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Vermont watchman and State journal. [volume] (Montpelier, Vt.) 1836-1883, August 22, 1850, Image 1

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iMiiirti-y ..;
.oci .Li'ivjirM JAJiuot wakhtItatst toksst
BY E. P. WALTON & SON.
MONXPELIER THURSDAY, AUCUS1L22, 1850.
VOL.XLIV, NO. 39. WHOLE NO. 2288.
- .f
tDntcIjman State Journal, j
PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY MORNING.
TERM? 1.50 rash in xdrance ; S?,00 if ptTmeol ! not
ntde in adrsnc ; interest alwajs bird from the end of
toe year
$octrn.
THE SEER.
BY J; G. WXJ1TTIEB.
I hear the far-off voyager horo,
1 tee the Yankee's trail
II if foot .nf ever mountain pan,
00 ery stream faia sail.
Hea whitilipf round St. Mary's Falls,
Upon liu loJed Wiin ;
Ha learing on the Pictured Rocks,
Hit fresh tobnccoitaja.
I bear the mattock !a tl.e mine,
The aie-itroka in tbe da 1 1,
I bo r tumor from the ludian lodge.
The Jesuit's citapet belL
lie tbe swarthy trapper come,
From .Mississippi's springs j
A ad War Chiefs with lhir pointed browit
And crests of Eaglet1 winfi.
Behind tbe beared squaw's birch canoe.
The steamer smokes and rave-;
And city lott are flaked for idle,
- Abore ol.l Indian graves.
By Forest, Lake, and Water-fall,
1 are tbe Peddler! a how ;
The mighty iitingling with tbe 10680,"
Tbe lofty with tbe low.
I hoar the ttead of Tioneera A
Of Nations yet to be ;
Tbe first low ww It of wares, where sooq
Shall roll a llurraa fc-ea.
The rudiments of Empire be e,
Aru plastic yet, and warm ;
The chaos of a Mighty World
Is rounding Into form.
Each rode and jostling fragment toon
Its fitting place shall find
The raw material of a State,
Its muscle and Us Mind!
And, Westering still, the Ftar which leads
The New World in its Uaio,
Has tipped with fire the icy spears
mu; a mountain chain.
flNS)y conct of Oregcn
Ar,tMle-l 00 iu wajr;
AoJ Califo.,,, GMea 8lxii,
G1an.bnjh,tjll ;UIIJ.
PolihittL
TEXAS AND NEW M tVICO.
DOCUxMENTS ACCOftlA.NY
ING THE MESSAGE.
GOV. BELL'S LETTER.
Executive Department )
Austin, Texas, June 14, 1850.
To ITExccllcnctL Zachary Taylor,
President if the UiutrdlSrales.
Sii By authority of the Legislature of
xexas, me Executive oi tne state in reu--ruary
last despatched a special Commis
sioner with full power and instructions to ex
tend the civil jurisdiction of the State over
the unorganized counties of Ei Paso, Worth,
Fresido and Snnta Fe, situated upon its
northwestern limits. That commissioner
has reported iu an official form, that the
military officers employed iu the service of
the United States, stationed at Santa' .Fe,
interposed, adversely, with the inhabitants,
to the fulfilment of his object, by employ
ing influence in favor of the establishment
of a separate Stale Government east of tiie
Rio Grande and within the rigjitfijl limits
of the State of Texas. I transmit to you
herewith, the proclamation of Col. John
Munroe, acting under the orders of the gov
ernment of the United States, under the des
ignation of Civil and Military Governor, of
the Territory of New Mexicu. I have very
respectfully to request that your Excellen
cy will cause me to be informed, at your
earliest possible convenience, whether or
not this officer has acted in this matter un
der the orders of his Government, and
whether his proclamation meets the approv
al f the President of the United Slates.
With assurances of distinguished consid
eration, I have the honor to be your excel
lency's most obedient servant.
(Signed) P. H. BELL.
Mr. WEBSTER'S LETTER.
TO GOV. BELL OF TEXAS.
rCommuaicaUil to Con;rct alon- with the President's Met-
;
Department of State,
Washington, August 5, 1850.
To His Excellency P. H. Bell,
Governor of Texas :
Sir: A letter addressed byjou to to the
late President of the United States, and da
ted on the 15th of June last,-has, since his
lamented decease, been transferred to the
Jbands of his successor, by whom I am di
rected to address to you tbe following an
swer: In that letter you say that by the author
ity of the Legislature of Texas, the Execu
tive of that State, in February last; des
patched a special commissioner, with full
power and instructions to extend the civil
jurisdiction of that State, over the unorgan
ized counties of El Paso, Worth, Presido,
and Santa Fe, situated upon its northwes
tern limits; that the commissioner has re
ported to you in an official form, that the
military officers employed in the service of
the united states, stationed at Santa re, in
terposed adversely with the inhabitants to
the fulGlment of, his object, by employing
their influence in favor of the establishment
of a stale Government east .of the' .Rio'
Grande, and within the rightful limits of
the state ot lexas. Ion also transmit i
copy of the proclamation of Col. John Mou
roe. acting under the, designation of civif
and Military Governor of the Territory of
view Mexico, and respectfully request the
President to cause you to be informed
whether or not this officer has acted in this
matter under the orders of his government,
ana whether his proclamation meets with
the approval of tbe President of the United
states.
