OCR Interpretation

Vermont watchman and State journal. (Montpelier, Vt.) 1836-1883, June 24, 1852, Image 1

Image and text provided by University of Vermont

Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84023200/1852-06-24/ed-1/seq-1/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

' ' s Ci
14 f
VOL. XLVT, NO. 31. ..WHOLE NO. 2384.
lUclcIjninn & Slate 3onml.
pi ni.isiir.ii uvr.nv tiiuiindav muii.s'inii.
,.l- V,S a.h in kd.ftnt $9,0nif lftvmtit it rwt
,i t.lvnc , internal ilwiji cfiitgtl nam the ciwl of
, t i , i iitt,rainnutortfAiteiiiHcrlptln,tdtetll-
. ii. I rimiinUiiirMtkHi., anil .tklMm ItSge payment fin
"li'tfc. i.fi. M, J. N. rOAIKROY,
II,... k'.. l.l, - II. HtllTII
, ,i, i r. r. mimVN,
H, , .il, I II HI,R S. DANA,
I . r. w. ri n i i ,
l ,i,i W. SlOI'T,
M .t-l.fi. I.I, i:. 1). Pl'TNAM,
l n-il . , J. I . N'OVB",
l ,i,i u i, Ji:-K JOH.SVO.N'.Jr.
til P. l.l. K. HHITIl,
ii-.,,r, , l Aiti.on i'Aiirr.NTnrt,
I'li, lif't, A. T. IIAN' IKIFT.
Smjih H.nlwli'k, I', fillll'M MS,
iw-, JlMKlM! r. R.W.MONI,
Pti.ir.i1, VI 1,1.1 AM llOLMN.
-,. ih K!tIT,M.I ll.WIEI, VV. JUDO,
I ,il.nilf, JI'.KKMIAII rO-ITP.R,
V .n-li. I.i nnd l itt.lon, OK.V.M1E SMITH,
fit ANKI.IN A. WHtiSH I'
o ,',,...,t, ml II, nl. urt, H C PMl'lll,
v ii. it li i n niuis,
.it. jona Anaot
Modification of the Tariff.
Spccdi or flon J. 3Icachani,
In the House of Representatives, June 9
and 10, 1852.
Tin' House being in llio Commiltee of
the Whole on tlia Stale of the Union on
tic Indian appropriation bill
Mr Mr ti n m said :
Mr Clidrman, Other members have
i,in occasion to discuss the opinions of
I'n ir 1 1 icns or parties, teal or prospec
i, if "Milium that have nothing to do
ii u i ihe lei;inlaltofi of tha country. Ileliev
1 1 1 i ! 1 1 I Into no commission to make
1 c i ii I. ii . or candidates, or Presidents,
! tin- liberty of introducing a subject
1 i ij.'in.iiidi immediate action by this
1 lute sought an earlier occasion,
. I . e i it would be granted on lr,e
nt' Message. Hut six month ol
-1 .ii line pasd, and the ruling
null a controling majority, hate
n fit to u'ivc the weighty matters in
ije nf our excellent President the
iiiu-v nf cuiisideratioii or rt-lerence,
weeks since, a gentleman from
M ,
Mi-- otiu-ctH, (Mr. Ilantoal,) while advo
,t ii.' a grant of land to n Missouri rail
- hi in k occasion to lecture on the duliFs
i N irihea-1 men. The peakcr held n
'uiiar position The last Congress gran--d
to Minius 2,7:10.000 acres of land to
ii i! i railroad. The Slate Ireed the land
i ixnion till I he tune of sale, and then
it into the hands of a company in Bos
i i i i I New. York to build the road. The
. 'Y'tiv is a small one; the gentleman is
ol i lie number, and a leading director,
i r. it In letter (holding It up) showing
! v ,l io of these lands, granted to be the
tin ihr liiion, and "lying along the
.i-iti'-i thoroughlare on the continent."
n Imi turd me minimum price, uut liai
' i.v maximum uusetllrd.
Il"lnspul the price at 810 per acre,
ln r acre, and it "intrinsic value,"
' n lit power of production ut $29 AO
:t utr If sold at the first price, tlue
n l- II neld the comp iny ,'j27,iU)0,000 ;
i i'd a the M'coml price, they will give
Ml.il) OIIO: if nolcl al the llnrd price.
i . v .11 afford !0,3:10,000. Senator
i l i -m lii Mated the coit of the whole
r ..id .it tti.yilll.OOO ; that being true, the
'mil can lie built and letve a profit to the
I . mpr.iiy, at the lowest cellmate ol the gen-
in m, ol uu,4tiu,uuu ; ins secono e.-u-i.
no will give them a profit of C!l 1,0.11),
iHIII, Ins Inchest estimate will leave a profit
thirteen members of the company of
74 t:t.),llt)0. No wonder this company
i ii .illord to employ an eminent cabinet
..T, (Hon. It. J. Walker,) to feast with
t e Hariims and Itolhchilds of London,
'uli' making a loan for his employers.
1 lie Democrats have stoutly warred against
niirnal improvements by the General Gov.
' tn'ii. ut ; against diverting the public lands
" 'in luo National Trea-ury ; and against
-!l monopolies in the hands of corporation.
