfni' ..r ni 1.-..1 n i .. tr..,.L. tr. . b of lll., Eulton, Grnndy, Ilubburd. Kont. Kin of Ala., King ol Gco., Linn. von. Moorc Mouton, Nicholas, A'orrt, I'at, Preslon, Itivcs, lloblnton, lluggles, Snier, Slrange, vaiaer, viiuo, n rigm 31. Nnys Davis, Ewine of Oliio. Hendricks, Knisht, Morris, Nilos, Pron'Iss. Robbins souuiaru, awut, l ipton, Tomlinson, Wall 13. Wo havo put tlio namcs of Senators from tho free states, who voled in tho ollirmative, in ftafc . it secms they aro all Van Burcn mcn, Only fivo V. B. mcn votcd In tho negativo. In tho llouse was presented such a sccno a was novcr hcforo wltnessed in Congrcss an account of which we have copicd from the Boston Allas. (Sec first pare.) TnESDiT, Fcb. 7. In lho Scnate, Mr. McKcan of Pa. prcscnt cd various rciuonBtrances againstrcdncingtlie duty on loreign coal. A messaga (rom lhc Prcsidcnt, rclativo to Mexico, asking an act aulhorising lho ma'.mg' of rtprisals, was recei vcd and refcrred to. tho committco on Foreign Afiairs. Tho restrictivo Innd bill was ordercd to bo ongrosscd, 21 te 16. ' BESCINDING THE EXPUNGE. Mr. Bayard laid hcforo tho Scnate instruc tions, from Ihe legislaturo of Delaware, that thc Senators of that state introduco aud sus tnin a resolulion rjciniiinff the txpunging rts o.'uli'orij, which wcre brnught in hy Mr. Ben ton and rocontly adopted by lho Scnate. Mr. Bayard said it would bo irnprnpcr to comply with tho instructions at this sension of the Scnate, but he gavo nolice that he should, at tho ncxt scssion, biing in" roscinding rcsolu tions that hc should continuo to bring them In ovcry Bcssion, until thoy wero adopted or so long as hc held n sat, nnd ho trustcd Ihat lho Senators that thuuld succccd him would fol low tho cxamplo, believing, as ho did, that the cxpunging rosolulions wcre contrary to lho fcclings of Iho nation. Wo rejoicc at this mcasuxt wo had oursclves tho't of suggcat ing it, ns strirtly ronslilutional and ns abso lutcly dcmanded in defence of lho ConEtitu tion. The IIuupc spcnt lho day in dcbating Ihe " privilcged question" or, in othor wi :ds, considcring what was to be dono with John Q,. Adams, for inquiring of tht Sjitaktrwhelh tr i pitition of ilaves came undtr a certain rule of the Ihutt ! Thcre werc sundry resolutions and motiona prescnted touching tho matter 8omc to ernsurt Mr. A., iomo dcclaiing that hc ought to be cemurcd, and olhers that ho it ctnsured. Of coursc therc was an almost in finito divcrsity of opinions, and what tho re sult will bc is matter nf guess werk. Wc gutss tho hot-bloodcd southcrncrs will sufll'r thcir wrath to bo cvaporated, and thal Mr, Adams will como ofl' thc viclor. Wcdxesd.it, I'cb. 8. In the Senatc, Mr. Wcbster presenlcd lho memoria! of aboul 1J00 mcrchants of N. Y., for n national bank. Mr. W. said his tiews werc now what they had been on this matter, but ihat ho had delcrmincd not to move ontho subjcct until it was deiuaiidcd by Ihe united vaice nf thu people ; ho also said that he bc liovcd n chntige would sooncr or Iater lake place in the vicws of guntlcrnen opposcd to him, nnd then they would properly introduco lliid subjcct. At 20 minute'9 pasl 12 n'clock, tho Scnalc ropnired to the llousc, to canvass tho votcs for PreBident and Vico Prcsidcnt of iho United 3iates, nnd returnod at half paM thrco o'clock, when