In the events which hare occurred.the
jrresiueni naruiy knows whether your, excel.
jencj wouia naturally expect an answer to
this letter from hirn. His predecessor 'in
office, to whom it was addressed, and aader
whose authority aud direction Hie proclam-:
tion of Col. Monroe was issued, is ho more
and at this time, that proclamation, what'
ever may be regarded as its true character,
has ceased to have influence or effect. The
meeting of the people of New Mexico, by
their representatives, which it invited, is
understood to have taken place, although
this Government has us yet received no offi
cial announcement of it.
Partaking however, in the fullest degree,
in that high respect which the Executive
Government of the Uni tad States always en -
tertains towards the Governors and Govern- enjoyed permanently, only by citizens of the
ments of the states, the President thinks it United States. These have not been ap
his duty nevertheless to manifest that feel- proved and recognized by me. Such or
iug of respect by acknowledging and an-iganized regulations as have been establish-
swering your letter.
And this duty, let me assure your excel- the security of our, conquest, for the preser
lency, has been so long delayed only by un- vation of order, for the' protection of the
controllable circumstances, and it is now rights of the inhabitants, arid for depriving
performed at the earliest practical moment,
auer tne appointment ol those heads of de- tones while the military possession of them
parttuents, and their" acceptance of office, by the forces of the United States contin
wilh whom it is usual, on important deca- ue, will be recognized and encouraged."
sions, or the President of the United States Near four years have now elapsed since
to advise. the quasi military government was establish
In answer therefore, to your first inter- ed by military authority, and received, with
rogatory, viz.: whether Colonel Monroe, the exceptions named, the approval of Pres-
iii issuing the proclamation referred to, act-
ed under the orders of this government, the peace has been concluded with Mexico, by
President directs me to state that Col. Mon- which a boundary line vas established that
roe's proclamation appears to have been is- left this territory within the United States,
sued in pursuance or in consequence of an ; thereby confirming to the United States by
order or letter of instructions given by the treaty what we had before acquired by con
late Secretary of War, under the authority , quest.
of the late President, to Lieutenant Colonel i The treaty,. in perfect accordance with
McGalh
Of this order, which bears date Novem-
ber 19th, 1849, your excellency was un-
doubtedly informed at the date of your let-
ter. A lull and accurate copy, however
is attached to this communication.
ation. Colonel '
McCall is therein instructed, that if the
people iu New Mexico, for whom Congress
had provided no government, should mani
fest a wish to take any steps to establish a
government for themselves, and apply for
admission into the Union, it will be his du
ty and the duty of others with whom he is
associated, not to thwart, but o. advance
their wishes.
This order does not appear to author!
any exertion of military authority, or of any
official or even personal interference to con
trol, or affect in any way the primary action
of the people in the formation of a govern
eriinient, nor to permit any tucli interfer
ence by subordinate officers. Col. McCall
and his associates were not called upon to
take a lead in any measures, or even to
recommend any thing as fit to be adopted
by the people. In this matter it was evi
dently contemplated that they were to act
as the agents of the inhabitants, and not as
the officers of thN government. It must be
recollected that the only Government then
existing in the territory was a quasi milita
ry government ; and as Congress has made
no provision for the establishment of any
form of civil government, and as the Presi
dent do.ubl.less believed that, under these
Circumstances", the' peuiilc- ttaU right uf
frame a government for themselves, and
- J-" .t. 1 .u.
der was a direction that the then existing
military government should not stand in
the way of the accomplishment of the wish
es of the people, nor thwart those wishes il
the people entertained them, for the ettab
menl of a free, popular, republican govern
ment lor their own protection and benefit.
This is evidently the whole purpose and ob
ject ot the order. 1 he military officer in
command, and his associates, were Ameri
can citizens, acquainted with the forms of
civil and popular proceedings, and it wa
expected that they would aid the inhabi
tants of the Territory, by their advice and
assistance, iu their proceedings for estab
lishing a government ol their own. There
is no reason to suppose that Colonel Mon
roe, an officer as much distinguished for
prudence and discretion as for gallant con
duct in arms, meant to act, or did act oth
erwise than in entire subordination and
subserviency to the will of the people among
whom he was placed. He was not author
ized to do, nor does the President under
stand him as intending to do, any thing
whatever in his. military character, 'nor to
represent in any way the wishes of the Ex
ecutive Government of the United States.
To judge iutelligeully and fairly of these
transactions we must recall to our reccol-
lection the circumstances of the case as they
then existed.
Prrviojs to the war with Mexico, which
c ui.meiiccd in May, 184G, and received
the sanction of Congress on the 13th of
that mouth, the territory of New Mexico
formed a department or Slate of the Mex
ican Kepublic, and -was governed wholly by
her laws.
General Kearney, acting under orders
irom mis government, invaded this depart
ment wiin an armed turce : the coventor
Red at his approach, aud the troops under
his command dispersed, and General Kear
ney entered banta re, the capital, on the
18' h of August, 1846, and took possession
of the territory in the name of the United
States. On the 22d of that month, he is
sued a proclamation to the inhabitants,
siaung me laci mat ne had taken posses
sion oi oanta fe, at the head of Ins troops,
and announcing " his intention to hoi d tbe
department with its original -boundaries (on
both sides of the Rio del Norte) and under
the name of New Mexico."
