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Vermont watchman and State journal. [volume] (Montpelier, Vt.) 1836-1883, March 14, 1837, Image 2

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) iiiit n-tri ii iimi
From Washington.
CoN'iREs. Our regulnr journal 1s ili
tpe, 'iiiuhe Vnledictury, which waa re
I'civcii .I'tar our rolumiis were nuarly (lill,
oxchiik--, it. We cnn barely iy that Oio
Vnowle tgcd and a MINISTER diphv
irulie oppointed to thnt rrovcrnmfcnt; that
Wright'a TAIUFF bill, and
WahWs LAND bill
were DEFF.ATED in tbe Hnusejthat the
lnrludti ;r thc clause for distributing tliOjJ
M,'liri.liS, waa DEFEATED in the
Penati'.und that tbe Cl. RRENCY bill,
v hioh vns passcd by tnore than two thirda
1:1 bith Houice, was NOT sigtkd by prcs
i.icnt Jarkson.
'l hc pnrlisu of till my pr'i.'eei toic unpoaes
on moan uldigitio.i I ch':crfu!ly fuilil, toacconi.
t my ihe. fual nnd sulomn uct of my pubhc
t. usl vwic nn avowal of thc pnnciples lliat will
pnde tsu, !,i pcrfoi ming ii, und nn exprcsaion
of ny fb''!inga on ntMiniing a rhargQ ao rea
porili . and vnFt. In imitating iticir exam
pic, I tread in the frwtstcps of illuetrious inon,
w hosc rnp rriors, il is our happiness to lieltcve,
tc no: found on the execulivo vnlondar of any
tounlry. An.ung thcm, vie rocogriizo llio enr
lieU nnd hrmcH tiillaro of the icpnblic ; those
by wliom our i.ational indcpeisderic?) waa flrst
drclorcd; him whn, aboicall othcru, conlribu
tid to oalabhah il on the ficld ofballle; and
thoso whoso expanded intellcct nnd palnotijm
fonslritcted, itnjirovcd ond perfectcd tho incs
liniable inatitutions under which wo livo. 1(
fucIi men, in ilio position I now occupy, felt
thcmetlvcB ovcrwhp.lnied by a scnfo of grn'.i
ttidc for tliis, tha hfghoct o'f all marki oftheir
connUy'g confidcntT, and by a conscioueiicsa
of iheir inability ndequntcly to dischargo thu
dutica of an offico todifficutt and exalted, liow
inucli morc mnst ihcso confidnrations affcct
onu wlio can roly on no mieli clainia for fnvor
or fotbcnrancer Unlikc 1 11 whp Imve prtcsdod
ine, tlic rcvnlmion lliat gavc us cjistcnco rs
onu ptople, vu8 actiicicd at tlio period cf my
Lirll.i; and, uhiletl conlciiiplnto w iili "ratclul
icvercncu that moniorablo ovciit, 1 fccl that 1
belong to a latcr age, and that I may not c.
"cot mj countryincii to wcigli tny acliona nith
i!v faino kind and partial liand.
So seiisibly, follow eltiicna, do thoso cir-
umstanccs iress tiiuintcUcs upon mc, that I
fliould not durc to nntcr upon my pth of duty,
(Jul I not tonU for tlio cin ruus aid of thusc
mIio uillbo aesociatcd with mc in tlia vmioui
and co-ordinato hrnnclics of tho Gnvcrnmcnt;
diil I not rcpoac, with unwavering roliance on
the patriotism, the intuHijcncc, and tho kind
rir s, of a ppoplo tt'ho ncvcr yet desertcd a
pi'bhc forvanl honrplly lahoritia in thrir caufe ;
and, abuvo all, did l not pcrtnit inysulf hunibly
to hnpc tor tho austaining support ol an cvcr
iatchfiil and bonificcnt I'ruMduncr.
l 'i iliu confidiincc and comolation derivcd
trmf) thc9o sourct-3, it would ba ungrattful not
to adj Uioso wliicli 'prin from our pruscnt
forinn. te condition. Though not alloscthur
i -iuK.frum enibatrajsHienls that disturb our
''annn.!:( athoaie aod thrcatcn it abroad, yct,
l'i a'l attribulci of a Rrcal, huppy, and
tlouiihhing pcoplc, wo stand wilhout a paral
Id m thc wotld. Abroad, wo cnjoy tho rr
pcct, and, wifh fcan.cly nn exciption, thc
friendship of cvcry nati'-n j at honic, whilc our
GovernrdP.i)t quielly, hut tflicunlly, perforras
thttole lugitiinatu eod of palilical mslilulionn,
.n doi'igthn grcntCtt good to ihegrcotcst nmn
bcr, wo pifsi'iit an aggrcgnto of hunian pros
1 city furJy not eleawhcrc to bo found.
ITof imperiouii, thun, i? tlio obligalion im
posi.d upon cuiy ciliitn, in bi own spherc of
,ttion, wliot'.icr litjiitcd or cxtcndcd, to excrt
.niiiclfir perpctuating a condilioll of thingo so
.inularly riippy, All tho lesi-on6 ol htatory
.nd o.tpc.-ieiice muit bc lot upon us, if wc aru
...iiiciit t. trusl alono to tbu peculinr advai.la
;(! Ii.jpcn to pustosf. Tosition and cli-
'aio, ai.d u.j bountcou rcBourcoa that nalurc
! in catii r i with so libcral a hand cvcn thc
"ujcd int- "irancc and clovated charucter of
ui pt".' ,. 'I avail uj nollune, if e fail
i.cibdly to u "tiold those polilicat instiluliorts
tl.al wtirc wlt 'y and dolibi:ratcly formcd, wilh
i. ";-fnco to cvery crcuinslance that could
, i- s-j-ve, or tniht endunftcr, tho blcssitigs we
' tijoy. The thougbtlul liamtra ot our constit
lcj.islattd lorour counlry m thuy fotintl
il. Lookiti; upon it vitli thc c.vcr of elatce
in n and ol'patnott, thuy naw ull the bouicue
i.f rapid and woudorful prospunty j but Iht'y
-u'v aleu tliat vatious hahiU, opinioai, and in
ttitntions, pcculiar to the varioua portiona of
iu val o rogion, wero dreply fucd. Distinct
. i v rti'iea wery in ar.ttial oxinionce, whoau
r.-iul union wa osjontial to the wvllvro and
riapptnf.cb of all. Belwuen many olthetn thf-ro
wai. at leaft l.o tomc exatit, a rcal diversitv
if ii ii rost. , linble to bo cxaggotatcd througli
. .iMer de.i(;nBi they dinircd in the, in pop
utation, m wcahh and in actual and pto?prc
tivo retourcoi aiidpowurj thcy varicd in the
-iaruc t'r fr thtir induttry and filaplo produc-
tionB ; ,nd in eotue oxialtd doincttc initltu
1 , hich, ,inivicly ditturbcd, might cn
i'aiij;e' ''ie harmoay jt the whole. Moatoare
i nly .vuo all thetc circuniBtaricefl wcighod,
aiitf the foundhtionB ol tho new govomincnt
i.J iij . i pri'iciplce ol' rxi;irocal oonceBnion
-ird 'r1.,.'al. j coinpromise. Tho jcalousiRs
A.ch .j biiul.fr Statas mightiinterlaiti oftho
er ci ,ht lUfl wcrn allajcd by a mlo of
i-prci'' 'auon, confomcdly uneqnal at the
i.infi, s .' designrd forovr to romain so. A
imturn t.n lliat the broad u.pc of gfncial U
Ciilaiio m.lilboar upon and uuni-cly eonirol
pjLf'ici -r "'creiils, wok countcractcu uy uiniie
btriell J-.-wii around thooclion oftho fcdoral
autkori j , ai'! to tho peoplo and the Stales
waa "'-it imipaircd thcir snvcrcign power
avi r l. c r I'uni' iatle aupjccts i-mbraced in thr.
