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BY E. P. WALTON & SON.
MONTPEUER, THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 28, 1850. OL. XLIY, TVQ.,5Lr--WHOLS NO. 23021 - y tie - iUfttdjmcm & Stale journal. PUBLISHED EVER.Y THURSDAY MORNING. TERMS SI. 50 eath la adTinee: S2.03 if navmeiil ti not itikda in adrauco; iatercit nlwaj t char-ml from the cod of la var Political. SPEECH OF HW. JOIIX 31. CLAYTON, AT THE BANQUET GIVEN. HIM BY THE WHIGS OF DELAWARE. I use langnage but tame and trite, my fellow citizens, when I say I cannot find words ade quate to express the.teelings which overpower me at this moment. I come before you as a mere private individual, without office, without station, without power. No man within the sound of my voice or elsewhere, can expect, by rendering homage to or conferring praise upon me, to receive anything, eo far as I know, now i cr hcreifter. I nai like one who has returned from a long voyage to a distant countryl I have seen much much of which I wish1 to speak to my o!d companions and friends. But 1 bring with me nothing but a grateful heart and an hon est purpose. Uy Ftllow Citizen : My chief object in accepting your kind invitation to meet you this day, was, to tender my thanks for llie confidence and support which, through a long public life, whenever I have been in public station or a can didate for public office, has been constantly ex tended to me by the people of try . ative State. I announced before the election ii Delaware that I was no candidate for any offici I post poned this meeting till after that ek ion had taken place, to enaWe others fully under stand my purpose, and position. I have ed so many of the most important offices in the 0'rt of the people of Delaware, that I fetl bound to make some public acknowledgment to those who have stood by me amidst all the storms of party violence which have swept over the country during the last quarter of a century. I am well aware that no services of mine could have can celled, or can repay the debt of gratitude I owe them, yet I may be permitted, but I cannot do it without emotion, now to say, upon the occasion of meeting ihem after a lonif separation, with what sincere pleasure I take my old friends and fe.low citizens by the hand, and acknowledge the heartfelt obligations by which I am, and ev er shall he, bound to them. We have passed through another electioneer ing campaign, and for the first time in a quarter of a century, tbe Whigs of Delaware have lost the power of the State, which lias been iranB tcrred, by a train of accidents, to our political opponents. For the period just named, the par ty to which we have been attached has held the legislative power of this State, without one sin gle day of intermission within my recollection. That poer has now gone to the party entertain ing directly opposite views. But it has not gone to them, and they do not hold it, by the tenure by winch e held it. Great applause. We held it by tbe will ofa majority of the citizens of Delaware. Yes, we did. They do not now hold 11, iior in my judgment will ihey ever hold it, uy me win oi a majority 01 me citizens 01 Delaware. No, Dover. The Governor they hue elected is the representative Governor ofa minority in the Slate. The Representative to Congress whom they have sent to legislate for us, is a minority representative, and does not, and in my judgment never will, represent as the Whig Representatives have done, the will of a miijoiity of the freemen of the State. Ap plause Tne Whigs alone can elect men that repre sent a majority of the people of Delaware. No ot.ier party exists here that is able to do that thing but the whig paily. Look at the recent canvass. Hundreds ujun hundreds of our friends, calling themsnves temperance men, have chosen to strike down the paity :o it Inch they have adhered for twemy years. That is a subject for them to reflect upon; not a subject upon which I choose to speak to-night. Am! I on'y advert to the fact that we have been strick en down, as it urn, in V.: bouse f our friends, for the purpose of saying tl.at the "big parly Ins not been conquered Uy its old political enemies ; but is as strong, if not roucer, lhm it has been for the pa&t ten years; and thit if those uho en tertain the same sentiments tint we entertain upon the great nit local Aliens which divide the two great panics - the country, h id voted accorJing to their u ! principles and their own professions, wc thuu'd have been in a majority as triumphant as the vvhi.ru ol Do aware ever were from their origin. Gieat applause. Fellow citizens. 1 did not come heie to uiscuss mailers of local interest. I have deviated thus far from my purpose, impelled by the strong feeling of the moment. I have witnessed too much of party sttife to desire unnecessarily to mix any of the ingredients of thai bitter cup with the entertainment of this day. Yet 1 if el that it is my duty, and I know that it is expected of ine, that 1 t-lijuldsay a few words in relation to some ot the stirrinr; events which have agitated the country during the last two years, and stil' con tinue to excite it. The advent of General Tay lor to power, constituted a new era in the history of the republic He came into power by tbe suffrages of the people;' and yet he presen ted the first instance of a President o elect ed, with a practical majority in both branch es of the National Legislature opposed not only to Imn, but to the principles winch-secured his ejection. The organization of both Houses of Congress was against lnm,bcfbieho bad an opportunity to develope the measures of his policy upon which lie intended to administer the government. Not a single committee was left in either branch winch was not appointed upon party principles, in opposition to those who elevated him to of fice. He was, therefore lnstantlysurround-d by unparalleled embarrassments and difficulties, presenting a new and unl'ied occasion to list the strength of our republican system. Ahcr twenty years of virtual disfranchisement and pro scription, the gieat body of the Iricnds whi nad sustained him lotjfcd to the return of a slate ot things which should prerent them, at least, upon an equal footing with their political opponents; and while, among a hundred applicants lot office one only could oSlnin it, the impatience of such as were disappointed was too often sure to be succeeded by resentment that their claims wcie not preferred. Such did not require the prompt--ias of others to induce inem to swell the ranks of the opposition, both in and out of Congress. Superadded to these difficulties was the peculiar state ot affairs arisinir out ol tbe recent annexa tion of the vast territories ceded by the treaty of Mexico difficulties which threatened the peace ol tbe country; and appalled the stoutest hearts duiu.g the continuance of that administration htch had waged thewarand incurred the enor mous expense of the acquisition. During the session ot Congress which preced ed the Presidential election !' 