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Green-Mountain freeman. [volume] (Montpelier, Vt.) 1844-1884, January 29, 1846, Image 1

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Liberty and Equality, Jtlati'8 common birthright, Godm richest fit I ff eli g io n antl Late their detente.
VOL 11, NO. 5.
From the American Farmer and Mechanic.
Another ew Power.
A patent has been secured in England for the
application of heat upon the atmosphere as a
propelling power, without the aid of machinery.
It is called the Fumijic Propeller. The theory
is founded on the propositions that heat is the
source of power in all our artificial motive a-
gents that machinery does not increase the
power, but only transforms or transfers it, and
that the expansion arising from a given amount
of heat applied to gaseous bodies, is much
greater than from the same amount applied to
liquid bodies. In the construction of the engine
the force of the rocket is taken as an example,
and the rarified air is caused to act at once and
directly upon the water, as a moving power for
propelling vessels. A fire grate is enclosed in
a strong, close furnace, at the top and bottom of
which close chamber are two bonnet valves,
which are opened for the necessar'draught for
lighting the fire, which may consist of coal,
wood, or any other fuel; and the fire having at
tained a good height, these valves are. closely
luted dj.vi., ar.d the gases are conducted to each
aide of the vessel, where, discharging a stream
backwards in the water, the vessel is propelled
forward. A circular blower supplies the nec
essary air into the close furnace for combustion.
The well known principle is made available that
air, when heated, expands 1 -480th for every
degree. So, therefore, when heated to 480
deir. its bulk will be doubled. The rush of
power from the close furnace along the pipes is
analagous to that of steatn from a boiler to the
engine, equal in pressure and constancy, and
when required, at much greater velocity. For
the purposes of locomotion, on a railway, the
hot products are forced down wards in a diagonal
direction so as, to obtain impact on the road;
or a continuous trough or canal may be luid
along the line and filled with water, in which
the discharge pipe is made to travel. The in
fentor of this system of motive power expresses
his conviction that it is the best for raising wa
ter, propelling ships and locomotives; presenting
the least danger, the greatest economy, comfort,
mill commercial and political advantage, and the
best means for working at any required velocity,
and which will cost the least sum for i;s estab
lishment, exercise and maintainance. If all this
be true, we have no doubt that it is not only a
new but a very important, power, and one which
-will perlnns produce a leyolqtion in the arts f
Wages of Labor.
from an instructive article on the subject of
agricultural labor in, different countries, its wa
ges, and the comparative condition of the labor
er, in the London Mark Lane Express, we con
dense the following facts. In our estimates we
have called the shilling sterling 22 cents, tliough
its value is a trifle less; and the comparison,
though instituted with the English laborer, can
be eas'.ly made with those of this country.
In England the average rate of agricultural
wages for an able man with a family, is 9 shil
lings, or $1,98 cents per week. From this is
to be deducted cottage rent at 33 cents per
week, leaving SI, f)5 cents per week to provide
himself with the necessaries of life. In France,
a laborer in the same situation, receives $1,04 1
per week; in Prussia, GO cents; in Germany,
$1,02 per week; in Holland and Belgium,
$1,20; in Italy and the Austrian states, $1,15
cents. It will be remembered that these avera
ges are those of the common laborer, shepherds,
carmen, and mechanics receiving rather more.
The food which the wages named above will
purchase in the several countries, is slated in the
Express as follows;
In England the laborer can obtain fr his
165 cents, or his week's wages, either 38 lbs.
of bread, or 11 1-2 lbs. of meat; 7 1-4 lbs. of
Gutter: 12 3-4 lbs. of cheese; or 174 lbs. of
In France, with his 1'04 cents, he can buy
either 46 lbs. of bread; 1 3 1-2 lbs. of meat; or
261 lbs. of potatoes.
In Prussia, with his 66 cents per week, the
laborer can buy either 36 lbs. of bread; 10 lbs.
of meat; or 8 3-4 lbs. of butter
In Germany, with 102 cents he obtains either
43 1-2 lbs. of bread; 16 lbs. of meat; 111-2
lbs. of butter; 24 lbs. of cheese; or 54 quarts
of beer.
