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BY E. P. WALTON & SON.
MOiNTPELlEK, THURSDAY, MAY 16, 1S50. VOL. XLIV, NO. 27. WHOLE NO. 2274. ItJatcljinmi $: State Journal. rt'CMsiiEii every Tiiri:biAY mokxixg. TERMS $1, trude in .itlvmit i the vur. 0 cah ri ! '...nec ; 7,00 if payment is nt 1 ioteren.ilw.iy cttred fitim I lie vad f fJosttn. Imaginary Evils. BV CM IM.I SWAIN. I. t to mnrr, w lali, if to rnorrotv j li me linns- ui i'ii t .luit to fule : What', tit- li.e to i ' in ipatu aoriow? Lilc'd troulili . r i i. itiiif too late ! If ut Imjic meruit, .i i au error, Trs ono that lln- ui-o bv e preferred ; Ar.ii Imw often liiu- !i--Tt b-en id terror Of ei :h llial u.-w ' occurred ! Haiefuilb and lit I utli hal vo.uin thee Pun"! nut eu-,n . mi and caro Willi inii-i'iii tin u- :n r-nehain thee, Jlut tw ar wLt.t ti i n en thee to bear. Ily His .turn .nppi n niid glsddeli'd, i'e neVr lit "fur. 'i i n iifw' deterred . liul think how of' liojil-i bate been aaddenM ily fear of wl.. t 1.1 icr occurred 1 Iji.t to-morrow IjV i c re of 10-niorrow ; Sh -n ai i. dalK a uur lite may appear, Ui in ay in iki1 it -.i'i il.irkcr by .orrow Mill -iiurttl U 1.. i .1 id four! Half uur tnmli'i'- - ill our invention, And i,ft ii tin ii ,. i -siiisi conferred Have ue .uriit.k . ; ' Mild apprehension Of on . dot n i i (if umd ! Tlie fiiHi'wtig Ifiulilul lui i-.iin.iri IK raid, .ire .u, E'o i, from a late notnbei of the 1 to lie Iroin the pen of Di.h op Ooiu. : Life-Sculpture Oil-el in Ii mil, - With In n. a Am! ln fare 111 , As an .n,i 1 He .'.iiv. ,1 Hi.- .Ii, Wit , i ii-; Wil' I ,i. ii-- Ik Ii i,I rill. a - utptoi I.OV, ,..i k 1 e'oru l.im ; i ,i a Millie of j.iy, .-ted o'er lin.i : i i tli it ill iptl-aa atone, . I r.4,il : tin tcu'ptwr abone ; .t till 'll lid on. M i' t r- ui l.f , is n-i i..I V itli ii.ir m.h'-, ii ! in id. h.'f re ua, Waning tl e In. nr. 1 '' I1- ciimmftn.l, Uni 111 mi - tl n'cr U-. If uc cane it 1 . f, jiel lin utonc, Wiui inj-o i t i i in ion. Its Jju it '-i ly , e ir, i i I l,e our own, t'u- hie, t! it ' I i iiun. IJurlir glen Cufr.'f.."''' - I I. j-i- Horace Mann hi rrply to Daniel Webster. We extract the following from Sir. JLinn's letter to hi- ctiiistituents omitting his remark'-upon the rendition of slates, fur the reason that Air. Webster's position isi.d what .Mr. Mann apprehends it to bo, if the recent th ci iralion of the Boston Ci urur mi that point i- correct. In ,t chronological order, I must now con sult r -i : uc vit.illv important wens, Inch h,iw !" t 'i sublimit d try tome members m the lb u-c, anil l. Mr. Webster and others in tl.e Sfii.ttc la mentioning tlic name ol tin- ire. i Mates:.,..-!, .tnd aiou ingth.it I am one .tilt ing ihe nun) ulmm his recently c.-jirt--ni opinion- i.ae tailed to com nice, it i-due to in. Mil, bowcicr indiirerent it mat be to lun'i or I. :i- friends, that I should express ui) aduii. Moti ot his powers, my oraiitude br hi- ;.-i -ertices, and the ditii-j denie uitli u luc li 1 dissented, at first from i his tieu-. l!ul 1 i. te pondered upon them Ion,;, and the hm.. r 1 have pondered, the mon ipicstiouab. t.,ey appear. 1 shall then fore teuture i.ji.m tile perilous task of inquiring into tl''i correctness; andulule; 1 tin it" with He i:eterence and respect' uhi.'li iiil.n g t" i - character, I shall do it, also iwlh that li ! : to conscience and to judgment ih.it b i -.ig to mine. Jle is great, 1 but truth i- gre.it. r than us all. 1 sh.ill confini in) sell mainly, and per- ' hap. whtlly, l" -r- Web-ter'a iens, be-cau-e lie hi- ar m! the cause of the South with vasth mure .i'mIii) than it has been ar-1 "ued b) am one ..m wig tbeiusehi's. If Ins conclusion-, iIkm, bj not tenable, their, case l- lust. ! Mr. Wtbsler ci-ts away the " Prows..," altogi tl.er. lie sn- ' if a resolution or a law Here now bt! re u-, to provide a terri al gotirnmeiit ! r New Mexico, 1 would not tote to put a. t proliibiiiun into it what ever," p. ol. 'I'm' reason gnen is, that ' slavery is already eluded from " Califor- nu aiid -. M- ui"," "by the law ofna-' ture, ot pht.-ie ii l1' 'jrapliy, the law ol tne format it .ii ul tl. t .n.i;" p. "Califor nia and Neu jtesieo are Asiatic in their formation and mi , i They are compos ed of vast ridjts i 1 mountains of enormous height, with brt .o n ridges and deep val-j leys," p. !!. iow this is ur.iuing moral conclusions j from pliy: .cal prei.i.-cs. It is arguing from ' physics to metajib -ics. Jt is determining' the lav.-of the spirit by geographical phe-j noinena. It is undertaking to settle by j mountains and rntr.-, and not by the Ten j Commandment-, a ,i cat question of human; duty. It ah mi!1 :.i the commandment of1 Christ, and all iiil.s of Rights enacted in j conformity thtreto, and leavea our obhga-j tions tu our " ih i Mibor," and all human i rights to be del, n. mod by the accidents of earth and w.ittr and air. To ascertain whether a people v. ill otiey the command of Christ, and do to . ilurs as they would be done by, it b-i' .it the thermometer. What a problem .u uld tins be ! "Requir ed the height aU.te tiie level of the sea, at which the oppressor " will undo the hejvt burdens and let the oppressed go free, and break every yoke'' to be determined bar ometrically." AI..-! this cannot be done. Slaver) depends, not upon climate, but up on conscience. Wherever the wicked pas sions of the bii.e ui heart can go, there slavery can go. .'