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VERMONT WATCHMAN & STATE JOURNAL, APRIL 18, 1850.
I am acquainted with a drover rha left Cali fornia in December last, with the intention of bringing in ten thousand sheep from New-Nejci-co. This aliows that the docks and herds east tfUie Rocky Mountains are looked to already "os the source from which the market on the Pa cific arc to be supplied. The cliniito and soil of California are well suited to lha growth or wheat, barley, rye and oat. The temperature along the coast is too tool lor the successful culture of maize, as a field crop. The iact that oats, the species which is cultivated in the Atlantic States, are annually eelf-sowed and produced on all tho plains and hills along lha coast, and as far inland as the sea-breeze has a marked influence on the cli mate, is sufficient proof that all the cereal cra ms way be successfully cultivated without the aid of irrigation. It is quito trua that this auxiliary was exten Bively employed at the missions, and undoubted y increased the product of all crops to which it was anolicd. as it will in biiv ennntrv nn earth if sVill fully used. This docs not (.rove, howev er, that it was essentially necessary to the produc tion ot an ample reward to the husbandp.ian. The experience of all the old inhabitants is suf ficient evidence of this. If their imperfect mode ol culture secured satisfactory returns, it is reasonable to presume that a mnre perfect sys tem would produce much greater results. There is abundant evidence to prove that, in the rich Alluvial valleys, wheat and barley have produced from forty to sixty bushels from one bushel of eed, tcuhoul irrigation. Irish potatoes, turnip3, onions, in fact all the edible roots known anil cultivated in the Atlan tic States, are produced in great perfection. In all the vallevs east of the coast range of hills the climate is sufficiently warm to mature crops of Indian corn, nee, and probably tobacco. The cultivation of the grape has attracted much attention at toe missions, among the rest dents of towns, and the rural population, and been attended wilh much success, wherever it has been attempted. The dry season secures the fruit froai those diseases which are so com mon IP. the Atlantic Slates, aud it attains very treat perfection. The wine made from it is of excellent quality, very palatable, and can be produced in any quantity. The ranes are delicious, and produc ed with very little labor. When taken from the vines in bunches and suspended in a dry room. by the stems, they become partially dry, retain their flavor, and remain several weeks, perhaps months, without decay. Apples, pears and peaches are cultivated with facility, and ihere is no reason to doubt that all the fruits of tho Atlantic States can bo produced in prcat plenty and perfection. The gtasacs are very luxuriant and nutritious, affording excellent pasture. The oats, which pring up the whole length of the sea coast, and from t'oity to sixty miles inland, render the cul tivation of that crop entirely unnecessary, and jield a very great quantity of mnricimis food for horse, cattle and sheep. The dry season waluies, and I may say, cures these grasses and oats, ao that they remain in an excellent state of preservation during the Summer and Autumn, and afford an ample supply of forage. While the whole surface of tne country appears parch ed, and vegetation destroyed, the numerous flocks and herds which roam over it continue in excellent condition. Although the mildness of the winter months and the fertility of the son secure to California very decided agricultural advantages, it is ad milted that irrigation would be of very great importance, and necessarily increase the pro ducts of the soil in dry seasons. It should there-j fore be encouraged by Government, in the sur vey and disposition of the public lands as far as practicable. The firmer derives some very important benc h's from the dry reason. His crops in harvest time are never injured by rain; he can with per il ct confidence, permit them to remain in his field as long after they have been gathered as his convenience may require; he has no fears that they will be injured by wet or unfavorable weather. Hence it is that many who have long been accustomed to that climate, prefer it to the changeable weather cast of the Rocky Moun tains. As already stated, the forests of California, south of latitude 39", and west of the foot-hills of tho Sierra Nevada, are limited to detached, scattering giuves of oak in the valleys, and of red-wood on the ridges and on the gorges of the hills. It can bo of no practical use to speculate on the causes which havo denuded so large an ex tent ol country, further than to ascertain wheth er Ihe soil is or is not favorable to the growth of forest trees. When the dry season sets in, the entire sur faco is covered wilh a luxuriant growth of grass and oats, which, as the summer advances, be comes nerftctlv dry. The remains of all dead irees and shrubs also become dry. These ma terials, therefore, are very combustible, and us ually take fire in the latter part of summer and beginning of Autumn, which commonly passes over the whole country, destroying in its course, the young shrubs and trees. In fact, it seems to be the process which seems to have destroyed or prevented the growth of forest trees on the prairies of tho Western States, and not any aualitv in the suil unfriendly to their growth. The absence of timber and the continuance of the dry season are apt to be regarded by farm- era, on first going into the country, as irremedi able delects, and as presenting obstacles almost insurmountable to the successful progress of ag riculture. A little experience will modify these opinions. It is soon ascertained that the soil will pro duce abundantly wi'hout manure; that flocks and herds sustain themselves through the winter without being fed at the farm-yard, and, conse quently, no labor is necessary to provide forage lor them: that ditches are easily dug, which present very good barriers for the protection ot crops, until live fences can be planled.and have time to grow. Forest trees may be planted with little labor, and in ery few years attain a suffi cient size for building and fencing purposes. Time may be uselully employed in sowing vari ous pram and root crops, during the wet or win ter season. There is no weather cold enough to destroy root crops, and, therefore, it w not ntccs nary to gather them. They can be sold from the field where they grow. The labor, therefore, required in most ot the old States to fell the for ests, clear the lands of rubbish, and prcpate it :cr teed, may here be applied to other objects. All these things, together with the perfect se curity of all crops, xn harvest time, from injury oy trtt mother, are probably sufficient to meet any expense which may be incurred in irrigation, or caused lor a time oy a scanty supply