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Vermont watchman and State journal. (Montpelier, Vt.) 1836-1883, July 22, 1852, Image 1

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lUfllcljmnn & Stale jJourna!
n ut isiir.i) nvr.nv tiiimisiiay mokmno.
II n -SI.M fnh in ilnim,. UJIOiriMTnwiil linoi
,, i .!no, mliml olwtyt dinged riom the and t,r
I 1 ir
v, ii , litofri-nutoiM-lmu)erlpiioii,ii4ttllMp
. i-xiiiiuuiiieiilion, ftod aoftno i4ft paymnt fat
" "r',k, Kfli M, J. N. roMKnov,
I , .. knrl.l, K II. KMITII
c l ,1 l .f. IIROIVN,
Ii, ...ill... rllAIU.KK l. DANA,
I ,., K. (I. proTT,
i ,,. ,..,rk, I'.lltVAIIII H. SAWYER.
, .,, ( . W SCOTT,
m II, K II. ri'l M,
I. umlle, J. I . MlVKH,
" ii,., t, Ji:m: JiHINKON.Jr.
. .ii.B-U, B. KVIITII,
I hi, aVH, A. T. UAKl'ltOFT.
- nil thidwirli, C. Slltl'IMN,
s . jnsi.l'll c. KAVMo.NIi,
- , ,fl..l, VVIU.lAM llOI.LI.Ni.
- , Hit.ffi.rit llASlnl. V. JltflO.
i a, ic,., jkrkmimi posrr.it,
Vl.itilirMiinil latiluii, OIMNOK PSIITII.
U vi-ii, Til NKt.IN A. WHIBIIT,
,l.Hir in,t llmbnrr, O KMITII.
U Hli nt..iurn. DAIIM'rl I'glllE.
Speech of Joint M. Clayton,
t a Rntilicaiion Meeting held at Delaware,
U', .liicsiluy, June 2), Hon John .M. Clayton '
..'.i.rcil an able and eloquent Speech, from1
n ui' nuke tho following Mtract : I
'I imceed to the question, Shall we ratify '
t ,. .fi'ci-mti of the Baltimore Convention in
iiu.r uf Wi.sriRLi) Scott, or no? I intend ,
; , i 'jiu.it a few roasons why we should rat-1
, iini decision. In tho first place, 1 un
, ri,iK- in say if my humble testimony can 1
,,. ii'.'iticd or received at all upon such
, , i. -non as this I have lor many j ears
., .n mtield Scott, of NVw Jerey, and
I k n i linn to he not only a great soldier
i .yi ivt captain of the age but I know
i i.i lii a scholar and a statesman.
1 , -, i no greater error than to suppose,
. i - a man is a great soldier, he cannot
i! i tiliau. General Scott Ilk ile-
- lil-to the study cf the proleniti
-i Miulli. H- iv as, before he rut
' iron, a la.)-r, and allhuuyli I
i in ,nv men well acquauued nith
. clr ii of international law, 1 have
i r -.tii niie more fimiliar with, and
,V, h u rued tu, the true principles
i ' ri, ,t tonal Ihw, than V infield Scott.
N. . -i iti r i rror cm bo commuted by
ii, v omiiirvmeu, than to suppofe.be
i i-c lie is a great soidit-r, a victorious
. ii-r i,'. ne i4iiothiug more. Heisaschol--.
i'i liyant and profound scholar. He i
, , i in, if lie had never achieved a victory
. 1 1 - -. eminently qualified to fill the of
. "l President, beciute of his civil quail-'
i ii-, and it is because of thorn that I
, 1 re, and mean to stand ever) where,
in support turn. .Moreover, my fel-
iiieim, Wiufield Scott is a man whose
.. r i m e in public affairs independent
i- mere learning from Imoks is equal
.1 nl any iiicnilier of iho House-of Ilep
.uurt's ur the Senate of the United
v i He has taken a deep interest in
'meal affairs of his country since ear-
iili ( rigiuall , before the war of
"I.V ,i Democrat of the Madisoiiian and
. :1 r-Miiuu school, nnpuUitc, warm heart
') .mil ut and patriotic, when the outrages
.1 ere cinniiiitted Uou tin- country by
i.i.'Miul occurred, he resolved to leave the
-iori in winch lie had every propped
- ' -...i-iiii -uccess, lor the purpose of I glit-
- i ' i Inllles of his country, and, it ne-
-ir., aheddiog his blood in her defense.
U. i', in,i citizens, I stand here and sup
" 'i N inl'uld Scott, not only (or thee rea-
,., nm only because he is a civilian and
j fi iteiman, but because I know him, of
kiio-i ledge, to be a man as pure in
. i't, j lnb'h minded and honorablo in all
i ..i' rccurse ivith hie fellow men, as any '
in I tier knew. (luuthusiastic npplau-e.)
ie,Mn.r luin, then, as a man qualified fur
; i liice, 1 go on to consider his other i
,i iind those which entitle hun to the
. ..mule of lu& country. Ho isavicton-l
. ii ueral and a great soldier, and pro-
uncid by the greatest captain on tho oth-i
-iile ol the water to be ono of the groat-1
men of tho ago. His victories at Chip- j
" -u mil Luudy's Lane were accounted at'
1 1 time when they occurred among the1
"i ri markable eents of the war of lSl!i.
ii an inferior force at Chippewa, he de-(
'- ii' il General Hiley, although his troops
r, imposed orthe best veterans or the
' i 'i army. And Scott achieved this tri
1 i not merely by the valor of his sol-1
1 r, but by bis own inimitable) skill in !