By that proclamation he promised to pro
tect me innaoitants oiiNew Mexico in their
persons and property, against their ene
mies, and all others;' and assured them
that the United States intended topro'vide for
mem a government wnen tbe people would
be called to exercise the rights of freemen
in electing their ow n representatives to the
territorial legislature. On the (Same day
he established a territorial constitution by
ati .organic law, which provided for execu
tive, legislative, and judicial departments
of the' government; defined the ritrht of
' suffrage and provided for trial by jury, and
at the same time established a code oflaws.
This constitution declared. that " the coun
try heretofore known as New Mexico, shall
- be known hereafter and designated as the
'Territory of New Mexico; in the United
states of America:" and the members of
tbe lower house of the Legislature were ap
portioned among the counties established
bjlS 'decree of the department of New
Mexico, of June 27, 1844, which counties,
:il M understood, included "all the territory
over which Texas has lately .attempted to
organize coanties, and establish her own
jurisdiction. s
- '.On the 22d of December. 1845. aconrof
this constifuiioa and code Vai iratuatuted'
by President Polk to the Honse of Repre
sentatives, in pursuance of a call npon him
by that body.
In the, message transmitting the const!
tution, he says:
" Portions of it purport to establish and
organize a permanent territorial government
over the territory, and to impart to its in
'habitants political riehts which, under the
! Constitution of the United States, can be
'eu m any ot the conquered territories tor
the enemy of the advantages of these terri-
idem Polk.. In the meantime a treaty of
the proclamation of Gen. Kearney, declared
that the Mexicans remaining in this terri-
tory should be incorporated into the Union
of the United States, and be admitted at the
'proper tune (to be indeed of
by the Con
gress of
gress of the United
states,) to an enjoys
nicnt of all the rights of citizens of the
United States, according to the principles
oi cue Constitution : " and in the meantime
should be maintained and protected iu the
free enjoyment of their liberty and proper
ty, and secured in the free exercise of their
religion without restriction." Thus it will
be perceived that the authority of the Unit
ed States over New Mexico ivas the result
of conquest ; and the possession held of it,
" the first place, was of course military pos
sion. The treaty added the title by cession
to the sjready existing title by successful
achieveintts in arms. With the neace.
there naturUJy arose an expectation that,
as early as pssible. .there would com
civil governmeiMo supersede the military.
But until sjme ir,0h government should
come into existence, was a matter of ab.
solute necessity that r.a military govern
ment should continue; 5 otherwise the
country must fall into absolute diarchy.
And this has been the course gene.y 'jn
the practice of civilized countries, vten
coiomes or territories nave oecn acquired
by war, and their acquisition confirmed by
treaty.
1 he military government therefore, exist
ing in Hew Mexico at the date of the order,
cmateit ihcre of inevitable necessity. It ex
isted as much against the will of the Exec-
agamt"Ye'ViYro
President had adopted the opinion, that it
was justifiable in the people of the territory,
under the circumstances, to lorm n consti
tution of government, without any previous
authority conferred by Congress, and there
upon apply lor admission into the union.
It was under this state of things, and under
tfm influence of these opinions, that the
order of the 19th otNovembcr last was civ
eu and executed in the manner we have
seen. The order indicates no boundary.
and defines no territory except by the name
of New Mexico; and m far as that indicat
ed any thing, it referred to a known terri
tory, which had been organized under mili
tary authority, approved by the Executive,
and lelt without remonstrance or alteration
ny Vvongrcss lor more man three years.
1 1 appears to the President that such an or
der could not have been intended to invade
the rights of Texas.
Secondly, you ask whether the proclama
tion of Colonel Monroe", meets with the ap
proval ot tne rresiuent ot the United States.
I o determine this question it. is neces
sary look at the object of the proclamation
and the effect of the proceedings had under
it.
If the object was to assume the authority
to settle the disputed boundary with Texas
men the l'resident has no hesitation in say
ing such an object does not meet his a,iro-
oatiou, oecause ne does not believe that
the Executive branch of this Government or
both combined, have any constitutional au
thority to settle that question. That be
longs eithor to the judicial department of
the federal government, or to the concur
rent at liuu by agreement of the legislative
ueparimeius oi tne governments or the
United Slates and Texas. But it has been
sufficiently shown that Col. Monroe's-act-
lons have had no such object, and that1 his
intention was merely to act in aid of the
people iu forming a stale constitution to be
submitted to Congress.
Assuming that such constitution has
beeu formed, whot is the effect on the dis
puted boundary 1 If jt couiproinits the rights
of either party to that question then it does
not meet the President's approbation, for
he deems it his duty to leave' the settle
ment of that question to the tribunal where
it constitutionally belongs. It is sufficient
tor him that the boundary is in dispute
that the territory east of tbe Rio del Norte-
seems to be claimed, in trood faith bv both
Texas and New Mexico, or1 rather bv the
uuiiea states.