18-18. the exertions of the then existing administration were direct- -u in vain to the removal of the dithcultie lo which I have referred. That administration had effectually roused the demon of discord, but proved utterly impotent to allay it. Yet, in mj judgment, many ot the recommendations of Pres ident Polk, in his last message to Congress, were eminently wise, patriotic, and just, especially those which suggested tbe admission of new ter ritories as Siates, left to form their own domes tic institutions without control, and without any Congressional restriction in regard to the mb iect of slavery. Before I proceed further with the history of I turoo events, permit me to recall, lo yuur recol lection the course which I myself pursued, while representing you in the public councils, in ref erence to this subject During the session of 1847-'8, a violent de bate sprung up in the Senate of the United States, which was conducted with unusual acri mony, in regard to the right of the citizens of the Southern States to carry their slaves into the new territories. On the part of the north it wag affirmed that the territories were " Free Soil" by the Mexican laws, which, it was main-' tained stil! continued to exist, and would remain J in iorce until aorogaiea oy ine power ot Con gress or tho erection of State governments with in the territories. On the part of tho South it was contended that the right to enjoy slave prop erly within these limits was a necessary conse quence of the acquisition obtained by the com mon blood and treasure. These clashing opin ions were waged with consummate ability -on both sides, and especially in the Senate, of-which I was at that time a member. Threats of disun ion often rang through the halls of both branch es of Congress, arising out of this conflict of opinion. 1 did not participate in that debate, but exerted myself to hold aposition mid-way between the contending parties, lisoilie Swe I represented, and to seize tbe firatoftuonjfpon which I could move effectually to allSy the agi tation, and, it possible'to settle tbe controversy. I did not design to buy peace, or to add new el ements of discord by the introduction of other topics unconnected with tbe immediate question before ine ; and I thought then, as I believe now, that the Constitution itself presented the natural and .roper mode lo terminate the strife and maintain the integrity of the Union. Ap planse. While the storm was at its highest, I proposed to both the contending parlies to settle the ques tion by obeying the maudatesof the Constitution, in the organization of new territorial govern ments over California and New Mexico, without the Wilmot Proviso but with the positive proviso to bring tbe subject of the right to bold slaves under its laws as they existed, before the Su preme Court of the United States, the tribunal appointed by the fathers of the Republ.c to de cide between the contending parties of the con federacy. Applause. This proposition was met in the most cordial spirit, and approved, with a few exceptions, by the great body of the Southern members of Con gress in both branches ; and after an exciting and protracted debate, a btil Id that effect, re ported by a committee of which I w as chairman, passed llie Senate of the United States hy a ma jority of two thirds of all its members. During its passage through that body a fierce opposition was excited against it in some of the Northern States, where political purposes cuuld best be subserved by the continued agitation of the ques tion of slavery. Mr. Van Bureu became the leader of a new party organized up on tne principle of opposition to this or any other plan of adjustment without the Wilmot Pioviso, and fur this measure of peace, which, I shall die in the belief was better calculated to compose the distractions and divisions of the counliy than any other which has yet been ot tered, I was met by the North by the fiercest spirit of denunciation. It was immediately an nounced that fifty thousand men had assembled in the Park at New York, to express their oppo sition, and to utter their execrations against what they were pleased lo call the " Clayton Compromise'' Tne friends who stood by me in the North in my anxious efforts to restore harmony to the country, were denounced as Having been sold to the South; and amid the din and clamor of these party combatants, reason and argument were either unheard or lost their proper influence. in this stole ot thing, the bill having passed th-. Senate, after weeks of discussion and one pro tracted session ot twenty-two hours, during which Mr. Dix, nf New York, and Mr. Niles, of Connecticut, buth members of the new free soil scnoul, distinguished themselves, in opposition to the measure, not less by their ability than by thir un Measured zeal, it was presented to the House of Representatives for concurrence ; and theie w ithout one word of debate, without a sin gle reference to a committee, without, as I am bound to believe, any proper knowledge or ap preciation of its true character, it was immediate ly strangled by a motion lo lay it on the tab'e, by a majority. (I think) of four votes out of more than two hundred This measure, which met the hearty co-operation and concurrence of the distinguished Statesman of South Carolina. John C. Calh un, now no more, and received the votes notun'y of both the Senators, and all the Rep resentatives of that State, satisfied and secured Ht the fame time the acquiescence an I the adhe sion of the South generally. The defeat of the measure was considered as indicating, on the pari of ihe,. North, a determination to re'iise to abide by the dicision of the common abiler, ap pointed" by the con. tiltilion itself to settle the question. I deeply regretted it ar the time, and have not ceased to deplore it. The defeat added fuel to the fl lines alieady existing in ihe South; and I, with others, conscious of that fact, imme diately looked with anxiety fur some other mea sure ol pacification, which, like that I had pro posed, would not compromit the principles or outrage the feelings ofeilher section of tbe con federacy. There seemed to be but one measure left, which could effectually secure the same object and when Mr. Polk's message on the com mencement ol the next session of Congress, sug gested, in terms not to bo mistaken, that Con gress might safely leave the question undislurb ed until the people of California and New Mex ico should apply for admission as sovereign States of this Union, there seemed lobe a gen eral wish, during the session of 18-18 9, that the peoole within those limits, in the free exercise of their right of self government, should, upjn the admission of these new Stales, settle this and all other questions of domestic poliy to suit themselves. Bins to auinuiue cuiics were in troduced into both branches of Congress, and the prospect for pacification and adjustment brightened as it became known that the Presi dent elect favored the same pclicy. Mr. Cal houn, ihe acknowledged leader of the Southern section, had proclaimed the ncht of self-govern ment in tho people of those .territories, m his celebrated resolutions of 18J7, in the lollowing terms " ii.fJ. That it if a iirwiamnul principal in oar polit'- eal creed, thata people m luromis wuMitui., ..nnn.i;ii.Hf ri-tit ia farm anj adopt the Eur eminent which tlier may tiink belt calculated lo Mrura tbeil Iiberl v, proa peiitv,aul!appiDe.e; and in unlbnnity thereto, a-t oilier coodiuoa ia impod by the Fert.ial Comliilitjoo on aSute, in iird.rto be annulled into m.s union, cejii ma. ii.uiii, tution ahall be rapuMican, n'i that the ioipuaition of nuv other by Congress, would" no: oaly Iw in violation of tlio Coo atitutioD, but io direct conflict with tlio' principle oa srhieh oar political .yrtera rests." 