It .n, therefore, strange to see the gentle
i hii, st It-proved so long and to coiisistaut
4 Ue nocrat, striking otf in a tangent Iroin
'he iloctruips of his parly, and advocating
'til internal improvement tributary to his
'm, at the expense of the nation ; himself
i" '-pecine sharer in the most enormous
ram (if public land; and himself a Demo-!
iritic member and director in one of the
",w"t oierw helming and overshadowing
id mopuliea that ever existed on this conti-ne-it.
W lulo occupying a position, certainly :
peculiar some would have considered it
'Juicjie the gentleman volunteers his tut"
""ii to Northeast men. He predicts, aye,
'threatens, that if they do not follow his
counsel, the manufactures of wool, and
cotton, and iron, shall lako to themselves .
wings mid fly westward towards the setting
'uu. A shrewd observer asked, why he'
bd not include the manufacture of leather
tmd shoes, and make the. treachery to his.
constituents complete. Shall we now see'
the gentleman, after abandoning New Uug-i
'md for liu Western interests, move round!
"'C political zodiac to the sign of the pal-i
nietlll tin.) c.i . I. ... .. .. ill, ll.A itmillH. .
nun from S. C.
.-, on V.USIIJ UIJIIII w..-.- j
.Mr. urr,j vvno
delivered so able u free trade eulogy on the
Democratic nominee T After the delivery
of Uiat speech, 1 turned to the facts relating
lethal subiect I hud already gathered. 1
- . .. .. J .
carelullv collated the renorts ol commerce
and navigation, lean only gather facts ;i
cannot make them, and feel warranted iu I
.ImU. I l... I
-"niiiig iiui me lacis no not sustain uiw
gentleman's assertion. While waiting a
P'oper time, 1 have been instructed by the
"laiiatics of Henry C. Carey, one ol the a
.ilest writers on political economy in this
land, by (he able memorial from New
K'lgUnd; by J. G. Hayes, Esq. of this city;
ui correspondence with men ol leading in
telligence engaged in manufactures. For
much of this 1 am indebted to the able Re
presentative from Huston, (Mr. Appleton,)
d especially by an able letter from a Ver
mont farmer, (Hon. Win. Jams,) who lives
i" retirement on the banks of the Conuecti
ct' More than half a century since, as
an officer of tins Government, he travelled
through England and Spain. Ho marked
he contrast in the condition ol those coun
tries. In one, was industry, activity and
progress : in the other, indolence, inactivi
') and poverty. He looked for the causes,
for there was nothing in nature that pro
duced it. The soil and climate of Spain
was far hotter fitted fnrlho growth ofgrain,
the olive, the silk-wnim, the grape, nnd the
finest of wool. Spain till she banished
her artisans hy n process more sudden than
our?, hut not more sure took the lead of
the world in manufactures. lie then in
quired for a cause of this difference; and
found that in one, industry in commerce,
and agriculture, and manufacture was pro
tectee) from ruinous competition; in the
other, the laboring class was left unshield
ed, while the Government denended on the
mines and tropical fruits of her colonics to
pay for her foreign manufactures. , That
man came home, and was one of the carli-jest,
cst anil ablest advocates for the protection j eminent, could not borrow a dollar in the
of American labor. Now, of more than glinted money markets of Kurnpc. That
four-score years, (his eye not dimmed with net checked foreign importation, restored
ago or his tiatural force abated,) that patri- the balance of trade, and rescued from pcr
nrch watches the minutest movements of pctual infamy tho blasted credit of the coun-'
his Government affecting the honor or the try. Its design was to have a home market
intorosls of his country. Mo mourns, nnd i for the products of the bhop and the field, by '
mourns deeply, when he hears that one of having the man who makes and the man who
her sons is advocating a system that tends 1 uses in the same country. And it effected
to carry abroad all our American gold, and ' the object. The manufacture of iron in
a mortgage on all our American invest- 'created from 200 to PoO.OOO tons ; railroad!
mollis, and bring down the American labor- iron from nothing to 100,000 tons ; cotton'
er to the ho)?lessncsc, and stupidity, and , cloth from 207,000 to oOO.OOO bales ; wool-'
beggary of Spain. I have made this full eu cloth (roin r5,000,000 to 80,000,000
acknowledgment of authority to save myself pounds; the produce consumed in 1840 a
from constant quotation. Having done bovc 1SI2, in consequence of having the
this, 1 atk attention to a few points in the ; produce mid market together, was 81!M),-i
speech of the gentleman from Massachu-' 000,000. This was the rcMill of lurniiK''
1 he lirst, middle, and last idea of that
speech, runnini! through the whole, and
repealed in nvery form that can shun tan-
lology, is, that the manufacturers of wool,!
cotton, andiron, v ill depart from New-
England, New-York and Pennsylvania, and
take up their homes in the West. Ilsmild-
est interpretation is a patriotic effort to
liberalize bigoted Northeast men through
their fears. The plain Snxon of it is. an
attempt to sound a sectional alarm, and ere
ate the impression that Northeast men want
protection at the expense of the tesi of the
country. Nothing can he more unjust.