ol timber. In the northern part of the territory, above lat itude 39", and on the hills, which rise from the "rial plain of tne Sacramento and San Joanum to the loot of the Sierra Nevada, the forests of timber are beautiful and extensive, and would, if brought into U6e, be sufficiently productive to eupplv the wants of tho southern and western portions of the State. I have spoken of the agricultural products and resources of the country, without reference to the remarkable slate of tilings caused by the discovery of gold, winch, it is probable, will oostoonc lor an indefinite tune ail cllorts to im prove the foil. As long as laborers can earn fifteen dollars or more psr day in collecting gold. they can very well afford to import their supplies from countries where the wages of labor are not more than fifty cents to one dollar per day. It is not, therefore, to bo supposed that the soil will bo cultivated more than the production of vegetables, fruits, and other articles so perisha ble in their nature that they cannot be brought from a great distance, will require. To secure .this important market for tho pro ducts and manutactures of the Stales East of the Rocky Mountains u undoubtedly an object of the greatest importance. It will be considered in its proper place. FCBLIC BOUMX. Tho extent and value of the public lands, suit able fc- sjncullural purposes in California, cau not be ascertained with any degreeof accuracy ,urtil some very impojtact preliminary questions hall iiave been settled. , . It is nrt known whether the Jesuits who founded tte mission, or their successors, the Franciscans, ever did, or do now hold any title from the Spanish crown to the lands which they occupied. Nor has any investigation been made ,o ascertain how far those titles, it they erar ex isted, have been uiralicated by the sets of the priests, or the decrees of tha Mexican govern ment. A superficial view of the matter would be very apt to lead to the supposition that the Jesuits, so celebrated for wisdom and cunning, would not tan to secure that which, at thai time, would probably have been obtained by merely asking for it a royal decree, granting to them all the lands they might require in that remote country for ecclesiastical purposes. There have been some intimations to that effect, but nothing is distinctly known. These missions embrace with in tbeir limits some of the most valuable lands in the Territory, and it is very important that it should be ascertained whether they belongtotne Government, or may justly be claimed by indi viduals. Most of the land fit for cultivation south of lat itude 39 3 . and west nfihn valiev of the Sacra- memo and San Joaquin, is claimed under, what purpart to be, grants from the Menem Govern ment. On most of these grants the minerals and met als are reserved to the Government conditions were coupled with many of them which have not teen complied wilh. In other.-, te uouimaura described embrace two or three times as much land as the grant conveys. The Mexican law required all grants made by the Provisional Government, with few excep tions, to be confirmed, by the Supreme Govern ment. Tim n-reat distance which separated them, and the unlrrquent or difficult means of communication, mauc a compliance mui mu so expensive aad tardy, that it came to be almost disregarded. There were other causes wnicn lea 10 mis neglect Previous to the trcity with Mexico and the immigraiion of American citizen to that coun try, land was not regarded as of much value except far grazing purpose. There was room enough for all. Therefore the claimants or pro prietors did not molest each other, or inquire in to the validity of titles. These extensive grants are described by natu ral boundaries, such as mountains, bays and promontories, which, in many instances, might allow of a variation of 6cver.il miles in the es tablishment of a corner with chain and compass. Bv the treaty ofGuadalupe llid.ilgu, the Uni ted States purchased all the rights and interests of .Mexico M and in California. This purchase not only embraced all the lands which had nol been granted bv Mexico, hut all the reserved minerals and metals, and also tho revisionary right which ni'ght accrue to .Mexico from a want of compliance on the part ot the grantees wilh the conditions of their grants, or a leant oj tirrtrrlinn ill the. Tyrants. It will be perceived that this is a subject of very great impoitiuce. not only to tne people ol California, but to the United States, and calls fur prompt and efficient action on the part of the Government. It is believed that the appoint ment of competent Commissioner.-!, fully empow ered to investigate the-e titles, in a spirit of kindness toward the claimants, with power to confirm such titles as justice may teem to de mand, or with instructions to report iheir pro ceedings and award-) to Congress, fir confirma tion or rejection, w ill be the best and peihips the only satisfactory mode of adjusting this complex and difficult question. The lanes in the northern pan oi uic l errua ry, above the 3J c, havo not been explored or granted, iliey are ptippnseu in rauure an rca of about twenty million of acres, a large pir tmn of which is doubtless valuable fjr its timber and soil. Comparatively few irrat.ts luve been obtained in the great valley of the Sacramento and SanJo arp.in. This vast tract, therelore.c outainmg, as is estimated, from 12 to 15 inill.ons ff acres, be longs mostly to the Government. South of this valley, and west of the Colorado, nithin the lim its of California, as indicated in her Constitution, there aie said to be extensive tracts ol valuable unappropriated Und, and on investigation it will probably appear that there are many of them in detached bodies, which have not been granted. I do not speak of the gold region, embracing the entire foot-hills i.f the S.crra NevaJa, some 500 miles long and GO miles broad, in connexior with the public domnn, which may be embraced in the general land syslcm.for sale and settle ment, lor reasons which will be hereafter assign ed. The survey of thu Public Linda on n system suited to the interests of the country is a matter of very great importance. In the inhabited por tions of the terniory the boundaries of .Mexican grants, running as they do m all direction, will render the system of surveys hy parallels of lati tude and longitude quite impracticable. In all parts ot the country irrigation is denia ble and its benefits should be secured as fir as possible by suitabb; surveys and legal regula tions. Most of the i alleys are watered by streams j sufficiently large to be tendered very useful. It would, therefore, seem wise to hy olf the land in conformity to the course of the hills and streams which bound and dram the valleys. A system of drainage, whieh would also se cure irrigation, is absolutely necessary t givo value to the great plains ul the Sacramento and San Joaquin. This valley is so extensive and level, that if the rivers passing tnrougli it "ere never to overflow theirbauks,the rain which falL in Winter would render a greater portion ol it unfit lor cultivation. The tLtindatiun of such n system can only be established in thesurvey and sale of the land. This can be done hy laying out canals and drains at suitable distances, mid tn proper aircc tions,and leaving tcide margins to the rivers, that thnj may hace plenty of room to increase their clianntls iclicn thtir iraters shall be corjined icilhin them by embankments. It would be well alsi to regulate tne price oi these lauds so as to meet, in tome degne, the cxpen.