1D1Q . Air. Polk, hi his message of Dec. 5, I8-J0, in culcated the same doctrines'. " Tho quot lioo." aaid be, "is bettered to to rather abstract tban practical, whether ilerery erercan or would elin in any portioaof the acquired Territory, eren if it nere left at tbe option of tho alarouoldioj Slatea tlirmaelrea . rromthena- toieortlieclimaie ana p oaucuou iu uiucu .un !. tion of it, it U ceiUin that it could nerer cult." And arrain he savs : " In organizing government! over theae lemtoriea, no duty imputed by Congreae by tbe Cotte tilutionr requirea that they ahould legulate on tho a nbjeet of eiavery, while tbeir power to do ao hi not only aerioualy qwatioiwd, bat denied by many of the eoundeet expoundere of that instrument. Whether Coo greia ahall legislate r noi, tbe people of the acquired Terri tories, when auuembled in convention: to form Stats ConaUlu- tions, wu possess in sms ana exclusive power, to bewihim for. themselves whether slavery shall or shall not eiist within ih.l. limiia. If Coesiaas shall ahstain from interferiflf with the question, the people or these. territories will bolelt.treo 1. ' . I - ,!,..- nmM, -t.. th-- annl. f.. (- a.ftiat.. into Oie 1aiOD. As enactment Ol ConaTese ttould restrain the people of any of the fovereign States ot the Union, old or aesr, Monk or SonUi, SUvabohiing ar aoo Slavehohling, fiom determining the chaiactei of their owa do n,..t,e institutions aa they may (teem wiea and proper. Any and all of each States possess this tight, aad Coogiess cannot depose, them of IU Too peopko of Georgia might, if. they chose, so alter their Constitution aa to abolish Slavery within !,. i.J:..- TV. n-nnt of Vclasoot miiht o alter Useii Cooati- tntion aa to admit Slavery vc itbin its limits. BoUlSUteavoald possess the right ; though, ss all know, it is not probable that ilher wood eiert it. " It is tortunau fot'the peace and har mony of lb Union that this qaeetien is la its oat ore tempera ry, and can only continue for Use bli.f period which will in tervene befota California aad Nw Mtlico may be admitted as Itutea into the Uaioo. from the tads of papulation now flowing into them, it ifhighly probable that this will soon cur." He afterwards adds : " If Congiess instead of observing Ihe course of non-interference, leaviog the eCoptic-n of their own domestic insti tutions to tl.e people who may inhabit them; or II, instead of extending the Alissonrl compromise line toFthe Pacifio, shsll prefer to submit the legal and eon titotioaal quesUons which may arise to tbe decision of judicial tribnnils, as was proposed in a. bill which passed the Seoele atyour last ses sion, an adjustmeut may he eneetcd in this raoiie. lr the whole aubiect be referred to the Judiciary, all Darta of the Union would cheerfully acquiesce in the final decision of t e tnouna created by tbe uonsmuuon loi the settlement 01 ail queationa wntcn may arise ona-r mo lOQiiuuuon, treaties, and laws of the United Stetea." Ul the soundness ot the opinions Here ex pressed, 1 never entertained a doubt. These were justly .regarded, during'the whole session which preceded the close of Air. Polk'd admin istration,and the inauguration of General Tay lor, as the leading doctrines not only of South ern statesmen, but also of the Democratic party. Not only was the Cabinet of President Polk committed to these doctrines, but his party in Congress espoused the same principles; and these principles gained strength during the whole of that session, to such an extent that good men throughout the country regarded them as the ark of their political eafery from the threatening evils arising out of our political ac qui'itiocs. '"J The bouse of Representatives contained a airmail "majority, as we have seen, in opposition to ihe last measure recommended by President Polk, which was the bill I had introduced at the previous session ; and as many n ho had opposed that bill avowed themselves friendly to the meas ure recommended by him, of awaiting the action of the people in the formation ot State govern ments, both in California and New .Mexico, I acquiesced in the general sentiment which fa vored that couise of policy, because it would as effectually settle the whole controversy when the State should be admitted, as the bill I had proposed for submitting the question to the judi cial tribunals; and 1 was desirous to avoid the opposition of such as having once voted against the bill of peace I had proposed, Iro n the mere pride of political con-isteucy, would proiably persevere in doing so. I llioofht then, and think yet, that that bill presented by far the most chuibie mode of deciding the question that could be suggested. With President Polk, I did not doubt that 'all parts of the Union would cheerfully acquiecse in the final decision of the tribunal created by the Constitution for the sctlleincnt of all ques tions arising under the Constitution, treaties, and las of the United Str.tes." Upon ihe forma tion of territorial governments, judicial tribunals were necessarily lo be established ; and the Constitution commanded us, in the erection of such tribunals, to make the necessary regula tions for civing to the Supreme Court its appel lite jurisdiction. "This provision in the bid was therefore a measure, in my view, imperatively demanded of Congres, should territorial gov ernments be established. But no such measure was necessary, in case it should be determined that Congress should not interfere, in tho lan guage o! President Polk, " for the brief period which would intervene oeiore uaiuurnia anu New Mexico would be admitted as States into the Union" events which he declared " it was highly probable would soon occur. Influenced by these considerations, rny-own sentiments on this subject were thus far eutiro'y in coincidence with Southern statesmen anu me leading meno' the Democratic party itself. It was at this stage of the progress orthis agi tation that I was honored by President Taylor with a place in his Cabinet. Loud and long continued cheering. Coining into power wuh a substantial majority against him in both Hous es, his great aim and end being the harmony and happiness of the country, he natur.illy, and, as I thought, wisely, coticluded that it would best conduce to the successful adjustment of these questions, to carry out the policy suggested by his predecessor, anu sustaineu, as i nave stated, by the very party which opposed his own elec tion. He sought to mule no party issue out o! the controversy, b.l deeply deprecated the geo graphicil divisions which would neccsstnly a rise out of such an issue. Upon the organiza tion of the first Congrtss after his inaugutation, he recommended it to awaittbeaciiouof the peo nle in the tonnitiun of Stale Governments in the new Territories, and exprcs-cd the sitneu- pmion uh his piedecessor, that these events would probably soon occur. It wjs apparent mat v tr.H mean-1, ine vexed question us to the poerand duty of Congress to interdict slavery within tin se territories would be avoided, uiih-iut doing violence to thu feel ings or prejudices of enher section of the coun try; anil when lis California mess Jgu was sent lo the House of Representatives, recommending tins course of policy, the opposition press of the country burst forth in one general outcry that be had but adopled the iesulutins and principles of the Democratic party, and copind the recom mendation of President Polk. (Laughter.) The comolaint was lint be h.id proposed nothing new ; and while a studied effort was made to heap praises on those who, it was alleged, had origin ated these sufgc-itlons, be was denounced iu un measured terms for his ' imbecility'' in merely follow. ins in Ihe footsteps of otheis. 