1 ' i vlendid battle. It has been, among
'' Miury men, ever since the theme of un-i
Vilified admiration. Tho manner in which
1 battle was fought , you have no time to ,
''' our I to describo: but I have hoard
1 -t beat military nion declare that there was
M,1"lde which exhibited more coiisum
" skill and address than was shown by
,v ii when he conquoicd Kiley. (Ap
T m-i ) The next great battle in which
lilinguished warrior showed his skill
j Uic bittlo of Niagara Falls, July 25,
lsl:J- In that flight of horrors, when more
'"en fell on tho battle field than perhaps
le ccr fallen in any struggle of equal
'"'libera of Uritiah and American troops,
"mtield Scott suffered the loss of two
1 r-ea from under him, was first wounded
" his side, and still kept tho field, until a
v moments before the action closed,
eu, lighting before Jessup's regiment,
'"Icunteiiding, between inuskels fourteen
ll;t' apart, he was struck through tho body
"& left for dead upon the field, having been
i-'apd beiiind u tree, and laid there until
e battle was over. The buffering which
' underivent may bo seen, by men who
Jiuiv hmi, depicted in his face until this
'y. Tho terrible homorrhago has left tho
"laments of his countenance of a pallid
u(', and ho now exhibits and always will,
ic consequence of the wounds ho received
J'1 tl.nt dreadful battle. Perhaps a year e
'vsed before he recovered so that his health
"u d enable hun to perform any duty.
'le visited Europe, in order, if possible, to
"lure more health. To this day, howcv
"'e bridle urm cannot be lifted, except
""Ul tho eloow. 1 nass over nianv skir-
Holies in which ho was engaged and 1
'"e no doubt ho has passed through hun
'eus of cugagcnients commonly called bat-ies-for
I desire to call jour attention to
lce considerations I have mentioned, nnd
some others which occurred during the
Mexican war. From Vera Cruz to the
City of Mexico, infield Scott contended jliim, and lid was leli among llie dead at tho
against the enemies of liis country with conclusion of tlio battle. If it will not tire
varying success, amid difficulties almost you, I will relate an anecdote ol what oc
uncxamplcd in history, nnd penetrated with currcd in my room in Washington, between
a small army of 10,000 men, into an cm- an old soldier, and a gnllent one, who had
pircul eleven millions of people, and at fought under Sott, and General Scott him-
ust placed his country's flag upon the self. Col. Cilley was in my room on a vis
liighta or Chepultepcc, and in tho city of it. He had received a shot in that notion
Mexico itself, lfthoro he n man who does, which had shattered his thigh to pieces, and
not reel it sentiment of gratitude to Gen. he w.ll always hear the marks to his grave.
rn 1,10 '"'lory or the battles While lie was talking with me, Gen. Scott
ol Cerro Gordo Cliurubusco, Chepultepcc, did me the honor to call and see mo. 1 in-1
&.C.; and, lastly, the bloody fight which troduced him to his old fellow soldier, whom
vw ,,. lm. Clly , nioxico, wiiero tlicilie had nolseon Tor more than thirty years,
e , . i "iuiiiiiiuniiy snsiauicu me arms
of hi rmtinf m ! i,n r i
'country in the midst of a people
who were completely subdued, and compel-1
led toniakosuch a treaty as tho government
oi una country proposed to dictate.
What was the reward of a faithful soldier
who had done so much, and who suffered
so much Tor his country ? What was his
reward from the Government 1 We find,
after he was victorious, tho Government
wntflut supernumeraries, making up a new
army of more than JIO.OOO men, and
took from him when tho fiulitinrr was all
over, and there was no more necessity for
a great general took from him the com
mand of the army, and directed hun to sub
mit himself a Major General to a trial
upon laise charges, before a tribunal of
petty ollicers. And how did ho show him
self? Instead of disregarding, as many
would have done, he obeyed the mandate
which sought to disgrace him, and wo find
him making the military strictly subordi
uate to the civil power. If there be anv
one thing for which I honor him more than
another, it is that he has alwajs by his ex
ample and practice, as woll as by bis
preaching and profession, maintained the
civil as superior to the military power.