No man can make a forgery more at war
with the truth. Northeast men have looked
anxiously for the progres-s ol maniif iciures,
westward and southward. The reason may
he selfish, hut it is quite plain; ihey know
that all who nuke a fair experiment in man
ufacturing, will call out lor protection lo
labor, and they will have allies and not ri
vals. You may go, with the U-nediction
of every Northeast man, to spread your
llocks over the prairies of the West ; to
rear your lactones nt every waierUII, ami
your forges at every mine and mountain of
iron in the land. In predicting the exodus the spot with wise and practical sagacity.
of manufactures from New England, has , They havo one of the best minVs, making'
the gentleman quite forgotten tne history of the best iron in the land, as shown by re
Ihe worid ! The woolen manufactures of pealed trials at your navy-yard. Their coal,
England are now where they were first set- ore, labor, and transporlntmn i as cheap as
tied in the two Hidings of Yorkshire; the can he found any where; vet they cannot
cotton, at Manchester ; the cutlery at Shef- compete with ihe miserable foreign iron
held and Isiriinugham ; the homer) al Not-
linghain; the potteries in SialTurushire
and Bit U al Spiulfirlds. Tell .lutes ihhiiIi
I the Tunnies and Severn, as well fitted
or it, have scarce a single manufactory.
tleurv IV. brought the silk-worm and silk
iianufaclure to France : from hisdav. the
eal of the silk work has been at Lyons,
vlule other parts of France are as well n-
d.ipled lo it. Geneva has been the fountain
f clocks and watches so long, that the
n-iiiory of man runneth not to the contra-
y. .Manufactures may we trust they will
spread westward and southward; bul
ululc they can live anywhere in this laud,
they will live in Now England, the home
where their infancy was nursed. There is
the natural power, ihe Mrucutres tho ma-
Innerv. the skill, and the industry : and
thirc the laborer will not be seduced from
his employment by the agricultural rewards of Clinton, Essex, am! Franklin, New York,
on the fertile .soil of the West. The properly, real and personal, invested
The gentleman has made n comparison in furnaces, rolling nulls, mill factories, ore
of tho effects of the Units of 1842 and beds, and wood lands, for making coal, was
lf40; I regret he lias done so; but tho worth, in 1840, at least 8!J,000,000. Now
fault is his, not mine. 1 have never before it is not worth one fourth of that sum.
eeu so strong an illustration of the polili- Two-hundred forge-firt-s and six blast fur
cal value of tune, and ho makeB tho most naces produced, in 18 10, from the ore, 50,-
of it. He has two or llirco years slidinc
hi and out of his calculations; not by any
fixed rules, like those of Sir Hubert Peel,
bul ju-t lo suit his own convenience. Tho
results of two of those years 1617 and
1851 are written in a kind nf invisible,
sympathetic ink. When wanted, he reads, '
like Lafayeite iu the prison of Olmutz,
" with uncommon tcarmth, and all the fig
ures start into life; when they would be a
little troublesome in bis table, he applies
the cooling process, and they disappear,
leaving a perfect blank. He goes back
twelve or filtet'li yoars for the price of ag
ricultural products -takes the country
when sufferniL' from financial rovulsion
when it had sunk five hundred millions byjenusoof this change, Irom couipeloncy to ,
oter-importatioii when it w as drinking the
ilrwn ut :i ciiinnriiimiie tnri IT: when foreien
creditors in order lo net their nay. were
willing to take our products at any price
from "American bankrupts and then he
' .
makes a very edifying table as to prices for1
r.inr vours on either side ofthehneof 1812.
For the manufacture ofcottou he coca back
20 years, finding tl largely increased, sneers
at a petitioner lor protection oi laoor, tens
him he is engaged in a" terrible losing bu
siiiess," and derides him for shivering under
a garment, though thin and tattered, that is
so much larger than he wore when a ciniu.
In the iron inauiilaclure he starts at isto.
and Ldides easily and uracofullv up to the
present. Quite forgeUu.L' a uiuiirupled
1 i . i ,. ' i
territory, a population increased si'ifrcn u7-;
.. i. i i- ri
lions, an entire revolution in the modes of
manufacture, and the effect of fifteen tariffs I
on the forty intervening years, he drops
.Iaiuu on 1 ..(' .mil r.iwiinl.ir.niitlh' mi es all'
the credit of the change to tho tariff of
IS 10. In this way the gentleman's tables
are made up, of which no man is better ad
vised than the gentleman himself. 1 use
the tariffs of 1842 and 1810 as the only
names bv which to designate the systems to
which they refer. I do not use thciii to dis
tribute political praise or blame to any par
ly. I am sincerely and earnestly anxious
to see such a change in the revenue laws as
the interests ol tho country demand, and
would be glad to sacrifice every particle of
political credit, iu order to gam that end
I do not represent my Slate as in beggary
or starvation ; no act of the Government
nothiii! short of the act of God can ever
brum her lo that condition. In her limits
more than 817.000,000 have been expend
cd iu railroads to open the way to her rich
fields, to lier mines, to her marble quarries,
nnd her natural manufacturing power. She
has not, like t lie West, asked public lauds
to build her roads; or, like the South, n re
mission nf duties on railroad iron. The
work is mainly done and piid ; nnd now,
could she receive a portion of protection
given to the pauper labor of Europe, she
would feel a sudden impulse in manufac
tures, and a stirring movement in tier agri
culture, hy a home market for her products,
in manufacturing establishments on tier
own soil.