1 heir cen sure under such circumstances was the highest encomium that could have been bestowed upon m. (Great applause.) Il is well known to many of you, my fellow citizens, lhat I was opposed lo the acquisition ot these territories. I never voted for such an acquisition. The Legislature of this Slate had instructed me to vote againat tne annexation 01 any new territory, without a prohibition of slave ry within its limits. I obeyed these instructions"; and, in pursuance of them, I voted for the res- . . .... . r- 1 , IJ-l tnction, when tne i reaty oi uuaaaiupo maaigo was before the Senate. It is known to most of you that, in common with many others with unom I was Rccuston.eu to acr, i preuicieu tne evils which have since fallen upun ihe country in consequence of the purchase of California and New Mexico. But when that territory had been acquired, I felt bound, as a friend of the Union, to promote its harmony by any and every meas ure which would prevent the alienation of one p ntion of the cuuniry from tho other, or the or ganization of geograph.cal parlies within it. I dill not believe, and do not nvv believe, lhat there was any danger of disunion from the adop tion of ihe measures proposed by Preeidents Polk and Taylor. (Applause) 1 read ihe speeches ot gentlemen of great distinction, who painted in vivid colors the hor rors of disunion, and predicted, in melancholy jereiiHiids, the total subversion ol our who'c con- teileraled sytleiu, in tne event oi tuc auiuissiou of New Mexico and CaIilorma as Slates of ihis Union. Laughter. The flights of oratory on these topics were interesting exhibitions of ge nius. The pathos and effect with which the di-solution ot the confederacy and the conse quenos of civil war were depicted in Congress, made dep impressions on the country, and, in common with others, I confess that I admired r 11 ow csoaiogly the blood and tears were dxawa.a Great Laughter. But 1 never seriously believ ed a syllable ot ine oiory that there was danger to this glorious Union, arising out of waiting for the action of the people ol the territories iu Ihe creation of their own domestic iustilutions,or of acknowledging their right of self-government, by the admission of the Slates into this Union. I would not turn un my heel to pluck a feather from the plume of any of those distinguished orators who, under the belief tint such means were necessary to save tire Union, kept Con gress and the whole country in a' state of con tinual agitation for about ten months, and who, having raised the ghost of disunion, a Iter wards obtained the credit of. laying it. Laughter. My faith, in the perpetuity of our glorious Be puulic rests on a sumewbat belter foundation than liirirs. A believe it was Dotal any. moment in the power of any'of them no, not of. all the members of both Howe combined to dissolve bis UBieo. I firmly believe that tbe first seri CBf, palpable and tangible overt act of trewoB would have been succeeded by tbe degradation of the traitors.- (Great appltue.) The blessings flqwing from -n is Union ae too deeply seated in the hearts -of the American I - f .1 IT . 1 I 1 ireopie i or mem to suuer any Titimuer oi aema cogues, whether in or out of Cwmcss. to snatch from them this priceless inheritance.. I have1 lived too long in public life, and. seen too much of public men and their, policy. to mistake tbe ravings of a few, madmen, in ettfeer section of the Union, tor tbe decisions of TSole communi ties resolutely bent on their ormind their coun try s ruin. I smile at Ihe strurgrsof the poli tician who seeks to attain party' asSendaney for himself or his friends, by endeavoring- to float higher up than any others upon-the waves of sectional excitement, there is .no danger in these demonstrations, so long as the great Amer i:an heart the heart of the people, (I do not mean of Congress) remains sound. Great ap plause. Isanlaesgh at theefTbrtf of the politi cal fanatic or madman who strives to make it appear to either section of the Union tfiat its is s better friend to it than any one else, nd, to. gain distinction, "out-Herods Herod, and overdoes Termagant" Laughter. 'There. is general ly, I say, no Jlanger iajM tfje itany auuhose 'who preach 'and aUempUto- practise "absolute treason and disunion; and, indeed, there is gen erally very little danger even to them. It'js "a valiant flea that eats his "breakfast on the lip ofa linn;" but ho is in no peril, while his depreda tions remain too insignificant to attract notice. Laughter. The orations made to show that disunion would be the consequence of granting ths right ofsclf government to the people of the Territo ries were fine. The praises ot the Euphemlst in the Monastery were well merited. " Marvel ous fine words," said dr.me Gendeuning, "mar velous fine words, neighbor Hopper, are they not?" "Bravo words very brave words very exceeding pyrt words," answered the rilfer; "nevertheless, to speak my mind, a lippy if bran were worth a bushel o' ihem." Great 1-iujhter. The greatest embarrassment both to the Pres ident and to the country the principal ols! ruc tion to all legislative measures arose out of the futile effort made during the last session of Con gress lo embody in one bill on this subjectmeas ures absolutely incongruous, or having no proper connection with each other. When the Statu of California presented herself for admisshn in to the Union, and the President had distinctly placed that measure as the very corner stsne of bis whole system of policy in regard to tfo new territories, there did not exist in either braich of Congress a sufficient number of opposing votes to prevent the passage of the necessary bill. But those who took the lead in tho recenlmeas ure of adjustment having resolved that m man should vote for tho admission of California who would not agree to vote at the same timo ten millions to Texas for a release of her claim lo a portion of New Mexico, as well as Territorial Governments for the latter and for Utah.