Whatever might be his judgment as to
their respective rights, he has no power, to
.i.wot, w ecu iu negotiate in
regard to them ; and therefore it would be
improper for, him to express an opiuion.
The subject matter of dispute is between
therUnited States and Texas, and not be-
iweeu tne innaouants oi lew aiexico and
Texas. Jf those people should voluntarily
consent to come uudtr the. jurisdiction ofi
'i.. i .. .
icaas, sucu consent wouia not. bind the
United States, or take away their title to
the' territory.
So, oo the other hand, if they should rol
untarily claim the title for the United States,
it-would not, deprive Texas of her rights,
whatever those rights might be. Thev can
only be affected; by. her own acts, or judi
cial decision. The state constitution form.
ed by New, Mexico can have no legal validi
ty uuiir ii u recognized;and adopted by the
Uw indking power of the United. States.
Until. that is doue" it,has no sanction, and
can have no effect apou thei richu of' Texas
dispute.1 And it is notto bfc presunied that
Congress will ever give its sanction, to that
constitution without first providing for the
settlement of this boundary- Indeed no
government either territorial, or State can
be formed for her without providing for the
settlement of the boundary. Hence he re
gards the formation, of' this state constitu
tion as a, mere nullity 1 Itvqyty be regarded
inded as a petition to' Cbspjejs to be admit
ted as a stale ; but uqtttltmnzress shall I
erant the orater of suchvfetition bv leiral
enactments, it affects the Uijfets of neither
party.
But as it is the right oil all to petition
Congress for any law whicb it may consti
tutionally pass, this people herein the exer
cise of the common right o? all to petition
Congress when.thoy fornv-ii their constitu
tion with a view of apply ir ( to Congress for
admission as a state ; and sL he thinks the
act can prejudice no one,- hd feels bound to
approve of the conduct of Col. Monroe, "in
issuing the proclamation: "
I am directed also lo state,, that in the
President's opinion it would not be just to
suppose that the late President desired to
manifest any unfriendly aspict or attitude
towards 1 exas or the claim! of Texas.
The boundary between Texas and New
Mexijo was known to be disputed and it
was equally well known that the Executive
uovernraent oi tne unite states had no
power to.settle the dispute. It is believed
that the Executive power his not wished
it certainly does not now wish to interfere
with the question, in any manner whatever,
as a question ot tine.
in one ot his last communications to
Congress, that of the 17th of June last, the
late President repeated the declaration that
he had uo power to decide. the question of
boundary and no desire to interfere with it;
and that the authority . to settle that question
resided elsewhere.
The object of the Executive has been, as
1 believe, and as 1 am authorized to say it
certainly now is, to securethc peace of the
country; to maintain as fir as practicable
the state of things as il existed at the date
of the treaty; and to uphold and preserve
the rights of the respectite parties as they
were under tne solemn guaranties of the
treaty until the biehly interesting question
of boundary should be finally settled by com
petent authority..
This treaty which is now a supreme law
ofthe land, declares as before stated, that
the inhabitants shall be maintained and pro
tected in the free enjoyment of their liberty
aud. property, and secured, in the free exer
cise of their religion. It will of course be
the President's duty to see that the law is
sustained, and the protection which it guar
antees made effectual and this is the plain
al open path of Executive duty in which
he piloses to tread.
cher transactions of a very grave char-
au" fcuuded to and recited in vour
excellency's letlei. To lhe.e traneaot'inn
I am now directed ntft more 'p'artrcula'ry to
ob'yyou"reifetrt.e-"Vuifi8fir"uKUe
which Col. Monroe acteJ, and the. approval
or disapproval ot his proclamation. Your
excellency's communication and the answer
will be immediately lad before Congress,
and the President will bkc that occasion to
bring lo its notice the transactions alluded
to above.
It is known to your Excellency, that the
questions growing out cf the acquisition of
California and New- 'Mexico, and amnnir
them the highly importait one of the boun
dary of 1 exas, have stiadily engaged the
attention of both Housts of Congress for
many months, and stillengage it, with in
tense interest. It is uiderstood that the
Legislature of Texas u-II be shortly in ses
sion, and will have lh boundary question
also. before it. It is a ilicaie crisis in,pur
public affairs;' not free certainly from pos
sible dangers, but let is confidently trust
that justice, moderation, patriotism, and
the love of the Union Jniay inspire such
councils,- both- in the povernment of the
United States tand liar of Texas, as shall
carry the country trough these dangers,
and briug it safely it ol them all. And
with renewed assurafces ofthe continuance
of mutual respect aid harmony in the
great family of Stata,
1 have the honor 1 be with entire re
gard. your excellency most obedienttser
vaut. . & h
DANIEJJ WEBSTER,
Secretary of State.
THE TEXAS SWINDLE.
The people, if they wi but note the pro
ceedings in Congress, ei i see " the begin
ning of the end" of the exas swindle.
