BY E. P. WALTON & SON.
MOiNTPELlEK, THURSDAY, MAY 16, 1S50.
VOL. XLIV, NO. 27. WHOLE NO. 2274.
ItJatcljinmi $: State Journal.
rt'CMsiiEii every Tiiri:biAY mokxixg.
trude in .itlvmit i
0 cah ri ! '...nec ; 7,00 if payment is nt
1 ioteren.ilw.iy cttred fitim I lie vad f
BV CM IM.I SWAIN.
I. t to mnrr, w lali, if to rnorrotv j
li me linns- ui i'ii t .luit to fule :
What', tit- li.e to i ' in ipatu aoriow?
Lilc'd troulili . r i i. itiiif too late !
If ut Imjic meruit, .i i au error,
Trs ono that lln- ui-o bv e preferred ;
Ar.ii Imw often liiu- !i--Tt b-en id terror
Of ei :h llial u.-w ' occurred !
Haiefuilb and lit I utli hal vo.uin thee
Pun"! nut eu-,n . mi and caro
Willi inii-i'iii tin u- :n r-nehain thee,
Jlut tw ar wLt.t ti i n en thee to bear.
Ily His .turn .nppi n niid glsddeli'd,
i'e neVr lit "fur. 'i i n iifw' deterred .
liul think how of' liojil-i bate been aaddenM
ily fear of wl.. t 1.1 icr occurred 1
Iji.t to-morrow IjV i c re of 10-niorrow ;
Sh -n ai i. dalK a uur lite may appear,
Ui in ay in iki1 it -.i'i il.irkcr by .orrow
Mill -iiurttl U 1.. i .1 id four!
Half uur tnmli'i'- - ill our invention,
And i,ft ii tin ii ,. i -siiisi conferred
Have ue .uriit.k . ; ' Mild apprehension
. dot n i i (if umd !
Tlie fiiHi'wtig Ifiulilul lui
i-.iin.iri IK raid, .ire .u, E'o
i, from a late notnbei of the
1 to lie Iroin the pen of Di.h
op Ooiu. :
Oil-el in Ii mil, -
With In n. a
Am! ln fare 111 ,
As an .n,i 1
He .'.iiv. ,1 Hi.- .Ii,
Wit , i ii-;
Wil' I ,i. ii--
Ik Ii i,I rill.
a - utptoi I.OV,
,..i k 1 e'oru l.im ;
i ,i a Millie of j.iy,
.-ted o'er lin.i :
i i tli it ill iptl-aa atone,
. I r.4,il :
tin tcu'ptwr abone ;
.t till 'll lid on.
M i' t r- ui l.f ,
V itli ii.ir m.h'-, ii ! in id. h.'f re ua,
Waning tl e In. nr. 1 '' I1- ciimmftn.l,
Uni 111 mi - tl n'cr U-.
If uc cane it 1 . f, jiel lin utonc,
Wiui inj-o i t i i in ion.
Its Jju it '-i ly , e ir, i i I l,e our own,
t'u- hie, t! it ' I i iiun.
IJurlir glen Cufr.'f.."''' -
Horace Mann hi rrply to Daniel
We extract the following from Sir.
JLinn's letter to hi- ctiiistituents omitting
his remark'-upon the rendition of slates,
fur the reason that Air. Webster's position
isi.d what .Mr. Mann apprehends it to bo,
if the recent th ci iralion of the Boston
Ci urur mi that point i- correct.
In ,t chronological order, I must now con
sult r -i : uc vit.illv important wens, Inch
h,iw !" t 'i sublimit d try tome members m
the lb u-c, anil l. Mr. Webster and others
in tl.e Sfii.ttc la mentioning tlic name ol
tin- ire. i Mates:.,..-!, .tnd aiou ingth.it I am
one .tilt ing ihe nun) ulmm his recently c.-jirt--ni
opinion- i.ae tailed to com nice,
it i-due to in. Mil, bowcicr indiirerent it
mat be to lun'i or I. :i- friends, that I should
express ui) aduii. Moti ot his powers, my
oraiitude br hi- ;.-i -ertices, and the ditii-j
denie uitli u luc li 1 dissented, at first from i
his tieu-. l!ul 1 i. te pondered upon them
Ion,;, and the hm.. r 1 have pondered, the
mon ipicstiouab. t.,ey appear. 1 shall
then fore teuture i.ji.m tile perilous task of
inquiring into tl''i correctness; andulule;
1 tin it" with He i:eterence and respect'
uhi.'li iiil.n g t" i - character, I shall do it,
also iwlh that li ! : to conscience and to
judgment ih.it b i -.ig to mine. Jle is great, 1
but truth i- gre.it. r than us all.
1 sh.ill confini in) sell mainly, and per- '
hap. whtlly, l" -r- Web-ter'a iens, be-cau-e
lie hi- ar m! the cause of the South
with vasth mure .i'mIii) than it has been ar-1
"ued b) am one ..m wig tbeiusehi's. If Ins
conclusion-, iIkm, bj not tenable, their,
case l- lust. !
Mr. Wtbsler ci-ts away the " Prows..,"
altogi tl.er. lie sn- ' if a resolution or a
law Here now bt! re u-, to provide a terri
al gotirnmeiit ! r New Mexico, 1 would
not tote to put a. t proliibiiiun into it what
ever," p. ol. 'I'm' reason gnen is, that '
slavery is already eluded from " Califor-
nu aiid -. M- ui"," "by the law ofna-'
ture, ot pht.-ie ii l1' 'jrapliy, the law ol tne
format it .ii ul tl. t .n.i;" p. "Califor
nia and Neu jtesieo are Asiatic in their
formation and mi , i They are compos
ed of vast ridjts i 1 mountains of enormous
height, with brt .o n ridges and deep val-j
leys," p. !!.
iow this is ur.iuing moral conclusions j
from pliy: .cal prei.i.-cs. It is arguing from '
physics to metajib -ics. Jt is determining'
the lav.-of the spirit by geographical phe-j
noinena. It is undertaking to settle by j
mountains and rntr.-, and not by the Ten j
Commandment-, a ,i cat question of human;
duty. It ah mi!1 :.i the commandment of1
Christ, and all iiil.s of Rights enacted in j
conformity thtreto, and leavea our obhga-j
tions tu our " ih i Mibor," and all human i
rights to be del, n. mod by the accidents
of earth and w.ittr and air. To ascertain
whether a people v. ill otiey the command of
Christ, and do to . ilurs as they would be
done by, it b-i' .it the thermometer.