- the difficulties which had before surrounded the question, immediately thickened and spread a deeper darkness around us. A majoiity of pi ther House might have been had ataty time for either of the measures embraced in tbe bill sep arately; but the majorities for each of iheso measures would have been composes of very different individuals. More than fifty Northern members of Con gress were willing to do justice to the measure proposed by President Taylor for the admission of California, who were unwilling lo vote the money for the Texas boundary, or llie clauses for the organization of the Territories without the anti-slavery proviso. On the other band ma ny Southern members of Congress were willing to vote for one or both of the two last measures, who were unwilling to vote for the Crt. Dis posed as 1 was, nay, even anxious, that any measure approximating lo a i.eitlfment of the questions before us should be adopted sincere ly desirous as I was to get rid of the noise of tho alarmists and agitators in Congress, who were daily making more hue and cry on these tonics than all the rest of ihe country together, lashing themselves into fury, frightening -the timid at home, and creating apprehensions among nil Ihe friends of rational freedom abroad I would have been at any time truly rejoiced to find the doorway for legislation on other subjects -nil nf which had been completely, excluded by the in troduction of what was called the "Omnibus bill" again opened, the country quieted, and the agitators silenced. This Omnibus bill hung in the doorway more than six months, while those who attempted to drive it through, finding its passage obstructed from its own unwieldy composition, shouted at the top of their lungs to alarm Ihe community. S'ill it hnng in the en trance, jammed on both sides, and for a long pe riod it could bo neither got in nor out Laugh ter. An excuse became necssary for ils probable failurc,and instantly the President was attacked becausa he had not recommended it It was forthwith resolved that he should bear the blame of i's defeat. A new coalition, which had been formed to push i: through by main strength, in opposition to the real wishes of Congress, began io denounce, not only the President, but the membprs of his Cabinet, because it xcnvld not pr. Laughter. A meeting was called in this city, to express public opinion in its favor. An other meeting naturally followed in opposition to it, at which resolutions were adopted compli mentary to the administration, and particularly so to some of ils 'members. It is ncedjess for mo to say to you lhat I did not prompt either of Ihe meetings, and knew nothing of Ihe proceed ings of cither until they were published. Yet when the proceedings of the Jatter were laid before the Senate of the United States, a charge was distinctly made that I was the auth or of the resolutions ; and when that charge was denied by one of your Senators my esteemed friend, Mr. Wales, who was present a charge which you all know to be utterly and absolutely untrue, it was persisted in, and I believe never retracted. A'l this was but'a part of a general plan to lay the failure of the Omnibus on Pres ident Taylor and his administration. But Prov idence seems to have" determined that this scheme should fail and be exposed. In the midst of all the clamor abont the perils of the Union, the President died, and a new administration came into power. Some weeks elapsed, during which the proposed compromise, instead of gain ing, lost strength' even in the Senate. In the House there was never a possible chance for its passage. It consisted' of several heterogeneous details, each of which bad been originated in some separate resolution or bill proposed at tbe previous session, or on some former occasion. To carry it through, it was amended in any and, every shape by which it could get another vote; and finally, thongh'not at all in tho shape in which it was originally introduced, the whole project, after .distracting the country for so long a period, and effectnally' preventing the passage of any measure for the public good on any other subject! was voted down. -This was -long after the death of President Tavlor and the dissolu tion of his cabinet, and when it was made pal pable to the world, that it was impossible be could bo the cause of its defeat The obstruc tion caused by thus bill being once removed,-the way was opened for the first effective motion to ward the settlement of these questions, which was promptly' made by a distinguished Senator from Maryland Mri Pearee. He- grappled at once with the principal' difficulty attending the whole 'adjustment, ' the question of the Texas boundary: He took lhat tingle mtasmt by ittetf, made a new boundary line, different from and more satisfactory, than that proposed in the Omr nibus ; and to him was etatiBently tor more than any .other doe tbe. credit of, iu passage. Ap plause.! j. . - . He saw that this would ly the foundation for the success of -the other necessary acta of legis lation. KnowiBsthat it was iumaaible to lift the enonaotu wsjgaiol.all Umm tacoagraow e- surcs at one .lime, in one mass, he separated them, and, as othnr men inordinary life are ac customed to conquer difficulties, ha resolved to take them in detail. He did me the honor lo consult me on the subject of his bill before its introduction, and I did not hesitate to advise him to persevere in the course hp proposed. The result was soon seen. The bill he introdu ced, unclogged by other measures, -was passed in a few days without difficulty, and by a large majority ; I have never doubled lhat, if the Same course had been pursued at the commencement of the session, Congress and.the-nation twould have been saved six months of tinnecessarydis- iracuon and alarm. Applause.J Viewing all the measures. iu common with this subject at this time as they passed. Congress 1 am far from sayiug they "were the best that could have been' adopted. The settlement of Ihe Texas boundary by the Judiciary. or the Congress of the United States, as President Taylor recommended, would 'have been, inmv judgment, marc consistent with tbe honor and dignity of the government, and would have sav ed us from the effects of a precedent which will be invoked on some future occasion, when soma Stale shalLseek ,to tke .thtlaw.-in'o' hero-wo hands, to induce the government to submit to imposition, under the pretext of buying peace. lint aa adjustment ot the boundary by Con gress or the Judiciary bad become impractica ble, in consequence of the encouragement held out to Texas to resist uutil she should be paid for her acquiescence. As to the Territorial gov ernments of New Mexico and Utah, I, nf course, would be among the last lo object to their organ ization on the principles of my own bill which passed the Senate lo years before. These ierntoml bills provide substantnlly fur Ihe very measures I had mvself proposed and strongly re- commended ; and individually, I was perlcctiy content with the adoption of my own scheme of settlement, so far as these territories were con cerned. 