We have recently taken ccasibn to remark
that the. most. importaut nd the most dan
gerous point jn the silver question lies in
Texas and its claim to.MwMexican terri
toryin that Texas which was forced into
the Union by the locofofB without definite
bounds in.tbat Texas which is entirely ex
cluded (ram the consideriion of those ex
ceedingly zealous anti-silvery men, the ex
free soil leaders. "We cinmend the follow
ing to the consideration if, the freemen of
Vermont, who "ate 'real, and heartily de
sirous of preventing the! extension of Sla
very. It is but a few djys iince the dele
gate from the free soil a New Mexico was
driven from the doors If Congress by the
votes of twenty.fi7e loedbco dough-faces of
the North. We now see. another and still
another actof treachery on tbe part of the
same class of politicMs in tbe Senate,
headed by Lewis CJss. The ' coalition
'leaders of " Vermont u'rtUe allies, 'the tools,
efthfse mey aye.fpufXfths ofthe can
didates cm the coaliiio,tickcts in Vermont
eread.artCAiu4i s
SC . yHikallywTrkTiiiw
Tbe Texas lomMary.
It wiH be TememberM that the Boundary
between Texas' sad1 NeVMexico proposed
by Mr.-Pearce of Md. and adootad bv tbe
-Senate is as .follows:: vhwII sz t -
." The State of Texas WiH agree'! that her
hxwndarv on rthe North shstl commence at
the feist atrwfcich the isfidiaa of 100'-de-
Vms West from Greenwich- is intersected
bj the paraller'of 36 degrees and 30 m'm
atst North latitude, aod shall ru bom tbu
point dne West to the meridian; of. 103 de
grees tv est from ureeuwicn; thence her
boundary shall run due South to the 32d
degree of North latitude; thence on the
parallel ot ai! degrees of North. latitude to
the Rio Bravo del Norte; 'and thence with
the channel of said river to the Gulf "of
Mexico."
While the bill was under consideration,
Air. bwing of Ohio moved to amend this
clause as follows,:
By striking out after " Greenwich," where
it first occurs, and insert " crosses Redeli
ver, being the South-west angle .in the, line
designated between the United Stales, and
Mexico, and the same angle in the line of
uie i erruory set apart tor tne Indians by
the United States, thence south-wcslwardly
to the most northerly point- of the dam a-
cross the Kio Bravo del Norte which sup
plies with water the. irrigating canal which
supplies the town of Elpaso with water.
thence with the channel of said river to the
Gulf of Mexico."
This is in effect and almost in precise
terms the boundary proposed by the Com
promise bill. After debate, Mr. Ewing's
amendment was rejected, by the following
vote :
Yeas Messrs. Baldwin, Bradbury,
Clarke, Cooper, Davis, of Mass. Dayton,
Dodge of Wis., Ewing, Greene, Hale, Ham
lin, Phelps, Seward, Shields, Smith, Spru
ance. Underwood, Upham, Wales, Walker,
and Winthrop 21.
Nays Messrs. Atchison, Badger; Barn
well, Bell, Berrien, Bright, Butler, Cass,
Davis of Miss., Dawson, Dickinson, Dodge
of Iowa, Douglas, Foote, Houston, Hunter,
King, Mangum, Mason, Morton, Pearce,
Rusk, Sebastian, Soule, Sturgeon, Turney,
Whitcomb, and Yufee 23.
Here we see that .Messrs. Spruance, Un
derwood aud Wales, Whig Senators from
Slave States, voted with all the Free State
Whigs to ruu a straight' boundary line be
tween Texas and New Mexico; on the Hue
of boundary (with scarcely a hair's varia
tion) proposed by the Compromise bill, but
they were voted down by twenty-one South
ern Senators, naturally anxious to get all
they could for Slavery, and Messrs .Bright,
and Whitcomb of Indiana, Cass of Michi
gan, Dickinson of New York, A.C.Dodge
of Iowa, Douglas of Illinois, and Sturgeon
of Pennsylvania. By the votes of these
seven Northern Senators, several of them
pledged to and professing to support the
WiuuOt Proviso, a region stretching north
from the old boundary of the United States
where the 100th meridian of longitude
(from Greenwich) crosses the Red River
(in about lat. 33 40') to .3G 30', and
from the 100th meridian west of Greenwich
lo the ,103d degree in other words, a dis
trict at least 150 miles square, which Le
Grand, who traversed it 1833, represents as
a grassy, fertile prairie (though other ac
counts are less favorable) " has been torn
ITe'tcrri'il Sl-.r,Vl" Had'.thesfcKoxKi'eVM
senators voted on the side of Free Soil,
Texas would at no point have stretched a
bote the old angle fqrmed by the intersec
tion or the 100th meridian of longitude by
the Red River as aforesaid ; for there would
have been twenty-eight votes for Fieedoin
to twenty-one for Slavery. By their votes,
(unless counteracted in the House,) there
has been absolutely stolen from Freedom
and given over to Slavery, a Territory larg
er "than two New England States which the
south had agreed, in the framing of the
Compromise bill, to concede to New Mex
ico and thus to Freedom. Here was a di
rect Extension of Slavery over a large ter
ritory which no Slave ever yet trod, aud by
the votes of seven Senators from Northern
States, every one of whom but Mr. Dodge
had beeu expressly instructed to resist any
such extension, although Geu. Cass has re
cently procured. from a new Legislature a
repeal of his instructions.
Mr. Ewing s proposition heme defeated.