.iiU mal j,o-' ri.meiit of a jutt tcpnblic, cxcopt
uig (nili .jttIv bh iieccnuily appcrtuin to tlie
co"nccr.ic uf he hola coiiftdaracy, or its in
ceiuourbo. as a unild coinmuni'y, nhh tho
cfixr nntiona or'ho world.
Thja jirevdt nt (orecast hai buen Vuiflficd by
tiiiio. Tlill a tci.tuty, lcoming w iih cxtraor
di i-ry ci. nl--, und tlaowhon' prodacingaBloii'
m mf nat.'ta, hes paaaed uinng but on oui
ifiitit'JCiona it ha, lcft no tnjurioua naih.
fc Vtfnn a smj i rommunity, wo hava rUuuton
-,pl' poweiiid in mimbera and in atrungilii
(,ut k .! . .ifraaFchas gonn, hand in hand,
ihcl) '' of juat prinnplw j tho orivik'goii,
tivil i.i - lijtous, of thc'humblt todividunl
ara si, .. fiacrfdly prntactnd at hotnt : and wbile
"ic vulo. an! 'ortitndo of our pcople hava rc
n&vcd from the .d.-,htest apprnhenaion of
fnr. itfn pov.cr ihey t-ave not yct induci'd us, iti
a b.nglo mi'taticc, M forgct what ia rtght. Our
fiMimeipe hati bcon czu adctl U the rcmotcht
ut-'ns i- value, ar.d cven imturc, ol our
rodusl'one ha" bt-n g-cclly clianged a wiJ
diflercnco has ariopn In tho rclnlivo wcalth and
rcsaurccs of cVery potlioti ol ottr cotmlry i yct
thc spirit uf mulual rcgard and o( fallblul adhi
iuiico to existing coinpacta, has tontiuucd to
prevail in our cnuhcils, and ncvcr long bcun
abatntfrotn our conduct. Wo liavo lcarncd
by uxpcricnco n fruitlul Icsfoii : that an inipli
cit and tindaviating adhcrcnco tn tho prinri
plca on wliich wo act otit, can ratry tia proa
pcrnusly otnvard thn ugli ull tho confhclt uf
circuinitanccs, and Ihuvlciiititudca inscparablo
from tlio lapto of ytart.
Tho aucccta tliat has attcndcd our grcat cx
I'triincnt, ia, in itsclf, a sullicieiit causn for
gratitnde, on account ol tho happincaa il has
actually confctred, and tho cxatnplo it has un
answcrahly gtvcn,, Uut to mc, tny fcllow fili
zcnt, looklng forward to tht furdiatant I'utnrf,
with ardcnt prnypta und cunfiding liopcs, thia
rolroopcct prcqcntaa ground foretilldceprrtlo
lijtht. It,inipri'3tta on my tnind i) firni hiliel
tliat tho pcrpcluity ofour inatitutiona dcpcndii
upon ourtclv'cis j that if wc malntalh thc princi
plcj on wliich thcy wero oatabliahcd, thpy aru
ddCtincd to confur their bcncfiU on counltesa
iinctations yct tocome: and that Amcrxn
'tvill prcacnl to tvpry fricnd of tnnnkind llm
vliectiug prool tliat a popular govrrntncnl,
wiioy lornied, ia waniing in no e'liiiicnt ol'cn
dnranre or atronglh. Filty yearaago, ila rap'
id failura was boldly prodiclcd. Latcut and
uncontrollablo cauiefi of diaaolulion M'oro siip
poitid to cxiat, cvon by tho ivise and gnod ;
and not only did unfrienilly or spoculativo tha
orietB unticipatc fur us tho fato ol paat rcpub
licr, but tho fcnra uf inatiy an lioiinM patriot
uvvtboluiiccd hi nanguinc hopOE. Look back
on those forehodingtf, not haatily, but roltic
lanlly madn, and ace liow, iu cvcry inMance,
thcy hava cotnplciely failcd.
An imperfect expcticocc, during the Etrug
glce of the roulution, waa kiipposcd lo w.it
rant a bclipf that the ppoplo wotijd not boartho
taxalion rocjniaito to difchargo an iitimcnsc
puliliu dcbt alrcady incurtod, and tn dofray tha
ntceaaary expfimca of goycrnniBnt. Tho coat
of two wara haB bcon paid, not only without a
niunuur, hut with unt')ualfcd ahicrity. No
one i now left to douhl lliat tvrry burthoti
will be chet'ifiilly hurn Ihul may bc necuxsary
to aualain uur civil inntitutions, or guard our
honor or our welfaro. Indeed, all' txporicncu
has shown that ihe wi'linjncsa of the poople
to roniributo lo theaocndain cusjs ol'omorgin
cy, haa unilormly outrun tlm confidenci ol
tht'ir rcprcacntalivos.
In iho early stagcaol thc new Qocrnnionl,
whcn all fclt tha imposlng influcncu, aa tliay
rccognizcd Ihe untqnallid eerticca oftho firet
Preeidcnt, it wasa coinmon ecntimcnt, that the
grcat wcight of his charactci could alono biud
tho dijjcordant mateiialaof our govcrnment lo
gethcr, and aavo tis from tho vinlcnco ofcon
tcnding factions. Sineo liis duntli, ncarly fnr
ty years arc ono. I'arly oxaspcration has
bicn oflnn carricd lo ilahij:liel poinl j thu ir
uo and tho forliludo ol thc pinplc havoeouic
timcs bcn greatly Iried; jct'oiii gyataui, pu
rifiLil and cnhanced in value hy all it hai cjii
coimtcred, slil prctcrvea ita rpirit of frro and
fearlcea diKcuasion. blunded with uiniinnalrcd
-itcrnal fcoling.