1 should have been satisfied with ihe admission of a State government in New Mex ico, as well as California, with a constitution set lling the question of slavery according to the will oi bur own peop'c. But I have not yet ceased to deplore, and I fear that I shall hereaf ter hive much moic reason to deplore, the fail ure of the bill I had proposed, on account of the dissatisfaction expressed by the South with the admission of the state of California. ,. So far as regards California, tbe adjustment of the vexed question by submitting 11 lo ihe judi cial tribunals would, as Mr. lVIk affirmed, and as 1 now repeat, have terminated the controver sy forever, without any of that dissati'faclion now raging in tho South. It was impossible lhat any Southern state, and especially that South Carolina could have continued the agita tion, as il now exists, with tho votes nf Calhoun, Butler, Burt, Rhctt, and all the distinguished men ol the delegation of South Carolina in fav or of ihe bill, backed by the votes of. Mason, Hunter. Davis, of Mississippi, Berrien, and eve ry Southern Senator and Representative, except Mc-srs. Badger, Toombs, Stephens, and three or four others. Tho settlement of the question by this mode would have been final and conclusive; it would have been saustactory to all parties. Our people are a law-abiding people; and the whole proposition simply was that both parties should agree to go lo law before the Supreme Court of the United States, and abide the result. Duty honor, and self-respect would have com pelled all sections of the country to eubmit to ihe decision. Nomtn feels himself disgraced hv it. who is beaten in a law suit on a sheer question of law, after a full and fair trial. m. I I .1 . I C 1 lie measure wutua nave iaveu tne uuuur nt both parlies, in any event. A leading Southern statesman, with whom I was associated in the Senate at the time, often eaid lo me, during llie progress of the bill through that boJy, lhat let the decision go as it might, the honor of the South was saved by tl e tender to her of a fair trial before an impartial tribunal, and she would be satisfied. But when this bill was defeated in the Houe, the impression as immediately trade upon the Southern mind tlut, as a fair trial had been refused, there was a deliberate intention ou the oilier side to disicgard Southern rights ai.d trample them in the dust river since the ses sion of IS-17, that keliug has rankled in the Southern bosom : " Jtrrtl iWtri lethalis orunro." And now the admission of California, wi ll a constitution prohibiting slavery, without the be nefit f t-e trial d -n.anded by the South, has produced an alienation frooi.liio rest of the cun lederacy, among some mi. taken geuticu.eti in that legion, which 1 pray to God in his mercy, may soon give way lo the more generous im pulses, which properly belong to and grace the Southern character. And now, my follow citizens, 1 hive lo say, that I have seen nothing in ihe incisures adopt ed by Congress lo which I hive referred, which should exciie any portion of this Union to resist ance against ihe established authorities ot the country ; and 1 think it is the duly of every trood c tizen, whether he docs or docs net think lhat other and butter measures mighl hive been sub stituted in their place, not only to submit In the laws which have be?n enacted, but to stand by and support the government, if necessary, lo the lull extent ol bis ability in carrying mose laws into successful cxvcuiion. That President Fill more will do his whole duty in this respect, I have not a shadow of doubt ; and I hope you are all willing to join with me in sustaining him iu tbe discharge of that duty. Applause. In, this patriotism, aud that ot the members ot his Cabinet I have the utmost confidence. I have no reason to believe that cither of them would have refused his aid, at any moo.oot, to the settlement ot these vexed questions on the basis proposed by President Taylor. They have acquiesced in what appeared to them to be the only practicable scheme of adjusting these dit- hculties. They seek lo sustain the Constitution and the laws of their country, and I honor them for their, purpose. While they stand by the U nion, I shall be with them and for them. If there be any one sentiment in my bosom more deeply cherished than any and all others, it is that of love and veneration for Ihe institutions which our fathers have left us, and for the country, the whole country, covered and protecied by the A merican Constitution. (Great applause.) There will be no hope left for mo or inino when this Union shall be broken up ; and should that me lancholy period ever arrive, I shall be a wander er without a home. (Applause.) I can take no pait for one session against the other. To me the preservation of this Union is imtter of in terest above all others, aud if necessary, I shall be found true to those wlu sustain it to tne last drop of my blood and my breath. (Protracted applause.) California was denied by Congress the pro tection of the laws of the United Stilus. Threats of separation began lo be uttered by those who found thc.nselves thus deserted ; and to assure them of the paternal care of the gov ernment, and its intentions to assist ihem in any suitable mode, a special messenger, Mr. King of Georgia, was dispatched to California. He. knew and communicated to them tho wishes of the President for their happiness and welfare, and his desire that they should enjoy the protec tion of the United Slates, and the benefit of a government of their own choice. This mission which we know was attended iith highly bene ficial results, In allaying the discontent then growing in that Territory", was soon inade, by unscrupulous politicians, the ihe'me of obloquy and reproach- The "President 'and his Cabinet were charged, without one shadow of truth to justify the accusation, with having instigated the Calilornians to exclude slavery, in tne formation of their etate.Constiluliun. Tbe .falsehood and contemptible malignity of all the calumnies' on thu subject have recently been put to rest for ever by the publication of a correspondence be tween Mr. Jung and .the Naval and Military Connaandeis on tfia CaitfornU, station. These calumnies, like a hundred others of a similar character, served the purposes of the hour when tliey originated, and will Jioon sink into oblivion or contempt ,. . Next in magnitude tOThja question of. slavery, among the causes of embarrassment which sur rounded tbe Adininistration or Gen. Taylor, was one to which I.hjye aMMbriefiy adverted, a- riemg out ot apnoiatments'lo office, lie was chirged by, the opposition press with proscrip tion or bis opponents;' and many ot I no disap pointed office seekers) of his own party, of course joined ;ip the. clamor against hi.n. It,w:ll be louna, upon an examination oi ine iaci4, mat during ihe;whole'period of his Administration, he did not remove u'sulficient number to give bis friends, an equal share of the offices of the government ; and as to the -propriety of the no minations to office made by him; one single fact is sufficient to put' at rest lorever the slanders of his enemies. Although lie necessarily made, more nominations lo the. Senate than any other President ot tbe United states ever did in an equal period of time, yet- fewerwere rejected by that body than on any former occasion after a nolitical revolution. . Annlatise.v. . ... ' ir 1 . llttn. n. I..L..n .. ll.. . SI.. IklQM. . 1 1 , in. ii i. u. .iHiinju vsuio mw umttr, lit tc he was sustained by a large parly majority ill' the Senate. 