Mr. Winthrop of Alass. submitted the fol
lowing substitute for Mr. Pearce's section :
' The State of Texas will agree that her
boundary on the North shall commence at
the point in the middle of tbe deepest chan
nel in the Rio Grande del Norte; where the
same is crossed by the cue hundred and
second degree of longitude west frum the
: j: r c rV .l ' "
uicriuiau oiureenwicn, iiiencc norm along
that, longitude to the thirty-fourth degree of
north latitude; thence eastwardly to the
point at which the one hundredth degree of
west longitude crosses the tied river."
This was origiually Col. Benton's prop
osition, and a very good one better than
the Compromise if it could have been ob- '
lamed but Mr. W. saw that it must fail,
and did not see fit to press it to a, vote.
Wr wislbhe had not withdrawn it.
Mr. Underwood of Ky.'then proposed the
precisr Boundary reported by the Compro
mise vyoramitiee, as loitows:
" On the Rio del Norte, commonly call
ed El Paso, and running up "that river 20
miles, measured by a straight line thereon.
and thence eastwardly .to a.point where the
100th degree of west longitude crossed Red
River, beiuir the South-west ancle in the
liue desiguated between the United, Stales
and Mexico, and tbe same angle in the line
of the territory set apart for the Iudiaus by
the United States." "
This was rejected as follows :, T
Yeas Messrs.BaIdwin,Bradhury,Bright,
Chase, Clarke, Cooper, Dodge of .Wis.,
Ewing, Fetch, Greene, Hale, HamlinjNor
ris, Phelps, 'Seward, Shields, Smith, Spru
ance, Underwood, Upham, Wales, Walker,
W hitcomb, and winthrop 5M.
HT - f - . . i - - n n
tiAXB luessrs. Aicnison, uaager, Barn
well, Bell, Benton, Berrieu, Butler, Cass. !
ClemeuS Davis of Mis.,. Dawson, Dickin
son, Dodge 'of -Iowa, Foote, Houston, Hun
ter, King, Mason, Morton,-Pearce,-Rusk,-Sebastian
SquleSturgeon, and . Turney
25. " " . ' '
Here again c Messrs. Cass, Dickinson,
Dcdge of Iowa, and, Sturgeon all of them '
originally .Compromise aiea and two of them..
meinoers oi tne voeamiiiee, wmcn tramed
andj adopted this very Compromise line, vo
ted ag'airist'and by. their votes defeated its
auuuiiuu j - -sngui ana vvnitcomn voteo
this time on the 'right side ; Douglas came '
uy uiiamug, nn aiainj aw a exas nau ex
actly eBoogh fell.-' 5 ,iJ ' "i
l he vote of Col. Bentea BMstbe moat
amazing to all those who csstbe amazed by'
any aoprinilei act o lek'part.!- He
mejrery saaa wMpratearasVUiat the: Com
promise bill robbed New Mxisf: ssrsafj
3
thousand square miles of her territory,
wherefore he could not stand it. Yet here
we see him voting so, as to deprive her of
Tl!.... TU......J
V' uuusaau square nines more,
which were secured to her by the Compro
mise, out. somucniorAM lriendship lor
New Mexico.
It fs worthy of remark that when the
Senate came' out of Committee, Mr. "Un
derwood renewed his amendment, and it
was again voted down Bentonjtill against
it but this time Messrs Whitcomb and
Bright, the Indiana Senators, voted directly
in the teeth of their former votes, and in fa
vor of poshing the North line of Texas up
to 30 30'. Hauing-yoted once for their
constituents and their consciences, they
seem to have thought themselves entitled to
vote next for Texas. and Slavery.
YVe trust' this Boundary is to be im
proved iu the House.
Mr. Peck and the Southern De
mocracy. -
The Burlington Courier denies that Lu
cius B. Peck is " in good and regular stand
ing with the Southern Democracy:" How,
then, does it happen that the Speaker of the
House, a Southern Democrat, appointed
Mr. Peck as Chairman of one of the most
iiunoriaui v,oiiiiuniees i Ana now ooes it
happen that Mr. Peck has so fully justified ,he above charge against'Mr. Meacham, we
the confidence of his Southern, Anti-Tana simpy do not understand. Mr. Meacham
allies, in giving him this prominent position, j never "voted for Mr. Walker," or any oth
by suffering six or eigh months to elapseier "Slavocral," as the records show. If
without even calling asingle meeting of the the Courier-rf?M tnih.cnu-nfU, Mo-h.
committee on manufactures I in the long
contest for 'Clerk, (extending through twen
ty balloting!,) Mr. Peck voted without ex
ception for the regular caucus nominee.who
was well known to be openly and actively
hostile to the Wilmot Proviso notwith
standing a considerable number of North
ern Locofocos refused to do so.
During the eight balloting! for Sergeant-
at-Arms, Mr. Peck voted with two excep
tions lor Jesse i.. JJow, (a " Slavcocrat '
as the Courier would call him,) the infa
mous " Heroic Age" of the Washington
Union, who was nominated by Air. Cobb.
ol Alabama. JUiddlebury Kegister.
LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES
PUBLISHED BY AlTTIlO-ITV.