In Holland and Belgium, 120 cents will buy
.either 58 lbs. of bread; 22 lbs. of beef; or 460
jibs, of potatoes.
sin Italy and the Austrian states, the laborer
With his 115 cents can buy either 50 lbs. of
bread; 22 lbs. of beef, 8 lbs. of butler, 8 lbs.
of cheese, or 163 lbs. of potatoes.
This table is interesting as showing not only
the prices of labor in the countries named, but
also the price of bread, meat, butter, cheese,
&c. It is true the bread is stated by the lb.
instead of grain by the bushel, but as the flour
of a bushel of wheat, say 40 lbs. will make
from 63 to 65 lbs. of bread, an estimate may
easily be made of the quantity of wheat or flour
a man in any ot the countries named would re
ceive for a week's work. The laborer in this
.country who receives his bushel of wheat a day,
..or .other nrticles in proportion, will rendilv con
ceive the measre fare, and slender chance of
"layinc by any thing" which must attend the
v'foretgn agricultural laborer. In all these coun
tries it will be seen that the value of provisions
is at least as great as here, and in some instan
ces much greater. It is only by the compari
on which such authentic statements enable
them to make, that the free laborers, the farmers
or mechanics of this country can fully appreci
ate the advantages of their positions. Albany
Substitute for the Potato. A vegetable indi
uenous in New Grenada, the atrachis, is said to
hi a valuable substitute for the potato. Each
plant furuishes three or four pounds of root, of
the nature ol the carrot ana potato uuueu, ami
is Baid to be a wholesome food.
From tiie New York Evangelist.
Present Aspects of Rassia.
There is no subject which now excites a deeper in
terest in England, and indeed with ail thinking men
throughout the continent of Europe, than what is cal
led the Eastern Question. Russia and England arc
now playing as important a political game, as ever ox
cited the Eastern Hemisphere. Russia, with an am
bition which knows no bounds, with resources almost
inexhaustible, with secret policy intriguing at every
court in Europe, seeks to extend her territory over all
of central Asia, and to outvie ancient Rome in the ex
tent of her dominions and in the majesty of her pow
England trembles at the gigantic acquisitions of her
great northern rival. She sees, with a degree of dread
which she can neither appease nor conceal, the Rus
sian power crowding closer and closer upon her East
Indian possessions, and contemplates with irrepressi
ble anxiety the rapidly increasing navy of the autocrat,
threatening soon to supersede her in her ancient sove
reignty o the seas. To thwart tho designs of Russia
is now the great object of English diplomacy. And
there is at the present time a contest going on between
these two powers, which, though it has excited but lit
tle attention on this side of the Atlantic, is nn all-engrossing
subject of interest in every cabinet of Europe.
The Russian dominions now compose about one
seventh of the habitable globe, extending from the
Baltic sea, across the whole uicuuai cfEuiL.p-r nnl of I
Asia, to Bheering's straits; and from '"eterrmlices 01
the northern pole to the sunny clime of the pomegran
ate and the fig. The Emperor Nicholas reigns with
unlimited sway over about seventy millions of the hu
man family ; a population considerably exceeding that
of England, Franco, and the United States combined.
He had a militia consisting of eighteen millions of well
armed and respectably disciplined men. lie had a
standing army of highly disciplined troops, many of
them veterans in the hardships und horrors of war,
consisting of one million of men, two hundred thou
sand of these being cavalry, perhaps unsurpassed by
any other body of mounted troops in the world. His
navy, consisting of forty or fifty ships of the line, with
frigates, sloops, floating batteries and gun boats al
most without number, is now manned by about sixty
thousand men, daily exercised in all tlie arts of war.
And the shores of the Enxine and the Baltic incessant
ly roused with tho blows of the ship carpenter, as
month after month new ships are launched upon their
waters. The annual revenue of the Rmperor is about
fifty millions of dollars. Such is the gigantic power
now overshadowing the north of Europe, and apparent
ly aiming at the sovereignty of the world.