'Twenty years after, when Gen. Taylor came into power, there was a 1 arse ma jority in the .senate opposed to bun. Vet more appointments were rejected By that body in 18-29-30 than in that of 1849-50. It is a very easy thing to charge either proscription or im proper partiality. Few are willing to admit that their own peculiar merits do not entitle them to preference; and the accusation of injustice is too ofien a tribute due from an uncuccessful ap plicant, to his own wounded vanity. Another difficulty which presented itself al the outset of General Taylor's adtnmistraon, consisted in the number nf private claims against the government, which ouaht to have been de cided by the preceding administration, but were Ielt as so many legacies of trouble to their pre decessors. The decisions made under the ap propriate heads of departments upon these claims, nhiiher for or against the, claimants, were of course seized upon as subjects of com plaint I decided in favor ofoneot these claims, after fully investigating all the facts myself, and after taking the precaution to ascertain theopin ion of the Attorney General on the subject, which concurred with my own. Bicked also by the opinion of the former Secretary of the Trea sury, Mr. vv olkur, and llie Hon. Joseph It. In gersoll, formerly Cba r.nauofihe Judiciary Com-! first to welcome her into tho family of nations.' mittce in the House, as well as f several Coin-! Applause. mittces of both Houses, and following a lougj He directed our Minister's! Constantinople,! list of precedents in reference to the subject 1 tender to the Scitan a free passage to the unfor decided in fayor of tha claimants for a part of! tunate Kosaulh and his companions in captivity, their demands and rejected thu other part on board an American frigate then lying in tha The columns of the uartv press were forthwith i Bosphorus, prepared to bring them to the Amer- opened against Ihe claim, vbich was as palpa- bly just 10 the extent lo which I had allowed it I as any claim that ever existed. This was the ' Lie la f rancia claim. I was assaned with still ; great ferocitw fur disallowing tbe tobacco claim of M. Porte. It soon became apparent , lhat no decision could possibry be made by any i head of Department, whether for or against the government, which would not become the topic of malignant censure. One of these old claims. which had been referred to a previous Secretary of the Treasury, came before Sir. Meredith. He referred it to Ihe proper law officer ot Ihe gov ernment the Attorney General, who, after a full review of the whole subject, decided the ques tion in lavor ot Ihe claimant. The justice of bis decision would never have been impeached but for the unfortunate, fact as it turned out alter the money had beeu paid, that, the Secretary of War, Mr. Crawford, of Geor gia, was interested in it; a circumstance which was entirely unknown to any other member of thcCabincrat the time of the decision. I did not know that there was such a claim in exist ence until many weeks afier tbe money had been paid. 1 suppose the motive which induced ihe-Secreiary ol War to conceal his interest iu ihe claim was one ol delicacy, but I have a per-' feet conviction, withuut entertaining a doubt of the justice of the demand, that had the fact of 1 iin.non tor ihe purpose ot maintaining a protec- .,!. IV . r. ,. : . l . his personal interest been know or mentioned at any Caainel met ting, before the payment of the money, no setileiti-nt of lhat claim would hive been made while Mr. Caw ford remained a member of the . d ntnis ration. (Aoplause.) His ci ndnct, in offering, as he did, to Congress to abide the judgment of the Supreme Comt ot ihe United Slates upon ihe legality of the cliim to waive every advantage of defence except that ariMng out of the law itself, and lo return '.he noncy in the event ofa decision against lum by tne Court, should have exempted him frum thalabusi: which has been so profusely and unjustly lavished upon him. Indeed, my lel:ow citizen?, so constantly was my attention occupied with tbe proper dunes ul my own department, thu very little tune was left me to Ii ok after those o! others. Bat 1 MiKt in justice add, that so far as my observa Hon extended, the business ot every other de partment during the administration cf General I aylor, was conducted, notwithstanding thu un exampled cmbtrias-menU which surrounded him and them, ilh a degree or energy, and industry, and integrity, which has never been surpassed. This tribute is justly due from n.c lo my asso ciates in that Cabinet, whose kindness and cour tesy to me, on all occasions, merited my warm est acknowledgments. Tuerc has never existed an administration in this Government in which there was grca'er har mony ami concert of action. In the gentlemen who composed it the President entertained un bounded confidence, and they retained that con lidence to the last moment of his life. False hood and calumny, directed against them, as il was, from so many quarters, failed to make any impression on his mind j and he adhered to them with a tenacity which' was increased by a per fect knowledge of the injustice with which ihey were assailed. Coincidinrr in sentiment with him on all important subjects, his wish was their law; and when he heard so olten the pitiful as persion that his Cabiuet ruled, him, knowing as he did, ho tjitntully they carried out Ins own will, while they were olten made to bear the who'c responsibility of his decisions and actions, he scorned the attempts to alienate bun from those whom he had selected as his advisers. It would be difficult for any man to know. standing outside ot that Cabinet, the extent ol the injustice done to lis respective members by the device, which was as cunnuiiilv conceived as a was industriously propagated, tint the ap pointments and even tbe actions ol Ihe cxeuu live government were dictated by the Cabinet, and not by llie 1 resident himself. 1 have re peatcdly known a Cabinet minister abused for months by the whole opposition press ot the country, on account of-anappiintmenUwhich he had never buggcsicu or recommended, but which had been ordered by tbe President alone. The unsuccessful applicintfor office often found a balm for his wounded feelings in the belief, hich he chose fondly to cherish, that he was the victim of some Secretary, though he was a rctiiemeut would embarrass and distress him, I favorite of the President Those and similar fUl that however necessary it had become for slanders on the members of the administration! my private interest to withdraw,. yet 1 could not were suffered too generally to pass without con-1 leave bun. vvlwe ouch, were hut convictions. tradtction. They were too laoorously engaged ' Great Applause. in the discharge'of their respective duties, toj His iiifi ieiics with me was such, that I nerer take upon themselves the task of refuting the should havo venlurod aain to, press the subject thousand falsehoods which either pary.or per-jusqti liinij and-hpu b'ehad Joneirpcaking upon sonal malice was constantly hatching against' the-subjeel, I, ielt thatl. would as" soon have run them ; conscious thai, when the passions and away troui the uattle of Buenu. Visia as to havo prejudices of tbe hour should have passed away 1 deserted him, Aud. now. rcmeu.bciiinr wrhia justice would be done. to them tor the fidelity and untiring zeal wttb wntcn they discharged their duties, amid greater obstacles than ever, obstructed lb j coure'of any previous Adminis tration, Ton foreign policy of ' President Taylor' was marked by an adlieicnce to the principles incul - auuereucu iu tne principles incui 'arewell Address of Ibe t'aiher of cate HMhe f arewell Address ot Ihe f ather ot his country. lie sought no w&a of 'aggrandize- j mcnt or conquesc Peace and commerce witk foreign nations, on. -fair and honorable terms, were the objects ha aimed at He renrt!ed war; with the horrors and dangers of which no mm was more intimately acquainted, as a meas tiru never to bejesoned to, until every effort of honorable diplomacy should be exhausted." 