PUBLIC AOT3
P.IIXO srU.1Q THX FlBtT C?ESkloK OW 1HX TmaTT-FlUT
RESOLUTIONS.
f Public No. 7H
A RESOLUTION relative to the payment
ot dividends or interest on war bounty
scrip.
Resolved by the Senate and House of
Representatives of the United States of
America tn Congress assembled, That the
secretary of the I reasury be, and he here
by is directed, in redeeming and discharging
me ooiigaiiutis upon me Uuicinmcni for
C feu'!ty scrip which are made assigna-
such obligations, alPdTvTd"e'iio,i'L,K'lIilerJl
which have been or shall be declared and
set apart, and passed to the credit of tbe
obligee upon the books of the Treasury,
subsequent.to the date of the assignment,
unless such dividends or interest has been
paid to the obligee before the transfer of
the scrip upon the books in the office of the
Kegister of the 1 reasury, or the presenta
tion thereol tor hnal payment.
Approved, August 10, ISoO.
The Great Explosion at Benarea.
At half-past ten on the night' of the first
f May, a fire broke odt iu a fleet of thirty-
five Government ordinance boats, which bad
been imprudently moored off Raj Ghaut, in
the heart of Benares. Twenty-one of these
had on board three thousand copper barrels
of gunpowder, containing one hundred and
ten pounds each ; the remaining fourteen
being loaded with field-pieces, shof and
shells. The effect of thc.explosion that en
sued was terrific. On shore' every house
and person within a certain range was eith
er destroyed or severely injured. One
thousand two hundred persons are ascer
tained to, have beeu taken out of the ruins
dead and wounded,- and more were contin
uity .being discovered at the time ofthe la
test-letters from Benares. The Raj Ghaut
Hotel, a building lust erected bv Messrs.
Tutlle and Charles, has been totally destroy
ed, together with all the other Houses front
ing the Hirer for an extent of several hun
dred yards; the Begum's palace, which o-
verlooked the Ghaut, is entirely destroyed.
She was one of the Royal family of Delhi;
and with her family, jslaves, aud all the in
mates, were, smothered, in the ruins. The
Rev. Mr. Small's substantial mission house
also destroyed, and Mrs, Small killed.
On the river, all the thirty-fire, ordinance
boats were sunk or destroyed, together with
tiventy eight boats laden with beer, the
property of Messrs. Crump and Co., of
Cawnpore, and also twelve or fifteen laden
ith merchandize belonging to natives.
The crews of these boats have, with few
exceptions, perished. The European who
was in charge of Messrs. Crump &, Co s
boats, escaped, being pulled "insensible out
of the water ; bis wife and family perished.
A court of inquiry is sitting; the conductor
in charge is supposed to be 'almost the only
survivor to tell the tale. Much of the sunk
en ordnance stores, field pieces', etc., are
supposed to be recoverable.. The magis;
trates and .other authorities hae exerted
themselves to the ulmosu Three, hundred
prisoners were employed immediately in ex-
huming the sufferers. The A -grant impro
priety oi intrusting so large anotuiaoi sucn
a character to an irresponsible understrap
per, 'and bf allowing it; to be; moored close
lo thequavs of a densely populated city, is
much commented-on-by the ludian papers.
The Chicago Journal of the' 1st inst,
gives. the following account of numerous
seizures of vessels engaged in the lumber
trade on tne upper thanes., 1 he Journal
tttt'sl
"- . i . , tv
" The Government .for, the past few days
have done a Land Office business' iu this
region. Forty-six vessels, engaged in the
UnWed States oscer, most ef 'which here
beea boadd:r The' officers ere row, here
awekiBg tbe arrival of the balance ofCtbit
" Il is Mppoaed tbs Tieiejeeafifis,ei-a-
ply in the carrying trade wiM be released
but such as are owned by the proprietors a'
mills located on, or supplied from land be
longing; the government, will be forfeited
to it.
" Two thousand of the saw loirs seized a
short time since, at Grand Riverwere sold
last week at auction, bnngTnj on an .aver
age one Shilling each. This sum netts the
Government an-amount equal to. the- price
lor.woicn ue una can be entered.
"Tbe most efficient steps have been ta
ken to protect the public lands from depre
dations of this nature, and we think with a
very fair prospect of success'." ' A
, T
We believe the Whi nartv claim to
be the " only true anti-slavery uartv." and
yeths Northern men -are avowedly in good
standing with the Southern Whisoc'racv. in
cluding Mr. Meacham who voted for Walk
er, a Tennessee- slavocrat for Clerk. The
Register'- would do better to examine its
own skirts with a microscope, before it
launches false accusations at Mr, Peck.
Burlington Courier:
Mr. Peck, during the twenty ballotings
required to elect a clerk of tbe House, vo
ted steadily for Forney, the'reguIarLocofoco
uominee, aod a zealous opponent of the
Wilmot Proviso, whom the Courier itself
c, u a " dnmrlfni-" Whi , m.n K
ham for tbe late T. J. Campbell,- of Ten
nessee, it is sufficient to say, that Mr. Camp
bell had long since, though brought up'in
the midst of slavery, and involved in it'by
inheritance, seen the evil of that system,
and1 emancipated every one of "his Slaves.
We should l.ke to see the " Free Soiler"
who will either censure this vote of Jlr.