Suppo-o he had chosen to sav, " I will not
surrender the armyl have led on to victory
I will not yield the power given me, at the
un in a i) rani at Home; 1 will not sutler w hip turn again. As the battle raged, he
myself to In disgraced and Court Martial-' said large masses of men throughout,
led; Imt I will wear the garland of victory the woods, artillery, infantry, and cavalry,
and see who can take it from my head !" unlii at length he discovered that he at-
Le; me ;idert to one fact lor which I tacked by a great additional force of real
hue authority, and which I know to be British regular". Immediately he sent for
true. At the very moment when peace was Hipiev's Brigade to join hun. It arrived at
about to be made between this country and night. The veteran went on to say, that
Mpmco, when Wiufield Scott could, with night he had seen more hard fighting than he
honor, have accepted a place m the Mexi- had ever seen before in his life. Men
can arrny, he was offered one million two fought with bajonets point to point, after
hundred and fifty thousand dollars, in cash, they had firm) away all their cartridges.
if be uould resign the American army and There was a cry or more cartridges, and
take command or the .Mexicans, with a during that cry a soldier immediately bc
pronuse that a ration Tar superior to that or fure hun was -truck ; ami as ho full he ex
the Ainencau army should be given to those claimed " Cartridges in my box;" and
who would join his standard and enter the Scott said ho went up to him, and ho was'
service of Mexico. And further ho was of-' deed. Shortly after that he receivod the
fered tho Presidency or Mexico fur five dreadful wound which I have attompied to
jeare, and was desired to keep it during describe, and was dragged behind a tree;
that lime in order to restore peace. His and when he recovered huusclf the British
civil administration had even won tlio adini- had retreated. i
ration of his enemies, and he was looked Now I hategiven you an imperfect tketch
upon as a savior, and they offered him this orthe military oharacter and fisats or this
lare sum as an inducement to take the of. ; ilistiiiauisUeil wurrmr. I know that other
fice. Do you not suppose he was stung ' gentlemen ire to follow me, and 1 havo al
w kh resentment after he had done all for ' reaJy ccuiMimed more of your limo than foil
his country after he had periled his life in my lot hut before I conclude, let me
every field, and conquered an empire for J briefly recapitulate the grounds on which I
her advantage and glorv, at finding bnnself . am about to ask you to ratily the uoiniua-dismis-ed
from office? At that critical turns nude at Baltimore. You have a groat
period a tempter advanced, and said; soldier, who has tiifl'erei! for his country,
"Take up the command of the ami) of w ho has achieved more victories -for her,
Mexico, and the Presidency of Mexico for and done her more service than any man,
live vears." Wh it w as that but the diadem except George Washington, that she has
of Mexico, ami the office of Kmperor, if he ever produced a soldier that never could
had chosen to be -uch '. be Coiiquerod in his couulrv's cause, and
If lie had taken it, suppose we bad sent one who always adhered to Washington's
an army to chastise the Mexicans when maxims, that the military should be kept
they were commanded by Wuilield Scott; strictly subordinate to the civil power. I
don't )uu think we should have come back Vou have a humane, generous, benevolent
w ith a considerable number of black eyes soldier ; you have a civilian, a distinguished,
and bloody noses! Laughter. Now look learned and able civilian, a scholar and a
at this picture, and what do vou find to stir- gentleman. Vou have a man who, although '
passu? He rejected all these offers, and himself a Protestant Episcopalian, has uev-'
said, " I am an American soldier, and my or suffered religious bigotry to outer Ins ,
blood has been freely shud for America, heart. ,
and I will die for tho Americans, but Tor no ' While in Moxico, on all occasions, he
other people God over made. Knthusias-1 indicated the great truth established by our
tic applause. Tho Presidency of Mexico, ' own Constitution and Bill of Rights, that
tho Empire offered me by Moxico, cannot, all men have aright to worship God accord
cduco me from that loro of my own nativo I to their own consciences, and therefore '
land with which, thank God, I was born, Hie maintained the Cathulics in Mexico in
and which I havu retained from my earliest I the enjoyment or their religious rights. ,
infancy to tins day." Applause. You have no latiatic or party
1-ellow citizens, 1 havo thought nnlluiii' in
the history orthe past equalled the ingrati-
tule with which this gallant old soldier was
treated, unless vou refer to Justiutin and
his General, Bellisarius. To be sure, he
did ocapo without his e)es being put out,
but ho is a poor man, and if ho had chosen
to take the Prosidency of Mexico, be might
have been ono of the millionaires of the
time and indeed, it would havo been diffi
r.jlt to estimate what ho might have acquir
ed. I point to these facts to show the pat
riotism and purity of the man's character.
You have been admirers of Jackson, Harri
son and Ta)!or ; and God knows I shall
continue to be, ever, while there is life in
my body, an admirer of the character of
Zachary Taj lor. But I cannot bo made
insensible to the merits of Wiufield Scott.
All whoso opinions arc worth a straw, con
sider that a belter nun never lived, and that
he is the great General of the age.
Whou he came back from Moxico he was
sick almost to death in the public service
Tho whole power of the Government was
against him who had done so much. Ho
landed at New York quietly, and when 1
saw- hun for the first time after ho returnei
from Mexico, be was pule and exceedingly
lecbie. 1 Hat gigantic lorin, six leet six
inches in his stockings, looked as if prepar
ing for his grave; but, thank God, ho is
now as hearty, hale, and ablu and willing to
do service and battle for his country as he
tvas at Chippewa or Niagara. Applause.
My fellow- citizens, Jackson fought two
battles, if I recollect his history, and they
tuado him Presidont for eight years. Har
rison fought ono at Thames and one at Tip
pecanoe. Tajlur fought ten Washington
uight I speak of pitched battles and
Scott, if I count right, ten. Of those that
I havo named, uouo hut himself received a
wound in battle. I have heard Taylor say
that Ins clothes weie shot to pieces at
Buona Vista, ami he came out ragged hat,
pantaloons and jacket wore all cut up but
still the hero's body was whole. Jack
sou did nut receive a bcialch, nor havo 1
ever read that his clothes were touched.