-c of draining them. This 6yslem woutc, wncn agriculture snan ue- come a pursuit in cainornia, make mis vauey one uf the most beautiful and productive portions ot the Union. (Concluded nezl iceek-) California appears to be able to take care of herself, and to have less to apprehend trom the refusal ot Congress to receive her into the Un ion than we by rejecting her. She is going on very well, and very independently, and if we are wise, we will nol Keep her long Knocking at our door Tor admission. The following arc the salaries appointed for the State officers by the Ccncral Assembly : Governor SIO.000 Secretary of Stito 7,000 Comptroller ol Slate B.UUU Treasurer of State a000 Attorney General 7,000 Surveyor General 7,000 Chief Justice and each Associate Justice 10,000 Cach District Attorney 2,000 Stale Translator " 8 000 Governor's Private Secretary JjGOO A .Veie am Beautiful ITare. We were shown on Saturday a new ware, which for beauty of finish and durability, is not surpassed by any thing of the kind within our knowleJge, impor ted or domestic. Ii comes from the Bennington (Veimont) Flint Enamel Wate Wgrks, and is composed entirely of mineral substances, with out a particle of clay. It is thus rendered very strong and is fire proof, two very important qual ities with housekeepers. lis beauty of finish and smoothness of surface is fully equal to the best China or Porcleain yet known. In addition to all these essential qualities, strength, durabil ity and beauty, it is said to be afforded at lower prices than similar articles of clay ware. Its uses are not confined to the usual crockery ware, but the inventors make from it door-knobs, da guerreotype frames, fancy brackets, letters for signboards, figures for numbering, and almost everything of the sort. Tne right to manufac ture it has been patented, and the ware will probably soon be brought into the market. Philadelphia Ledger. Ohio Wheal Crop. Farmers, from wheat crow- ing counties are in great glee at the prospect of an oia lasmonea crop oi wneat. it never look ed better, say they. For two years the crop had been a failure, and the farmers were getting dis couraged. They now feel quite sure of a great yield. Cleveland Plaindealer. 055 Eleven Camels were imported into Balti more last week from the Canary Islands. They are intended for the Far West, to teat whether they can be raised and acclimated. IDotcijman & State 3fonrnal E. P. WALTON, JR., EDITOR. Thursday, April 18,1830. To our Subscribers. W- thank those who have heeded our calls and squared accounts: and now for a fair and important notice to those who are in arrear. On the BOTH OF APRIL NEXT we shall erase from our direction books the names of all sub scribers who are in arrear for mere than two years, and proceed to collect the amount due from them. If any can p3y without trouble, they have no excuse ; it any ici'l not pay except upon compulsion, duty to ourselves requires us to compel them; and if any really cannot pay, it is lime for us to slop furnishing papers with out compensation. Nor is this course for our advantage only: it is really for the advantage also of all w hose accounts are running up faster than they are aware of, and will prove a serious difficulty to them if suffered to go on. We are anxious to settle every case without recourse to the lawyer: but old accounts mujf be settled. ' The Senate on the Slave Ques tion. The action of the Senate, and in it, tho la3t week, is of a melancholy character indicating thai a bare majority of that body is in favor ot making the establishment of two or three tciri torial govcrninen's icilhout thr Proviso, a condi tion without which California is to be rejected. If this is successful, California will come in as a free ttate, and as an offset two or three territo ries are to be formed, which may nnJ tcW, we fear, become slave s'ates Mr. Webster's doc trine of the laws ot God and Nature to the con trary notwithstanding. He may think it pious and safa to reject the proviso, and rely upon tin divine and natural laws in New Mexico to keep out slavciy : but we believe that is a very great blunder we believe that piety and safety lie in the act of obedience to these divine and natural laws, and that obedience is required of every per son of every officer of the government, ot the government ils If. Will it be obedience in the government to refrain fiom carrjing slaves into these territories, ani yet not to parent its members, who arn threatening that they can and will vio'ate all law of Mexico? Wo think not: and should it turn out that one inch of the free soil of New Mexico becomes coutaminatid by slavery, through the dropping ol" ihe Proviso, that fact will prove, as to Mr. Webster, that " the line gold has become dim."' As to the actum of the Senate : the votes all look favorable to Foote's committee of compro mise. As to the events in the Senile: Mr. Cass began the neck by presentingihe resolutions ol Michigan, rescinding the instructions on slavery and Ihe If'ilnwt Proviso! This tuachcry to Free dom we have thought would not be perpetrated. But who can tell Ihe breadth aud depth of the corruption of locofocoism und coalitionism (or had nol both caved in" in Michigan, these in structions never could have been rescinded. Mr. Webster favored Foote's committee : ho can reconcile this with his previous declarations, only by saying that divine and natural laws ut terly lorbid the notion thai the committee can do any thing. Mr. Clay exhibited a temper which pains old and strong friends, in the threat to movo amend ments which shail compel the Senate to consider the territorial question and the California ques tion as a compromise. Mr. Benton showed temper, too but ou Ihe right side. Gentlemen in Congress! just so sure as you reject the temperate, just, peaceful, and there fore most sagacious plan of President Taylor and the administration oil ibis subject, immense mischief will ensue. Gold! Gold!! The two sieimers thai reached New York last week fiom Clngres brought two millions and a half of gold from California. This is a pn-tty good lift, for one day, towards relieving the money market: but the gold news is more buoyant still. According to the accounts of the newspapers (for which we are indebted to tun dry friends in