LeHis now turn to some fuels that hear
on tins comparison. The tariff ol 1842
found the country in great depression; our
able financial agent, offering double inter-j
and pledging the security of this Gor-
into manufactures the produce of the earth ,
r.i i i : i i 1
food, wool, cotton, coal, iron and hemn
Turn, now, to the other side, and take a
few out of a perfect deluge of facts. In1
1840, at the clo-e of the uriffof 142, we'
produced 8.ri0,000 tons ol iron. Now we
produce 400,000 tons, and impoit annually
to the amount of $8,000,000 almost equal
to all our exports of food. In 1840, Illinois
exported eOO.000 pigs of lead ; last tear,
.'150.000; while we are imnortina inure
than 43,000,000 pounds, at a cost of 81,
500,000, That mm ought lo have gone to
Illinois farmers and miners. Who has pre
vented it from taking that direction?
Look at the cliHiiffc, as il affects individ
uals nr companies. In 147 there were five
tiirnari'., in inuf.icturini "i! iron, in blat
in a small valley west of Luke Champhiin.
Jackson's produced il.OOO tom in 1817,
1,500 ions in 1848, and closed. Two of
day's in 1817 produced 5,500 tout.; in
1846 they failed, and assignees worked up
the stock. Of all llisl have risen, and strug
gled, and sunk down in that valley but one
remains that of Pitifield, Hammond &,
Tower. They hnvo 75,000 invpstrd in
their works; managed by ihe owners on
without a loss of I rom J.i to 8 per ton.
Go by their wharf, and vou may see their
i fin, piled as high as human hands can
lift ii, measured hy roods and acres. The
gernleman from Massachusetts may ask,
" Why don't they give up!" Sir, the hard
canons of a nasi life are inve1ed in thai
bouse, in Adrioudack mountain! ; invested
under ihe solemn promise of protection by
the Government, pledged by the law of the
land That promise was kept hy the tariff
of Jr-42. You promised them a "Letter
tariff" in 1-40, and, trusting you they went'
on. Now they, and thousands of others in
the Northeast, are like manners on a wreck
lifting up their signals of distress, and
calling on the Government to redeem their
promises under which they entered upon 1
the vnvasc. I
Look a little further
into three counties,
000 tons of pig and wrought iron. The;
forges produced, in 1840, il2,000 tons of
wrought iron, al $45 per ton, 81,410,000;
18,000 tons of pig iron wore made, at SilO, '
per ton, equal to .8510,000. In 1851, the1
same works mado only 12,000 tons of
wrought iron, at
f2o per ton ; pig iron,'
per ton, S;i42,500. ,
2,500 tons, at 817
Only ninety out of two hundred were in
operation in December last probably less'
now. Five thousand men, sustaining one 1
third of the entire population of these j
counties 73,000 were directly or indi
rectly connected with the iron business,!
while made at compensating prices, are now j
'thrown out of employment. What is ihe i
, penury, in so many human beings ? The
chauue from the tanffof
1842 to 1H0.
The value of iron made lliero in 1810, was!
-. . ... f.otti -on 'ni.
5l,y?ii,ou"; in icoi, ?i)i.,,imi, i hu
differenco in the products of a single year,
is 8l,O17,500. Lot the gentleman
Massachusetts go and sii.g his
lullaby's at tho descried forges,
and furna-
cc.s, auu naiiiicts, on tue nanus oi uiu .m
sable. Let us know the answer he will
get, when, with his usual vivacity, ho tells
them, as he tells us, that "the iron inter
ests, making the most rapid progress, al
ways cry out, most lustily, that they are
terribly distressed."
, , ,. .,i.i...r.i. ...
England understands trie science oi pro
I lection ; in forty ycira, preceding siie
! lu.P (..pair nt hfttfti tunes
changed her Unit on iron Jijlten
fr,.,,. yi 111 fo J.I tier Inn.
rising irom lus 10 i per um. aim
was not a free-trader till she had made her
artisans skillful enough, and her laborers
noor enouiih. to compete with the world.
Our policy seems lo bo different ; under
the tanffof 1812, more improvements were
made iu tho modes of manufacturing and
machinery, than in any other lour years of
our history. We break up that system, put
llie mechanic on short allowance, and
starve bun into submission lo an uiumprov-
um round of toil for his daily bread.
Take it on a broaUer Held. iu iew
. . . . : . T . ..
Jersey, 81,500,000 are invested iu the man
ufacture of iron; one nan ot mat is now
unemployed and fast wasting away. In
New York more tlian trio.uuo.uuu are in
vested in the same manufacture, and three
fourths of it (SI 1.250,000, eleven Million
lico hundred and fifty thousand dollars,)
is entirely unproductive. I have a letter
from an eminent citizen of lloston, written
to the honorable member, (Mr. Appleton,)
stating that 10,000 bales less of cotton aro
taken for consumption in 1850, '51. than
in '49, '50 ; nnd 00,000 less tha in MS, M0 ;
that the consumption has fallen off twenty,
five per cent. Many cotton mills entirely,
others partially suspended. Of eight mills
under his charge, four havo been stopped
eighteen months. The four in operation,
medium sized, from 0,000 to 14,000 spin
dles, havo lost S51.000; add the interest
on capital, 418,000, and you have, in one
year, a loss of 8102,000, besides injury
and loss hy machinery lying idle. Woolen
mills have suffered equally with cotton
mills. More than an hundred millions of
:.. M t..i i ; ...-.I i
en and cotton manufactures are now entire-
ly useless to the proprietors, and made so
through the act of 18 10. I commend that
fact to the gentleman from Massachusetts.