But Scott has been wounded, and shot down
in battle. Scott, at tho battle of Lundy's
Lane, was shot through tho body, and near
ly all tho blood that Was in hun was pour
ed upon the ground. Jlc hau been previ
ously wounded, and two hones hot under
After a warm creeling between thorn. Cil
ley inquired of Scott how the battle or Ni-
agara, or I.undy's Lane, was brought about
and far what reason the battle was fought.
I had never been able to get Scott to con-,
verso upon the subject of the battles he had
fought, or the wounds ho had received, as
he immediately turned the subject to so mo-'
thing else, and showed that tho topic was,
unpleasant. Hut when appealed to by a I
brother soldier, who had fought nnd bled 1
with him, he did go into a minute history !
or all the reasons that brought that battle. ;
It appeared Lieut. Gen. Hrummond had 1
comedown with 4000 of tho best veterans
of tho Peninsular war. Scott had pursued
tho .Marquis all day, and chased bun over
the Chippewa. Next day Ileily came over 1
and attacked him, and thcactiou lasted uu-:
til night, when lteily was totally defeated i
and driven over the river. Brou n told him
afterwards that there was a largo rorce in
I.undy's Lane, and he round Ucilv there.
Scott advanced, and saw a largo body or
men urawn up, but mere were not so many I
as he at first imagined. The troops Ileily 1
had fought with at Chippewa,, joined by u I
number or Canadian volunteers, formed tho
anny before him- He had heard nothinc i
of the troops advanced by Drummoud, and,
he directed his brigade, to lie drawn up as ,
he said he had whipped Reily befiirc, to'
bigot to vote lor, but a great, good, gallant
and glorious leader, and a man alike able to
manage the civil affairs of his country, and
to lead an army into the field of battle.
Will you vote for such a man 7 Voices,'
" Yes, yes." j
1 say iiutliiug of the letter he has written !
describing tho bravery of tho Irish who I
have fouTit under him. but I refer you to i
this incident. After the battle of Queens
town heights, where Scott first distinguish
ed himself, when he had been overwhelmed
with British regulars, and taken prisoner,
while on his way to Quebec, with the sol
diers who weru taken prisoners with him,
and while he was lying sick in bis ham
mock, he heard a muse above him. Imme
diately suspecting something was wrong,
he rushed on deck, and found that nil his
men were called together, and tho Brit
ish officers wero calling tliem over, and ma
king them tell their names, the object being
to obtain from the sound of the voice, and
from the brogue of those who answered,
who were Irishmen and who wero nut, in
order that the former might bo executed as
traitors to their country, which it had been
determined to do. He found thirty-one
prisoners alroady set apart. Scott called
to all his soldier present, " Not a man of
you dare to open your mouths until 1 com
mand you." Tho soldiers refused to an
swer, and the British officers most indig
nantly threatened bun, but without any ef
fect. No soidicr would say n word, and
you could no longer tell an Irishman from
a native. Great enthusiasm. Scott de
clared that for every Irishman whoso lifu
was taken, ho would take the life of an En
glishman when ho returned to his native
country. Ho went to Quebec, and was
immediately exchanged. Subsequently ho
went to Washington, and drew tho Act of
Congress with his own hand, which author
ized hun to retaliate utiou the. EiiLdish. He
l mtii.xli nl aI v lurAln Hnlilm.nlu ..r.lnr stnt.l
tug that if a hair from tho head of one of
thoso Irishmen was hurt, ho would take tho
lives of just so many Englishmen whom be
had made prisoners al Chippewa.
My fellow citizens, there is n patriot
there is a truo man here there is a man
whom all men, whether Whigs ur Demo
crats, agree is the groat soldier of America
in tho present day, and decidedly tho most
successful our country lias ever produced
ab urbc c audita and a man who has shed
more of his own blood than any other.
Some say he is proud. Thank God he is
proud, and too proud to do a mean and dir
ty act. But he is generous, he is benevo
lent, ho is merciful; ho is, in the language
uT another,
" In battle, tho Linn J
But tho battle once ended,
In mercy, tho Lamb.'1
Let the English who ho conquered in two
great battles, answer whether lie is not a
merciful and generous conqueror. No
man's naino stands higher in Erialand than
that of Gon. Wiiificld Scott, although he
has so many times humbled their pride.
Ask tho Mexican, now, his opinion of Wiu
field Scott, and he will tell you he consid
ers him tho most merciful, kind and gener
ous conqueror this age has produced. Is
not this a character worthy of honor ? I
love him more for his mercy to tho van
quished, than for all the mhcjjgldrie.i of Ins
military life.
There is no ferocity in Winfield Scott,
no violent self-will, refusing to listen to the
advice of his friends. There is no swear
ing By the Eternal I I will do this and
tako the responsibility!" We have had c
nough of that, and never want any more.
Applause. Then, as to his pride, 1st us
look a little at tho character of it, which
some people call vanity. He has been
threatened, " If you don't write a letter to
the public of the U. Stales, putting jour
self on the Southern platform, jou shall not
be nominated Tor President "
Woll, what did all the little Presidential
candidates do? They all wrote letters.