Califo'iiia,) gold i3 now got in some diggings in quantities far outstripping the most foitunatc placers heretofore. We juntas the stories are ttrainc-d a little ; perhaps the gold is not accurately weighed ; and ptrhips specu lators would like to restore extravagant prices in California by stimulating emigration. There can be no doubt, however, tint gold will be got to a very large amount this year. The floods have washed down new deposits in old beds, and new beds arc discovered. The amount mined is also to be increased this year by improved modes of working. According to the rcpoit of Mr. King(hich we have commenced publishing this week,) and to the statements of Mr. Wright (member of Congress elect from California,) there are vast deposits of gold in quartz, which will ere long be worked hy machineiy and sep arated chemically. On the whole, the prospect is certainly flattering for a large increase to the cash capital of the country, for which, however, immense sacrifices will be made in the property and lives cf emigrants. A'oble. Theie have been eight trials in the Charlestown district, Mass, to elect n Member of Congress. The Hun. Benj. Thompson (the Whig candidate,) leads ; but he is more anxious to have the district represented at this crisis than he is to be elected himself, and he has therefore declined, for the purpose of enabling the patties to agree upon a new man who can be elected. The Atlas says that tho Hon. Sam uel Hoar of Concord is suggested. He was the agent of Massachusetts, repudiated by South Caiolina a Whig, up to the nomination of Gen. Taylor, whom he thought ho could not support1 but we know Mr. II. to be a man who never would countenance factious opposition to the administration who would support it in every goc-d work, and we would be well contented willi his election. The .brlh British Review. Tho February number of this able and valuable review has been published by Leonard Scott & Co., New York. It contains a review of Hugh Miller's " Foot prints of Creation" a book which con cljsively refutes, on geological giounds, the "development theory" found in tho late inge nious and mischievous book entitled lha " Ves tiges of Creation." Musical Huntington & Savage, New York, are publishing " The American Musical Review and Choir Singers' Companion," edited by J. B. Woodbury. We commend it to choristers and choir singers. LitteU's Living Age. See advertisement. The "Age" is the only thing of the kind published in this country, and is eminently worthy of favor. (XT5 The receipts of gold at the Mint, Phila delphia, and the branch at New Orleans, since the first arrival from California, including re ceipts per Cherokee, are estimated at 813,875, 152. The coinageat the Philadelphia Mint for the month of January was $890,495 ; ditto for February $1,160,585; ditto for March $I,80G, 202. Of the amount coined in March, over $600,000 was in double eagles. " Phrenology and the Scriptures," is the title of a lecture by Rev. John Tierpoint, just published by Fowlers & Wells, New York. The lecturer ingeniously argues to show remarkable corres pondences between sundry doctrines (according to his interpretation) of the apostles and phrenology. fjy'Sickness has precluded the editor almost entirely from editorial duties this week. Byrne's Dictionary of Mechanics and Engin eering. No. 7 is published a large part of which is devoted to corn-mills. fp The Tribune comes to us on an enlarg ed sheet and printed on ne-v type. May its shadow never be less. Atlas. Ditto to the Atlas. QMessrs. Gill &. Thompson's Mexican Pan orama, will be, exhibited this evening, for the last lime in this village. We have seen the principal Panoramic and Dioramic spectacles that have lech exhibited in the cities, but we have seen none suporior to this. The painting, notwithstanding ils immense size, is nol a cheap daub, as ome might imagine, but a superior work of art, fitted to give pleasure to the most cultivated mind. The aficr-pieces are very di verting f erformancci", and cannot fall tcuiinure not only "juveniles," but all who love a hearty laugh. Allojether, we have seldom had a chance In witness a more pleasing exluhilion, or one that h less exceptionable Burlington Dai ly Srnlintt. The Panorama will probably be exhibited in Montpehcr this week. New-Mexico in Danger. The Connecticut darlings who, from pure de votion to Free Soil, helped Locofocoism to three Members of the present Congress and thus .Mr. Cobb into the Speakership, have a fresh triumph to rejoice over in the Report of Linn Bod and his pro-Slavery majority of the House Commit tee on Territories against the recognition of Air. Hush N. Smith as Delegate from the Territory of New Mexico, on the naked ground of ihe claim of Texas to the belter portion of that ter ritory, fllr. Wiutlirops Whig Committee last winter reported in yiro of organizing New Mexico with her ancient and rightful boundaries, limilin Texas to the region South of tint Ter ritory as of old, overrulniff without ceremony the trumpery claim tf Houston &. Co. to represent the people of Santa Fe and Taos in Congress ; but Mr Cobb's Committee declares it inerpedient to allow the Delegate unquestionably ches n by the New Mcx cans a seat (without a vote) in the House, because Tc.as c'aims dominion over them. They detest and tepcl her claim; she has never made a show of enforcing it; they never voted in her elections and have had no part in framing her Constitution, some features whereof are especially loathsome to her, and yet are so clasped and riveted that no majority of her people has power to annul them. 'J o refuse to recognize -Mr. Smith as her Delegate on the pretext here set up is to betray New .Mexico in to the power ol her enslavers, so firas Congress can do it. And, whether th.s result shall be at tained or not, Connecticut's exclusive FrceSoil crs have most effectually promoted it. This Report of Mr. Lmn Boyd against the ve ry existence of New Mexico is made the special order for the 2yth inst. The vote upon it will show who are in fivor of maintaining Freedom where it now exists and who are in favor of sub jugating it und establishing Slavery in its stead. iMcn who uttim Free Soil ! let n events of such a nature and magnitude escape your keenest ob servation l.Y. 1'. Tribuue. Fearful Accident to the Norwich Steamboat Train. .'