Meacham, or approve that of Mr. Peck.
As to our connection with Southern
Whigs, we refer the Courier to its " Demo
cratic" friend, Mr. Caldwell, of Kentucky,
who said, in his speech of last June.:
Middlebuiy Register.
"During the long continued and con
stant agitation in various form ,of "the slave
ry question, we have received no sympathy
or aid from the Northern States, in main
taining our constitutional rights, and repel
ling aggression, except'from the Democratic
Party. Southern Whigs have often
beeu. found voting with tbe North' on those
occasions, and' co-operating with those who
were raost.inimicable to our peace and our
institutions."
To the Editor or the Boston Post.
I see it is said in some of the papers that
the President-of the Vermont Central Rail
road has stated that the cost of repairs of
damage done by the late freshet will not ex
ceed (1U,00U) ten thousand dollars. I have
jmade nvcxih-jcprtBcnlatotre, but have re
marked in conversation that I thought it
might cost from ?30 lo, ..iO.OOOAhirtjr to
for the information of the. stockholders,
I have requested the chief engineer to make
an accurate estimate of the cost, which he
has done, and reports in detail the cost of
what1 has been done and what must-be done
toplace the-road in as good condition -as be
fore, and in such a manner as to guard' it
against future freshets. The whole cost is
(329,230) twenty-nine thousand two hun
dred and thirty dollars. .
Truly yours, &,c.
Chas. Paine, President
Northfield, Aug. 12, 1850.
To the Editor or the-BostonPost:
Sir An article has appeared in several of
the papers slating that the Vermont and
Canada Railroad has been put under con
tract from. Rouse's Point to Sl -Albans,-to
ue ouiii oy tne 1st oi, July next
.his is a mistake,, as the Vermont and
Canada road is graded, and nearly finished,
and will be .opeued in October next. The
article v as undoubtedly intended to refer to
the' railroad from St. Johns ,to Rouse's
Point,' which has been put under contract
as is slated. Pi
-Factories
'Stopped. We, learn from
thcPittsburg papers of Tuesday, that all tbe
cotton factories of Alleghany city have
stopped, throwing about 1,100 hands out of
employment.
CF Tbe Dry Goods Reporter states that
a large manufacturing company of fancy
Cassimeres failed last week in'New York.
which 'is" attributed to the want of remuner
ating prices for-woollen goods, relatively to
the Sigh price of 'wool.
ReaolBtioaa of the'Somthern Can.
cus.
WiintaoToiv Monday. August 12.
The following, uiteii from tbe Southern Prist
Uf tljl Mivraing, wio Vl.v. JRn-jluluu3 MlUpMrfl Hy
the Soulnorn ultras, in caucus, on HiiurJay
night.
Hesolved, 1 hat no citizen shall bo deprived of
bw I iff, bljfrty;br property, exctpCby the judg
tnet ol hia'peers and the la-i nf thelaod, and
that the Omlnu'n La w, as it existed In the "Amer
ican Colonies on the 4th uf July. 1776.' and the
Gm-titotiot,aBd Laws of the UWed Siate.-Jap-plieable
to:Br.pTerrilories,'shall fc-e-tBtnfunda-
uiemsl uar oMhetaia icrruory., rs j ,
" HetolvtdThm" ia the event 'thitrDoo-s!av-hofding
'Statcs object to put 'tbVlffe, liber
ty anj property of American citizens u'nderA
raaiicsn laws, we will iaaul upoa .aidifitinn of
the Country oa the line of 36 30, with a ,dis
tiucrrecogniiiuu ot property io 'Slaves'.",,
Htmletd, That we wilf out vote for1 trie aij
snsaiun A California, unlets" the Southern 'botic
dary be restricted to the paraildl ot 36 30 Notth
latitude. xJatsWrsi-Trart we wf!l itotsgvetoaey-oim
uary oeiw-en lexas ,anu iuw-Mexico which
proposes io cede iu'JieWMexieo any'portiim cf
uie Territory euib of the parallel cf at:30s2C.
latidMeand H.o tta.Uiu Gnude.'Brior.ttae
adjusttueDltif theTerritofulq-ieatiwis. . ,
' Re$Uiid, '.Taai the RepjesedtaiivM of t!e
ilave'hofaiDij Siatei, will ressi br air M al 1-e
g-tative ami conMhucon d ineasat tea adm.so.-i
of the Stale gfCaiitoruia, and the atljusuunu "t
ibe Texas bouiwlary uaid a settlement outw Ter
ritoVisj huoitidh'is uiade. - v'
iufreV,-Tlmte""po; eTs' aod
detiMwt'tbeisaiue.ot.tiAeea. W- eoottoaed
ualil litavtiwOwr action of lbs uUag.ai that
the Cfairm'an'of'UCCduiuiutei, by tiie concur-
reece ot aay three member Itmieut, uwy, "
warn, nn a meetiBg o w iwfno " JL
i l-Ij:. c . . . - .
mi.:- 4...:. .k. ,vf Ida ororHUindit,
tMN(staera men are determined w . iV , uiru
iJie'Csiifu'rnia biU'wiihoiitilelay. .
' 'The wseliiu ihs wire tdsytea

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