They wrote letters, and ihpy were in favor
of the Compromise measures, and thev
would veto anything at all that should re-1 follow s :
peal or alter them. It is discovered, lately, " His wheat crop of acres, (including
that the Fugitive Slave law i, defective, so olie fleci injured bv blight) welded an aver
far as the South is concerned. The costs ,,., , . "r , . , , . .
in the Sinn case were I "J, 000" before a d"Te f J0 bu"l,ds f "larketal'lB w,ical Per
rescue was attempted, and before the oider 1 acre; iwimly-sevcn and a hall acres of pn
wa gut ii the claimant has to pay thucosta. laloes, "only half a crop, having been in
Tbal is airily sharp price l,.ra negro. I jured bv drouth," afforded but 1 lo busheh
have tins tr catht.lra. Now these gentle. acr; rilU,, prtH,llccd ,y loll, aml
men said they would veto anv act lo repeal .. , ' ,
or alter this U,v. You see liiey have fired , ",Ji!ol,l "iirzels M tons per acre, len
before they got near enough. They under- thousand dollars worth of meat nnd live
took to go to far. How did Scott behave? stock were sold, the results of his system
He said" I will not degrade mysell by for manuring, although not paying cost in
vvriting an electioneering letter to gain even ; d mIoutl of tllc mamlrc aVor(,C(. 0
the summit of human ambr.ion, the Prest- 1 1
dency of the United States. Applause. ,1,c wllo!e. taking into consideration thu
My countrymen can take me as ihoy see rapidly improving process tho farm is u ti
me. I have served them forty years. If dcrgoing, ho regards the results as highly
they distrust me after all I hare done and ; ravorable, much more so than by ordinary
suffered, let them nominate some other ...
man" M f. I In... il.,..,. .!,. I I
the contrast between his conduct on that oc
casion and that or others. That is the van
ity that somo people talk about ; that is tho
...in p..- ...... t. . i i i
" ' J i-i viii.iii3 null, iiirn ttcu 13
..... .. T 1 1 . c' "'T; and tho proceeds or. he sales of meal
JJid any man who over know Winfield I ,
Scott, he he high or low, ever witness the allu sU,ok' expenditures, including rent,
slightest particlu of pride when he was call i taxes nnd labor, purchased manures, inter
moil n lake u poor ntnn by ihs tunvil ov, wear ami lenr, &,o., re ,1,001 ; his
Never He knows no difference. He ,m,mnl , , ,35 , j b ,
the last man who would consent to rtcof- ,. - ,, ,,.
nize a distinction between cl.-ses or m.fu "fX71 '"'" vor, although his root crops
in this country He is a poor man himself, aro not given at market but at consuming
Now, :ny fellow citizens, without attempt- prices. For example, bis mangold wurzels
ing to do justice to the candidate whom this nt 0s. per ton, while he could hare sold
brier recital of Tacts refers to, I am about ,i, . n .-1 . 1 . .u . 1
... , 1 1 11 .1 1 them at Os Od. per ton, but 111 that case he
to put the question I And all those who '
are in fivor of ratifying tho nomination of would lus0 t,lu '"'"' made from their
Winfield Scott will stand up and give nine consumption.
cheers. Tho cheers were liPariily given It is also to bo remembered, that (arming
111 England is at present quite a relrogado
Anecdote of Gen. Washington. or down-hill business. Five thousand dol
Sometime ... the year 177lj, it became ars prduct of a farm of 170 acres, with
necessary for the protection of Long Island, 1 , , . '
which the British wero very desTrous iff Put003 al 25 cents, wheal at &1.25 per
possessing, as it abounded with fiosh pro- bushel, and roots at 1,50 per ton, ns these
viaionsvto construct works of defence, ex- were sold, would bo remarkable fanning in
tending from Wallabout Bay to lied Howk 1 iiijs country
In prosecuting this work as is usually the j ' , , , w
case, small parties worked aldtffeient places , , , . , ,
on tho line, under the superintendence of a,"""1' "f '"eat made, and worth of grain
subaltern officer. It so happened that ono produced, that is, over seventy dollars, far
ofthe parties had to place a piece of timhor, every aero of the laud on tho farm. His
which with their united efforts they were cighUor nisurcd ium , llu woud 600llt:r
unable to manage; they, however, were, , , , ,
struggling to accomplish their task, vv h.lst ' 0CCUPy suc1' ltt"d at ',0s- mit I,er acre'
the officer contented himself with standing to hold his own free of rent. Yet he
by, directing and encouraging them when affirms that when he first occupied the land
tlioy woulil make an cltort by shouting,-
' Hurra boys, n-o-w right u-j, h'C-a-v-e,' etc.