-..tvery is an ellect. Av arice, sloth, pnd", ;.nd the love of domina tion are its cause. In ascending the moun tain sides, at what altitude do men leave these passions be,.iud them? DiU'ercm vegetable grovvtii- ..re to be found at differ ent Heights, depending also upon the zone. This 1 can understand. There is the al titude of the palm, the altituae of the oak the altitude oftlie pine, and far above them all the line of perpetual snow. Bm ui re gard to innocence and guilt, where is the viri im, ' JI.m far up can a slaveholder go anl not lose hi- irec agency f At what Ht-vaioii vwil t. e whip fail fiom the hand of the master, and the fellers from the limbs of the slave ? There is no such point. Freedom and slavery on the one hand, and climate and geology on the other, are im measurable quantities. We might as well attempt to determine a question in theology by the cube root, or a question in ethics " He (Gen. Cass) will surely have the by the Rlack Art. Slavery being a crime Senate: and with the patronage of the gov fouuded upon human passions, can go eminent, with every interest that he, as a wherever those passions arc unrestrained, i Northern man, can brirm to bear, co-opcra-It has existed in Asia from the earliest ages, I ting with every interest that the South can notwithstanding its "formation and scene-' bring to bear, we cry safety before wc are ry." It labors and groans on the flanks of1 out of the woods, if we feel that there is no the Ural mountains now. There arc to-day j danger as tij these new territories." forty-eight millions of slaves in Russia, not Yet Mr. Webster now says that to sup one rood of which comes down so low as; port the "Proviso," would "do disgrace to the Northern boundary of California and liis own understanding." (p. 40.) New Mexico. During the same campaign, also, the Hon. Should it be said that Slavery will not ' Kufus Choate, one of the most cloquer.t go into the new territories, because it isuii-jinen in New England, and known to be the profitable, I ask, where is it profitable ? ' personal friend of Mr. Webster, delivered Where is ignorance so profitable as kuowl-t eoge ! w nere is ungodliness gam, even for the things of this life? .How little is the hand worth, at one end of an arm, if there is not a brain at the other ? Do not Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and other States, furnish witnesses by thousands and tens ol thousands, that slavery impov erishes ? Yet with what enthusiasm they of the Constitution itself, and with the wis chcrish it 1 Generally, ignorance is a ue-'ilom of the wisest and the zeal of the most cessary concomitant of slavery. Of white 1 zealous, should unite to accomplish this persons, over twenty years ot age, unable to rcid and write, there were, according to the last census, o,?7 in Virginia, oO,(i(W!dark ambition of that candidate of thcRal-' in North Carolina, oS,oi;5 in Tennessee, and so forth. I have a letter before me, received this morning, dated in Indiana, in which the writer says he removed from N. Carolina in lb(J, when he was 14 years old, and at that tunc lie had never seen a newspaper in his life. Can there be gen ius, the inventive talent, or profitable labor where ignorance is so dense? Can the oppression which tramples out voluntary in dustry, intelligence, enterprise, and the tie sire of independence, conduce to riches ?' t el tins is done wherever slavery exists, and is part and parcel of its working. Is there any fuller form of robbing profitable? Yet individuals and communities baveprac ticcd it and lived by it, and we may as well rely upon a " law of physical geography" to arrest the one as the other. It is not poetry, but literal truth, that the breath of the slave blasts vegetation, his tears poison the earth, and his groans strike it with ster ility. It would be easy to show why the master does not abandon slavery, even a uml the desolation with which it has sur rounded him. There is a combination of poverty and pride, which slavery produces on the dot trim of natural appctincc, and which, therefore, it exactly fits. The help lessness of the master in regard to all per sonal wants, seems to necessitate the slave ry that has begotten it. -VII moral and re ligious principles arc lowered till they con firm to the daily practice. Custom blinds Conscience, until, without any uttonijit In emancipate or ameliorate their victims.man can preach and pray and hold slaves, as Yorick jests and sings over grave-digging. Rut slavery cannot go into California or New Slexico, because their staple produc tions are not " tobacco, cane, cotton, or rice," (p. 44.) These are agricultural pro ducts. Hut is slave labor confined to agri culture ? Suppose that predial slavery will i mi become common in the new territories. Cat.not menial I If slaves cannot do field work, cannot they do housework ? There is an opening for a hundred thousand slaves todav, in the new territories, fir puriKises ol domestic labor. And beyond this, let me ask, who possesses any such geologic vision that at the distance of a thousand miles ho can penetrate the vdllc)s and gor-'Dr. ges td" New Slexico; and ay that gold will not yet be found there ns it is in California not in sand and in gravel only, but in forty-eight pounders and in fi.xt)-si.xes! This is the very kind of labor on which slaves, in all time, have Ceeu so extensively employed the very labor on which a mil lion of slaves in Ihspaniola lost their lives j within a few years alter its di-covery by j Columbus. Gold deposits are now worked within twenty-live miles of Santa Fe. The last account which I have seen, of a com pany of emigrants passing from Santa Fe to California", by the river Gila, announces i rich discoveries of gold upon that river. , was sogratctul to their pontics and poCKeis. A fellow citizen or nunc has just returned I think tl no mju-ticc to those Senators to home, who says he saw a slave sold at the , say, that they would have nearly torn him in mines in California, in September last. As pieces for such a collective insult, if it had vr-t, the distant regions of the Gila mid the j not added fifty per cent, to