Mr. Grundy, from the joiut committco reportcd a rcsolution for n rommitleo to inform Martin Van Burcn of his olcclion as Presidenl, which was agreed to Mr. Grundy also introduccd n prcomblo and resolution, pettingfurth that thero had bron no elcctioii of Vico Prcsidont by tho clectors,and that thc Sennlo now procccd to eloct a Vico Prcsidcnt, the Secrolary calling on tho 6ena lors in alphahrtical order to name tho randi- dato for whom they votcd all which wns a grccd to, and nxcHARS ax. johnson, of Kentucky, was olcctcd Vice Prosident for four ycars aller lho 3d of March next, by tho fullovving vote : Ter Itichard .V. oimoii Mcssrn. Bonton, Black, Brown, Buchanan, Cuthberl, Ewing of Illinois, Fullon, Grundy, IIondrickH, Ilub bard, King of Alabama, King of Ocorgia, Linn, Lyon, McKean, Morris, Mouton, Nich olas, Nilcs, Norvcll, Pagc, Parker, Uives, Bobinson, Rugglea, Sevicr, Slrange, Tall , madge, Tipton, Walkcr, Wright 35. ror Franch Grangtr Moisrf, Bayard, Clay, Claylon, Crillcndcn, Davis, Ewing ol Ohio, Kcnt, Knighl, Prentlss, Kobbins, Soulh ard, Spcnccr, Swia, Tomlinson, Wall, Wth. stcr 1C. Ibientett Mr. Whilo of Tenncspoe, and Messrs. Calhoun nnd Picston ol Soulh Caro- lina. On comparinc Ihis ofc!with tho table b- low.ttllO fullowins facts will bo nbtntvKil thnt the Senators from Georgia, Indiana nnd Vir- gmia, Mr, Giundy of Tennesioo, and Mr. Morris ol Ohio volrd for Col. Johnson, and thelr stalcs voled 'ngalnst him all which Sen ators nre Van Buron rnn ; Ihat the Senatotti ff om R. I. and Mr. Tomlinson of Connecticut (Whlga) o!cd(or Mr.'Grancer, and thcir states against him ; that Mr. Wall (V. B.) of N. J. voled wilh his slatn and for Mr. Gran gcr ; and that Messrs. Monro and Black, (Whigi) voled for Johnson ; ond ihat both lho Senators of Michigan voled for Mr. John son, nnd thcir votcs wcro rountcd. Had a'l tho Senators voled, and according to thcvoico ol thcir states, excluding Michigan, tho result would havo been 20 for Col. Johnson and 2 1 ngalnst him. In tho llousc, a mcssagc was icccivcd from tho Prcsidcnt rclativo' to.the cxploring expedi lion, in which ho cxprosscs a hopo that all fa cilities will be grantcd. A vory gentlo hint to tho failhful to voto foraupplics, Cambrolang and Jarvis tu tho contrary nolwithstanding. ELECTION OF PKESIDEN'T OF THE UNITED STATES. Tho hour of twclvohavingarrivcd, andmes sagcs to that cftect liaving bern intcrcbanged between the Iwo Houses, theScnaloii! abody, ontered tho llall, p-oceedcd by thcir President and Secretjry, nnd wero received by the Mcm bori of tho llousc standing uncovercd. Tho President of lho Scnato prcsidcd, tho Speakcr ofthe llousc sitting on his right hand. Tbo Tcllcrs, Mr. Grundy-, of the Scnato, Messrs. Thomas and Lincoln of Ihe llousc, hnvlng takcn thcir seat?, tho rcturn nf vlecto rai votcs from cach State was opcned, read, and rccordcd, thc result of thc wholo numbcr of votcs being as follows: u L - 1 ' - VOU TICO "S ron rRCSlDCST. rrtESlDENT. vl I c- i . 3 I 1 I' i B 4 5 2 3 ? 3 -S 50 5 . 