The Emperor Nicholas is about forty-five years of
age, in the very prime of his intellectual and physical
vigor. He is, in all respects, one of the most extraor
dinary men now on the busy stage of life. It is said
that he is in form and feature one of the handsomest
men on tho continent of Europe. Lord Londonderry
who not long ago returned from a visit to his court,
says that if ail the seventy millions, who compose the
subjects of the Emperor of Russia, were assembled to
gether, Nicholas is the one, who, from his commanding
SgUre, h;s symmetrica! ami intellectual features, and
Ins princely bearing, would be selected, from them all
as formed by the God of nature for their chieftain. 1 lis
mind is of the highest order, uniting in that wonderful
combination which made Napoleon the masterspirit
of his age, the comprehensiveness of the man of genius,
with the practical muus minutest acquaintance with
details. He is alike at home everywhere, in the army,
in the navy, in the cabinet. His diplomatic corps is
by general consent, the ablest in Europe. In England,
as in America, a man is appointed to an important
mission, not because he is the most suitable mnn, but
because there ure certain interests which must be con
ciliated, or particular friends who must be rewarded.
But iVicholas feels none of these trammels. He reigns
in unlimited despotism. Dukes and Barons are noth
ing to him. He cares not w ho was a man's father, or
wiiere he was born. Looking simply at the qualifica
tions of the individuals selected as the instruments of
his government, he has gathered around him from all
the nations of Europe the most brilliant and compre
hensive talent, and no cabinet in the Eastern hemis
phere is probably equal to the associated diplomatists
of Nicholas.
The favored plan of Russia, which has never for a
momciit been lost sight of since first projected by the
dissolute and ambitious Catherine, id to found univer
sal dominion by the monopoly ot the commerce be
tween Europe and Asia. To do this, she must first so
extend and strengthen her central power, as to have
nothing to fear from the nlli"r nations of Europe. SIip
uust so enlarge and put feet her uavy as to wrest from
the hands of Great Britain the sceptre of the ocean,
and she must subjugate Turkey, and make Constanti
nople her third capital, and fortify her Gibraltar's rock
at the Dardanelles.
Towards tho accomplishment of these projects, she
is advancing in a career triumphant, rapid and appa
rently resistless. By diplomatic intrigue and the pow
er of her armies, Russu had succeeded in bringing a
large portion of the Empire of Poland under her con
trol. The Poles manifested some restiveness under
the yoke, and made an effort to regain their auciciu
independence. The imperial autocrat poured into the
ill-fated territory his resistless armies. They swept
over Poland with hurricane fury. One wild shriek vi
brated upon the Car of Europe, so deep and piercinj
that it even passed the Atlantic wave and rolled along
our shores, and Poland was no more. Her armies
were mussacrod. Her nobles were driven into Sibe
rian exile. I 'er cities and villages became the prop
erty of P.us?ia. Her population of twenty millions of
inhabitants were transion.ii.ui.iU) the subjects ot the
grasping conqueror, to swell his armies and to light
his battles ; and her annual revenue of twunty mil'inns
of dollars wac emptied into his overflowing treasury.
The Empire of Sweden lies the western shore of the
Baltic sea. It would be convenient for Nicholas to
have possession of the whole coast. It is said that
Russian gold bus already bought up the influence: of
her leading nobles and statesmen. And there is now
in Sweden a powerful party, even with the King him
self at their head, who openly advocate Uio annexation
of their territory to the powerful Empire upon whoso
bolder they lie. They say that it is for better for them
to become assimilated with this majestic nation, to
share its glory and its power, than to be an independent
but feeble empire, which may at any moment be in
undated with Russian troops. Thus Sweden virtually
belongs to Russia. Her monarch is but the viceroy of
Nicholas, to do his bidding in the furtherance ot all his
And Norway, a narrow strip of land washed by
the German ocean, is left unmolested, simply because
she is not worth possessing. Her coid and cheerless
wastes, inhabited by a population of but about a mill
ion, without a navy and with hardly the shadow of an
army, only add to the interior strength of that power
ful monarch, who can fill her whole territory with Rus
sian subjects whenever it shall be his will. Thus the
stormy waves of the Onrroin ocean are the only real
limits to the power of Nichalos on the Vvest.