their individual Colorado cannot he worked, because of the , property, and secured and perpetuated their Apaches, the Utahs, and other tribes of In- political ascendancy. dians. Rut admit slavery there, and the! To help our conceptions in regard to power of the government will be invoked ' Sir. Webster's course on this subject, let to exterminate these Indians, as it was be-t us imagine a parallel case, or rather, an lore to exterminate the Cherokees and Sent- 'approximate one, for there can be no par inoles not to drive tl.em beyond the j allcl. Suppose a contest between the North si-sippi, but beyond the Styx. A few days and the South, on the subject of the 'i anil since a letter was published in the papers, ; to have been raging for years. The sober dated on board a steamer descending the i blood of the North is heated to the lever Slississmoi. which stated that a consider,!- I noiut. The newspapers treat of nothing blenumbcr of slaves were on board, bound fur ("i.ilirnrriii iinrlpr nn ri.rronmnrif wil li Iheir masters thai thev should be free after serving two years at the mines. We know it be but a feather's weight, to the scale too, that the reasons assigned for iucorpora-, which holds their interests. Petitions How ting a provision in the Constitution of Cal-I in, in thousands and lens of thousands. It ifornia, authorizing its Legislature to pass j is announced that Sir. Calhoun will pour laws for the exclusion of tree blacks from out his great mind on the subject. Lxpect the State, was, that slaves would be brought I ation is on tiptoe. All eyes, from all sides there under this very fornfol agreement, of the country, arc turned towards Uan and bv and bv, the country would be over-, iiiglou, as the Sluezzm's is to Mecca, ine -'. . - . ... , ,. . i i... .1,,, .im the lllustri- spread iiy people ol color who had bought ; their freedom. The sagacious men who Ir.imed the Ualilorma Constitution came from all parts of the territory, and being collected on the spot, having surveyed all ' its iiiuuiiiaius, natiiig urcauieu its uu at an . t. - I .l.-.l :. - ... . temrieratures. and turned mi its .-olden soil ; these men had never discovered any law ! ' - : - o . . i of physical geography" which the fell spirit of slavery could not transgress. Slaves were carried into Oregon, ten de grees of latitude higher up. Its colonists re-enr.ctcd the Ordinance of lTe-7, before Congress gave them a territorial .rovern- meiit. In the territorial government that was given them, the prohibition was insert ed; and President Polk signed the bill with an express protest, that he ratified this ex clusion of slavery only because the country lay north of the Shssouri compromise line but that had it embraced the very region iu question, he would have vetoed the bill. Gen. Cass never took the ground that slavery could not exist in the new territo ries; and no inconsiderable part of the op position made to him in Slassachusctts and in other free States, was placed express y upon the ground that he would not promu- it it. Mr. Webster, in his Marshfield speech Sept. 1, 181s', opposed the election of Gen Cass, because through his recreancy to Northern principles, slavery would invade the territories. This was expressed with his usual clearness and force, as follows a speech at balcm, in which the lollowmg passage occurs " it is the passage of a law lo say that California and New .Mexico shall remain forever free. That is, fello-.v-citizens, un doubtedly, an object of great and transcen dent importance; for there is none who will deny that we should go up to the very limits great object, and defeat the always detested 1 and lorevcr to be detested, object ol the timore Convention, w ho has ventured to pledge himself in advance that he will vc-, to the future laws of freedom ; and may I God avert the madness of all those who1 hate slavery and love freedom, that would, unite in putting him in the place where this thrice accursed pledge may be redeem-, cd. ... Is there a Whig upon this 1 floor who doubts that the strength of the Whig party next Slarch will insure freedom to California and New Mexico, if by the ' Constitution they ate entitled to freedom at all ? Is there a member of Congress that would not vole for freedom ! You know there is nol one. Did not every -vliig mem ber of Congress from the free States vole at the last session for freedom ? You know that every man id' them returned home cov ered w ith the thanks of his constituents for that vote. Is there a single Whig constit uency in any free State in this country .that would return any man that would not rote for freedom ? Do you belkcc that Daniil Webster himself eould be returned, it' theic was the least doubt upon the juestion .'" Sir. Choate then adds " Upon this ques tion alone, we always dilfcr from these Whigs of the South ; and on that one, we propose simply to role them iloirn." Sir. Webster now sa)s he will not join in voting them down. Under such circumstances is it frivolous or caplious lo ask for something more than a dogmatic assertion that slavery cannot improcrtiritp thpfcft TlPtv fgifiii, i.i.t .