Tho canaciiy oftho peoplo for st-lf govcrii
ment, and (hcir willingneaa, frr.m a hi;lisriiHo
of duty, and wuhout those pxhibitions f eocrciVo
power so sent'ra'lv pmploycd in otlu r p.innirici!, lo
submit to all needful reslruinls and exactinna of tbe
municipal law, have a1o becn favorihly fxemphfied
in the nistory of iho Amtriran Statca. Occation
ally, it m truo, th ardor of publie scntimcnl out
running the rcgular piogrosa of the juilicial tribunalt,
ot fetiking to rcacli ca-cs not dL'nounced as cimiin
al by tlie rxtstinp law, haa diiflayed itaolf in a mn
ncr calculated to give pain to the fnenda of frco
govormnent, anJ to encourago tho hopes of thoso
who wish for ila overlhrow. Thcsc occurrencca,
honver, have becn far lets frfqucnt in our country
tlian in anr othcr of equal punulation on tlii) glnbc ;
and ttilh the difl'usion of intelligencu, il may wH be
hopcd that they constantly d.miniiih in frtriucn
cy ar.d violcnco. Tlio gcncrous palriolhmf: sound
cumincn snao i-f Ihe fiMtmjsi ofour follow ciii
xen, ill assuredly, in time, produco thia result ;
for as etory aasumptiiin ofillezal power not only
wounds tbe majesty of ilio law, but furnithes & pre
tcxt for abriding tns liberliei oftho peoplc, tho lat
tcr have the niost dircct and pcitnanent intercat in
prcscring the jreat lcnd-narks cf social ordcr. and
main'aininf!, on a'l occasions, tlio inviolability ( f
those cnnstiUUionnl and U'gal provisicns wliich ihry
lliemselvrs haie made.
In a supposed iinfiincss of our incliliuiohe for
thesehostilo cmercwnciti v, l.ich no cuiiniry can al
ays avoid, their frienda f.und a fruitful somco of
if prehension, their enem ea hopo, AVhile they
ibresaw Iois promplncss of action Ihan in Govcrn
rnenls dilTerciitly formed, thcy ovcrlooked tho far
nioro imporlant considtiaiinn, that wilh ua war
cuuldnevcr bc tho osull of individual or irrcjpur.ii
bls will, but muet bo a measurc of rodress for Miju
rits sustainod, volunurily rcaorled to by thaso nho
uere tobiartho nccnssary sacraficc, who nnuld
ccnsoqucntly foul an individual intoreat in thc con
test, and whoso cneray uould be commei.surale
with the difliciiltioa lo be tncountrrcd. Actual e
vents have provrd their crror s the last war, far
from impainng, avo new confidenco tuour Govern
mcnt; and amiJ reccnt apprchonaions uf a siiular
conliict, wo saw that tho cncrjirs of our cour.try
would not he want'm j in ample scason to vinuicatc
us richls. Wa may not pcssvss, as s ahoulil noi
deairc to possesa,th extDiidcd and cvcr rcady roili
tary ornaniiation of othcr naiiona ; we may occa-
sionally kuflVr in iho oui.t; for thc want of it ; but,
amnig oursclves, all doubt upon thls gtcat poir.t baa
ceaseo, wbila h saluiary ospericnce will prevcnt a
conlrary opinion from mviting aggrcBsion fiom a-
Certaindaniierwas foretold from the cxti nsion of
our tcriitory, tne inulliplicalion ofstatci, und thcin
creasc of pupiilation. Our Bybteri was niipposod to
ba adapted only to boundaries coinnarativcly na'r
row. Thcso have been widened bcyond ccnjsc
ture; the mcmbcrs ofour confodcracy arc alrcady
doublcd ; and tho numbers ofour peoplc are iricred
ibly aueiriBi'itcil. Tho ollcccil causes ufdanaer have
long turpasatd aiitiupa'.ion, but none of thc consc-rjiii-iices
have fr.llowod. Tho poner and Induenco
of the icpublic liavt risen to ahcigln obioua lo all
mankind; rospcct for itif aulhority was not morc tp
parent at ila aucienl ihaait U atits prcsent limits ;
new and inoxhauElablo eources o'f cnoral prospcrity
have been oneni d j thc cfiecla of distancc hsrc bccn
averled by the inveniivo rcnius of curneonle. dovel-
oped and fosterrd hy tho epirit vC our insiitutiona ;
and the enlarcod variety and amoun! if interists, j
producliona and jiurauils, liuvo trcnr,thenej iho
chain of inutual depciidrnsc, and formed aclrcle of
niUlual bcnclita too apparcnt cvertu bo ovcrlooked.
Jn justly balaneini? tho powcrs of tho federal and
ctalo Riitboiiues, diflicultiea imarly insiirmounlablo
arotu at tho oiueel, and subsequcnt collisiona wre
durmcd meTitable. Aniid iht jc, it was searccly
bohrved posBil.lc that a achcmo of porernmtnt, so
compltix in conslrucnou, could not remain uninjured.
Frum limo to timo einbarratkmentt have certainly
oucurred ; but hov; just is il.c coufrknca of fumr'o
aaicty imintcd by the krwlede that each in euc
ccuion has bceu l.appily rfmovud. O rc.rlookinp
p uuai tua icmporary ovus as inseperawe imn thc
jiractical operaiion of all hunian insiilulions, aud
locking only to thc gensral result, evorv patriot has
rcascn to bo Batisficd. tVlnlo thc federal Govcrn
mcnt has aucccssfully pcrforined its appropriato
functions in relation to ibretgn atT.ilra, & r.onccrru
oyiiluitly uational, tliat of uvrry Slate has romarka
bly unproved in protecting anil dcvclopinr; local in
ttrosia and individual weUare ; and jf tho vibrations
ofauthority havo occnsionally tendud too much to
warda one or Iho olher, it is unqutsiionably ccrlain
that tho ultimalo operaiion of tho entire astcm has
been to strengthen all tho cxiaiin; iniliiu'uuus, and
lo elcrate our whulo cuuntry in prosperity and ic
nown. Tho last, pcriiaps tbe greatst,of tho pTomment
aourcea tirdiacord and disaster xuppoccd to lurk in
our nolitical cumUlion, waa Ihe mslitulicn of dornes
tic slavcry. Ourforvfathcra wcrv devply unjirvased
Viith tho dolicacy of thia atlbjoct, and thcj trcated il
witu a lcrucarancn ao vidcnlly wisc, lliat, m iptlu
of i.very suiiitcr forcboding, it nctr, until tlic pres
nt MiioJ. dxluibrd tha trannuility l( our commun
counlry, SuUi a -result j.i Euffioioiit cidonce of
the jumice and the palrioliam of Uicir course; it ia
eviitmt nul to b miotak(rn,that an adhcrenct lo il
can pirvenl all einbarrastmenltrom lliij, aa wU as
from cvcry olhor anticipated cauae of iliUicully or
djnjrr. Havo not lecenl cvonii mii it obvioua to
tbe clighlrsi rfflcclion, Ihat tho lasl deviatiun fiom
this tpinl offurL aranct tainjuiious to cvcry mler
ost, that .if liu.a iy mcluJod 1 Aiaidst Ihe vio-
lenno ol cxcillng paasion, tlm gcnerout and fra'tr
nal fcchng has bccn aometluica disregardod i and,
alandinij aa I now do bcforo my counlrymcn in this
hlfli plncc of honor andoftrust, I caimot rcfiain
from anxiotisly invoking my follow citlzcn ncvcr tn
bo dcaf to ita dictatos. Pcrcciving, bcfure my olec
tion, Ihe dccp Inlerest this subjoct waa beginr..ig to
uxcite, I bcliovod it a solemn duty fully t( mik
known my aenlimcnla in rcgard lo it ; and how,
whcn cvcry mnlivo for mnrcprcicnlatlon haa patscd
away, 1 ttuat Ihey will bo can-Jidly wcighod and un