What a problem .u uld tins be ! "Requir
ed the height aU.te tiie level of the sea, at
which the oppressor " will undo the hejvt
burdens and let the oppressed go free, and
break every yoke'' to be determined bar
ometrically." AI..-! this cannot be done.
Slaver) depends, not upon climate, but up
on conscience. Wherever the wicked pas
sions of the bii.e ui heart can go, there
slavery can go. .'-..tvery is an ellect. Av
arice, sloth, pnd", ;.nd the love of domina
tion are its cause. In ascending the moun
tain sides, at what altitude do men leave
these passions be,.iud them? DiU'ercm
vegetable grovvtii- ..re to be found at differ
ent Heights, depending also upon the zone.
This 1 can understand. There is the al
titude of the palm, the altituae of the oak
the altitude oftlie pine, and far above them
all the line of perpetual snow. Bm ui re
gard to innocence and guilt, where is the
viri im, ' JI.m far up can a slaveholder
go anl not lose hi- irec agency f At what
Ht-vaioii vwil t. e whip fail fiom the hand
of the master, and the fellers from the
limbs of the slave ? There is no such point.
Freedom and slavery on the one hand, and
climate and geology on the other, are im
measurable quantities. We might as well
attempt to determine a question in theology
by the cube root, or a question in ethics " He (Gen. Cass) will surely have the
by the Rlack Art. Slavery being a crime Senate: and with the patronage of the gov
fouuded upon human passions, can go eminent, with every interest that he, as a
wherever those passions arc unrestrained, i Northern man, can brirm to bear, co-opcra-It
has existed in Asia from the earliest ages, I ting with every interest that the South can
notwithstanding its "formation and scene-' bring to bear, we cry safety before wc are
ry." It labors and groans on the flanks of1 out of the woods, if we feel that there is no
the Ural mountains now. There arc to-day j danger as tij these new territories."
forty-eight millions of slaves in Russia, not Yet Mr. Webster now says that to sup
one rood of which comes down so low as; port the "Proviso," would "do disgrace to
the Northern boundary of California and liis own understanding." (p. 40.)
New Mexico. During the same campaign, also, the Hon.
Should it be said that Slavery will not ' Kufus Choate, one of the most cloquer.t
go into the new territories, because it isuii-jinen in New England, and known to be the
profitable, I ask, where is it profitable ? ' personal friend of Mr. Webster, delivered
Where is ignorance so profitable as kuowl-t
eoge ! w nere is ungodliness gam, even
for the things of this life? .How little is
the hand worth, at one end of an arm, if
there is not a brain at the other ? Do not
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and
other States, furnish witnesses by thousands
and tens ol thousands, that slavery impov
erishes ? Yet with what enthusiasm they of the Constitution itself, and with the wis
chcrish it 1 Generally, ignorance is a ue-'ilom of the wisest and the zeal of the most
cessary concomitant of slavery. Of white 1 zealous, should unite to accomplish this
persons, over twenty years ot age, unable
to rcid and write, there were, according to
the last census, o,?7 in Virginia, oO,(i(W!dark ambition of that candidate of thcRal-'
in North Carolina, oS,oi;5 in Tennessee,
and so forth. I have a letter before me,
received this morning, dated in Indiana, in
which the writer says he removed from N.
Carolina in lb(J, when he was 14 years
old, and at that tunc lie had never seen a
newspaper in his life. Can there be gen
ius, the inventive talent, or profitable labor
where ignorance is so dense? Can the
oppression which tramples out voluntary in
dustry, intelligence, enterprise, and the tie
sire of independence, conduce to riches ?'
t el tins is done wherever slavery exists,
and is part and parcel of its working. Is
there any fuller form of robbing profitable?
Yet individuals and communities baveprac
ticcd it and lived by it, and we may as well
rely upon a " law of physical geography"
to arrest the one as the other. It is not
poetry, but literal truth, that the breath of
the slave blasts vegetation, his tears poison
the earth, and his groans strike it with ster
ility. It would be easy to show why the
master does not abandon slavery, even a
uml the desolation with which it has sur
rounded him. There is a combination of
poverty and pride, which slavery produces
on the dot trim of natural appctincc, and
which, therefore, it exactly fits. The help
lessness of the master in regard to all per
sonal wants, seems to necessitate the slave
ry that has begotten it. -VII moral and re
ligious principles arc lowered till they con
firm to the daily practice. Custom blinds
Conscience, until, without any uttonijit In
emancipate or ameliorate their victims.man
can preach and pray and hold slaves, as
Yorick jests and sings over grave-digging.
Rut slavery cannot go into California or
New Slexico, because their staple produc
tions are not " tobacco, cane, cotton, or
rice," (p. 44.) These are agricultural pro
ducts. Hut is slave labor confined to agri
culture ? Suppose that predial slavery will
i mi become common in the new territories.
Cat.not menial I If slaves cannot do field
work, cannot they do housework ? There
is an opening for a hundred thousand slaves
todav, in the new territories, fir puriKises
ol domestic labor. And beyond this, let
me ask, who possesses any such geologic
vision that at the distance of a thousand
miles ho can penetrate the vdllc)s and gor-'Dr.
ges td" New Slexico; and ay that gold will
not yet be found there ns it is in California
not in sand and in gravel only, but in
forty-eight pounders and in fi.xt)-si.xes!