-.u..f. them lo bleed monsters forever! On a subject of such infinite importance I cannot be satisfied with a dictum ; 1 want a dem onstration. I cannot accept the prophecy without inquiring what spirit inspired the prophet. As a revelation from heaven it would he most delightful ; but as it con flicts with all human experience, it requires at least one undoubted miracle to attest the divinity ot its origin. Yet Sir. Webster stands up before all this array, and says: "Gentlemen, you arc beside yourselves. You have eaten helle bore. You would look more in character should you put on the ' cap and bells." In sober sense, in seeing his object clearly and in pursuing it directly, Don Clui.xote was Franklin, compared with you. The log in the fable, whodrop'l his meat to snap at its shadow, is no allegory in your Cdse. I see two classes around me wise men and fools; Init do not belong to the former. The Chancellor who keeps the king's idiots should have custody of you." Such is a laithful abstract of what Sir. Webster said to Southern Senators, and through them to all the south. Here certainly was a reflection upon the understanding and intelligence oftlie South, such as never wa- cast on them before. Rut the balm went with the sting. They bore the alfront to their judgements, because it 'else. Public meetings and private eonver- ' sntion rl ise.ilss HO Other tllCIIie. Hundreds of delegates wait upon Congress, to add, ifj senate cuamuei is i.aiv.-, ous Senator rises. Alter a msior o . . . i...... i. of existing difficulties; alter ream, s ' ... i:-i. ;lI1(i the speeches which he uiaue. . in IS 10, he proceeds to say u- i riifc ll (IMTIO-llIOU tu i uia.. . "i r- . , . , . rjprv'CS llf! He will not oin.uu n.i. ... ., ,,-ttirps. uv IUHm.1 n"-- of Northern jiiaiiui- . , .. ,,0 nlnv. ere a bill then ueiore mm, . , . .t Take the scneu ;U'rr,uilIy,toNor.hcr,.Sen. what perceutagesy u P "-e IliaxlmlI1s, rem rates put in ..,, vou no at your pleasure i nous oncer. 1 am tor pt-"-- , , , ii 1 Inve discovercu m n.i. U"! i I 1p law of nature, which over a'tirar?.hfcleVi ofmen. You cannot It. one ' yaid of woolens or cottons in '"'"l " . .. T l. I id INew iorK, woo revolve, in - , . cks. I have pen W'" nS8he TS? of Pennsylvania, "and e,tfa fh a 11 it s ratifications, there is not a through al ' s' , ounce of iron Jef ant f tfiere were, combustion would not help to forge it ; for oxygen and carbon are divorced. As Massachusetts contribu - ted one-third of the men and one-third of the money, to carry on the Revolutionary War, 1 am willing to compensate her lor her lost blood and treasure, to the amount of hundreds of millions of dollars, with which she may fertilize the barrenness of her gen ius, and indulge her insane love for church es and schools." Had the great Southern Senator spoken thus, I think that even idolatrous, man-worshipping South Caro lina a State which Mr. Calhoun has ruled and moved for the last tvvcnty-five years, as a puppet-show man playing Punch and Judy would hive sent forth through all her or gans, a voice of unanimous dissent. As mucti as ! rceiloin is uigiier man i ar iff, so much stronger than their dissent should he ours. Sir. Webster's averment that he would not " re-aflirm an ordinaac" of Nature, nor re-enact the word of God," p. 41 has been commented on more pungently than I am able or willing to do. It has been sid that all law and all volition must be in harmony with the will of the Good Spirit or with that of the Evil One; and, if we will not re-en act the will of the former, then, either all legislation ceases, or we must register the decrees of the latter. Rut one important and pertinent consideration belongs to this subject, which I have nowhere seen devel oped. It is this: Endless doubts and con tradictions exist among men, as to whit is the will of God; and on no subject is there a wider diversity of opinion than on this very subject of slavery. Whose law was re-enacted by the ordinance o! 1S ! whose when the African slave trade was prohib ited ? whose, when it was declared piracy ! True, it is useless lo put upon our statute book an astronomical law, regulating sim rise, or high tides; but that is physical and bevoud the jurisdiction of man, while slave ry belongs to morals, and is within the ju risdiction of man. Cease to transcribe upon the statute .book what our w isest and best men believe to be the wil! of God in regard to our worldly adairs, and the passions which wc think appropiiate to devils will soon take possession of society. In regard to slavery, piracy, and so forth, there are multitudes ot men, whose le.tr ot the penal sanctions of another life is very much aided j by a little salutary fine and imprisonment in this. Look at that noble array of prin ciples winch is contained in ihe Declara tion of Rights in the Constitution of Mas sachusetts. Is it not a uost grand and beuutiful exposition of " the will of God," I a tran-cript, as it were, from the Rook ol Lite ; So ot the amendments to the Con stitution of the United Sutes. Yet our lathers thought it no tampering with holy things to enact them ; ami, in tunes ot struggle and peril, they have been to man) a tempted nun as an anchor to the soul, sure and steadfast. I aiiDroach Sir. Webster's treatment of the Texas question, with no ordinary anx iety. Having been accustomed from mj boyhood to regard him as almost infallible expounder of constitutional law, it is impos sible lo describe the struggle, the revulsion of mind, with which I have passed from an instructed and jo)ous acipnescei.ee in his former opinions, to unhesitating dissent from h.s present ones. I must premise that I cannot see any ne cessary or beneficial connection between the subject of nt-v Texjn States and the admission of Calilbrii-, anj the government 1 of ihe territories. I in former rr .1 -unit indefinite future, wlcli, irom its Iruit- to ful womb of slavery, Te.as shall seek to 1 their late to be deicrmiueu uy uice or uivi cast forth its untimely hrth. In this ex-1 nation, w hen positive prohibition was in his cited state oftlie couiitr. at this critical 1 power . Ami by what rule of Christian juncture of our affairs, wfen there is sober ' morality, or even of enlightened heathen talk of massacreing a inaiirity of the House ' morality, can we deal dillereutly with the of Representatives" on tfcir own floor, and; kindred of others lrom what we would with a Senator, instead