dctstood. Al loait thcy will ho myslandard uf con
duct In tho paih bcfore mo. I then declarcd that, if
tlie dctirc orilmio ormy counlrymcn jlio wero fa
vorabtc to my cloclioii waa giail!lcn'l must go in
to tho Presidenlial Chair Iho uillcxflilo and uncom-
promuing oppontnt of every aitcrrlpi, i n the part of
ocngrcfo, iu auoiivn aiavcry in 1110 jjistrict oftJo
lurpbia, agalnst the wishca of Ihe aliive-hohling
Statea and also with a dotcrniiiiation equally di
cidod tn rcsnt tho alightcsl intcifercncis with it in
thc Statca whcro it cxista." I submiticd ahio to tny
fcllow-citizcna. wilh fullncss and franknoas, tho rca
soin whu h lcd mu lo lliin dt'tcinihmtion. Tlio io
sult authvrixva mo to bol cvo thut tboy have been
approvod, and aro confidod in, by a majorify oftho
pcople of Iho Unitcd Slates, Including those vthom
thcy mosl immcdialely alToct. It now only remaias
toaddjthal nu dill contltctuig wilh thcso viewscan
evcr rcciivu my constitutiniial aanction. Thcso
npinmna havu bccn adoplcd in the firm behef that
they aro in accordanco with the apirit that actuated
ihe vcneraUd fatbcra of the ropuuhe, and that auc
cecduig axpcricnre haa proved thcm to by bumanc,
pairio'ic, oxpedient, bonorable, and jutt.y
It thc agilalion cf thn eubp-i wr,iirndcd lo
teach tho stabilny ofour inatilutiona, enourh has
occurrcd to ahow that it hai sionally failed ; and
that in this as in cvcry r.lhcr instancc, thc nppro
hensinna of ilio timid and iho hoprs of thc wlckod
for Iho deslruction of our govomincnt, are dcsiined
lo bo disappointed. Ilcro and thcro indeed acenea
of dangeroua oxcitcrocnt havo occurrcd; tcrrifying
instancoa of local violcnco have becn witnoaacd ;
and a reckless diarcgard of tho connequcncos of
thnir conduct haa oxpoacd indiriduala to popular
indignation; but ncithcr inaraca of tho peoplo, nor
sections cf tho counlry, havo been awotvpd from the
dovotion lo tho bond of uftion, and iho prlnciples It
has mado sacrcd. It will be evor thua. uch at
(mpta nt dangeroua agita.ion may perlodically re
turn, but with each the object will bo betlcr under
stood. That prodominating aQcction fur our politi
fin systcm wlnch prcvails througliout our territorial
liiniisi that calni and enhghtencd judgincnt which
ultimatnly poverns our peoplo aa ono vaat body;
will alwaya bo at hand to rosht trcry cirorl,foro
lgn or domcatie, wlnch aims, or vould lcad to tA
vcrthrow oor insiilulions.
What can bo more gratifying Ihan such a rctroa
pectaa thia! We look back on obstaclos avoidcd,
aml dangora overcomo ; on txpecuiton? more than
rcahzcd and prnaperity porfoctly securcd. To thc
hopea of the hoai'do, tho foars of the timid, and the
doubta of the anxious, actual exporience has civen
tho eoncluaive rtply. We have aeen time gradu
ally dispcl ovcry unfavorably forboding, and our
conjtitulion a.irmjunts every adverso circum
stanco dreadcd at tho otitsct, aa bcyond conlrol.
Presont oxciteiuent will, at all tiincs, magnijy pies
ont dangcrs i but truo philosophy must teach us
that none moro llireatning than the past can remain
to be ovcrcomc; and we oujhl, fur we have Just
rcaon to cntcrtain at abiding confidenco in the
slabihly ofour insiitutiona, and au entire conviction
that, if administcrcd in thc tme furm, character,and
spuil in wliich thcy arc cstablishcd,thcy aro abun
dantly adcqiialc to prcserve to us nnd our chiMron
thc rich b'cssinga alrcady deiived fromthem; to
inako our bolovcd land for a Ihousand gcncratiorrs,
that choscn spot whcrc hupplncss apringa from a
perfcct equality of palilical nglits.
For mysoif, thcrcfore, I demrc to dcclaro, that Ihe
principle that will govorn tne in tho hnih duty to
nhich my counlry calla nie, is a stnct adlieiencc to
the lcltcr and spirit of ihe ccnstilntion, a it wns
designod by thoso nho framed il I.ooking back to
it aat a sacred inslrumcnt carcl'ully and not catily
frarnci); remembering that il was througliout a work
qf concession and compromisc j ricwing it as lirnit
ed to naiional objocts; rcgarding it as lcaving lo the
peoulo and Iho siates all power not explicilly parted
wilh ; I 6hall cndcaror to prcscryc( prolcc.t and do
fcnd it, by ar.xiously refcrnng to Us provhions for
diieclion in every action. To maltcrs of domestic
concernment whichit has entrusted to tho fedoral
Govcrnmcnt,and toauch as rclalo to our intercourse
wilh forcign nations, I shall zcalously devota myself
boyond thoso limits I ahall nevcrpasf.
To enter, on this nrcasion, into a furlhcr or more
minute cxposition f my yiews n tho tarious
qucBlioas of domcslic pul cy, would br as nbtrusive
us it is probably unexpected. Bcfurc the sultragcs
of my countrymcrr wero confcrred upon me( 1 sub
mitted them, wilh grcat piccision, my opinion? on
all tho most prominent of thcso aubjcctB. Thoso
opinion" I shall eudcavor to carry out with my ul
most abiliiy.
OrJr course of furcign policy has been co uniform
and intclliible, as to constitute a mlo of cxticutivu
conduct v.hich icuvca little tc my dicrction, unlers
indvtd, I wero willine to iuii counter to tlie lights
of expericnco and tho known opin'tons ofmy consti
tuer.ts. We scdulously culiivaio Ihe frlcndship of
all nations as the lcondition most compalible wiih
our wclfaic, and the principlcs of orir govcinmcnt.
Wo declino allianccs as adverse to our peacc. Wo
dcsire commcrcial rclaiions on cqual lerms, boing
evcr willin; to givc a fiir equivalen'. fu advantage
rcceivcd. Wo cndeavor to conduct our intcicourso
with npcnncss and sinccrityj prompily avowing our
nhjecta, and sccking to etiabhah thit mutual frank
nest wliich is aa bcneficial in nations as in mon,
We have no disposiiicn, and vo diaclaim all riglit,
l.i rncddle in diaputcs, whclhcr inlcinal or forcign,
that may mo!ct olhcr countrics; rcgarding ihem
in an actual Elatc, as mcinl communiucs, and pre
srrving a ttrict nrutrality in all their conlrovertms.
V ell knowing thc tricd valor ofour people and nur
exbaustlcs3 resourcca, we rieiihcitanticipato nor,fcar
any dcsigncd aggrcsaion ; and in the ccnscicumcsa
ofour onn just conduct, we fccl a security that we
shall nover bo callcd upon to excrt our delennina
liun, ncvcr to perrnit an invasion ofour righla with
out punishment or redru&.
In approachnig. ihen, in the prcsence of my a-
scmblod cour.trymen, to make thc rolcmn pramiae
that vet reruuins, and tojlcdge myse'f that I will
fai'.hfully cxccute tho otnco I aih about lo fill, I
biing ivith mo n i.'.tt!od purpoe to rnainta'n thn
insiilulions of my cuuntry, IiiJi,I truat, will alono
fur tho erroro I inay commit.