without laying hold as heshould have done,
and helpinc them with their diflicult task! I
Fortunately far them at this moment a j Sumo interesting facts nro furnished,
horseman rode up. Approaching the olli-J showing the permanency of tho improve
cer he asked w hy he did not lend a helping , Ue fir4l u artificial ma-
hand, seeing his men stood 111 so great a , r , , ,
need of help I Tho gentleman officer seem- ""rea- ua""' &0- "l"oh
ed utterly astonished and indignant al the fully while the land was vol poor, but cx
piesuniption or tho insolent stranger, and perience soon taught him that they ware
answered, 'What, sir, J lend a helping more costly than niauuro produced by Toed
hand 1 Vl.y 1 I'll have you to know, sir. j Mock Ti)a fonner ick alJ
that I'm a Corporal.'' I ho horseman a- ,, , , , , '
lighted, look hold with the men. and in a were 1"okly expended ; tho latter were
little tune, by his help, tho limber was plots- greatly superior in durability. Speaking
ed as required. Then turning lo the cor- of tho retentive tendency of clay soils, lie
poral, he said, " Mr. Corporal, my name is I ro,arks, " So striking is this rotentive ton
George Washington. I have come over !j , , , b M distinguish
from New-iork to inspect the wwssjtfre j 1 , , . , , ,,
so, as soon as you havo done this piece iffi uV0 yoarsj that portion or ono of my fluids
work, you will find me at your Commander's which then received good manures, although
Gen. Sullivan's quarters.' j tho whole has since been farmed and 111a-
, r. . 1 'nurod alike.
Our Ioiieio.n Porui-ATioN. Tho total mini-1 ... ,, . .. . . .
ber of immigrants into the United States sinco 1 could ,18ni0 8l,ll,lar mstanoos, show
1700, and their d(setndnnU, is given in tho cen- ing tho difference for twolvo years, but tho
u for leSO as A fiBOfiSH. The actual number fc jb culIcuCQ of ood outivation
of foreigners who arrived during thoso sixty ",ua' " t,
years was, V.,759,000, or whom probably riot j and manure was tho following : Walking,
inoro than 3,000,000 survivod 111 Juno, lcT0. j ,efuto harvest, wilh a rrioud 111 his wheal
Since then about 700,000 have arrived ; so that - ,. , , ... . ,
of our population of 25,500,10, probably about f,old. 1 was blruck w,, 11,0 superi
2,700,000 aro of foreign birth. About one half! only of ono corner, and asked for an expla
of tlieentiru tuiinmration into tlie United Status .,,,.
t If ( Ii I" u iitl Im " tlnu iwirllo.li tirnii
for tho last twenty three years has been Irish,
about ono fourth Germans, and the remainder of1
persona belonging lo nearly every nation on Iho
lace 01 tuo earlii,
Coitom im Great Britain. In. 1600 the
raw cotton imported into Grout Britain amount
ed to 5ll,0UO,UU0 pounds; 111 1HI5, to 100.000,
000 pounds; in lb25, to 400,000,100 pounds;
in le5l, to 700,000,000 pouuds. Seventeeii
tvvciitieths was front tho United Slates, and tho
remainder from India, llrazil anil Kgypt. About
0.10 seventh of tho whole is exported in tho raw
state. Of tho remainder, one-tenth ia wasted
in tho process of manufacture, refuse, etc.; ono
fourth of the rest is worked up for homo con
sumption, and tho other Ihrec-luurths rtianufac
turcd into goods fur exportation. Tho British
factories givo employment to a million and a
half of people. 1 ho value of tho cotton manu
factures last year is estimated at i 15,000,000,
about two-thirds of which were paid ill wages.
About bOO.OOO tons of shipping aro yearly em
ployed by tho various operations connected wilh
the cotton trade.
ylljc piotu nni tlje )oc.
V i:. V. WALTON.
" H that t; lb. Plow wnnM thtlte
IHmtelf mail either nof.u at dmi v i."
SiMittT or Tin: AuittooLTUiiAL Press.
Tho Cultivator, Albany, N. Y. in tho nutn
ber for Juno, has some good articles, adopt
ed to every part of the country, and all sea
sons of the year. Among the prominent ar
ticles is a nolico of T. J. Mucin's
account of the operations of his farm, a
pamphlet of-M pages, recently published in
London. Tho lavish expenditure which
Air. Meclii, an English farmer, has bestow
ed in improving and enriching his land, has
attracted a great doal of public attention,
and is worthy tho notico, tho' not the imita
linn or Vermont farmers. They will be in
terested to know that Mr. M's. object is to
reach, on his entire farm of one hundred
and seventy acres, that decree of high cul
ture given to the best kitchen gardens, and
that to accomplish this, he has paid, in a
single year, for oil cake and grain, to be
consumed by his stock and converted into
manure, a sum little short of eight thousand
dollars. The same year he bought stock
to the amount of more than three thousand
dollars, and about seven hundred dollars
worth of guano, phosphate of lime and chalk.
To show the footings of his balance sheet,
we make extracts from tho Cultivator as
Leaving entirely out of the calculation
tho expenditures in the purchase of stock
and food solely fur the manufacture uf un-
tho roots grown wero scarcely larger than
apples, while now " plenty or them weigh
seventeen pounds each."