of thnatening to hang a Sour own ! He is not a Christian whose hu brother Senator on the highest tree, pro-' inanity is bounded by the legal degrees ot vided he could catch hin in his own Slate, ! blood, or by general t)pes of lealure. now draws a revolver ofaix barrels on. an-1 But Mr. Webster would not "taunt" the other brother Senator, ui the floor of the South. Neither would I." I would not Senate in mid session; at such a tunc, I taunt ar.y honorable man, much less acrim savwlieii, however fev Abels there may , mal. Still, when the most precious uiltr bc'at work in the politual field, there are est.s of humanity are in peril, 1 would not Cams more than enough, would it not have ' be timid. I would not stop loo long to cull been well to have said, " Sufficient tint. ' lovers phrases. Standing under the eye of the day is the evil thereof!" jGod, in the forum of the world and before As the basis of Ins argjment, Sir. Web- the august tribunal jf posterity, when the ster quotes the lbl!owing"reslutiun : litigants are Freedom Tyranny, and human " New States of convenient size, not e.x- lupp.ness and human misery the prize they cecdui" four in number, in additKn to said contest, it should happen lo- the sworn ad Slate ol" Texas, and having sufficient popu- vocales of Libert), as liuiiitilliau says it latiou, may hereafter, by the consent of said did to Isocratcs, "not to speak and to plead, stale 'be formed out of Ihe territory thereof, 1 but lo thunder and to lighten." Sir. Web vv liic'h shall be entitled to admission under ster would not taunt the South ; and vet 1 the provisions of the Federal constitution. 1 say the South were never so insulted before, And such States as may be formed out of as he has insulted them. Common scoffs, that portion of said territory lying south of jeers, and vilifications, arc flattery and syc JO 30 north latitude, commonly known as ophancy, compared with the indignities he the .Missouri compromise line, shall be ad- has heaped upon them. Look at ihe facts, milted into the Unior. with or without sla- The South waged war with Slexico from one very as the people of" each State asking ad-' and only one motive; for one and only one mission may desire; and in such State or object the extension of Slavery. They re States as shall be formed out of said tern-' fused peace unless it surrendered territory, torv north of said Missouri compromise That territory must be south of the abhor line slavery or involuntary servitude (ex- red line of 30 deg.3U min. The same Pres cept for crime) shall be prohibited.") 1 ident who abandoned the broad belt of Note here first, that only "four" States country on our northern frontier, from 41) arc to be admitted in "addition to said deg, t- ol deg. 40 mm., to which we had, State of Texas ;" and second, that " such in his own ,vords, "an unquestionable title," State or Mates" (in the plural) as shall be . would allow no prohibition of slavery to be formed from territory North of 30 deg. 3'd , imposed upon the territory which Slexiro min. shall be free. If iico, or only one free , ceded, though she would bury it afoot deep State is lo exist on the north side of the ! in gold. The Proviso had been resisted in line then how many will be left for the j all forms, from the beginning. Southern south side ? I should expose myself to ridi-; Whigs voted against the ratification of the "cule were I to set it down arithmetically, treaty, foreseeing the struggle tint was to four minus one, equal to three. Yet Sir. follow. De-pcrate efforts were made to Webster says " the guaranty is, that new ) smuggle in an unrestricted territorial gov Statcs shall bo made out of it, the 1'exan j eminent, against all parliamentary rule and territory and that such States are formed 1 all constitutional implication. The whole out of that portion of Texas, lay tug south I South, as one man, claimed it as a "des of 30 dc". 30 min., may come in as slave I cribable, weighable, estimable, tangible," stales, to the number of vovn, in addition to the State then in existence, and admitted at the time of these resolutions." p. 2'J. Here Sir. Webster gives outright, to the South and to slavery, one more Slate than was contracted for, assuming the contract to be valid. He makes a donation, a gra tuity, of an entire slave state, larger than many a European principality. lie trans fers a whole State, with all its beating hearts, present and future, with all its infinite sus ceptibilities of weal or woe, from the side of freedom to that of slavery, in the leger book of humanity. What a bridal gift for the harlot of bondage! Was not the bargain hard enough, ac cording to its terms ! Must we fulfil it, and go beyond it ? Is a slave State, which dooms our brethren of the human race, pet- haps interminably, to the vassal's fate, so 1 insignificant a trifle, that it may he flung , in, as small change on the settlement of an account 2 lias the Sou'h been so gener ous a copartner, as to deserve this distin guished token of our gratitude! Why, by a parity of reasoning could h. not have claimed all the four states, " in addition to said State of Texas," as free States? The resolutions divide the terri tory into two parts, one north and one south of the line of 30 deg. 30 min. Could not Sir. Webster have claimed the four States for freedom with as sound logic, and with far better humanity than he surrendered them to slavery ? When Texas and the South have got their slave States " to the numbtr of four" into the Union, whence are wc to obtain our one or more'free States ? Hie contract will have been executed, and the consent of Texas for another State will be withheld. Notwithstanding all this, Sir. Webster afllrms the right of Slavery to four mor; States, in the following