In reueiving from the neopla ihe sacrcd trust
twice cummitted to my i'lustfioua nrcdeccssor, and
wliich he haa diEchargcd so falthfully and f o well, I
know that I caimot expcct to pcrform tbe'arduous
iasawiiu cquai auiiity(ana buccess. uuitunueoas
I have bccn in hia cnuncila, a daily witnesa of his
uiisurpasstd dovotion to hia country'8 welfaro, a
gieeing with him in scnlimcnts which his cuuntry
mcn'have waimlv eupportcd, ond nermitted lo par
lakoIarBcly of 'his confi-lcnce, I may hopo that
sorncwhat oftho same cheoring anprobalion will bo
found to attond upon my path. For him, I but ex
prcss with my own, tlio wishcs ofal! Ihat he mav
yet long hvo to enjoy tho brilliunt eveniny of his
well apent hfo; and fur mysclf, conscioua of but
onc dcsire, faithfully to scrve my coun'jy, I throw
myself witbout fcar, on ita justice and its kfndness.
Bcyoml that, I lookto Ihe gracious prMcction oftho
Uivme Ueing, whoso alrenglhouinj; supporl I hum
bly solicil, and whom I lcivenlly nray lolookdown
upon us al). May it be among iho dispcnratiuns of
U3 proviucnce tu ulecn nur bcloved country with
honurtand with lcugthof diys; may hcr wayj bo
wj of plcasanincss, aad all hcr paths te peace.
Il ia propoacd to crcct a slatnc at Waah
ingion 10 J. C. CjIIiouii, for hia " dtfenco of
llio Coiistitulion" oj n nultijitr! If any weit
pou U lo bo ptit into thu handa of tho etatuc,
wc iiiHt Ihat il ba a pondurous apoar, pniutud
nt thc coKSlilulion, ae a Irut indt'X of tho toit
of 'ilcienic' Mr. Calhuuu iuudu of lliat insltu
niciil tvliin aaaailed hy iiullilicalion. And in
thia fiiggrstiornVH will hot do Mr. C'alhouri
injutticot Imb assauJta wt-ro huhlly mado and
well dircctcd he was opcn and honoruhlo in
tho war, and hunat, too, wa think ; hut it waa
a war, altcr all, cji.- ihe toriklltiuion, and,
if fcucecasful, would havo I'uiublc'd Iho Union
iiUn ruins.
Poilmajr. a. W. Ilarkcr, Usq. has hccn
npVointcd poitinoHt.r fur Ihia placo, vlc.o OW
Ilill. Wo auppoae wo aro principally indobt
ed to tho V. Ii, mcn ofthc laatl egielaturo for
thc ehange.
Flour is htghar now than it waain Fchruary
1811 -M2 ard 'H3
B)i Govcrmnciil Xl&prcan!
Follow cilizcnsi Buingabout to roliro fiom
pnhlic life, I bcg lcava lo nfll-r yoii tnygratcful
llianks for Iho inany proufs ofkint'ncai $ coii
fidtncn which I havo rcceivcd at yottr liands,
It haa becn tny (ortune, in thu Jiscliarge of
publio dulles, civil and mihlary, rrrqiicntly to
liavo found niyaclf in diflicult nnd Irying situ
ntions, whero prOmpt docision and cncrgetlc.
action were nocoasary, nnd whcro tho intcrast
of tlif country rcquircd thai hlgh responaibili.
lics ahontd bo lcarlcsaly cncountercd : and itis
wilh ihe deepcnt emotions of grelitudo that I
acknowlodgu thcconlinucd and unhroken con
fitlonco wilh wliich you have euataincd ino in
cvcry trial. My publie lifo haa bccn a long ono
and I cannot hopo Ihat it lias, nt all tiincs, hven
Iroo frnni rrtnra. Bnt I have the oonsulatioii
ol knoinglhat, il niiatakua have hc-n commit
tcd, thcy havo nnt scriotialy injured Ihe country
I aoanxioualy ptidcavorcd to peivo; &, at the
momont whcn I atirrendei tny last publie trust,
I leavc thia gttml pcnplc liroHpetoua fc happy ;
in the full cnjoymrnt of libcity and peacc ; and
honorcd and respcctcd by cvcry nalion ofihe
If tny iiunihlo cfTorts havo In any dcgrcc con
tributcu to preseive to ynu thoso bli'ssinga,'!
Itivo becn inoie than rewalded hy thc honora
you liavo licaprd upon niR ; and nbovo all, by
the goneroue confidcnce wiih wliich you havo
fiipported mo in every peiil, ftiih w'hicli you
liavo continucd to anlmatc ond cbxer my pnlh
to Iho cloting hour of my pohtical bfc. Tho
time hai now romc, wlien ndvanccd agcand a
brokcn framo warn tnn lo rctiro from publie
concerilB ; hut the recolloction of tho many fa
vora you liavo bestowcd Uoti mu is cngravon
upon my hcart, and I hatc telt that I could not
pait frnin your acrvico wiihout iiniking thia
publie acknowledginent ofthc gratiludo I owo
you. And ifl uaathn occaaiou to nffur to you
tho cotttiscls of ngo and cxpcrienco, you will, I
iritst, rcccive thcm wiih llio eaino ittdulgont
kinduesa wliich you ao oflen cxtcndcd to ino ;
ar.d will, at Ivusl, ncc inlhcman cnrncst dcirc
to prrpfituulcj in thia fivorcd land, tho blcsj
ingp ol liberly nnd cqual lawt.
We lmve now livid nlmost fidy ycara
umler thc cnnsiitiitliui framed by tlie Mges
and palriol.t tirdie rcvolulion. Tlie ctin
flicls in wbich thc nations of Enropi; were
eiiKiiaed during u fcat parl ofib'n period ;
Ihe spirit in wliicli lliey wap,edwar agaiiiRt
eacli othcr ; aiul our inlimate cornmcrciiil
connfolinns with every parl of ihe eivilizpd
world, rcnili'ivd it a time of much difilcully
for the Governnient ol the Uni'ed Stntes.
We have hnd our seasons ol' pace aiul
war with nll ihe evils tvhxh prvrctle 01
follow a sintc ol' hostility wiih powerlul'
natiiin?. We encomiteretl these trialdwith
our cuiisiitutton yct iu us infancy, nnd 1111
dcr tlie tlisadvaiitagcs wliich a new nnd
untricd Governnient must always feel when
it m c.nlled npoti to put lorili U wholc
sircngili without the hrhts oi cxpcricnce
to cinde ii, or Ihe weiunt ol precedctits to
justify ils measurcs. But we have pas&cd
tritiiTipiianiiy inroiifrn all tiicsc uiiticuiiics.
Our constitution is no lonirer a donbtful
cxpcriment; and, nt the etid ol nonrly lialf
a cenltiry, wc find that it has pienerved
tinimpaireil tlic hhertica of the people, tc
curctl Ihc ritfhls ol propcrlv. and lliat our
counlry has improved and is ilourishing be
yond any lormer exnmplc in the liistury of.