.fiV'ici'.'oui 1'scape oj One Hundred Passen gers. At about cigl-t o'clock on Monday even ing, as the New York train from Boston, upon the Norwich and Worcester Railroad, was ap proaching Fisherville, about four miles the other side of Webster, they came to a bridge known as Ma-on's bridge, winch crosses a small facto ry stream. As il.o e.iEincer, Mr. Jo'in liyde, touched the bridge, he felt it sweive, and imme diately putting on a full head ol steam, attempt ed to cross. Just as the locomotive reached the other side the bridge gave way. The en gine broke trom the tender and remained upon the track ; the tender and crte-cir also cleared the bridge, but were thrown from the track, tearing off a rail, which went through the craio car and one of the crates. The second cl is? car broke in two pieces, and one p irlion fell in to tho river. The next car (lull of passengers) dropped duwn with the bridge, but did notnach tho water, ihe timbers of the bridge supporting it. The third i ar was thrown upon one end, and all tin" seats but three broken. The car was full of passengers, who suddenly found themselves thrown ioK a heap at une corner of the car. To add to the contusion the car took firo from the stove, but fortunately the lire was promptly extinguished. Tho ularnfof the pas sengers at this moment, can bo better imagined than described. Alter some order had been re stored, and time given to luok about, it was foi.nd that not a passenger lud a bone broken. As near as can bo ascertained, there were about one hun dred passengers on board the train, ot whom Mty-three. from New Hampshire and Vermont, bound to Cdlitorma, came over IheiNashua road. and took tho train at Worcester. At about 12 o'cluck, nearly the whole of the passengers, their baggage having been translerred across the river, proceeded on their journey to New York. some of them with slight bruises, but n.ost of them barring their (right, in as good condition as when they started from Worcester. The only person killed was a brakcinan, named John Gal lagan. He was standing upon the platform at the time of the disaster, and was probably struck by timbers en the head aud in the abdomen. A pastengcr who was also standing upon the platform escaped without a bruise. Another lirdkeman named John Morun was badly bruised and cut, and it was feared, at last accounts, he would bleed to death. His nose was partially severed from his face. The conductor of the train, Mr. W. Richardson, was considerably bruised, but was able to keep his feet until the extent of the disaster was ascertained, when he was taken to Websier. The bridge in question wad about sixty feet long, and about ten feet from tho water, which is at present eight feet deep. The engineer has orders not to run fast across the budge, and it was only when ha felt the bridge going, that he put on steam, and went across. The accident caused considerable de tention to trains, and the steamboat train from New York, via Norwich, had not reached this city at one o'clock. The officers of the road are at the scene of the disaster, making every exer tion to clear off the wreck of the broken cars. As to the causes ol the accident, which has thus hazarded the lives of over one hundred human beings, and caused the death of at least one, nothing can be said with certainty, at present It is hoped that a thorough investigation will be made, and the danger ot recurrence of a similar event most rigidly guarded against for the future. Boston Traveller. Late dates from Hayti state that ao American captain had been seized by Soulouque for causa unknown and imprisoned. The American con sul applied for his release, but Soulouque told him ho would cut off his head if he persisted in his demands. The Consul finally bribed the guards, and the captain escaped. Whereupon Soulouque threw the Consul into prison. Two American ships of war had cone up to Cane Hajtien. r " CONGRESS. Mo.xdit, April 8. Senate Petitions being in order, Mr. Benton presented one fiom the citizens ofSan Diego, for a separate collection district for southern Califor nia, and warmly advocated its reception. A pe tition was nrcsented from the Colonization Soci ety, for recognition of Liberia os a Republic. Mr. Cnss presented a petition from the officers of the Army in Oregon for relief. On motion of Mr. Dickinson the deficiency bill was taken up. The Chair, however, decided that Mr. Benton was entitled to the floor, on the slavery question, which he took, and concluded his remarks. He commenced by warmly and vehemently advocating the admission of California as a sep a rate measure. She stood on a footing entirely different from other territories, and it was entire ly incongruous and disrespectful to join other measures w iui tier admission as a oiaie. He replied to the remarks of Mr. Clay, made on Friday, which had induced him to speak. He complimented that Senator fur his open and man ly avowal. He considered it would do good, though he differed from him. The votes of the two Homes were mor' valuable to the country than all the compromises of a committee. He would never iro lor a compromise. Mr Clay replied. He was sorry that ho dif fered Irumthe Senator trom .Missouri, tte was not in favor of connect!!!" the fugitive slave, and other questions, with ihe admission of Califor nia. Ho would refer to a committee only three propositions- the admission of California, the establishment of territorial governments, and the boundaries oflexas. If the admission of Cali fornia was provided for in a separate bill, these measures would bo attached to it by amend ments. They were connected and not incon gruous. There was no danger of California es tablishing an independent government. If the California bill was acted upon separate, the Sen ate would find that all parliamentary measures would be taken to delay it. Mr. Benton here said that he would give no committee jurisdiction on the abolition ques lion. Mr. Foote explained. The commillcc, he said, could report separate bills. .Mr. Douglass wanted the vote taken, and therefore moved the resolutions for a coinnii'tee be laid upon the table, and that they consider the bill for the admission of California as a Stale. He wanted something practical. .Mr. Cas3 explained briefly. Ho fully agreed with Mr. Clay, and added that a committee could to no harm, and was one more way ol settle ment. He considered the debate about separat- ii" bilis was irrevelant there was tune enough fur that when the committee should have report ed. Mr. Hale said that there was no necessity or propriety in refusing admission la California, since all agreed that she would be admitted. He said he was notso sure but what many wc; I opposed. Mr. Smith followed, and stated that he was opposed to a territorial bill, and should vole a gainst it. Mr. Foote opposed Douglass' motion fora test vo'e at the present time, at many Senators were abseil', and moved that the suoject be postponed until Thuisday, with the understanding that the deb He should then close. .Mr. Bradbury said that he wanted to speak. The subject was postponed. Mr. Dickinson said that tomorrow he would call up the deficiency bill. Alter an executive session, the Senate adjourned. House. The Judiciary committee reported the Census bill, which was made the order of ihe day fur Tl.tir.-d iv. Mr. Vinton olTeied a joint resolution, second ing Henry Grinncll's propositions for vessels with Naval officers to search for Sir John Frank lin. The Home went into com niltee of the whole and took up the California bill. Jlr. Wallace spoke warmly against the ad mission of California, and charged the people of that Stale with being usurpers; compared them to a band of robl.crs, and denied their right uf sovereignty. 