Pennsylvania in one year lost forly-lhrce
per cent, of her enormous investments.-
Two of her mills that took the premium at
the Wold's Fair, have been onaipellcd to . from ninety-eight to seventy pounds per
stop; but I purposely leave Pennsylvania I head.
interests to the defense of her sons. In! " We have closed rolling mills until we
1840, the Treasury received in revenue I hove almost annihilated the manufacture of
from iron only 8311,920 more limn in ' railroad iron, and destroyed the tompetition
184., while two men lost in rolling mills, 'for the sneofan article so necessary for the
by the tariff nf IS 10, $050,000. If tlio-e cheap transportation to market of our pro
two men had paid out of their own pockets ' ducts.
the whole increase of revenue, they would " We have d.minished the export of lead
have been gainers to ihe amount of Sl l,- from 600.000 to !100,000 pigs ; lhat ol hemp
(180. Compare the lots of thoc two men 'from 00,000 to 19,000 hales; and the pro
with the loss of the whole, and then the , duct of wool at least 10,000,000 lbs.
loss of the whole to the insignificant nains ' " The manufacture of com and hay into
of the Treasury
mi :.
There is a great deal said about the los'clines daily, and the value of exports from
by the South m the escape of property, but the West to the East has fallen from 802
what is ill The census shows that, 1,011 per ton in 1 815 lo 8 10 per ton in 1851.
out of !l, llV3.iV.il persons pKcnMd in 1850 ;; " We have llius diminished the market for
thai is, ! 12, 1 Oil part (one tictlre thousandth cotton, and have placnl ourselves under the
part neaped) whs lost. In answer lo in- necessity for exporting more, the conso
quiries, the estimated value ranges from queuce of w hich is been in the fact that it
4500 to 900 per head. Take Ihe highest, has fallen even below the price of the rove
and it will be $808,800 for the whole South nue tanffof 1840, 42 then Ihe lowest that
a sum not equal to a hundredth part of had ever been known with a certainty of
the loss in manufacturing in New England, great further decline, should the crops provo
under a tariff passed by a majority of South- large.
em voles We hive as plain aright to " We have diminished the domestic mar
prntcrtion of uur properly in manufactures, Itel for food to be consumed by the growers
as other men have to their properly in of wool and of hemp, and the producers of
slaves. The first law passed under the
present Consiitulion, and by us leading
framers, was for encouragement and pro
tection of manufactures. It was recom
mended by Washington, passed with his
approval, and sanctioned hy his signature.
After the war of 1812, coitmi planters
asked protection from cotton manufactured dependent upon foreign nations for wool,
oast of the Cape of Good Hope, previously and hemp, lend, cloth nnd iron,
free. This was granted, and lhat law com- "The import offish now exceeds ihe
pellet Northern men lo go againt their export, that ofrico has fallen in both quanli
wishes into manufactures. Tho cotton ! ty and price, and that of naval stores has
planter, sooner than his Northern friend, increased in quantity while it has declined in
rises above the necessity of protection, and amount."
disdainfully turns his back upon his former j There is another question that lies
helper. ' back, and stretches on far beyond all
In this connection, look at the conduct thoso : What will be tho effect of tho
of good old North Carolina. Her Demo- rovomie systum on tho interests of ag
cral.c Legislature, in retaliation for scn.i- rjcltlre ? T,IBl is amI 0IIght t0 ,)0
meiils entertained towards her peculiar in- , , ,, , . ,
Muutioi.s. and her locomotive property, in- a,ld w' bo- ''j8 louthnB 1,1 er"
itructs her delegation in Congress uaini 061 of lUl8 oounty. If wo wore shut
any change in the tariff that shall benefit up in a contracted island, tho mercan
Noriheru miners and manufacturers. Hut tilo, manufacturing, nnd maratimo in
what has she lost I In 1850 sho lost 01 tercsts might predominate ; but in a
out of 288,412 slave, go.ie somewhere, country stretching from zone to zone,
North, or .South, or West, no one can tell. nml from oceau to ocean, wo ought to
She has lost 1-4,500 part that kind of prop- w,wt wjn C0Uribul0 most ,0 the
t'liv, worm, auuoMliliu to llie Htsiiiru t:sii-
3 ' s
was lost in' Vermont in 1850, in the woolen
jSil.'JOU. .Morenroiiertvth.in that
manufactures on the little creeks and fresh
water trout brooks, never heard of beyond
their school districts. No ono ever thought
of telling it to the Legislature, and L'ctting
up instructions for a system of retaliation, a
gamo at which tiro can play very conven-',,
leutly. In 1850, South Carolina lost 10
.ml ..el II.
slaves, worth by the estimate of her able
representative, (.Mr. Urr,) tflii.MJU. 1 can
find scores of men who have lost singly
more, in woolen manul.ictiires, iu ono year,
than the whole State of South Carolina,
and never thought of disunion as a remedy, when we huvo all the elements of nat
I shall close this part of the subject by the mit am physical, and political, and
summary of Mr. Carey : mental power, it would seem as if the
" Under ll.e tar.ll ol ibk, we nil. t nuns
nud created machinery that enabled us, in
less loan ei. icuio iiuui uic umu i iu
.ii . ,rmn Ihe cnsinnntioi. of,
.i r. .i. ,i,D r it a
coiion from 207,000 to more than 000,000
bales; and to increase the consumption per
head from seven to thirteen pounds, with
every reason to expect that it would soon
reach twenty pounds, to the great advan
tago of the producer of cotton and the con
sumer of cloth.