Let us now turn to the Last, ana note the acnuisi-
tions of this gigantic empire in" that direction. There
is a large promontory juttinff into the Chick sea from
the North, called the Crimea. The possession of this
promontory is important to any power that would con
trol tho commerce of the Black sea. Turkey owned
it Russia wanted it. She took it And when Tur
key remonstrated, Nicholas very significantly pointed
to ' his guns and his troops, and advised the Sultan to
keep quiet Mahmoud took the hint, and exercised
discretion, that " better part of valor."
Sevastapool, on tho southern shore of the Crimea,
is now the naval depot of the Euxine fleet Here an
immense navy, manned by thirty thousand seamen,
rides proudly, armed and provisioned, ready to unmoor
at a moment's warning for any expedition of aggran
disement For many years Nicholas has had twelve
thousand men constantly employed in throwing up for
tifications around this important position. No assail
ant now can probably harm it Said Capt. Crawford,
as he visited a few years ago the Russinn fleet at 8a-
) vastapool, " It was a strange feeling, that came over 1 1
i me, as an Englishman and an officer in the British na- (
vy, on finding myself at sea with six and twenty line
of battle ships, manned with nearly thirty thousand
men, and four months' provision on board, knowing, as
I did, that for the protection of the coasts of my own
country, of our ports, of our mercantile shipping in the
Baltic, the North sea, and the channel, we had but sev
en line-ol-battle ships in a state of preparation, and
those not fully manned. I confess that, confident as I
felt of the superior skill and activity of my country
men, I almost trembled for their preservation of the
ancient sovereignty of tho seas."
On the eastern shores of the Black sea, between her
waves and the Caspian, lies Circassia, a wild and
mountainous region, tilled with gloomy ravines and in
accessible crags, where small bands of resolute men
might bid defiance to an host. Among these defiles,
for many ages, there has lived a brave and warlike
race, fumed tor martial prowess and personal beauty,
and for the spirit of indomitable independence. Russia
having obtained undisputed possession of the western
and northern shore of the Euxine, cast her eyes across
the eastern shore, and resolved to subdue the warlike
race, which for age? had ranged those wilds in uncon
quered freedom. The Euxine fleet was all ready to
transport the armies of tho Emperor to the shores of
circassia. l ne plan was, however, lound more Uim
cult of achievement than was at first supposed. These
hardy men and women fought fiercely for their liber
ties. From the year 1828 to 1832, these distant soli
tudes resounded with the din of the most determined
and murderous war. The explosion of Russian artille
ry rivaled the thunders of heaven, as they reverberated
around tnc summits ot the Caucasians. Army alter
army were cut up in these Thermopylae fastnesses,
but still new thousands were poured into the doomed
country, till, at last, numbers and discipline triumphed,
:;r,cl the !we Circassians were vanquished, and their
country became, by the right of might, a province of
rapacious jois-tia. And now the Russian flag floats
from almost every promontory of the Black sea, and
her fortresses frown in the strongest holds of tho Cau
casian mountains.
18 40,
This year many good men will die, but their
works will follow them, not out of the world,
but in the world. If good works were mortal,
then every generatis:1. would have to begin back
at some dark age of barbarism, and the subse
quent one at the same place. Nay, they would
travel backward and downward in the scale of
moral being, if it were not in the constitution of!
God's government that the good which a man
does shall live after him. The present condition
of the human race is not exactly the harvest but
the seed-time of this divine promise ; when
whosoever shall sow abundantly, shall reap abun
dantly. We repeat, the present condition and
prospects of humanity are an evidence, illustri
ous as the sun, that good men have lived in all
generations, and the aggregate of their immor
tal virtues has elevated us of the present day to
a sublime stand-point in the destiny of the race.