1 he t rco sm'ers contemplated tha ultimate abolition of slavery throughout the States. He charged the President wilh the de sign lo put down the minority by force of arms. Ho warned tho S-iuth that the lime for united resistance had come. Mr. Johnson of Ky. followed. He admitted the sovereignty of California, but not ready for her ndmisnon. The Territorial q iestion must he first settled. .Mr. Adams, of Tcnn., obtained the floor, and ihe committee rose. Mr. Conner moveil a suspension of the rules, for the purpose c' allowing him to introduce res olutions for the abolition of the fr.inking privi lege, and in favor of cheap post tge, pending whieh the House adjourned. The speeches in Congress on Tuesday were ofthe usual mder. The Senate, however, iui proved. They devoted a sh-ire ot the day to the Census bill. The Tribune thus notices the speech of Mr. Howard, of Texas : Jlr. volnev U. Howard, formerly or Missis sippi and now M. C. from Texas, yesterday gave ihe House notice ot an amendment to .Mr. Mc- Clcrn mil's Slavery Compromise bill, providing that, if Texas should not consent to telinquisu her claim to the better part of New Mexico, ihen lis government s'tntl be organized in . tie Mexico lo have jurisdiction on this side ofthe It to Grande ; nd it 1 cxns shill consent, lor cash in hand, 'o surrender her clai-n to New Mexico, then the laic of Texas establishing Human Slavery shall prevail in said Territory until the same' shall be admitted intu the Union as a State! We hive met some cool propositions in our day, but none quite equal tn that. We thank Mr. Howard fur making it decidedly than him. We beseech Ihe yeas and myson this proposi.ion, and this week if possible." WKDSESDAr, Arm 111. Senate. .Mr. Hale presented thirty or furtv pelititiuns respecting the abolition oi slavery, Sc. Mr. Atchison moved that Mr. Hale have leave to withdraw them. Mr. Hale said that the petitions were handed to the Secretary without being read, and with out staling their contents, lo save time, as it was not insisted on. Mr. Clay cal.cd the attention of ih-- Senate ti the tact, that these pennon presented are all alike, and that it was a concerted plan of the Ab olitionists, designed tn produce an impression upon the public sentiment. The chair suggested that the petitions had been passed upon. Mr. Hale called Mr. Clay tj order, but waived the point. Mr. Clay very emphatically warned the Sena tor, and the country, against the increasing peti tions of this kind, lie said that Mr. Hale was not mounting a hobby-horse, but negroes, to ride into power. (Clapping in the galleries, which was suppressed. Mr. Hale replied. Mr. Rusk heartily concurred with Mr. Clay, and Mr. Butler spoke to similar effect. Mr. Foote wanted to apply the corrective to the fullest extent. Mr. Hale replied. Mr. Clay moved to lake up the petition just presented by Mr. Seward, to enrol slaves amongst the rnililia Carried. He moved to reject the prayer cf the petition called for the yeas and nays, and hoped ttat all would vole against ihe abominable prayer. (The report does nut otale whether any vote was taken.) The consideration of the Census bill was re sumed, and discussed for three huurs. It was proposed ti aine.id it so as to print the schedules by contract. Rejected. The bill passed. Af ter a short executive session, adjourned. House. Mr. McLanahan was excused from serving on the Galplun committee. The Chair was authorized to tut the vacancy. The consideration ofthe resolution iu favor of granting a pension to widows of the officers and soldiers who hive died of diseases contracted in the service, was resumed. It was ordered to a mini reading, un a motion to reconsider a warm debate sprang up. The motion to recon sider was laid on the table In Committee ofthe Whole, on the California bill, Mr. Ross, of Pa., spoke an hour. He de feuded the South, and contended that tho North was the sole aggressor. He assailed Thuddon Stevens furiously, and his speech created intense interest. Mr. Doer of New York defended his vote on Root's Resolution. He bad heard no plan at ....... I - .1 . . I- T I ' . . suwu u iimi oi me rrestocnis. u was not in- action, as was charged, but action. He was wil ling to authorize New Mexico to form a Stale Government, but first settle its boundary. The proviso would break up parties at the North wilh the cry of repeal. The President's policy was demanded by a spirit of treaty, and would re store peace. Should insist on the Proviso, and never consent to an opposite course, as it would bring more war for slave territory. He ridiculed the idea of couilibrium. and admitted the obliga tion requiring the return of fugitives, and consid ered the " free soilers" inconsistent. The South could not prevent the abolition agitation if they would. Mr. Ewingobtained thofloor. Thecommittee rose, and the House adjourned. TuunsDAT, April II. Senate Mr. Cass presented tho joint resolu tions of the Legislature of Michigan, rescinding the instructions to the Senators and Representa tives in Congress from that State to vote for the Wilmot Proviso. He expressed his pleasure in presentingihe resolution, remarking that they were a peace offering, that they should be re ceived as surh. Mr. Douglass presented a memorial in favor of securing the free navigation of the St. Law rence river. The Senate resumed tho consideration ot Air. Rail's resolution on thesubiect of Slavery, which .Mr. Foote had moved to refer to a Select Com- miiiPL' ol Thirteen, with instructions to endeav or to report tome plan of co.npro.nise for the settlement of all the questions arising out of the institution of slavery. To this motion Mr. Bald win had moved an amendment, providing that the question of the admission of California should not be connected with the questions re ported upon. The question having been staled upun the latter amendment. Mr. Benton bricfiV addressed the Senate, cit ing facts in support of the position assumed by him, that in sixty years of legislation, Congress had never before coupled tlu admission of a State with any other question. -Mr. Clay replied Again citing the case oi Missouri, and proceeded with some remarks for the purpose of showing that no indignity or in justice wuuld be done to California, by referring her cae to the select committee, l here were few points in whicn Congress had any right to touch the question of slavery at all, and uf those few, there were several which he would not touch himself, tat.cl would not, therelorc, send them to any committee. He would never con sent to couple California with slavery, in any way. He also read tho act lor the admission oi Jlis3outi, aud commented upon the action com pleting ihat measure. -Mr. Dayton opp.ised the