words : " 1 know no form of legislation which can strength- en this. I know no mode of recognition that can add a title of weight lo it." Catch ing the tone of his asscrvalion, I respond, that I know no form of statement, nor pro cess of reasoning, which can make it more clear that this is an absolute and wanton surrender of the rights of the North, and the rights of humanity. According to the la-t census, there were more than eight thousand persons ol Alri- can blood m Massachusetts. Abolish the i moral and religions convictions ol our pea- ple., let slavery appear to be in their sight not only lawful and creditable, but desira ble as ,i badge of aristocratic distinction, and as a "political, social, moral, and reli gious blessing," and what obstacle would prevent these eight thousand persons from being turned into slaves, on any day, by the easy, cheap and short-hand kidnapping of a legislative act ! Africans can exist here for the best of reasons, they do exist here. A state ot slavery would not stop their res piration; nor cause them to vanish "into thin air." Think, for a moment, of the complaints wc constantly hear in certain circles, of the difficulty and vcxatiousiiess ol commanding domestic service. 11 no moral or religious objection existed against holding slave-, would not nianv of those re spectable and opulent gentlemen who sign ed the letter of thanks to Sir. Webster, and hundreds of others indeed, instead of ap plying to intelligent offices, or visiting emi- grant ships, for domestics, as wc call them, go a, once to the auction-room, and buy a man or a woman, with as little hesitancy or compunction as they now send to Brighton for beeves, or go toTattersall's for ahorse ! If the cold of the higher latitudes checks the flow of African blood, or benumbs Af rican limbs, the slaveholder knows vcty u ell that a trilling extra expense for whips will make up for the difference. But suppose a doubt could be reasonably entertained abuut the iuv asion of the new territories by slavery. Even suppose the chances to preponderate against it. What then .' Are we to submit a question of hu man liberty, over vast regions and for an indeliuit extent of time, to the determina tion of chance ! With a!l my faculties 1 say Xo.' Let me ask any man, let ine res pectfully ask Sir. Webster himself, if it were his own father and mother, and broth ers and sisters, and sous and daughttjr yJm were in peril ofurfc -ciel"cVcu favorable chance. Would he sutler and most v aluable "right," to carry Slaves there. Calhoun, Berrien, Badger, Slason, Davis, the whole Southern phalanx, Whig and Democrat, pleaded for it, argued for it, and most of them declared themselves rea dy to fight for it ; and yet Sir. Webster ri ses in his place, and tells them they arc all moon-struck, hallucinated, fatuous, because "an ordinance of Nature and the will of God" had settled this question from the be ginning of the world. Mr. Calhoun said, immediately after this speech, "give us free scope and time enough, and we will take care of the rest." Mr. Mason said " We have heard here from various quar ters, and from high quarters, and repeated on all hands repeated here again today by the honorable Senator Irom Illinois, (Sir. Shield,) that there is a law of nature which! excludes the Southern people from every and thus the word of promise which was portion of the Stale of California. I know kept to the ear, will be broken to the hope, of no such law of nature none whatever; If Texas meant to abide by the resolutions hut I do know the contrary, that if Calin.r-1 ofannexation, and to claim anything under ma had been organized with a Territorial j them, it was her clear and imperative duty form of government only, and for which, at forthwith to pass a law, securing freedom to the last two sessions of Congress, she has j every inhabitant north of the Compromise obtained the entire Southern vote, the peo-;Iine. In this way only can the resolutions pie of the Southern Stales would have gone j be executed in their true spirit. That ter therc freely, ami have taken their slaves ritory is now in the condition of an egg ; it there in great numbers. They would have is undergoing incubation. From it aState done so because the value of the labor of j is hereafter to be hatched; but before that class would have been augmented to j promising to accept the chick, it would be them many hundred fold. Whv, in the dc. bates which took place in the Convention in California, which formed the Constitu tion, and which any Senator can now read for himself, after the provision excluding slavery was agreed upon, it was proposed to prohibit the African race altogether, free as well as bond. A debate arose upon it;, and the ground was di-tinclly taken, as , show n in those debates, that if the entire j African race was not excluded, their labor would be lound so valuable that the owners of slaves would bring them there, even though Slavery were prohibited, under a contract to manumit them in two or three years. And it required very little reason ing, on the part of those opposed to this class of population, to show that the pro ductiveness of their labor would be such as to cause that result. An estimate was gone into with reference to the value of the labor of this class of people, .honing that it would be increased to such an extent in the mines of California, that they couid nut be kept out It was agreed that the labor of a slave in any one of the States from which they would be taken, was not worth more than one bundled or one hundred and hit do! lars a year, and that iu California it would ho worth from four to six thousand dollars. 