This is the very kind of labor on which
slaves, in all time, have Ceeu so extensively
employed the very labor on which a mil
lion of slaves in Ihspaniola lost their lives j
within a few years alter its di-covery by j
Columbus. Gold deposits are now worked
within twenty-live miles of Santa Fe. The
last account which I have seen, of a com
pany of emigrants passing from Santa Fe
to California", by the river Gila, announces i
rich discoveries of gold upon that river. , was sogratctul to their pontics and poCKeis.
A fellow citizen or nunc has just returned I think tl no mju-ticc to those Senators to
home, who says he saw a slave sold at the , say, that they would have nearly torn him in
mines in California, in September last. As pieces for such a collective insult, if it had
vr-t, the distant regions of the Gila mid the j not added fifty per cent, to their individual
Colorado cannot he worked, because of the , property, and secured and perpetuated their
Apaches, the Utahs, and other tribes of In- political ascendancy.
dians. Rut admit slavery there, and the! To help our conceptions in regard to
power of the government will be invoked ' Sir. Webster's course on this subject, let
to exterminate these Indians, as it was be-t us imagine a parallel case, or rather, an
lore to exterminate the Cherokees and Sent- 'approximate one, for there can be no par
inoles not to drive tl.em beyond the j allcl. Suppose a contest between the North
si-sippi, but beyond the Styx. A few days and the South, on the subject of the 'i anil
since a letter was published in the papers, ; to have been raging for years. The sober
dated on board a steamer descending the i blood of the North is heated to the lever
Slississmoi. which stated that a consider,!- I noiut. The newspapers treat of nothing
blenumbcr of slaves were on board, bound
fur ("i.ilirnrriii iinrlpr nn ri.rronmnrif wil li
Iheir masters thai thev should be free after
serving two years at the mines. We know it be but a feather's weight, to the scale
too, that the reasons assigned for iucorpora-, which holds their interests. Petitions How
ting a provision in the Constitution of Cal-I in, in thousands and lens of thousands. It
ifornia, authorizing its Legislature to pass j is announced that Sir. Calhoun will pour
laws for the exclusion of tree blacks from out his great mind on the subject. Lxpect
the State, was, that slaves would be brought I ation is on tiptoe. All eyes, from all sides
there under this very fornfol agreement, of the country, arc turned towards Uan
and bv and bv, the country would be over-, iiiglou, as the Sluezzm's is to Mecca, ine
-'. . - . ... , ,. . i i... .1,,, .im the lllustri-
spread iiy people ol color who had bought ;
their freedom. The sagacious men who
Ir.imed the Ualilorma Constitution came
from all parts of the territory, and
collected on the spot, having surveyed all '
its iiiuuiiiaius, natiiig urcauieu its uu at an
. t. - I .l.-.l :. - ... .
temrieratures. and turned mi its .-olden soil ;
these men had never discovered any law !
' - : - o . . i
of physical geography" which the fell
spirit of slavery could not transgress.
Slaves were carried into Oregon, ten de
grees of latitude higher up. Its colonists
re-enr.ctcd the Ordinance of lTe-7, before
Congress gave them a territorial
meiit. In the territorial government that
was given them, the prohibition was insert
ed; and President Polk signed the bill with
an express protest, that he ratified this ex
clusion of slavery only because the country
lay north of the Shssouri compromise line
but that had it embraced the very region
iu question, he would have vetoed the bill.
Gen. Cass never took the ground that
slavery could not exist in the new territo
ries; and no inconsiderable part of the op
position made to him in Slassachusctts and
in other free States, was placed express y
upon the ground that he would not promu-
it it. Mr. Webster, in his Marshfield speech
Sept. 1, 181s', opposed the election of Gen
Cass, because through his recreancy to
Northern principles, slavery would invade
the territories. This was expressed with
his usual clearness and force, as follows
a speech at balcm, in which the lollowmg
" it is the passage of a law lo say that
California and New .Mexico shall remain
forever free. That is, fello-.v-citizens, un
doubtedly, an object of great and transcen
dent importance; for there is none who will
deny that we should go up to the very limits
great object, and defeat the always detested 1
and lorevcr to be detested, object ol the
timore Convention, w ho has ventured to
pledge himself in advance that he will vc-,
to the future laws of freedom ; and may I
God avert the madness of all those who1
hate slavery and love freedom, that would,
unite in putting him in the place where
this thrice accursed pledge may be redeem-,
cd. ... Is there a Whig upon this 1
floor who doubts that the strength of the
Whig party next Slarch will insure freedom
to California and New Mexico, if by the '
Constitution they ate entitled to freedom at
all ? Is there a member of Congress that
would not vole for freedom ! You know
there is nol one. Did not every -vliig mem
ber of Congress from the free States vole
at the last session for freedom ? You know
that every man id' them returned home cov
ered w ith the thanks of his constituents for
that vote. Is there a single Whig constit
uency in any free State in this country .that
would return any man that would not rote
for freedom ? Do you belkcc that Daniil
Webster himself eould be returned, it' theic
was the least doubt upon the juestion .'"
Sir. Choate then adds " Upon this ques
tion alone, we always dilfcr from these
Whigs of the South ; and on that one, we
propose simply to role them iloirn." Sir.
Webster now sa)s he will not join in voting
Under such circumstances is it frivolous
or caplious lo ask for something more than
a dogmatic assertion that slavery cannot
improcrtiritp thpfcft TlPtv fgifiii, i.i.t .-.u..f.
them lo bleed monsters forever! On a
subject of such infinite importance I cannot
be satisfied with a dictum ; 1 want a dem
onstration. I cannot accept the prophecy
without inquiring what spirit inspired the
prophet. As a revelation from heaven it
would he most delightful ; but as it con
flicts with all human experience, it requires
at least one undoubted miracle to attest the
divinity ot its origin.