5 S 'aJ-i 10 Maino 10 10 7 N. Ilamphir' 7 7 14 Maspachusctlr I I 11 4 II. Island 4 4 8 Conncclicut 8 S 7 Vermont 7 7 42 New York 42 VI 8 Nw Jersey fi 8 30 Pennsylvania 30 30 3 Delavvaro 3 3 10 Marvtand 10 10 23 Virniia 23 83 15 N. Carnlina 15 15 11 S. Carnlina II 11 II Georgia 11 11 15 Kentucky 15 15 15 Tenncssco 15 15 21 Ohio 21 21 5 Louisiann 5 5 4 Mississippi 4 4 9 Indiana 9 9 5 Illinois 5 C 7 Alabams, 7 7 4 Mineouri -1 4 3 Arkansas 3 3 Total, Mich'n ifcounted 167 14 73 26 11 M4 77 47 SS 3 " 3 291 170 147 Afler lhc cnuntins of tha votes was com pletpd, and thc result dcclarcd The President of lho Scnate proclaimed Ihat Martin Vnn Buren was elcctcd Prcsidcnt of the United StalcB for four years commen cing Iho 4th day of March ncxt ; nnd Ihat for Vicc Prcsidcnt no person voted for had a ma jority of the whole numbcr of votcs ; B. M. Johnson and Francis Grangcr being tho two. highesl on the list. And thcrcupor, at an early hour tho House adjourncd. TntrnsDAT, Feh. 9. In the Senatc, Mr. Stvift prescnted an abo lition mcmorial from Vermont Mr. Calhoun objected to its rcception nnd Ihe qucslion of reception was laid on the table, 25 to 12. Mr. Calhoun, on leavo, introduced n mosteingular bill, Iho object of which wasincflect, logite tht public lands away to the states in which thost lands He. Mr. Kobinaon (of II.) inovcd tore fcr it lo a selcct commiltee, and Mr. Walkcr (of Mississippi) wished it to go te a commit tec, the mcan time saving ihat he was ngainsf ppolia'ions on thc public property and against injustico to tho old states, Mr. Niles (of Con necticut) was against this bill he had voted: for Wolkor's land bill ' wilh fear and trom bling." Mr. Webster wishcd not tliat the iden should go furth to thc country that a measuro nf this magnitude was In pass ths Senate, and moved to reconsider the voto by which Iho bill had beon ordercd to a second roading. Mr. Calhoun wished fer n rcfcrenco and Mr. Brown (of N.C.) was for rcconsidering. Mr Clay said that four or fir ycars ago, this tubject of'lho public lands was forcrd upon him, and ho had devWed a schvme full of eqtiity. Il re ceived Ihu votes of h niajorily of bolh llouses, and vvs rejected by Ihe Prosident. Ile had always considered ihu public domain a tacrej irusl for tfi country and pusieritv. He vvas opposeil to any inraiure eivini; away this public property fbr Iho bcncfit of ppociilators, and ho ws thfrefore opposoJ Ijlhis bill, as woll ns that which is locomeup to-day, on ils ihird reading, He had himself labored hith erto in vain, lo snvo Ihii property, but he should continuo to oppose theso (.clieinrs. Uo implored the Scnate to abstain from inakinj; ihcso appeals to lho new Slates, for the purpose of servin; any par- ucuiar pariy. ne appoaieu lo Ihe Hcnalor froia South Carolma, whether ho might not incur th suspiuion of ilcsiritiff to vvin over ihe new Statcs to servo somo ijarticiiTar aiins. Ho hopeJ ihat his own niolives would bo Iruly sppreciated, when b mado Ihii sland a;a nst thu iclicnie of givinf away tho public domain. Mr Calhorn said h had hopr J ibat th: votes of last srsmon would havo beon fjllowed up, aud ihat Ihe public lands might havr bstin preserved; bnt it bom); now apparrnt from lho votos giron by the Senators from llio inidJle and norlbern Slates, that this hopo was now vain, he thought it bolter lo c'ito up Iho properly at ones. Il liad been assertad bcrs wiiliiu iwodaj c, Ihat lho new Senatort and slates ought nollo fcecopl lands on coiiditions, when Ihe' vrould so soou haro tho power ia Iheir liands. S ihat Uitsc lands wfil be taMo tbv inoins oriacurins.