" We built mills and croatcd machinery
that enabled us, iu six years, to increase
the domestic manufacture of woolen cloth
from lift) -fnc. to eighty-five
millions of
We opened mines and built furnaces
that enabled us to increase tho domestic
production oi iron trom juu.utm to more
- than bUU.Utlll tons, anil to increase tliecon -
sumption per head from thirty-eight to nine.
l) ' We built' rollmsr mills that enabled us
to commence tl.e mauulacture ol rauroau
iron, and to extend it iu lhat brief period
to almost 100,000 tons.
" We increased the production of lead
rrom 580 to 600,000 pigs ; that of hemp
from 14,000 to 00,000 bales; and that
of wool from forty-eight to seventy millions
of pounds. i
"The manufacture of corn and hay into j
pork and beef, butter, cheese, and lard, was
extending itself at a rate unexampled in
the world ; and the value per Inn ot the ex
ports from the West to the East was steadily j
" We thus made a market for moro cot
ton, and yet had mure to export ; and the
tariff of 1812, that found prices lower than
they had ever been before, left them alrea
dy advanced one fourth, with every reason
to expect that they would soon be perma
nently tixetl ut a higher stanuaru tnaii nan
been Known lor twenty years.
" We thus made a domestic market for
food, to be consumed by the growers of
wool and of hemp, and the products of cloth
and iron, coal and lead, to the annual ex
tent of more than 8100,000,000, and yet
our exports rose from fourteen millions in
1811, '12 to tvveiiiy-four millions in 1815,
" We consumed more fish and exported
more, more rice and exported more, more
naval stores and exported more, and the
prices of all these things rose, the tariff ol
1612 leaving them all much higher than it
had found them.
" We produced more and consumed more
of every thing; the condition of the people
steadily improved ; the credit of our banks
and that of the State and General Govern
ment wore restored ; and there was a degree
of quiet prosperity such as never had be
fore been seen in any portion of the world.
Confidence in the future prevailed through
out the whole range of saeitty.
" Under the tanffof 18 (0, wo hare closed
cotton-mills, and driven down the manufac
ture of colton from 000,000 to 407,000 hales,
and have, in the last three years, decreased
the consumption of cloth, foreign and do
mestic, per head, twenty-five per cent.
" We have cloed woolen mills, and have,
in the last three years, diminished the con
sumption of cloth, toreign and domestic,
twenty per cent.
" We have closed mines and furnaces,
and have diminished by fiftv per cent, the
production of iron ; and the consumption
of iron, foreign and domestic, has fallen
liecl and pork, butler, cheese and lard, ue-
cloth and of iron, coal and lead, and that
(liiiniiiiiion cannot be estimated at lers than
850,000,000 per annum : and jet our ability
to supply food to the world declines from
from year to year, as tho manufacture of
corn nnd hay into pork, beef, butler, cheese
and lard, declines, and as we become more
. 1
hrnennritv of Inn irrnnf innc whn
i"t-" B.
alul. tl11 tl'u soi1' ArJ
tho men of this
nation to Oc ongagetl ill Ulggmg goiu,
in raising cotton, and wool, and grain,
, and beof and pork, with which to jiay
for tho manufactures of tho Old World ?
if we m(i not the natural power, or tho
!,, . filn .i-iii ,i,m ...nnlil bo
a necessity lor it. Hut when there is
seattored all ovor tho land an abun
dance of gold and silver, of iron and
copper, and load, and every other met
al necessary for tho use of man :
Creatorj iu ,,is works j)r0vidciice,
had designed to furnish one nation
. , , - . . . ,
With tllC HUMUS of OlltirC independence.
Shall wo uso these means ; or, casting
roproach on our Creator for making
these needless deposits, snail we follow
a system sure to render us as dopond-
ent as u we wero colonial vassals
tramping ovor a barren land ? It is just
as certain as if declared by Omniscience,
and the evidence is more tangible be
cause it appeals to our sonsos that,
imdor our present system, our leading
'manufacturers cannot live. Whon our
'establishments aro crushed, our labor-
crs nro scattered, and our skilled hands
mve forgoUen tlicir cunning ; thoaug-
; , f , mamlfacllircs
. 111 n .nn pntVfne I l.'linllf
the roady answer of the gentleman from
" When that tune
comos wo will
go to muuuiuciurmg
asain." Who will do that ? Who
will refit his shattered ships, and put
to sea on the faith of a Government
that has left him a prey to every fore
ign spoiler ? Who, in this or the gen
eration to como, will invest his proper
ty or expend his labor on tho pledgo of
a Government that saw him or his fa
thers dying by slow tortures, and
would not lift a hand to help him ?
I will now introduce somo facts to
show tho effect of our presont system
on agriculture ; and I will say, frank
ly, iu advance, that all facts, gathered
by the gentleman front Massachusetts,
or mvself, iu a short portion of time,
though moulded into tho imposing form
of tables, are very liable to mislcau.