Yet Sir. Webster stands up before all
this array, and says: "Gentlemen, you arc
beside yourselves. You have eaten helle
bore. You would look more in character
should you put on the ' cap and bells." In
sober sense, in seeing his object clearly and
in pursuing it directly, Don Clui.xote was
Franklin, compared with you. The
log in the fable, whodrop'l his meat to snap
at its shadow, is no allegory in your Cdse.
I see two classes around me wise men and
fools; Init do not belong to the former.
The Chancellor who keeps the king's idiots
should have custody of you." Such is a
laithful abstract of what Sir. Webster said
to Southern Senators, and through them to
all the south.
Here certainly was a reflection upon the
understanding and intelligence oftlie South,
such as never wa- cast on them before. Rut
the balm went with the sting. They bore
the alfront to their judgements, because it
'else. Public meetings and private eonver-
' sntion rl ise.ilss HO Other tllCIIie. Hundreds
of delegates wait upon Congress, to add, ifj
senate cuamuei is i.aiv.-,
ous Senator rises. Alter a msior o
. . . i...... i.
of existing difficulties; alter ream, s
' ... i:-i. ;lI1(i
the speeches which he uiaue. .
in IS 10, he proceeds to say u-
i riifc ll (IMTIO-llIOU tu i
uia.. . "i r- . , . , . rjprv'CS
llf! He will not oin.uu n.i.
... ., ,,-ttirps. uv IUHm.1 n"--
jiiaiiui- . , .. ,,0
nlnv. ere a
bill then ueiore mm,
. , . .t
Take the scneu
what perceutagesy u P "-e IliaxlmlI1s,
rem rates put in ..,, vou no
at your pleasure i nous
oncer. 1 am tor pt-"-- , , ,
ii 1 Inve discovercu m n.i.
U"! i I 1p law of nature, which over
a'tirar?.hfcleVi ofmen. You cannot
It. one ' yaid of woolens or cottons in
'"'"l " . .. T l. I
id INew iorK, woo
revolve, in - , . cks. I have pen
W'" nS8he TS? of Pennsylvania, "and
e,tfa fh a 11 it s ratifications, there is not a
through al ' s' , ounce of iron
Jef ant f tfiere were, combustion would
not help to forge it ; for oxygen and carbon
are divorced. As Massachusetts contribu -
ted one-third of the men and one-third of
the money, to carry on the Revolutionary
War, 1 am willing to compensate her lor her
lost blood and treasure, to the amount of
hundreds of millions of dollars, with which
she may fertilize the barrenness of her gen
ius, and indulge her insane love for church
es and schools." Had the great Southern
Senator spoken thus, I think that even
idolatrous, man-worshipping South Caro
lina a State which Mr. Calhoun has ruled
and moved for the last tvvcnty-five years, as
a puppet-show man playing Punch and Judy
would hive sent forth through all her or
gans, a voice of unanimous dissent.
As mucti as ! rceiloin is uigiier man i ar
iff, so much stronger than their dissent
should he ours.
Sir. Webster's averment that he would
not " re-aflirm an ordinaac" of Nature, nor
re-enact the word of God," p. 41 has been
commented on more pungently than I am
able or willing to do. It has been sid that
all law and all volition must be in harmony
with the will of the Good Spirit or with that
of the Evil One; and, if we will not re-en
act the will of the former, then, either all
legislation ceases, or we must register the
decrees of the latter. Rut one important
and pertinent consideration belongs to this
subject, which I have nowhere seen devel
oped. It is this: Endless doubts and con
tradictions exist among men, as to whit is
the will of God; and on no subject is there
a wider diversity of opinion than on this
very subject of slavery. Whose law was
re-enacted by the ordinance o! 1S ! whose
when the African slave trade was prohib
ited ? whose, when it was declared piracy !
True, it is useless lo put upon our statute
book an astronomical law, regulating sim
rise, or high tides; but that is physical and
bevoud the jurisdiction of man, while slave
ry belongs to morals, and is within the ju
risdiction of man. Cease to transcribe upon
the statute .book what our w isest and best
men believe to be the wil! of God in regard
to our worldly adairs, and the passions
which wc think appropiiate to devils will
soon take possession of society. In regard
to slavery, piracy, and so forth, there are
multitudes ot men, whose le.tr ot the penal
sanctions of another life is very much aided j
by a little salutary fine and imprisonment
in this. Look at that noble array of prin
ciples winch is contained in ihe Declara
tion of Rights in the Constitution of Mas
sachusetts. Is it not a uost grand and
beuutiful exposition of " the will of God," I
a tran-cript, as it were, from the Rook ol
Lite ; So ot the amendments to the Con
stitution of the United Sutes. Yet our
lathers thought it no tampering with holy
things to enact them ; ami, in tunes ot
struggle and peril, they have been to man)
a tempted nun as an anchor to the soul,
sure and steadfast.
I aiiDroach Sir. Webster's treatment of
the Texas question, with no ordinary anx
iety. Having been accustomed from mj
boyhood to regard him as almost infallible
expounder of constitutional law, it is impos
sible lo describe the struggle, the revulsion
of mind, with which I have passed from an
instructed and jo)ous acipnescei.ee in his
former opinions, to unhesitating dissent
from h.s present ones.