1 hey would work themselves free in one or I two years, and thus the country would be uueu uy a c ass oi iree blacks, and their former owners have an excellent bargain in tak.ng them there.'' Rut I hold the Texan resolutions lo have been utterly void ; and proceed to ,ie i,e reasons ior my opinion. I begin by quoting Sir. Webster ann;,... himself. In an Address to the peoi.le M ,i, ii. o , , . j-, ... ,i, ii 1 , the United States, Irom the Mass. Aim- I exas State Convention, Jan. '-"Jib, lrslo, the subjoined passage, which is understood, or rather, I may say, is now well known, to' I....... i... .1... I i... XI. IVI...... 1 li- ll.lll. UCtll UII.lUll.ll UJ .HI. It uuiici lUUISCil i i i . may uc loiinu : But we dLsire not to he misiimiersionrl According to our convictions, then; is no power iu any branch of the Government, or ail its branches, to annex foreign teirilurv' lo this Union. Wo have made the fore -t-i mg remarks oulv to show, that, if any fair ' construction could show such a power to ! , . . exist anywhere, or to be exercised in any I tori.i, yei ;ue manner oi lis exercise now prniHised is destitute of all decent scmblanei of constitutional propriety." Thus cancelling the authority of Sir. Webster in lp.50 by the authority of Mr. Webster in lf15, 1 proceed with the argu ment. Though the annexation of Texas was iu iiuisuamt; ot a voiu stipulation, vei It 13 a clear principle of law that when .1 contract void between the parties, has been Liiculcd 'iet,i or Inhabitants entitled her to a Represcn bv them, it cannot then be animf- iP ,',V ,a,lvo -'nSfess- k-1 t,r Senators wcro eruii-d it lippoi i- " ' "r- J "IUL. t wanted to preserve ati "equilibrium." And tCUltU, IOCCO,,,. Mr,uu of the CXI'CUUoll. I i- Ta.J, h,n.,.l lll.,nn nnrl nn. I bow to this legal principle, and would fill- J Hedged, into the Union. ' But Cabformi, full til it. But any independent stipulation which grown and i..ati:re in u!l prerogatives ot a Statu i remains unexecuted, remains invalid. Such is that part of the annexation resolutions I which prov ides for the admission of a brood I i-'I' vi.-.i . . 'I'l,. . , i .1 ol 1 e.xan states. Ihe resol lions t hem- , , selves say in express terms, mat tne new I Stales are to be admitted " under the pro- ! v isions of the Federal Constitution;" and the Constitution says, " New Stales may be eleciion, we st pped to 'etrn in what particular 1 admitted by the Congress into this Union." i,e thought Gen. Taylor was doing belter thin Bv what Congress? Plainly, by the Con-, lan' o! hn!" !,' He s.iid ihat Cby, U elster, I - .i.-i i C.is, and Buchanan, were all in favor ot a I er t gross tu session, at the time when applied- ,,, Gvernment fjr Ncw Mexico, without I tiun tor acltnuMun is made : and bv no nth-! .u i, ...i....r. i,,. k. .,,.,.., ,..1,1 af er. The fourth Texan State may not be ready for admission for fifty years to come; ' and could tne Congress ot 1S15. bind il.e1 Congress of 1'JOO ? The Congress of l'JJO. and all future Congresses, will derive their authority from the Constitution oftlie Uni ted Slates, and not from any preceui.i r (J011- giess. Put the case 111 a negative form. I Could the Congress of 1S43 bind all future I not to admit new Slates, and thus j;ro tan to, annul the Constitution ! Positive or negative, the icsult is the same. No" pre lious Congress, on such a subject, can en large or limit the power of a subsequent 'one. Whenever, therefore, the question ot a new 1 exan Slate comes op for consider ation, the Congress then 111 being must de cide it 011 its own merits, untrammelled by 1 any tiling their predecessors have done; es pecially free from a law which, while simi j lar 111 spirit, is a thousand times more odi ous in principle than statutes of mortmain, j Admitting that a future Congress on jsuch a subject, might be bound by a treaty, I answer that here was no treaty; while the fact that a treaty clause was introduced into the resolutions, in the Senate for the I sake of obtaining certain votes that would I never otherwise have been given in their favor, and under lhe express pledge from I the Executive that the method by treaty should be adopted, which was forthwith 111 'inuitously broken, leaves no element of I baseness and fraud by which this proceed- ill" was nut contaminated. In the name I of the constitution, then, and of justice, let ! every honest man denounce those resolu-J ! ttutis as void, alike 111 the forum of law and! 1 111 the forum of conscience ; and, admittm", .Texas herself to be 1.1 the Uiiion.yet, vv hell ! I , , r J. . , application is made for any new State Iron, j mat o.ii.ioijr, let mi. .im-siiuu uc utunLui f-r impudence it is matchless. The Uovern upoii the merits il liny then possess. ient 0f t,e United States are requested not to There is another objection to any future increase the duty on Brin-h iron, on the ground claim of Texas to he divided into States, ' that it would be 'dis tgieeable' to certain parties which grows out of her own neglect to ful-1 ln country. The admission ot British iron fil the terms and spirit of the agree.ne.it. ! 'nt0 tl,e Ul'"ci1 Slas ,al l'a Prese"1 b:ttle 1 .1 !.... . ..!. . r ii... ir. r dii'ies is disagreeable to t.:e manufacturers of III the "territory north of the Missouri Com-! Amcneiu xVmch of tites0 lwo Ue3 13 ,hc A. promise line, slavery or involuntary serv i- ,nerican government to servo-their own citizens, tude, (except for crime) shall be prohibit-, or British subjects V ed." So reads the bond. But if Texas suf-, Jen slavery to be extended over that part oH 5W .U(,l7..The WaS!,lng,on Republican her territory, then, when it becomes popu-j states that the Postmaster General has ordered lous enough for admission, and is overspread t that the contractors on the railroad lines between Willi slavery, a new State may present a free New York and Philadelphia discontiue the Sun constitution, be admitted by Congress, and Jay morning mail, agreeably to their request, on before the slaves have time to escape, or to condition that ihey delay the departme oftlie Purer .t.p ni,tin.. nr fr..p.!,,m t-pf.i-p . i, i "t"1)' evening tram from Ixeiv lorktojl.il., .,' , . . judicial tribuua.s, J'resto! this free consti-; tutioii win tie cnangeu into a stave constitu- tion, under the alleged right of a State to decide upon its own domestic institution. agreeable to know whether a viper had im pregnated the egg. Hut there is a still further objection, of whose soundness I have no doubt; but should I be in error in regard to it, the mis take will not invalidate any other argument. 