A philosopher who clearly sees ono
fully developed fact, may be prepared
to announce a law ot nature ; out in
political economy it is not so j that iso
lated fact may ariso from a jieculiar
condition iu the shiftings of human
affairs. But tho facti now beforo us,
arising under our present system, aro
thoso on which wo aro compelled to
mako up our conclusions ; and I say,
candidly, thai they aro conclusions to
which I should havo come by reason
ing iu advance of experience.
My conclusion is, that our increns-i
ling importation of foreign manufactures
uucs not increase our cxtmrt ot tlmi
produce of agriculture ; tho reverse of!
this seems to be the case. i
In 1845, '.10, under the tariflf of
1812, food of all kinds, exported to
Grivt Jlrilain, was 111,392,239. In
the next year, diirinc the famine, it was
27,813,150. In the Inst year, it wus ' At that rato per month, dillbrencc m
S,UM,253. In that year we exported exports will make us debtors 02,058 -2,2S7,98G
less than in 1S IG. 252 each year, and our gold must go
The export of our produce abroad in abroad at the rate of 11, 295 OOO nn.
1841, M2, was 14,505,037; in lSdfl, Innally. '
40, it was 2 1,n9S,4oS ; that of 1850,
l. was 2l,9bi ,189. Increase from
184 1, '42 to lS4o 40. was 10,05.5,421 ; I
decrease from 1845 MG to 1850 51, was hitnitics if the gold should remain here"
2,031,209. I that "if wo could succeed in keeping
In four yeara, under the tariff of; at homo 100,000,000 a year, tho
1S42, our export of food run up $17,- jcotuitry would bco n crisis oh n frc
000,000; under tho tariff of 184G, it 'mendous scale, altogether beyond tho
Mill llllW'll 5, IU,UUU,UVU , UI1U UU3 WI11IC
population was increasing five millions,
and there was a vast increase of tilled
land and produce. A correspondinc;
effect is scon ot home. Tho receipt of
American produce on the Hudson in
1843, was 45,000 tons; iu 184G, it
was 5S,000 tons:an increase of 13,000
tons. In 1S48, it was 70.000 tons :
in IS51 it was 54,000 tons a decrease
of 10.000 tons this is in the last three
years of each system. Our wheat is
selling lower than it did years since,
and the quantity sent to market, is less
than in 1S45. Wo arc sending loss
abroad, and using less by our manu
facturers at homo.
It was supposed, when the present
system went into operation, that the
continent of Europo would buy largely
of o jr products. Whnt is the result?
When you tako out rice, which they
cannot raiso. the other articles of food,
all told, down to tho last pock of pota
toes, and tho last dish of meal they
have taken of us, amounts to w,004
Very important, surely. Build your i
railroads, call in your shipping from the,1
fishing grounds, from the coasts of ry. If it is not pleesant, do not try it
Ophir, and every ocean they will be but once. What disease Will it bring
needed. For what ? Why, there is a on a nation, in which a crisis can occur,
guntleman here who dwells hard by tho 'unless it is plethora? That is ccrtain
and catches tho first sound from across ly dangerous in tho human constitution,
tho waters, who tells the farmers and ( but has never been considered mortal
mariners of this nation, that, within in pecuniary affuirs. Try your exper
twolve months, the whole continont of j imcnt first on an individual ; if it hurts
Fiiirope will want 17,004 worth of our stop there. Try it on a Vermont farm
I nrrriiMiltnrn! nrofliiets !
I In overy yard of broadcloth, worth
2, tho American farmor loses the sale
of at least I, SO, which goes to mako
its value. Our importation of woollen
uoodsis about 18,000.000 ; and the
I farmer loses the sale ot
13,500,000 of
, products in that single article ; it is
nearly tho same on cotton, and greater
on iron. Tho raw material and that is
our own, lying useless costs not to a country maue up ol such men. He
exceed 5 per ton in the niauufac- could not catch it anymore than tho
ture of iron. Supposo you break marble statuo of Washington could tako
, down the manufactures, and bring it tho cholera.
all from abroad, yon deprive the farm-' It now asked what would you have?
er of a market to full three fourths of Wo would have at least what was prom
its cost at least 1S,000,000. The iscd in 1846. Is there a disposition to
farming interests of this country, East give it? Hero it is; I send the propo
und West, aro boginning to feel tho of- sition to bo read by the Clerk.
!lects of this system, and wo fear they
aro destined to feel it nioro heavily in
time to come. The farmers havo more
interest in protection than any other
j class. There are hundreds of small
! jiorishablo articles, sold at manufuctur
, nig establishments, that could not be
transported, ovon if there woro a mar
1 ket abroad ; but they go to tho coiu-
fo- o.l ci.Monri nf flu. Il,nrnr nml m
incrcaso tho cams of tho farmer. The
American doctrine should bo to protect
its own laborors, and it should bo car
ried out through tho whole. Every
villaco. and town, and county, and
j State, should sustain its own median
ics, and farmers, anil merchants, who
i are themselves supporting tho iustitu
1 tions of society m which they hvo. But
' tho toiidoney of the present time is to go
abroad, soinowhore ; to find out somo
foreigner, no matter where ho lives, or
what will be the cost to transporting
to him tho equivalent of your purchase,
provided you get the credit of buying
choap : and that tendency has its sanc
tion, if not its origin, in tho policy of
tho Government. ! our-fiftlis ol lor-
leign manufactures are imported by
T" "
'foreigners, and on
foreign account.