In our domestic concerns tiiere ia every
thing to ciiconmye us; nnd ifyou arc tiite
to ynurselves, noihing can inipede your
march 'lo the hihcst point of national
prospcrity. "TheSitateB wliicli have been
o loncr reiardcd in ibeir impruvcinent by
iudian tribes residitig iu the midst ol thcm,
arc at lengih telicved Irom the evil ; and
lliis imliappy race thc orininal dwcllersof
our land are now phiccd in a situatinn
wherc we may wrll hope that Ihey will
sharc in the blcsainga ofcivilizalion, and be
nved Iroin tliat deirradatiun antl deslruc
tion to which they arc rapidly haHieninjr
whilc ihey remain in tlieStaies; and ivhile
the safeiy and comfurt ol our ciiizens have
been grcaily protnotcd by their renioval,
thc philanttopist will rejuicc that Ihe rem
nant ol that ill-l'uted racc haB been at lcngth
placttl heyond ihc reach of injury or op
picssmu, and that thc parentnl c;ire ol tlic
General Gnvcrr.ment willhcreafterwatcfi o-
vcr them and protiut iheit).
If wc turn io our relalions with foreign
jiowers, we find our cimditint) equally gra
tilyin. Actuated by iiit sinsere deairu lo
do j-.itir;o iti every nation, antl to preserve
Ihe hles'iings ol pcuce, imr iniercotiroe wilh
dieni has becn conducietl on Ihc p.irl uf iliis
governnient in Ihe spirit ol (ranlmess, und 1
lake plcaijurc in taying, tlnlit has gencrallv
heen inet in u corrcsponding lenipcr. Dif
ficulties of old stnndiitg liavo bccn -sur-moutited
hy frirndlv disctission, nnd ihe
mulual deure to hc just ; and thu claiins of
our citizeus, whii h had been lot'r w'nheld,
luve iitlengih been acknuwledged and .id
jusicd, and Raiisfactory arrangements inailc
lur their fiiinl p.iyni-m ; and wilh a limited,
ainl, l irusi, a teinpnrary f.Nct'puon, ur
reljtiona wiih every liireiu power are now
ofihe most frieniily ilnracler our cimi
mcrcc comtiiually cxpanding, and our ll.ig
resncclcd in everv nuurier ot the world
The.fe cheerini: tuul arateful nrDpc.ctn,
and these iiiulliplicd favori1, we owc, undrr
I'lovideiicc, to ihe ailoiiiiou ol tne lcilerni
coiistiiiiiiiin. Ii is nn luugt'r :i qtiesiKiu
wlntlier ili, greai rountry can remain
lianiiily unitcd, and flourish uuderotir pre
nent (oim of giivernment. Expcrience, the
uiierriti,' icst.ol all hunian uuderiaking',
.lias siioun thc wixilnui aiul lorcaigni 01
tbosc who (ormetl it; andh.ive provet!, that
m tlie iiiiioii ol these biaies, inerc is a sure
fiiundaiion lor the brightest hopes of frec
iliuii, nnd for ihe happincsa of thc pcoplc.
At every ha.ard, an I hv cvcry sacrihcc,
tii' Union tnu.M he preit'rvrd.
The ncces-sity of wr.tching witli icaloiH
ansieiy (br the preservation of the Union,
wast earncally priB''d tipun hia (ellow oiii
.ens by ihe I'alher of hia cuuntry, in his
(areweil addrcss. IIu has ihere (old us,
Ihat -'whilc exDCiii'tict' shall not have de
monilratcd 1ts impraclicabiiiiy, therc will
always be reaRon to dislrust the pairioiism
ot thiiBe who, iu nny qua.t r, may cndeavor
lo weakeu ils burds;'' and hc has cniiiionetl
us, in thc GtriingtRi lciins, aiininsl ihe furni
ation jf pnrties, on geugruphical tl Ucr i rtti ti -ntioiiR,
as onc nf the nieapG which migh
disturb our utiin , und to whicli deoiguing
meti wmild be hkeiy to rta'irt.
Ihc lessona cnntaiticd in Ui'i invuluabl
sous couiaiueti in 111,1 invmuaoF
Washii'g'xn to hii ctmnt'j men,
cga' j
.houlj he cherUhed in the hearl ol cvcry
jcitizen to ihe laiest geiit-raiion : nnd, ppr-
napf, at no pcrioil ol time could Ihey be
more tiscbilly remcmbcrcd ihan at the prcs
ent moment. For when we look upon ihc
acenea that arc passiug urouud us, nnd J well
upon ihc pugcs of his partlng adJieas, hia
patcrnal counecli would sccm to he noi
miYcly the oft'-pring ol' wiBdom nnd foro
alght, bul the vuir.eol propheey, furi'inllitif?
evenm and wnrning us of thc evil lo comc.
Forly years have passed aince thia iui)er
isliable document waa given to his counlry
mcn. The Fedoral constitiition was then rc
ttarded by him ao an exnoriinnnt. nnd i,
so spcaKS oi it in his itihlrom; bnt-nn cx-
Iiciliuuiil. ujiuii uit! BUCCltSS oi wiiicn iuc
lest lmpes of his country depended, nnd
we nll know that lie wut prepared to lav
dinvn liis life, if nccessary, lo sccure to it
tt full and fliir trial. Thc trlal liua bccn
inade. It haa succecded buyond the prou
dest hopeJ of thoso who fraim J it. j'vcrv
quarter of the widely extcndcd n.Uion has
lelt ita blessings, nnd aharcd in ihe genpml
prosperity produced by ita ndoption. Ibn
atnid the lrencnil prosneritv. nnd m,ljndi(i
nucccfw, the ddngunt ui' whxh he warni.J
tn are becouiinir every day nmre cvidetit, !
and thc sigus of evil are atifiitMt ntly nppnr
ont to awaken -thc (Uepeyt nr.,i iv in il,.. !
bosom of tho patriot. Wc hehold Bvstem- j
ntic elforts puhlicly madc to sow the fki!i i
of (Ii&curd between UifilTfint nm of ihc 1
Uniled Statca, nnd to plnce paity divisions '
dircctly upon geogrBphica) difiinction ; to ,
cxctto tlic auuth againsl ths north, nnd il' ,
north ngainst Ihe south, and to fnrce into il.e ;
ciiiiirovurny uie mosi (leiicnlo nni excitini?
topioo ; tonics uptm which it ia imrMisxihie
4U..I 1 .; '
iiim .i idiuc jiui uun ot ino union can ever
speal; witliout strong cmotion. Appeals,
too, are constanlly milo to sectional inter
cats, in order to influeiir.o the cltctton of tht
Chief Matjistrate, ns if it were dfsired lliat
he ahould Tavor a particular (luarier of th
countiy, instead of fulfilling tho duties of
his Btation wilh itnpartial justice to nll ;
nnd the possible dissolulion of thc Union
has at length heconio nn ordinarv and fa
miliar subjcct of discussion. Haa' the warn
ing voice of Washington been fon'otton !