I must premise that I cannot see any ne
cessary or beneficial connection between
the subject of nt-v Texjn States and the
admission of Calilbrii-, anj the government 1
of ihe territories. I in former rr .1
-unit indefinite future, wlcli, irom its Iruit- to
ful womb of slavery, Te.as shall seek to 1 their late to be deicrmiueu uy uice or uivi
cast forth its untimely hrth. In this ex-1 nation, w hen positive prohibition was in his
cited state oftlie couiitr. at this critical 1 power . Ami by what rule of Christian
juncture of our affairs, wfen there is sober ' morality, or even of enlightened heathen
talk of massacreing a inaiirity of the House ' morality, can we deal dillereutly with the
of Representatives" on tfcir own floor, and; kindred of others lrom what we would with
a Senator, instead of thnatening to hang a Sour own ! He is not a Christian whose hu
brother Senator on the highest tree, pro-' inanity is bounded by the legal degrees ot
vided he could catch hin in his own Slate, ! blood, or by general t)pes of lealure.
now draws a revolver ofaix barrels on. an-1 But Mr. Webster would not "taunt" the
other brother Senator, ui the floor of the South. Neither would I." I would not
Senate in mid session; at such a tunc, I taunt ar.y honorable man, much less acrim
savwlieii, however fev Abels there may , mal. Still, when the most precious uiltr
bc'at work in the politual field, there are est.s of humanity are in peril, 1 would not
Cams more than enough, would it not have ' be timid. I would not stop loo long to cull
been well to have said, " Sufficient tint. ' lovers phrases. Standing under the eye of
the day is the evil thereof!" jGod, in the forum of the world and before
As the basis of Ins argjment, Sir. Web- the august tribunal jf posterity, when the
ster quotes the lbl!owing"reslutiun : litigants are Freedom Tyranny, and human
" New States of convenient size, not e.x- lupp.ness and human misery the prize they
cecdui" four in number, in additKn to said contest, it should happen lo- the sworn ad
Slate ol" Texas, and having sufficient popu- vocales of Libert), as liuiiitilliau says it
latiou, may hereafter, by the consent of said did to Isocratcs, "not to speak and to plead,
stale 'be formed out of Ihe territory thereof, 1 but lo thunder and to lighten." Sir. Web
vv liic'h shall be entitled to admission under ster would not taunt the South ; and vet 1
the provisions of the Federal constitution. 1 say the South were never so insulted before,
And such States as may be formed out of as he has insulted them. Common scoffs,
that portion of said territory lying south of jeers, and vilifications, arc flattery and syc
JO 30 north latitude, commonly known as ophancy, compared with the indignities he
the .Missouri compromise line, shall be ad- has heaped upon them. Look at ihe facts,
milted into the Unior. with or without sla- The South waged war with Slexico from one
very as the people of" each State asking ad-' and only one motive; for one and only one
mission may desire; and in such State or object the extension of Slavery. They re
States as shall be formed out of said tern-' fused peace unless it surrendered territory,
torv north of said Missouri compromise That territory must be south of the abhor
line slavery or involuntary servitude (ex- red line of 30 deg.3U min. The same Pres
cept for crime) shall be prohibited.") 1 ident who abandoned the broad belt of
Note here first, that only "four" States country on our northern frontier, from 41)
arc to be admitted in "addition to said deg, t- ol deg. 40 mm., to which we had,
State of Texas ;" and second, that " such in his own ,vords, "an unquestionable title,"
State or Mates" (in the plural) as shall be . would allow no prohibition of slavery to be
formed from territory North of 30 deg. 3'd , imposed upon the territory which Slexiro
min. shall be free. If iico, or only one free , ceded, though she would bury it afoot deep
State is lo exist on the north side of the ! in gold. The Proviso had been resisted in
line then how many will be left for the j all forms, from the beginning. Southern
south side ? I should expose myself to ridi-; Whigs voted against the ratification of the
"cule were I to set it down arithmetically, treaty, foreseeing the struggle tint was to
four minus one, equal to three. Yet Sir. follow. De-pcrate efforts were made to
Webster says " the guaranty is, that new ) smuggle in an unrestricted territorial gov
Statcs shall bo made out of it, the 1'exan j eminent, against all parliamentary rule and
territory and that such States are formed 1 all constitutional implication. The whole
out of that portion of Texas, lay tug south I South, as one man, claimed it as a "des
of 30 dc". 30 min., may come in as slave I cribable, weighable, estimable, tangible,"
stales, to the number of vovn, in addition to
the State then in existence, and admitted
at the time of these resolutions." p. 2'J.
Here Sir. Webster gives outright, to the
South and to slavery, one more Slate than
was contracted for, assuming the contract
to be valid. He makes a donation, a gra
tuity, of an entire slave state, larger than
many a European principality. lie trans
fers a whole State, with all its beating hearts,
present and future, with all its infinite sus
ceptibilities of weal or woe, from the side
of freedom to that of slavery, in the leger
book of humanity. What a bridal gift for
the harlot of bondage!
Was not the bargain hard enough, ac
cording to its terms ! Must we fulfil it,
and go beyond it ? Is a slave State, which
dooms our brethren of the human race, pet-
haps interminably, to the vassal's fate, so
1 insignificant a trifle, that it may he flung
, in, as small change on the settlement of an
account 2 lias the Sou'h been so gener
ous a copartner, as to deserve this distin
guished token of our gratitude!
Why, by a parity of reasoning could h.
not have claimed all the four states, " in
addition to said State of Texas," as free
States? The resolutions divide the terri
tory into two parts, one north and one south
of the line of 30 deg. 30 min. Could not
Sir. Webster have claimed the four States
for freedom with as sound logic, and with
far better humanity than he surrendered
them to slavery ? When Texas and the
South have got their slave States " to the
numbtr of four" into the Union, whence are
wc to obtain our one or more'free States ?
Hie contract will have been executed, and
the consent of Texas for another State will
Notwithstanding all this, Sir. Webster
afllrms the right of Slavery to four mor;
States, in the following words : " 1 know
no form of legislation which can strength-
en this. I know no mode of recognition
that can add a title of weight lo it." Catch
ing the tone of his asscrvalion, I respond,
that I know no form of statement, nor pro
cess of reasoning, which can make it more
clear that this is an absolute and wanton
surrender of the rights of the North, and
the rights of humanity.