They do not pay, by twenty-five per
cent., as high on tho invoice of foreign
manufactures as Amoricans. They
rav about threo ior cent, interest on
capital, while American merchants pay
on tho average, ninh per cent.
result of such a course no one can
doubt. While wo nrc, as we ought to
do, stimulating agriculture, by selling
lands cheap, and giving bounty lands,
and free lands, we aro nursuui!i a
ctutrse that will doprivo thoso, and all
occupants of lands, llio means oi ex
changing thoir produce for tho manu
factures necessary for wear and use.
W nro now bctidmi: abroad an mo
nroduco wo can sell ; wo are sending
our United States stocks, our State
stocks, our citv stocks, and llailroad
bonds, and overy other badge of bond
age, and thon jwy, (as m ltjol) twenty-nine
millions and a half of gold to
mako t no oaiauce ot our im puns, in
1851 our imports of manufactured and
unmanufactured iron, wool, and cotton,
was 59,000,000 j our exports of animal
and vcgetablo food, $2 1,000,000 ; bal
anco against us iu thoso article, $U5,
000,000. Tho prospect for this year is
still worse. Tho National Intelligen
cer gives the imjiorts and exports for
February, 1852 :
....,,.., . I, ,t- r tl... MM,,...
Rvcesss of imports over ex. 5,171 521
Exports of secic, 3,55 1 5-13
Imports, 110203
J l"
Excess of export ovor im-
' nort of snoni.. c-a am o.trv
1 I know this docs not alarm the
, tleman from Massachusetts.
ile thinks
that " it would bo tho uroatost of rn
case of 1S37." Feurful us is the warn
ing, confess that I wish to see tho ex
periment tried. I am for progress, and
wish to sco something new. In tho
last sixty years wo have had some
eight or ten crises by over-importation
from abroad, and exhaustion of our
means to meet the bills. As a friend
of domestic manufactures, I wish to
sec one home-made crisis, got up by
keeping out of debt and keeping our
money al home ; by employing Amer
ican labor in manufacturing, and pay
ing that labor in American produce and
American gold.
What is the meaning of crisis? a
word that we havo imported with other
foreign articles. In its motherland, 1
believe it meant the deciding, the turn
ing point of disease, when the patient
was balancing between life and death.
Hero we use that as other things to
servo various purposes. Among these,
to signify a state of financial distress ;
in polite phrase, to say an unpleasant
thing, that wo cannot pay our debts.
For the sake of variety, I wish to see
a crisis got us on the gentleman's thco-
er, l will nslc linn, no owns lus farm
and stock, is free from debt, raises an
abundance to support his family, to pay
the mechanic for every manufactured
article ; has money to buy his foreign
luxuries; lias in his desk railroad bonds
certificates of bank s'ock, notes for
money on interest, and plenty of cash
iu his pockets. The crisis is not con
tagious among that class of men, nor in
" lie it enacted ty the Senate and House nf
lleprtsentativet of the United Stales in Congress
assembled. That it shall be the duty of tho Sec
retray of tho Treasury within three month from
the lirst day of August, 185., to ascertain what
was tho average value or market prico (exclu
sive of duties) of tho several goods, wares, and
merchandise imported into tho United States,
within tho year lelti; on which ascertained val
ue or market prico (in tho principal ports of
the United Htntesl the duties now established
, by law, shall licrcallcr bo assessed and collect
by law, shall hereafter be assessed and
It has often been said that new fac-
lories and forges sprung up under tho
present system. Tho fact is truly stat
ed, but tho cause not assigned, that
manufacturers, prospering under tho
previous law, wero promised a hotter
timo under the present ; they trusted
the promise, and havo sunk millions
beyond the possibility of redemption.
Those then in power aro in power iu
the Legislature now. Will you give
the laboring men what you promised ?
It can bo done without any departure
from principle fonnorlyor very recent
ly avowed. Take iron as an illustra
tion. In 184G it was promised a duty of
of Sl'J 50 (i. e., thirty per cent, on
air : .1 .1.....
on uuu uiiiciu, uiiu u niiuuii uii tuners,
and manufacturers will mako under it
a struggle for life. It is tho least they
can ask ; and tho honor of those who
passed the present system can offer no
Thcro ought to be a settled under-
standing this session, whethor anything
will be done. It ought to be done now,
beforo tho political campaign, fast ap
proaching. Wo want somo national
system that all will support, that no
party will claim, and no party will
abuse. This is the time to settlo that
system, whilo different branches of thu
government aro iu the hands of oppos
ing forces.
Tho Committeo on Ways and Means,
iu tho last and presont Congress, havo
a decided majority, and power of con
trolling this subject ; though pressed by
tho most urgent petitions and entrea
ties, tliey nave not, ior now near tureo
j years, pcopod, or muttered, or moved
.1 Al'. I ..... . 1 1 ..n Kill,, n . ,
tho winn. Wo havo had as little en-
couragomont from tho ruling majority
m tho other House. Proclamation was
made in all the papers of tho country,
that a plan of relief for manufacturing
labor would bo made by a New Eng
land Senator supposed, if not pMged
to her interests at the time of his elec-

xml | txt