connection ot canior- uii with the disiract.ng questn-n ot slavery. .Mr. lung advocated tho propriety ot connect- ng two subjects as proposed. ilr. Douglass, as a ttst question, wneiner tne Senate w-,uld raise the seltct committee or not, moved to lay the whole subject on tht; table, but wlljfow t,r Jlr. Webster, who expressed hU readiness to vote for the committee, but he could not commit himselt t support any measuie which shall make theadmissim of California dependent up on any other incisure. He tin ught that the im portance of the pieceuenco of measures as much oveinted. If .Mr. Douglass shouldget up his Stale Bills, it would be competent fur any gentleman to move to amend by in-erting territo rial government,and via vers't. The question upon either or bttli subjects could r.ot be avoided. In conclusion, he said he was ready to vote fir the admits on ot C.ilifi rnia, a-i ail independent meas uie.and lint he would vute for the proposed com mittee, as an experi.r cut, In deterence to lead ing men in the Senate, who had discussed ihe question, rather than lio.n any confidence in its re-ulK Alter some observations bv Mr. Hale and Mr. Ftote, Mr. Benton submitted some additional re marks, to show that if ihu ttinject of California should bo sent to the committee, her case would hive been already prejudged. Mr. King denud, lor Inm-eit and those no acted with hun, being governed in his couiae by any cons-derations connected with the introduc tion or exclusion of slavery into California. .Mr. Uouglass renewed his mitioii to lay Jlr. Foote's inouori on the table, which was rejected vea- 26 mys 2i, as follows : Yeas .Messrs. Badger, Benton, Bradbury, Chase, Clark, Corvin, Davis of Mass., Dayton, I)od"0 nl 1 ia, Dodge ot Wis., Uougias, reicn, Green, Hale, Hamlin, Jones, Miller, Notris, 'helps, Seward, hoie.ds, bmitti Jsoruance, Up- liam, Wales and Walker. .Y.iys .Messrs. Atchison, Bell Borland, Bright, Buller. Cass, Clay, Clrinent, Davis of Miss., Dickinson, Downs' Foote, Hunter, King, Man- gum, Mason, Morton, Pcurcp, Pralt, Kusfc. Se bastian, Sotile, Tumev, Underwood, Websier, Whilcnuib and Yulce. After a reuwrk or two bv Mr. Webster, rela tive to the propriety of getting some direct vote, Mr. Foote expressed fii3 willingness to inojity his motion to as sinply to re'er Mr. Clay's and Jlr. Ueli s resoluti m in conjunction, lo a select Committee of tbinei n. O.i motion, Air. Foote was allowed to with draw his original motion and substitute the new une. Mr. Benton moved tint Mr. BaldiTin's amend ment be m idified. The notion and the question being put. it was rejected Yeas 20, Na)s 2i The que-uun lecurring on Mr. Foote's motion, he moved his amendment taking from ihe pro pjseri Committee the power to consider any of questions relating to domestic slavery. Atier so.ne futther debate, Jlr. Halo moved to refer the whole subject to Ihe Coiuamtec on Ter li.ones, which motion was rejected yeas 23, nays ol. Mr. t lay renewed, in substance, his amend ment to Mr. Benton's amendment. Jlr. Benton said his object was to prevent the coinimitee fioin considering the questions stated in Ihe amendment. He did nol think Air. Clay s prop unions as strong as his uwn, but his extreme desiie lo secure some progress, expressed his readiness to accept them. Mr. Davtou, lor the purpose ot gaming lime to examine the question, as now presented, moved an adjournment, which was nol agreed to. 1 he qucstlun being stated on .Mr. Benton s a- meiiduient, as modified by Jlr. Clay, Jlr. Up hain asked a division, and the question was first st.ted on the proposition, Hut tne motion fur ief erencc shall not tie so construed as affirming or implying the power of Congress to abolish slave ry in the States. Alter further debate, Mr. Websier expressed his unwillingness to vole upon the propusiaor. in relation to slavcrv in ibe District of Columbia without consideration and debate. The Senile, at 5 o'clock, adjourned. In the House, nothing of importince was transacted. Mr. Poller, from the Post Office Committee, reported a bill establishing matt routes in Calituruu, Oregon, Jliuesota and New Mexico. I-'kidat, April 12. Senate. Mr. Webster wanted the vote taken on ihe committee proposed by Jlr. ''ooie. Jlr. Clay spoke briny. He said good would result from a committee. Mr. Benton woind cousent to refer the Call- forma bill, with ins ructions to consider it sepa rately and independently. Alter some further discussion the subject was laid over. i'he deficiency bill was taken uu. and Paten'. Office Appropriation discussed fur three hours, pending wnicn the Senate adjourned. House. Jlr. Jones proceeded lo make some re.uarks on the but tor the relief of the widow of Gen. Worth, winch were ruled out of order. He appcalcj from the decision, and the Chair was sustained. The House went into Committee of the Whole and look up the private calendar. Much dis cussion ensued, but iioiluiig was done. I he Ciiair-uau of the Galph:n Committee ask ed tor instructions. Mr. Moore introduced a resolution to inquire into the circumstances ot payment. Mr. Sweetser commented severely on the allowance of the claim, alluding to tho ru mors of a rupture in ihe cabinet growing out of it. Mr. Casey called him to order. Much con fusion followed. After various motions and calls ofthe House, the yeas and nays wera-ordcred on an amendment offered by Mr. Harm, orillinoia, directing an inquiry into the hiitory and origin of the whole affair, calling for persons and pi pers. Adopted. Adjourned to Monday, The stem of the holly-bock contains a blue dye superior to the finest indigo. Railroads in ureat Britain. The progress of railroads in Great Britain has been nearly as rapid as in this country. At the close of the year 1844, there were open for use 2,148 miles of Railway. To this total the follow, ing several additions have been made in 1645, 2f)3 miles; in 1 8 10, 595 miles ; in 1847 760ms; in 1848, 1.191 miles. From the lines present in action, 53,000 men are furnished with respectable and remunerative employment. Besides these nearly 200,000 more are engaged upon the con struction of works yet incomplete. A computatn n uf this gross traffic shows thai the numberof pas sengers conveyed on the several lines was such as to allow two trips a year to every man wo nan and child in Great Britain and Ireland. Fro ii a return for etx months Iroin the various lines in the Kingdom, it appears lhat the total number of passengers carried was 31,000,000, of wimm about ' millions travelled by the first class, 12 millions by the second, and Ihe remainder, amoun ting to nearly 1G millions, by the third. The salety ot this mod of traveling, must now be set tled eren bejoud question, even in the minds of the mo--t timid. Out of a grand total of 57,910, '04 passengers conveyed during a period ot 12 nonllis, 21 only were killed, of whom 12 met their death by their own cirelessnesi or miscon duct, leaving but nine tionnjiue