This point is not only the sum but the product
of the present and the past, embracing the earli
est elements and attainments of human progress
ion. It appears to us as plain as anything dem
onstrated by mathematics, that the Eternal Mind
bus ordained, by a marvellous constitution, that
this progression shall not be arithmetical but ge
ometrical. In consequence of this divine order
of things, the present generation has reached a
point by this ratio of progression, whence each
step must be a vast result to the race ; for it is
not one step the more, but outmcasures in its
stride the distance made by all the steps taken
on this earth since Adam first began to step.
The world's mind of the present day obeys un
consciously this law; nay, obedience thereto is
inevitably sequent and natural. Begin with nnv
department of this general progression, and you i
will see this truth as plain as the sun.
Fulton strained his mind to distraction with
the idea that he could propel a vessel up the
Hudson by the mere force of steam at the rate of
four miles an hourn large vessel one that
would canv a hundred men. He was a genius,
and it had worked like a steam engine in him ;
but when it had forced out of his mind this stu
pcnduuus idea, his friends looked at him with
fixed eyes and then shook their heads sorrowfully,
saying to each other in a low voice, " What a
pity h; ?: irazyr In vain he protested (hat he
was not mad ; and he went to France, mid there,
at the dinner table with the Parisian nobility and
aristocracy, when the wine had passed and soft
ened the inequalities of rank, that young enthu
siastic man uttered his fanatical proposition. It
sobered in a moment the current of conversation.
All eyes were directed toward the young Ameri
can at the foot of the table. Talleyrand set
down his glass and said in a formidable tone of
inquiry ; " Do I understand you to say, that by
the mere force of steam you can propel a ves
sel containing 100 armed men, in a dead calm,
at the rate of four miles an hour !" What a
moment for the young enthusiast I " Yes," re
plied he, with a faith in his heart that steadied
his voice before the Fiench statesman. French
politeness repressed the exclamation, " What a
pity that he is crazy !" but the man of one idea
understood the shrugs of incredulity which greet
ed his reply.
Four miles au hour by steam ! who would
dare to advance such a proposition now? Ful
ton himself, if alive, would pronounce such a
man crazy. Nothing short of a hundred miles
an hour by steam would now be considered a
proposition adequate to express the sanest effort
of reason. Fulton's idea, that half shipwrecked
his mind by its magnitude, and which the world
was not strong enough to bear yesterday, as it
were, has been absorbed and constitutes but a
minute element in the mighty idea of steam pow
er now working its inventive enginery in the hu
man mind.
Tims it is in every department of this intense
progression. A few years ago, a narrow ditch
called a cam), and conducting a small thread of
uavigutiou around the rapido in a liver, was con
sidered a great event, and celebrated with the
joyful explosion of rum and powder. Now talk'
of a canal, and it is a proposition to open a river
across a continent; to lock the Pacific through
the Andes to the Atlantic, bearing tall-masted
ships, laden from the extremest Inde, homeward,
as it were, by land. A Railroad, iu our fresh
est remembrance, wasj a tremendous affair, it h
opened an iron highway between Lowell and
Boston, Albany and Schenectady. Now, the
very boys on their way to school, are projecting
double track railways strait on through a dozen
kingdoms ; and men are discussing in halls of
ition whether a hemispherical colure of
iron would pay, not whether it could be made, j
Steam power, with its tremendous capacity of
propulsion, is even now lagging behind the pro
pensities of the age. The daring thought of
man, in the leading strings of the Eternal Mind,
is feeling and foundling and coveting an cle
ment of omnipotence. It has horsed man upon
the steeds of his Maker's chariot the winds,
cloaJs, steam, air, water, and all the fierce,
swift agencies that move in the heaven above' and
on the earih beneath. Well, is he contented?