or have designs alieady bccnformcJ'tosev
cr thc Union ? Let it not be isupposed that
I impute to all of those who have takcn an
active part ui lliese unwise nnt)- nnprnfitn
blc discussions, a watit of patriotitn oi o(
publie virtuc. The bonorable feeling of
State pridc, nnd local nttachmenU, ftnd n
place in the bosoms ol thc most enliglitcn
ed and pure. Uut whilc such mcn ate rnn
scious of their own integrity and hotiesty
of purposc, theyought ncvcr to forget Ihat
the eitizens of other State3 are their jiolili
cal brethren: nnd that, however mistakcn
they may bin their vicws, thc great hotly
of thcm nre equally honest aml uprigbt
with thcmselves. Mutual suspicions and
reproiches may in time crcatc mutual hos
tility, and artful and deBiginng mcn willal
way3 he found, who nre readv to foment
thcsc fatal divisions, and to inflame the nat
urol jealousics of difiererit -sections of the
country. The history of the world is full
of such cxamples, and espectally thc histo
ry of repubUcs, "
Wlmt have you to gain by division nnd
dissensions? Delude not yoursclves wi'h
the belicf that a brcach oncc made mav be
aftcrwards repaired. If the Union is oncc
sewred, thc linc of sepanition will grow
wider nnd witlcr, nnd the conlroversUs
which are now dcbatcd nnd aettled in the
halls of Icgislation, will then be tried iu thc
fields of- battle, and deterinined bv the
swiird. Neither should vou dcceivc vour-
selves wilh tlic hope, that Ihc flrst linc of
separation would be thc pcrmanent one, &
tliat notinng hut liarmony and roncunl
would bo found iu tbe new "associntions for
med upon thc dissolution of the Union.
Local interests would still be found ihere,
and uncbaslcned ambition. And if thc rec-
ollcction of comtnon danger, in which Ihe
pcople of these United States ctoodaide by
side ngainst the coinmon loe ; thc memory
of victories won by their united valor; tlie
prospcrity and liappineas they have enjoy
cd under tho prcsent conslitution ; the
proud namc thcy henr as citi.ens of this
great republic; if all thcsc recollectiona
and proofs of common intcrcst arc not
strong enough to bind us togcther us onc
peopie, wnat tie will Iioid unitctl tlie new
diviuions of cmpire, when these bonds have
been brok.cn and this Union dissevered?
Tlie flrst line of separation would not last
for a aingle gencration ; new frngm'etUH
would bc torn off; new Icadcrs would
springup; and this great nnd glorious re
public would soon be brokcn into ,t multi
tude of pctiy Statcs, without comnerce,
without crodit ; jealouj of one another;
armed for mutual nggrcssion; loadcd wilh
taxes to pay armies nnd leadeM ; st-cking
aid again.st cr.ch othcr from forcign i"werK";
insul'cd and trainplcd ;ipon hy tlic nations
ol' Europe, until harrassed with conllicts,
aud bumbled and debaoed in spirit. thcy
would be rcady to submit to the abHoIut'e
dominionof any military atlventurtr, and
tn surrender their liberly for thc sakeofrc
pose. Il is impossihle to loolc on the con
scquenr.cn that would inevilably lo'low ttic
destruction of this government, and not
feel indignant wheu wi; hear oold calcula
tions about ihc value of the Union, und
have so constanlly bcforc ua a line of con
duct well calculated to wcaken its tics.
Therc is too much atstuko tnallowpridu
or passkm to influcncc your decisinn. Ncv
cr Ibr a moment believe tbat thc grcat body
of the cit'r.cns of any siute or atates can
delibcrately intend "to do wrong. They
may, under the influcncc of tcmporary rx
citcmci't or misguidcd opiuions, cummit
mistakes ; they nriy bo misled for a time
by the suggestions'of sell'-intercst ; hut m
a comntunity so cnliiibtencd and patriotic
as mc pcopic o: tne unitctl stales, nrgu
mcat will soou makc them scnsible of th'cir
errors; and, when convinccd..they will bc
readv to rcnair thcm. If tliev have no
higher or better motlvos to, govern ihem J
tlicy will at least perreive tliat tneir own
intcrcst reqtiires, them to bejust to others
as they hope to roceivc justice at thejr
Btiti in order tomaintalo the Uninn'uhini
naired, it is nbsolutely neceatiary that the
laws passed bythe comjtilutcd atilhoritieii
ahould be faithfully excuutcd tn cvcry part
of the country, and that every good citizen
should, iit all timcs, atand readv to put
down, with the combined furcc oi tho na
tion, every attempl at unlawfu! resistauce,
iiiider whatever pretext it may be madc, or
Whatcver shape !t tnay aunic. Uncon-
stttutionalal or oppres.iivp laws
ur npnres.-iivr a.ws mav no
doubt bc pass d by Congress, ci'htr "lvoni
1 rrrtnpnii't vipw's. nr tht wm.t. of ilup con-
1 r .r .1.1 11
1 8tdcrat)jn, if t'io ur tvitlim tho r;acb "f
v. tbl rci K Jv . ra v u
pcactfti! ; -m,; (
law, il is rtti aht'.
li'itn tlir ii.,, jt r ti
aw, ll is an alnM o nowfrnri' i. i t
control of ihc judimtry, th -i , i ' Jt
sion aml r-ii"
rrns.m onr
.KU I'" I ,
1.1 W fcul ' '
J'lStlCC of lt" ,iP"i e , I
thr wruiu: II .' il,
claK'd vov1 hs irl
Oongrcs'i, no !.' r." '
iudividuals, ra.i hr i ,' t,
sisiinti ils ex i ui.i . . I:
any Goveriimt.nl on." -..
Of I. if (J
r c.in' .i un
d in l. ih, ,
i itt.p., i .
'inuc tn i ti' i
nn any olbcr prnu 4,i"-
11 WUUI c
u. 'xovernmrnt, nnd
-I 1
l.rl i s
II 11 1111(1 Illlt t, t'HtVi
rcution ii it ni, imv
,nv" f'l'hern Oi n'ti.ii.
yi " iiuc u.ui (!!(((.- i,,,.,,,, UJ f i jM
riiiiii.-( such a ::tltl(d iiijrjio., ,i'l u 'jrpa-
tion aml opprt , ,m th ; ( f
Gi)tnitneiii, as w.i'n.l j'Mtily un a--j,- , t,'
T. ... .1 . .
iirms. x nesc, nor, i. uro i xti.
Whn ti 'fi htivi; nu rf-,,p to nir ,
a Guvi-rnmer,t r- ;iit pu"
hnnd'i uf a pntriuiic pcu;, . ; i ii . ' , i
v-lw Iuvpm I.ia ("imitiv ". i!d, ;n -,i
wht. ii ver, reaoit io n K'lile I'.'-i i.iiicp
t n-
Ii " , l,t ripnrlv f-n w f iUn t W'
i l
v ! "
n p Mf'in liiu
: lur il m cn
elt'r '
i i., and tl't rif 'it
"'iuiilt v urra i'd 'n i
,i:iui''.rr in dmtbllr1 -,'
n iU :n it may, tht'ii
1 inon, and, with i. an
I"1C Tlio, . ,f
i i nrrainst . , (
": I, l-'t ti I
w ill he II tl nnd r,
t i tb" !
frci'ilcn. The vtcloiy t thc inpi
nul dtr lie tu them l':c V vr.tr ,,,
'' uu!d avcnm r .nn ; . 'nt (ty
wutikl lheitipclv'!'sni ),, ,'ninmin ru.n.