' , ' ,, ', ,,,
once a collage garden." How long agoP'
" Why," said he, " I have known the field
fifty years, and it was ten years bofoto that
" Some idea," hu adds, " of tho perma
nently improved condition of the clayey por
tion uf my land, may bo formed when 1 tell
you, that the yellow sub-soil would former
ly be round in a four-inch plowing, but
now a good digging in the furrows will fail
to reveal it ; and even at lower depths tho
pale bird-limc-liku appearance is changed
to u mellow and much darker colored fria
bility." So much for drainage, cultivation
and manure I
"It may bo said that laud may bo made
too rich ; but tho experience of our gard
eners must teach us that there is no fear of
such a result for strong-growing grain and
root crops ; and uc can guard against over
luxuriance in our grain crops by thinner
and later sowing, nnd by compression of
the soil. To mc it is a matter or astonish
ment that wc do not apply gardening prin
ciples to our hums. It cither arises from
want of capital or observation; and I am
so struck to see tho cottat:ers luxttricnt
garden abutting on the poverty-stricken
field ofthe extensive farmer reading, as it
wore to its neighbor, a daily Iccturo on
man's prejudice and improvidence." He
romarks in another place, that the fatten
ing quality and density of the root crops
have greatly increased with the density of
his soil, and his wheat seldom Weighs less
than 0!1 lbs. per bushel.
Frttmers are usually aware of tho adran
tagcs'rtlnfttng. But the following will
he now to some :
" Although I lose some advantages by
my personal absence, I farm at much less
cost (ban the general run of farmers hold
ing unimproved lauds. The small number
or horcus I keep will prove this. For in
stance, owing to drainage, my land works
ono horse lighter, and I can plow at almost
any time ; while on uudraihcd lands there
arc many idle days and weeks Tor the hors
es." Soino or the other economical arrange
ments are thus pointed out : " My ma
nure is carted at once fro 111 under the ani
mals and plowed in, thus avoiding the dou
ble cartings, fillings, turning over, and
waste of tho ordinary well-washed dung-
neaps, uvvitijf to tlio absence ol lencos,
and by the squamess of my fields, two hor-ltd
ses always plow an acre per day ; then, by ad botch, cook and bake, wash and sweep,
tteam power, the gram is threshed as fist churn and make cheese, wait upon her hus
as it comes from the slack, instead of being band and his band of laborers, bear children
barned &, handled twice. By using Garrett s and nurse them. No time for relaxation
horse-shoe, I can hoe better and deeper at
one shilling per acre, than by the hand hoc
Kit ll.ren shilli.tnit .nut siv.ip.irn
- 6- -1
" There are many oilier advantages arts.
ing front tho removal or four and a half
miles or fences; such as gain or space,
ready drying and warming or the soil, etc.,
lo say nothing or tho benefit and saving re
sulting from being now able, owing lo
drainage, to Told my heavy land with sheep.
" Twico harrowing is now sufficient on
my soil, where, eight and ten times used 10
J he required.
! " It must not be forgotten that tho vidua
, lion of inj rental was raised last year thrce-
1 fold, a pretty clear evidence of tho benefits
resuiung iron, my improvements."
"Another important matter is the im -
iprovement 01 tenacious clays, by burning , laxntions. Her labors are never ended, her
land carbonizing tho inoro foul and ne-1 carcs never cease, until premature old ago
I glocte.l the soil, the more grateful the oper-, la5 come 1Ipon lef( wilh wrinkiej brow and
j ation. I havo converted our concave mud-1 .jt, blanched and bowed form, she sinks in-
dy lanes and convex dry ones, by burning Uo nn cary grarei leaving ,no children ofher
, some 11,000 cubic yards or thoir tenacious nvei and tho property sho had sared and
yellow clay bhouldurs, and removing it ns 1 ; earned, to the care or a moro youthful suc
, brick dust to our fields, at a cost of Is. per 1 CCSsor, who not seldom avenges these
J'ard-" : wrongs by tyranising over the husband and
j Tho remarks in his pamphlet on the con- fusing the children,
j ditiou of thu agricultural laborers, strongly j T,lisi3 10 fancy pictur0( or a delineation
I evince the humane feelings of the writer, 0rwhat was in by-gono days, but unfortu
jand cannot but be read with interest by all palely the origintl can bo found in almost
those who regard human beings as of more
value than sheep, or than fine, sleek, well
fed cattle.
McCohmick's Ilcu-nit.
The following must prove highly flatter-
Y'ig to such of our ow n countrymen as have
boasted long and loud uf the achievements
jof McCormtck's reaper: "I shall always
I reel gratified (without vanity I hope,) that
the first trial 111 this country of what is call-
ed the American reaping machines, was
made on my farm. The pressure orneces-
sity caused in America the development of
Scottish ingenuity, far I have been inform-
jed that Mr. McCormick is a Scotchman nf-
Iter all."!!! Believing, as we have long
'done, thaimoiii is much better than fame,
and that every true patriot must desire that higher attributes, by .1 free and varied inter
his countrymen might possess real worth, ' course with the pure and gifted of their own
rather than contend for notoriety, wo far-! and the opposite sox.
bear any commont, osjiecially as there lias ; We hope to see the day when men, even
been enough bo.nting over this machine to those who consider it a privilege as well as a
last us ut least for half a century. ,duty to gain a livelihood from honest toil,
Faiisieii's Wiviib. This article, from , will take os much pains to secure these so
the Cultivator, is written by C. II. Clove- cial pleasures and innocent amusements for
land, Waterbury, Vt. Tho work wo thus thoir wives and their daughters, as they do to
notice is full or uxcullont advice. En. , gv l'fPcr zeroise and recreation to their
" So much has been said and sung in' and thoir cattle."
praise or ' a farmer's life,' that, apparently, '
no ttnio or sjiaco has been spared lo speak1 '1' Kil.t. Can.uu rI iiistm:s, Cut
ofihe life led by his "better half." Our "" attliu riKlit time of tlio year, or
country is Mossed wilh an abundant month. "lhcr.a1t ,h ',roi,er sla of ,,ts 6ro,wth.