According to the la-t census, there were
more than eight thousand persons ol Alri-
can blood m Massachusetts. Abolish the
i moral and religions convictions ol our pea-
ple., let slavery appear to be in their sight
not only lawful and creditable, but desira
ble as ,i badge of aristocratic distinction,
and as a "political, social, moral, and reli
gious blessing," and what obstacle would
prevent these eight thousand persons from
being turned into slaves, on any day, by the
easy, cheap and short-hand kidnapping of a
legislative act ! Africans can exist here
for the best of reasons, they do exist here.
A state ot slavery would not stop their res
piration; nor cause them to vanish "into
thin air." Think, for a moment, of the
complaints wc constantly hear in certain
circles, of the difficulty and vcxatiousiiess
ol commanding domestic service. 11 no
moral or religious objection existed against
holding slave-, would not nianv of those re
spectable and opulent gentlemen who sign
ed the letter of thanks to Sir. Webster, and
hundreds of others indeed, instead of ap
plying to intelligent offices, or visiting emi-
grant ships, for domestics, as wc call them,
go a, once to the auction-room, and buy a
man or a woman, with as little hesitancy or
compunction as they now send to Brighton
for beeves, or go toTattersall's for ahorse !
If the cold of the higher latitudes checks
the flow of African blood, or benumbs Af
rican limbs, the slaveholder knows vcty
u ell that a trilling extra expense for whips
will make up for the difference.
But suppose a doubt could be reasonably
entertained abuut the iuv asion of the new
territories by slavery. Even suppose the
chances to preponderate against it. What
then .' Are we to submit a question of hu
man liberty, over vast regions and for an
indeliuit extent of time, to the determina
tion of chance ! With a!l my faculties 1
say Xo.' Let me ask any man, let ine res
pectfully ask Sir. Webster himself, if it
were his own father and mother, and broth
ers and sisters, and sous and daughttjr
yJm were in peril ofurfc -ciel"cVcu
favorable chance. Would he sutler
and most v aluable "right," to carry Slaves
there. Calhoun, Berrien, Badger, Slason,
Davis, the whole Southern phalanx, Whig
and Democrat, pleaded for it, argued for it,
and most of them declared themselves rea
dy to fight for it ; and yet Sir. Webster ri
ses in his place, and tells them they arc all
moon-struck, hallucinated, fatuous, because
"an ordinance of Nature and the will of
God" had settled this question from the be
ginning of the world. Mr. Calhoun said,
immediately after this speech, "give us free
scope and time enough, and we will take
care of the rest."
Mr. Mason said
" We have heard here from various quar
ters, and from high quarters, and repeated
on all hands repeated here again today by
the honorable Senator Irom Illinois, (Sir.
Shield,) that there is a law of nature which!
excludes the Southern people from every and thus the word of promise which was
portion of the Stale of California. I know kept to the ear, will be broken to the hope,
of no such law of nature none whatever; If Texas meant to abide by the resolutions
hut I do know the contrary, that if Calin.r-1 ofannexation, and to claim anything under
ma had been organized with a Territorial j them, it was her clear and imperative duty
form of government only, and for which, at forthwith to pass a law, securing freedom to
the last two sessions of Congress, she has j every inhabitant north of the Compromise
obtained the entire Southern vote, the peo-;Iine. In this way only can the resolutions
pie of the Southern Stales would have gone j be executed in their true spirit. That ter
therc freely, ami have taken their slaves ritory is now in the condition of an egg ; it
there in great numbers. They would have is undergoing incubation. From it aState
done so because the value of the labor of j is hereafter to be hatched; but before
that class would have been augmented to j promising to accept the chick, it would be
them many hundred fold. Whv, in the dc.
bates which took place in the Convention
in California, which formed the Constitu
tion, and which any Senator can now read
for himself, after the provision excluding
slavery was agreed upon, it was proposed
to prohibit the African race altogether, free
as well as bond. A debate arose upon it;,
and the ground was di-tinclly taken, as ,
show n in those debates, that if the entire j
African race was not excluded, their labor
would be lound so valuable that the owners
of slaves would bring them there, even
though Slavery were prohibited, under a
contract to manumit them in two or three
years. And it required very little reason
ing, on the part of those opposed to this
class of population, to show that the pro
ductiveness of their labor would be such as
to cause that result. An estimate was gone
into with reference to the value of the labor
of this class of people, .honing that it would
be increased to such an extent in the mines
of California, that they couid nut be kept
out It was agreed that the labor of a slave
in any one of the States from which they
would be taken, was not worth more than
one bundled or one hundred and hit do!
lars a year, and that iu California it would
ho worth from four to six thousand dollars.
1 hey would work themselves free in one or
I two years, and thus the country would be
uueu uy a c ass oi iree blacks, and their
former owners have an excellent bargain in
tak.ng them there.''
Rut I hold the Texan resolutions lo have
been utterly void ; and proceed to ,ie i,e
reasons ior my opinion.
I begin by quoting Sir. Webster ann;,...
himself. In an Address to the peoi.le M
,i, ii. o , , . j-, ... ,i, ii 1 ,
the United States, Irom the Mass. Aim-
I exas State Convention, Jan. '-"Jib, lrslo,
the subjoined passage, which is understood,
or rather, I may say, is now well known, to'
I....... i... .1... I i... XI. IVI...... 1 li-
ll.lll. UCtll UII.lUll.ll UJ .HI. It uuiici lUUISCil
i i i .
may uc loiinu :
But we dLsire not to he misiimiersionrl
According to our convictions, then; is no
power iu any branch of the Government, or
ail its branches, to annex foreign teirilurv'
lo this Union. Wo have made the fore -t-i
mg remarks oulv to show, that, if any fair '
construction could show such a power to !
, . .
exist anywhere, or to be exercised in any I
tori.i, yei ;ue manner oi lis exercise now
prniHised is destitute of all decent scmblanei
of constitutional propriety."
Thus cancelling the authority of Sir.