1 la tho front of his-wholeisyslera of policy .-ajihuj rrupeet, Ij mzciiestedar scrupulous anxiety" to . nviintaiu our neutral obligations and the faith of treaties ; and 3ns principles were folly illustrated' in the course hrxpursucd towards Denmark and Spain. Un the otheruaml, no mm was more sensi tive on points of national honor; -and the promp titude and enercy with which he demanded and recovered-Ihe'forcifjner who, afierhavino- sounht an asylum on our shores, was- kidnapped and carried to Havaaa,.at the very moment when bo .was miintainm? in tlioir true spirit our traatv stipulations with Spain by the suppression of the uuuan expedition, was an evidence of that stem determination, which never abandoned him, to maintain, under all circuristances, and at all hazards, tho hanar oGhis own country. Whilo abstaining; from all interference wjtli ihe doracs-..- tiebcttcems ollpreign nations and al! entang ling alliances, he did not withhold from such as maintained the republican system, or struggled to throw of the shackles of despotism, the full and free expreision of his own generous sympa thies. i"or he was a republican, not merely in name, but m heart Applause. He rejoiced in the happiness of Ins lellow men throughout the w, ild, and his bosom throbbed with hone for the success of every effort made in either hemis phere for ihe sore.nl of thosn liberal principles upon which he profoundly believed, their happi ness depended. At the first dawn of the Rev olution in Hungary, he was ready lo recognize liei independence, if she should bo found ablo to maintain it; nnd at the verv moment when an un, nncipleJ press was engaged in denouncing ht n as most friend:y to the despotic powers of Ea.-ope, he was directing a mission to cvinca thf interest of this Governit.enl in the noble ef fort of Hungary to btcome free. Great ap plause. When her unhappy people tell beneath th- b-tyoncls of the Czar, he still publicly and prmdly avowed, in a message to Congress, tha ui xietv he had felt for their welfare. Though.' sacl he, 'Hungary has fallen, and her patriotic children are now m exile or in chuns, I am still free to say mat, had she succeeded in maintain ing her inuepenuence, we s.louid have been tho 'ican shore. He instituted tbe first mission to the Helvetic Kepubiic. He thought the period had arrived when the strength of his own coun- try aud her fuirli stand among the nations of ths earth, justified and demanded of her government to take a new pos'tion in reference to the affairs ot foreign countries not by assuming an atti- tuue of hostility or by uttering threats of defi ance to any, but by the manifestation of tho strictest regard for the commercial and political rights of the American people as connected with those countries No man ever sought more earnestly to prevent the interference of foreign govemuien's in the affairs of the American con tinent Vet he desired rather to prevent foreign aggression upon the rights of the weak Amer ican republics, hy remonslra'nco in their behalf than by threatening hostilities in their defence. in the negbttntion ot" the- Central American treaty to proclaim the ratification of which was the last official act of his life he insisted on a clause, now to be found in lhat treaty, which de nied to Groat Britain any right in future to colo nise, fortify, or assume or exercise any dominion w iatever over an pirt of Central America or the Mosquito Coi-t - a clauso which expressly lei oi Js to Ureal B'ltain tbe right in use any pro- teeiorate lor thusmrpossot exeicismg dominion, air! also forbids to lr r any right to assume do- lor.ite. II- tum-i It desired to recognize tho .Vcaragnan tit!" by the Nicaraguan treity, but lelt Ihe question, af.cr submitting thit treaty to th : Sena e, wnli an avowal of his willingness lo rau'y it, to be d -eided as the Senate shuuld think pr per. 1 left the Departmenr of State before the Sen- ai acted aw the stioieci, ami of course, I have no knowledge of their decision. But I have seen, within a few days pist, a statement pur- p Ttiiig lo emurai e an ntncial letter from Mr. Ch afield, ill- Br, fish Charge d'Affairs, to tha Minister of Fcrei n 11 1 tons of Nicarajur, la which it is declared that the treaty negotiated between tins urernment and lhat of Great B itain. "expressly r. cogh.zes tc Mosnuito Kingdom, as a-ide from th i rights which you (tho Nicaragua Mims'-r) pretend Nicaragua bason the Coast." If ir. C.dirield ever wrote such a letter, which I cnufc's I greitly doubt, he has been guilty of .t ;'CrveiSion of the Treaty which no honorable i.overiiment could delend for a mo ment, au.i which llie Br.tish -authorities, I aut well satisfied, would disdain to aoopt The objects aimed ai by thu President in lhat treaty were to obtain for our country a speedy passage to the I'acilic. not only by a great ship canal, but by any aud every other canal or rail way across the Isthmus, which divides North from South America to secure the perfect neu trality of the vast region embraced in lhat Isth musto save the expense of maintaining any naval or military powers to protect these routes it guard them ogainst blockade in time of war to bling iuio uluser relations with us our possessions on the Pacific and to dedicate the highways to tho use of all nations which might agree to extend to them tho same protection wnich tbe United S ales and Great Britain had guaranteed. For various reasons it is not my purpose to discuss these subjects in detail, aud I have only gl.nccj at ibis one fur the purpose ol preventing misconception in regard to one of the moot important ac-s of General Taylor's ad ministration. lApplatise.) The. multiplicity and extent of our foreign re lations, winch were coi.slamly increasing in in terest and importance, mado the duties of tha departmeiiLovgt, which it was my foriuueto pre side iu the highest degree burdensome and labo rious. Such was the pressure of public business arising trout this and ntlier causes, lhat I was compelled to devote .myself to it lo the utter ex clusion and co-. qoent derangement of my pri vae aud r.ersona.1 atlans. 1 was therefore anx ious, as socn as too Mute of the ncgcciations en trusted to my cuarg-r by thu President would permit it io retire again lo private life. It was lor this reotun tnat, in June last, 1 tendered to the President, .hrough the hand of my personal friend, the Attorney General, my resignation, accompanied by a. pressing request that he would permit mo lo retire and would appoint my suc- I and when he informed me and my friend that mv iic reiustu io accept me resignation ; how short a limn alter litis interview his manly frame and nohL-heart were hid co.d in ine em- braccof. death, I rejoice lhat I jicluea to nis ; wishes, at any sacnaca of ease, health, orfur 'tltne. Applause. Mv lellow ci zi at, it will remain to me a sun- 'ject of proud" i lu-utafloii.thaTI enjoyed the fer feet confidence una intm-aie incul great and good win, dur