... in;, for neither the moon or tho planets Imvo
y harvest uf leal es, containing valuable in- .. , , n.,,.,
. . , c 1 . uny thing to do in the matter. Cut them
formation in regard to the culture almost aro Woom Qnd nQ b(,
all kinds of fruits and plants, and the apple f(rc Al ,,lis pt,rio(j na,urQ p(Us for,,,
aucos and moans bot adapted to tho 1111- ,cr greatest efl'ort in expandtny the flovv
provenieut and growth of the domestic am- crj uj jf cul ,0M t10 rooto wj ,j0
inula but these lords of tho soil, scout , jUl ,f cut g0oii".r, it new stock will im-
studiuusly to havu fargotton thai their hous-1
os well as their barns and pastures, contain
lire stock, to which a part ol their ailetilion
should be given.
The farmer's wife should bo an indepen
dent, healthy, happy, and cultivated woman
one on whoso culture, both pliysical and
mental, the agriculturist has bestowed at
least am much thought as he has upon his
6W1110 or turnips but is it so 1
When a young fanner arrives al an ago
that hu wishes to choose for himself a fit
ting wife, ho naturally desires 0110 whose
intellect and tasle has been enlarged aud
educated to an equal degree vvitn his own,
and generally he prefers ouc who has either
been roared upon the farm, or has become
personally acquainted with rural pursuits:
and his wishes aro readily gratified, for
girls who have been carefully trained and
well educated, arc happily, at this day, far
from being rare, or difficult to find. A gen
uine lovo or good books, skill and taste
in music, and tho arts, combined with
depth and strength of intellect, aro possess
ed by many oftho young girls who have en
joyed the privilege or a country birth
and residence.
Such a person, not ttnfrequently unites
her fate with that of a farmer, tbinkinc no
doubt, from what she has read in period!
cals, that thus sho can more certainly grat
ify her taste for horticulture, and the em
bellishment of her homo, and at the same
time fulfil a more exalted destiny than she
could expect to, If sho was tojbecohlo a pirl
or the fashionable circle of the city or vil
lage. Yet she is ambitious to perform as
much labor as her neighbor, who has for
years been engaged in household labor, and
therefore assumes the duties of house-wife,
and maid-of-all-work, and her husband who
has been accustomed to see his neighbors'
wives toiling from morning until night, in
the cook and dairy room, thinks it is all
right with as little reflection as the peasant
or Europe bestows upon the coupling his
wiTo and mule together at the plow or the
cart ; and thus from mere custom, and want
or thought, ho allows the woman of his lovo
to become his most devoted slave.
From this time forth, tho life of the
farmer's wife is ono of strict confinement
nd unremitting toil. From early dawn
lat0 at niglit, it is nothing but mend
or enjoyment, or tho improvement of her
mental or social faculties is found. As the
means of his family increase, the husband
becomes more noticed, and his circle of ac-
j quaintances and friends enlarges ; ho daily
meets his associates and mingles with the
world, but his wife toils on in the old dull
routine, with nothing to break in upon the
monotony of her existence, except perhaps
the advent of another child, or the death of
one to whom her heart is bound in the
strongest tics.
The husband, it may be, is engaged in
some public business, or drives frequently
to town Tor a market or for his pleasuro, but
' lc evcr thinks of his martyr wifij, and tho
necessity there is in her nature, that the
1 Bloud share with him his pleasures and re-
1 every neighborhood, and even amonir thoso
who aro called model farmers. Neither is
it confined to the cultivators ofthe soil. All
classes and occupations of men include too
many in their ranks, who practically scout
the idea that thoir wives and daughters ate
human beings, with souls in some way con-
: "ected with their bodies, nnd that they aro
I " endowed by their creator wilh certain in-
auenaute rignis ami privileges," among
' which are life and the rights to enjoy the
1 l"'f air ofheaven, uncontaminaled with the
odors ofthe kitchen or tho steam or tho
wash.tub that their social and intellectual
nature is an essential part orthem, and that
to live, in the full sense of the word, is to eu
joy and increase the ability of enjoy iiig these
mediately spring up, or if left but 11 few
ihivs. tlta root will have recovered from
tho cxtrn eflort of flowering, nnd will
live lo mock tho ell'ort ut their destruc
tion. If nil who nro tormented with tho
presence of this primeval curse, would
muko u gcuerul attack upon it nt the
limo indicated, not only in tho flold, but
ut the rond sitlo, tlio evil might soon bo
" Doctor," suid a man to a physician,
' my daughter hail a fit this morning ;
sho continued so half an hour without
knowledge or understanding." " Ne
er mind that," replied tho doctor, " ma
ny people remain so during life."

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