'IH. ...:. ..... ? . the ground of mutuality, without which all contracts are void. Some States were ti be. admitted to surn-thcn ho hnniN nf uc jiaiiiua id mat agreement stipulated on slavery, and some of freedom. A line of demarcation was drawn. Now, oil investi gation, I believe it will most conclusively appear, that there is not an inch of Texan territory north of the stipulated line ; it all belongs to New Slexico, as much as Nan tucket or Berkshire belongs to Slassachu setts. It was a mistake oii the part of the contracting parlies; if, on the part of Tex a", it was not something worse than a mis take. The mutuality, then, fails. The con tract is nudum paitum. Texas can give nothing for what -he was to receive; and is, therefore, entitled to receive nothing but what she has got. .IntVur Ifrtir cnt nli. erl that when .Mr. Hici. .i,' It dl be remembe',- . t C....1 r.f Il iru.4 I intrmiuceil a rcEolut on in .nquire into certain 1 r-'",,or:J re-ncciing Mr. Secretary Ewin, no raised objection. I he same may he s ;J in iiiu ouier recent reso'iitmps ot inquiry lulu tl.e conduct of Wlii; i lii, uls. All has b- eu iip"n ami alove board nitlitin-m. No investi gation, that was nnt proposej rather as an in-'i!t than with a design to tie il jes'ico to suprtosed delinquents-, Ins been c; ,i-eil by the Whig. When, however, Sir St ml.-y proposed, as he tli 1 en i imr-iny, to inqiit-i: into the acts ot tin 1 holll'n? 0"":u cr the I ist Administration, a-i 1 Crec;5"l ' me acts contemplated inllichardsoiiu rcso.u!ii,n,as the subjects ol inquiry, connected ?u!, Mr ,: aJj Lj ,Jliien Mr. Jot.sor)i (Locv 0f Ar!.i-a?, "objects lo sucii trash." tiiyly things arc s i eiiaies found among ,rai"- Johnson knows this very well, and "ci I .a. , '"-""'i'miy. i occurrence thorns how hvp .critical are- lhe pr, f...ss jons 0f ,l,e professed ... J'r" "'Si' J-'C1 ire themselves "anx- a no u !,,, ,: i 'I'lieir anxieiv straddles different horses y,iJer illTalcal clrcum'. stances. Republic. l!" Vifertnct .' WhentU nj0ri0 stir' of T,'xa3 "a3 aboutI to ho admlod 'o the Un- "m,her0 1as""h1I,-' Po'k. 1I''-Hchan. an, x:e. such "hot hi-e.c,' that Expresses .. ent otr ,im, ,.. G,!tlr.H ,,i ,m, nrc,r.c come and broken dow n. 1 exas-, without a3 n.a- ny inhabitants or Elector-as ire hive in the Co. nl Albany, was rushed in'o L : nn. But now, when Califunni, teeming with pnp ulit'.in and busines-1, ric'i in re-ources, and wua an enlightened Republican Ci institution. ;(? sents herself fur ariniission, the whole bi,mh ri ses up against her! inti- eJ it is threatened 1 some thai the admis.-Kti ot California will dis solve the Union! t ..y nave been Texas uiight.wj; . ,u' Uovernmcot until her i refused. And why.- Because she is htc. -Ubani Journal. j ., n, , ,, , . , . 7 7, r ,, , " Old Zack is doing letter than any of Ihrm . , . , i i This was the e.xcl.ini tt.on ot a z-a ous t era Soil nun f. us not long s.n.o. As it was nnda with considerable rtnph is 3, and by : nest opponent of G-n T..y lor's nonn a vcty car- nominatton and I Hit. I IUI3Vj'. tIJilll Hj U' "UtllU IVi-J'tl l the exlensi. n of slaverv . Bat Gen. Taylors phn is to admit CaliP.im'n, andthensay to Sew Mexico, "torm your State tiovernment and a-k fur admission, as Ca lfnrnn has done." "Tne reiull," said the free seller, ' would surely bo that New Mexico w,,ul,l for hwith ask to coma in as a free Stite, as did t'alifurm.i, before sil very could gam a foo'h !.! th-re. We cordnllr agreed with our Ere-Son t.-uud and set hi 11 down for a m re canti. i end reasoniblc man tnan we had befoie considered bun. Portland .llvtrliser. Connecticut. The J.eislaturo assembled at New Haven on Wednesday. Edwin Fuller was clio-011 cluk of the Senate, and Osborn& Bald win State primers, all Democrats. In the House, Origen S. Seymour, Democrat, was elected Speaker on the loth ballot. The whole number of votes was 219 ; Seymour 1 10, Dutton, Whig, IO, scattering 1 1. For Slate officers (m conven tion:) For Governor, Tho nas S. Seymour, ( Dem ocrat,) l'.H ; Foster, (Whirr.) 108; did not vote, i. For Lieut. Governor. C. II. Pond, (Demo crat,) 121; Greene II Kendnck, ( Whig.) 121; blank, 4. lhe candidates lor Treaeurer, Comp troller and Secretary on the Democratic ticket were all elected by similar votes. There is 60tns doubt w hcther a Senator will be elected. Sir. Clayton has laid a communication before the Senate, recommending a te.il .Minister to China, a paid Consul at Singapore, and Cumuier ctal agents to Japan and other Oriental nations, to make treaties. He presented in its of docu ments, shu nig the value and magnitude of tho Asiitic trnilp. anil tbi 'it to San Franciaco and the United States, in importance ot diverting ext hinge tor our produce. The Liverpool Mail, alluding to Sir Henry Hulwer's letter, which was commented on with. 8ee.r"-v b Senator Cooper, says : We venture tu asert, that in the annals of dip,0ID!11.y noXhm ,lkc , w- cver ,,eard oC instead of 4 1 2 P. il., and form due connection ,rllh Southern ma'lieavmir Philadelphia at jrj j.o p. jj. 'day, May 1. The arrangement takes effect this