casuanues upon nearly 53 millions ventures, and making the odtle more ihan 0,000,000 to one in favor of tho travel ers safety. It is proved beyond any denial lhat low fares produce greater receipts than lngl.tr ones. Plank Roads. The Mobile Advertiser says: ' Our sister city of Montgomery see us lo hue taken the Pianij Roid Fever the natural way, and wo trust some very clearly defined cases of Plank Roads com pleted will follow, before the public pulse is much reduced. A meeting was held last week in which it was resolved thatthe city of Mont gomery would subscribe $75,000 stock in ihe va rious roads contemplated to terminate at Moi t goinery. We like this spirit, and cuiitiut-mly anticipate favorable results. As to tha advan tages lo the city of these roads when completed, there can be no question." New Mexico. The Washington correspon dent of Ihe New York Commercial siys, that recent intelligence received trem ISew .Mexico, goes lo show that the people arc about to take measures to form a State On eminent, a nd to in corporate into their Cunslilu'ion an "express pro hibition of slavery? This is another proof ot tint wise loresigiilo: uenerai i ayior, anu me jusiice of hn recommendation to have no Territorial Government for New Mexico, hut to let her come into the Union as a State. It is to avoid t'us, that .Mr. Poole and his Committee in the U.S. Senate are so anxious to establish a Territorial Government, that slaveholders may get -n there, so that in a year or two New .Mexico will ask admission into the Union as a Slave SiatP. Again wo call noon the House of Representa tives to stand firm ba Freedom; defeat the Scheme of the Senate, and rully icilh serried ranks arouud the platform of General Taylor. Do so, and New Mexico tn'.' be Jrte! Atlas. The St: Louis Unioi ofthe 25th ult pub! sh- es a letter from Senator Benton, declaiming all compromise with his general opponents in .Mis souri, and insisting on a high wall and deep ditch. He wuuld rather sit in council with the six thousand de.id who died oi cuoiera in SI. Louis, than go in connection wit,-, a gang of scamp Calhounists. lie would not mix w.i.i them, or give or take help. He recommends ms ricnds to make Bentonisin the test at the Muni cipal as well as the State election. He would rather see the Whigs elected tlun tne Dm o- cratic opponents rather see his own seat tilled than the line should not be drawn. Calhoun must be extinguished from Missouri at all haz ards, and without regard to consequences. Xiicspaper Credit System. Tho cerrepondent ofthe Biltimore Patriot, speaking of the Na tional Intelligencer, sajs that the outstanding debts due to I lat establishment arc estimated at four hundred thousand dollars. Un this, tne Boston Herald remarks : 1 We doubt not there are other subscription papers, the proprietors of which can tell us sa I a story as Ihe one above. Tho loss of everv pa per ot the kind is no less, on an avcrag than twenty per ccnl. per annum. We know an in stance which occurred iu this ciiy, a few years ago, where an old establishment was compelled to fail, at the same time its outstanding ut-bts were not less than $10,000, not one quarter of which was ever collected by the assignees. Toe late Mayor Russell once attempted to draw up ins subscribers to the paying point some of them were indebted to him for twenty years sub scription. Une ot these ordered him to slop tho ipor. ' 1 11 be hanged, said ho, "it I taic a paper from any man who duns me to pay lo.- it. The o d leilo-v had read the piper tor twenty years wi'hout paying a cent tor its proprietor."' form of Slavenr. Slavery probably exists in a harsher torm in the United States liian in any other quarter of ihe globe. In Cuba and Bnzil, a slave may by law summon his master belore two magistrates, who iwssess the power of ap praising the slave, and if" he, or any one for linn. at any future time, pays the amount, he can de mand Ins freedom. In Brazil, if at tho birh of a child, the patents tender their masters the fixed sum of five pounds sterling, the infart is Iret, and the master is obliged lor seven years, to find the infant tood, without exacting any li bur from him or any extra labor from his parents. Uoslon lranscipl. The Pearson Case. The Committee of tho Council belore whom the hearing was held en tho petitions for the commutation of the sen tence uf Pearson, etoud, when the sentence was tiken, four for sustaining tho sentence uf the aw, against one fur commuting it to nnprisi n- menl tor life. The case will ci-me before tho Governor and Council this week for final action. Die Post slates that Pearson, since bis " convic tion, has cenressed that he rose to kill his wife after he had been lying by her side about three quarters of an hour. It was not his original in teulioii to kill the children, but on account of ihe resistance his wife made, Ihev woke up before he had accomplished his first purpose, and then it become necessary to despatch them lest they should expose him." South Carolina. The Governor of South Car olina has offered the appointment of U. Stales Senator to Laugdoii Chevcs, who declined ac cepting IU Death ofthe Hon. T. J. Camnbelt. We regct to learn thai the Hon. Thomas Jefferson Camp bell of Tennessee, Clerk of the U. S. House of Representatives, died in Washington on rriday evening. Mr. Campbell was a very worlhy pe i tleman, and his loss will be severely felt by hi i lamuy enu menus. Steel-ribbed Umbrellas. A correspondent of the Liverpool .Mercury states that, while walk ing with a friend, and protecting themselves from the rain with a steel-ribbed umbrella, he suddenly felt a shock like that of electricity, and became enveloped in a blue flame. He was bewildered fur a second or two, and then heard a thunder clap. He had been struck by light ning, attracted, doubtlessly, by the steel in the unbrella. His friend did not feel anything, hut saw tha flame. When he got home he examin ed his watch, and found it had changed to cop per color. Mr. Sullivan, the British Charge at Limi, re signed the very day after he was so soundly flogged by Jlr. Potior, our Consul at ValparaiiO. A British man of war arrived at C'allao, on that day, and the commander either required, or SlI hvan thought proper lo give in his resignation. Mineral Health of Japan. The empire of Japan contains inexhaustible mines ot ti.e pte cious metals; the quantity of gold, silver and copper exported from Japan, between IGII and 1706, according to an official report of a Japan ese minister ofthe slate amounted to $ I ly.OtJo, cOO. Gold is so plenty in the great Island cf Niphon, that it is thoug'ht advisable to regulate the working of ihe mines by law, lest too great a quantity should be brought into circulation. The currency of the country is composed of gold, silver and copper. Auf. Intelligencer. A George B. Warren, Esq., has been appointed Postmaster at Woodstock, in plice of Porter B. Soatbgale, removed.