Jltit Ihe onstitutioii c-intitit he u,.i ntj.ru
I rd, nu'- the Union
! . . ,. ., , . ' 1 1
iu i im.ic leeunu, ny thc mcre m lioi. cl
tl.'. ouircive purtVfi cuiifded totl.i. Gc ,t r
ai (iuvornment. Thc foundatiuhs rr.ist bc
I l..ii! m Ihe allectiun uf the projdi. ; ta t.
j 9(.( 't'l'.y it gi rsto htr. .ibertv. ih raitc
aiul ptoptrty, in r'vrj quartri'ol thr r m
1 ry ; nnd m the frui-iiial alfiiclnicnt wmch
the titi.cm ot tl.c at-.uru! btat bturt.i oin.
ar.utbcr ns fnem! i-i . of ..nc pohlicil fiim K
miilu.tlly nxitributine t pronmte tlic hnpp
iK'.tsofeach other. Ilence llie fttizens r
every state should studiously avoid cvp
thing calcuhiti d to wound tbl r ns bittv
oflcnd thn )uot pride of the pcoplc of ot
statcs; & thcy should frown ijprmanv I
Cfedings wilhin their o wi bordi r; ,,'
disturb the tranquility of thi-ir p.ihUra 1 ,
thren in other portions of the Utnon. In ,
country so cxtensivc ns the V. H. anri w'b
piir8tiits so varied, thc internal rfgulatinn
ofthc sevcral statcn tnus: lVcqucntiy diffL'r
from one another in importan1 jmr' t uis
and this difTcrence is unavoidalv t.irrt dsrl
by the varying principlcs upon ' ivl.icb tn j
Amprican colohit'swereorigin -.'.y ran u'
principlcs which had takendecp toot m t u ir
aocinl relaiions belr.rc the IJevoiutan, un-"
thcrcfore, (ifnecestty iiifluciiciiM' I r ,
icy sincc they becaine I'ree and m.l 4 ,
3tatcs. But each stte has thi. ttn j' nor
able rigbt to regulata ita own iti!'-'- 1 coi
cerns accordiug to its own phaau-T-whilc
it does not iuterf'ere with the rotitsi l
thc pcople of other states, or tbe rg,inik
thc Uninn, cvcry state must Lc tlu si
judgc of the measiires jiropcr tn sc. v.re tt
safety of its cttizens and jiromote tuctrliap
pines; and allejorts on thc part of nc y
of other Btatcs to ctiSt olium upi.n tieir i.i
stitutiotK, nnd all nieasures calculated tc
disturb their rights ol'property, orti putitt
jcopardy their pcace and itittr:.-'! ira.iqiin
ity, arc in tlircc.t opposltion to tlic epit't 1 1
which the Union was formed, nnd mus en
danger its safety. Motirea of plulant'iropv
may bc assigned for this un,-arrantul m
tcrforuncc; and wtfak men may prsuade
themselves for n moment they 'V' i' nt
in the cause ofhumanity, and r.B3trting tnt
rights of the human race; but every j.ie,
upon sobcr reflection, will sec tliat iiothinr,
bul mischief can cutne from thj imnrupcr
assaults upon tjie feeluigs and ngl tsofotli
cre. Ilust asaurcd, that tht men fu n l bu
sy in tliis workofdiscord are not " ut'. y '
your confidcnce, "and tU-serve y"'f 'ronj
est rcprnbation.
In tne legislation ol'Congress also, & in
every measure ofthc Gpneial Guv 'n'nvnt,
justice to cvcry puitmi. uf ihe l . S. sln Jia
be faithfully obferi.'. No f- , v n
menl can stand without virtuu in i i , '
and n luftv cpiiit of pttiiotism, n ' f'ii
sordid feelings of merc B'.'lfiahr.' i
urp tbe place wbich otic.it to be fiueii hv
pulilit; spirit, theje(T,! 'tonof ror. -f- v X
soon be oonverted ttlo a scran i . p r
sonat and sectional advantnges. Y . t'ui
frce inmiiutiono, the citi.cns of nv - ar
ter ofour country un' capnblt. "t rr . nn
a ltigh degne of prorper1ty and hap'uncs
witliout setkiti 'o p.uf.t them'-'i.Iv-ra at t'ir
f,5:p,nsie-H!'ulh''i ; and vvry "'tr' , tterr it
muit iii the ciul fai! t-? sjccj;d, rirthepei -plo
in every part ol thc Unit' ' 'ti m
too eiiliglitcned not t n- Jeratnnd ! r ow't
rigliin nnd inieicsu, iu u.Uect & d. leat ev
ery ellbrt lo gain uniim- advantar's nvcr
thein; and v'-eii sur.'i Vsigns arc ui i v
eret1, it tmt'jral'v pio.'okes nnt n" if ntii
which cannot n'wnvs 1" ca:'ty -i lajd -JiistiiP,
full nnd aniplc i,st:cr, tocvcrj p,
tion of the V. S. iihoui't hc the rui r"
eip'e cifeviy In r.itati. cV. shnukl "lc t' i
delibcrationri of every publie body, whetht.i
it be Blale or national.
It ia well known that there tiae a. sny
been those niuonght us who wisb foenlarg'
thc power of th" G' lr.il fJtn.-rai'i nt, an i
cxperieuce ..ouldticem toinil.paictt'att-ir''
is a lendency on the part of thia Gvcr
ment to overstep the bnundnrni n irt 'l
out for itbythe constiuitiiM. Its lejjttimau
nuthority is abundanily sullicieiit for all the
purpiues for which it was ercnted ; and its
powers b ing I'xprosslv cniitneratetl, tiari
can he nojustilicationfor claiming my tl. n,
beyond tlicm. Every attempt tocxtr'"5e
power beyond thcseliti.it.shcui!d be prvimpf
ly nnd firiuly oppiist- i. For on,.' pv' pxtr"
p!e will leaJ to other nasurei 'tiil n. '
tnischievout ; .m 1 il th- p:ir.i,u'i t
atructivc poweru, ur n i,,p(w
! 'vii u '
or ternporary i'iri tinil ii sca, 'r.t
ptTntittrd tn iiisiitvt! nn'ipt ' n a pc.
ur not gieii hy thc cott iiiutto'), tn'- ' '
nl gnvernmcnt will b-M-e lutif; a.
t!ie piwers i f li-gis!: i . -uut ou
in ell'eet but one corulidatcd p.v
Fi-oiti the cxn.i.t u! counlry, .'
ifiod intiiii'i, ihtVivnt idirsuiw, or. ' 1
ent hthits, ii ia too obviuus h r n-yuni' t
that a single consulidati'd gnvernr.-. nt w 3 tt
be wholly inadequatc to wntch nvcr & nro
lec.t ita iutereats; and overy f'titnd of ur
frec institutious should bc ulways prepaiei
to raaintainunimpairednnd in lultvigor ttia
rights and somcignty ofthc stntes, nnd to
ronhue tlie acimn ul tlic Ui ncrat uov w
I mentiitriLtiy to tho ophere ot aa ipprcpr
I mr ilnlii h.
. ., .
, rWts j Lapi, m n tj,c
juuiriai 0' 'h tr

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