Webster in lp.50 by the authority of Mr.
Webster in lf15, 1 proceed with the argu
ment. Though the annexation of Texas was iu
iiuisuamt; ot a voiu stipulation, vei It 13 a
clear principle of law that when .1 contract
void between the parties, has been Liiculcd 'iet,i or Inhabitants entitled her to a Represcn
bv them, it cannot then be animf- iP ,',V ,a,lvo -'nSfess- k-1 t,r Senators wcro
eruii-d it lippoi i- " ' "r- J "IUL. t wanted to preserve ati "equilibrium." And
tCUltU, IOCCO,,,. Mr,uu of the CXI'CUUoll. I i- Ta.J, h,n.,.l lll.,nn nnrl nn.
I bow to this legal principle, and would fill- J Hedged, into the Union. ' But Cabformi, full
til it. But any independent stipulation which grown and i..ati:re in u!l prerogatives ot a Statu
i remains unexecuted, remains invalid. Such
is that part of the annexation resolutions
I which prov ides for the admission of a brood
I i-'I' vi.-.i . . 'I'l,. . , i .1
ol 1 e.xan states. Ihe resol lions t hem-
selves say in express terms, mat tne new
I Stales are to be admitted " under the pro-
! v isions of the Federal Constitution;" and
the Constitution says, " New Stales may be eleciion, we st pped to 'etrn in what particular
1 admitted by the Congress into this Union." i,e thought Gen. Taylor was doing belter thin
Bv what Congress? Plainly, by the Con-, lan' o! hn!" !,' He s.iid ihat Cby, U elster,
I - .i.-i i C.is, and Buchanan, were all in favor ot a I er
t gross tu session, at the time when applied- ,,, Gvernment fjr Ncw Mexico, without
I tiun tor acltnuMun is made : and bv no nth-! .u i, ...i....r. i,,. k. .,,.,.., ,..1,1
er. The fourth Texan State may not be
ready for admission for fifty years to come; '
and could tne Congress ot 1S15. bind il.e1
Congress of 1'JOO ? The Congress of l'JJO.
and all future Congresses, will derive their
authority from the Constitution oftlie Uni
ted Slates, and not from any preceui.i r (J011-
giess. Put the case 111 a negative form.
I Could the Congress of 1S43 bind all future
I not to admit new Slates, and thus j;ro tan
to, annul the Constitution ! Positive or
negative, the icsult is the same. No" pre
lious Congress, on such a subject, can en
large or limit the power of a subsequent
'one. Whenever, therefore, the question ot
a new 1 exan Slate comes op for consider
ation, the Congress then 111 being must de
cide it 011 its own merits, untrammelled by
1 any tiling their predecessors have done; es
pecially free from a law which, while simi
j lar 111 spirit, is a thousand times more odi
ous in principle than statutes of mortmain,
j Admitting that a future Congress on
jsuch a subject, might be bound by a treaty,
I answer that here was no treaty; while
the fact that a treaty clause was introduced
into the resolutions, in the Senate for the
I sake of obtaining certain votes that would
I never otherwise have been given in their
favor, and under lhe express pledge from
I the Executive that the method by treaty
should be adopted, which was forthwith 111
'inuitously broken, leaves no element of
I baseness and fraud by which this proceed-
ill" was nut contaminated.
In the name
I of the constitution, then, and of justice, let
! every honest man denounce those resolu-J
! ttutis as void, alike 111 the forum of law and!
1 111 the forum of conscience ; and, admittm",
.Texas herself to be 1.1 the Uiiion.yet, vv hell !
I , , r J. . ,
application is made for any new State Iron, j
mat o.ii.ioijr, let mi. .im-siiuu uc utunLui f-r impudence it is matchless. The Uovern
upoii the merits il liny then possess. ient 0f t,e United States are requested not to
There is another objection to any future increase the duty on Brin-h iron, on the ground
claim of Texas to he divided into States, ' that it would be 'dis tgieeable' to certain parties
which grows out of her own neglect to ful-1 ln country. The admission ot British iron
fil the terms and spirit of the agree.ne.it. ! 'nt0 tl,e Ul'"ci1 Slas ,al l'a Prese"1 b:ttle
1 .1 !.... . ..!. . r ii... ir. r dii'ies is disagreeable to t.:e manufacturers of
III the "territory north of the Missouri Com-! Amcneiu xVmch of tites0 lwo Ue3 13 ,hc A.
promise line, slavery or involuntary serv i- ,nerican government to servo-their own citizens,
tude, (except for crime) shall be prohibit-, or British subjects V
ed." So reads the bond. But if Texas suf-,
Jen slavery to be extended over that part oH 5W .U(,l7..The WaS!,lng,on Republican
her territory, then, when it becomes popu-j states that the Postmaster General has ordered
lous enough for admission, and is overspread t that the contractors on the railroad lines between
Willi slavery, a new State may present a free New York and Philadelphia discontiue the Sun
constitution, be admitted by Congress, and Jay morning mail, agreeably to their request, on
before the slaves have time to escape, or to condition that ihey delay the departme oftlie
Purer .t.p ni,tin.. nr fr..p.!,,m t-pf.i-p . i, i "t"1)' evening tram from Ixeiv lorktojl.il.,
.,' , . .
judicial tribuua.s, J'resto! this free consti-;
tutioii win tie cnangeu into a stave constitu-
tion, under the alleged right of a State to
decide upon its own domestic institution.
agreeable to know whether a viper had im
pregnated the egg.
Hut there is a still further objection, of
whose soundness I have no doubt; but
should I be in error in regard to it, the mis
take will not invalidate any other argument.
'IH. ...:. ..... ? .
the ground of mutuality, without which all
contracts are void. Some States were ti
be. admitted to surn-thcn ho hnniN nf
uc jiaiiiua id mat agreement stipulated on
slavery, and some of freedom. A line of
demarcation was drawn. Now, oil investi
gation, I believe it will most conclusively
appear, that there is not an inch of Texan
territory north of the stipulated line ; it all
belongs to New Slexico, as much as Nan
tucket or Berkshire belongs to Slassachu
setts. It was a mistake oii the part of the
contracting parlies; if, on the part of Tex
a", it was not something worse than a mis
take. The mutuality, then, fails. The con
tract is nudum paitum. Texas can give
nothing for what -he was to receive; and
is, therefore, entitled to receive nothing but
what she has got.
.IntVur Ifrtir cnt nli.
erl that when .Mr. Hici. .i,'
It dl be remembe',-
. t C....1 r.f Il iru.4
I intrmiuceil a rcEolut on in .nquire into certain
1 r-'",,or:J re-ncciing Mr. Secretary Ewin, no
raised objection. I he same may he s ;J
in iiiu ouier recent reso'iitmps ot inquiry lulu
tl.e conduct of Wlii; i lii, uls. All has b- eu
iip"n ami alove board nitlitin-m. No investi
gation, that was nnt proposej rather as an in-'i!t
than with a design to tie il jes'ico to suprtosed
delinquents-, Ins been c; ,i-eil by the Whig.
When, however, Sir St ml.-y proposed, as he tli 1
en i imr-iny, to inqiit-i: into the acts ot tin
1 holll'n? 0"":u cr the I ist Administration, a-i 1
Crec;5"l ' me acts contemplated inllichardsoiiu
rcso.u!ii,n,as the subjects ol inquiry, connected
?u!, Mr ,: aJj Lj ,Jliien Mr.
Jot.sor)i (Locv 0f Ar!.i-a?, "objects lo sucii
trash." tiiyly things arc s i eiiaies found among
,rai"- Johnson knows this very well, and
, '"-""'i'miy. i occurrence thorns how
hvp .critical are- lhe pr, f...ss jons 0f ,l,e professed
... J'r" "'Si' J-'C1 ire themselves "anx-
a no u !,,, ,: i 'I'lieir anxieiv
straddles different horses y,iJer illTalcal clrcum'.
l!" Vifertnct .' WhentU nj0ri0 stir'
of T,'xa3 "a3 aboutI to ho admlod 'o the Un-
"m,her0 1as""h1I,-' Po'k. 1I''-Hchan.
an, x:e. such "hot hi-e.c,' that Expresses ..
ent otr ,im, ,.. G,!tlr.H ,,i ,m, nrc,r.c
come and broken dow n. 1 exas-, without a3 n.a-
ny inhabitants or Elector-as ire hive in the Co.
nl Albany, was rushed in'o L : nn.
But now, when Califunni, teeming with pnp
ulit'.in and busines-1, ric'i in re-ources, and wua
an enlightened Republican Ci institution. ;(?
sents herself fur ariniission, the whole bi,mh ri
ses up against her! inti- eJ it is threatened 1
some thai the admis.-Kti ot California will dis
solve the Union! t ..y nave been
Texas uiight.wj; . ,u' Uovernmcot until her
i refused. And why.- Because she is htc.
j ., n, , ,, , . , . 7 7, r ,, ,
" Old Zack is doing letter than any of Ihrm .
, . , i i
This was the e.xcl.ini tt.on ot a z-a ous t era
Soil nun f. us not long s.n.o. As it was nnda
with considerable rtnph is 3, and by :
nest opponent of G-n T..y lor's nonn
a vcty car-
I Hit. I IUI3Vj'. tIJilll Hj U' "UtllU IVi-J'tl l
the exlensi. n of slaverv . Bat Gen. Taylors
phn is to admit CaliP.im'n, andthensay to Sew
Mexico, "torm your State tiovernment and a-k
fur admission, as Ca lfnrnn has done." "Tne
reiull," said the free seller, ' would surely bo
that New Mexico w,,ul,l for hwith ask to coma
in as a free Stite, as did t'alifurm.i, before sil
very could gam a foo'h !.! th-re. We cordnllr
agreed with our Ere-Son t.-uud and set hi 11
down for a m re canti. i end reasoniblc man
tnan we had befoie considered bun. Portland
Connecticut. The J.eislaturo assembled at
New Haven on Wednesday. Edwin Fuller was
clio-011 cluk of the Senate, and Osborn& Bald
win State primers, all Democrats. In the House,
Origen S. Seymour, Democrat, was elected
Speaker on the loth ballot. The whole number
of votes was 219 ; Seymour 1 10, Dutton, Whig,
IO, scattering 1 1. For Slate officers (m conven
tion:) For Governor, Tho nas S. Seymour, ( Dem
ocrat,) l'.H ; Foster, (Whirr.) 108; did not vote,
i. For Lieut. Governor. C. II. Pond, (Demo
crat,) 121; Greene II Kendnck, ( Whig.) 121;
blank, 4. lhe candidates lor Treaeurer, Comp
troller and Secretary on the Democratic ticket
were all elected by similar votes.
There is 60tns doubt w hcther a Senator will
Sir. Clayton has laid a communication before
the Senate, recommending a te.il .Minister to
China, a paid Consul at Singapore, and Cumuier
ctal agents to Japan and other Oriental nations,
to make treaties. He presented in its of docu
ments, shu nig the value and magnitude of tho
Asiitic trnilp. anil tbi
'it to San Franciaco and the United States, in
importance ot diverting
ext hinge tor our produce.
The Liverpool Mail, alluding to Sir Henry
Hulwer's letter, which was commented on with.
8ee.r"-v b Senator Cooper, says :
We venture tu asert, that in the annals of
dip,0ID!11.y noXhm ,lkc , w- cver ,,eard oC
instead of 4 1 2 P. il., and form due connection
,rllh Southern ma'lieavmir Philadelphia at
jrj j.o p. jj.
'day, May 1.
The arrangement takes effect this
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