Not he! See him now in the pasture of the
great powers of Omnipotence See him with a
bridle behind his back, baiting the quick, cross
lightning! How cosily he lays his magnetising
hand upou its forked, fiery locks! There! look,
ye angels of strength! see, he has bitted and
saddled God's Lightning, and, astride the red
coarser, he kids you try your speed with him
across the race-course of the world. Can the
tallest iu your ranks blow a blast on his trumpet
that !MI be heard through the universe and a
wake the' sleeping dead; man lightning mount
ed man, will send you the message fifty times
around the earth before your loudest voice can
reach the nearest grave.
A siand-puml, said we? Not that not that.
The present, with all the vast and undeveloped
energies which have been apperccived and ap
propriated by man, is merely the ttartin "'-point
in his progression. The whole series, reaching
back from the la?t to tho first stride cf the hu
man intellect, make now but one term, but one
step an outlaunching point for the discovery of
a new world of thought. The mind of man has
been in the infant school of God's great Univer
sity for foul thousand years, and it has just got
into ideas of one syllable. Believe it, man!
believe it, and look erect on heaven. Into ideas
of one syllable, we say; and the Great Teacher,
in all the yearning paternity of his love and wis
dom, is teaching Humanity's Mind to construe
the mighty Syntax of His government, to ana
lyse the Prosody of His attributes. Durritt.
The Mandarin and the Enslisii Lad
The degraded position of females iu China is
well known. Nothing astonishes the China
men who visit our merchants at Hong Kong so
much as the deference which is paid by our
countryman to their ladies, and the position
which the latter are permitted to hold in society.
The very servants express their disgust at seeing
our ladies permitted to sit at table with their
lords, and wonder how men can so far forget
their dignity. A young English merchant re
cently took his youthful wife with him to Hong
Kong, where the couple were visited by a wealthy
mmdtrin. The latter regarded the lady atten
tively, aud seemed to dwell with delight on her
movements. When she at length left the apart
ment, he said to the husband, iu his imperfect
English, " Wat you give for that wifey wife
" Oh," replied the husband, laughing at the
singular error of the visitor, " two thousand
dollars "
This our merchant thought would appear to
the Chinese rather a high figure, but he was
" Well, ' said the mandarin, taking out
hook with an air of business, "suppose
give her to me, I give you five thousand
it is uitticult to say whether the young mer
chant was more amazed or amused, but the
grave air of the Chinaman convinced him that
he was in earnest, aud he was compelled, there
fuw, to refuse the offer w ith as much placidity
as he could assume. The mandarin was, how
ever, pressing, and went as high as seven thous
and dollars. Te merchant, who had no previ
ous jiotioii of the value of the commodity which
he had taken out with him, was compelled at
length to declare that Englishmen never sold
their wives after they once came into their pos
session, an assertion which the Chinaman was
slow to believe. The merchant afterwards had
a hearty laugh with his young wife, when he
told her that he had just discovered her full val
ue, as the mandarin had offered him. seven thou
sand dollars for her.
The Contrast.
Picket your entire seaboard with forts; plant
a Paixhan battery on every hill top; let a cre
scent of seventy-fours occupy the mouth of eve
ry harbor and inlet; what avails it all, unless
you have incorruptible integrity iu the national
councils, in the field, behind the breastwork, on
the quarter-deck? And how are you to secure
it here, if it be not first among the people?
Can the stream rise higher than the fountain?
If the fountains of power among the people are
polluted, how are vou to have pure streams from
them? If the people are corrupt, can you. ex
pect their representatives to be men of spotless
But on the contrary, strip the whole coast of
its defences, blow up every fort, dismantle every
battery, burn every ship of war, hurl every gun
overboard; but secure an incorruptible populace;
let the great mass be upright men, deeply imbu
ed with the spirit of a sound morality, and the
nation is nevertheless, invincible. From such
an exhaustless source will issue forth the states
men, the soldiers, the seamen, the Captains and
Generals, who will soon hurl invasions from your
slioies; and rcteach the revolutionary lesson, thai
a virtuous people, contending fur their natural
and unalienable rights, arc unconquerable. Dr.
' Hints to Girls. A wise girl would win a
lover by practising those virtues which secure
admiration when personal charms have failed.
A simple girl endeavors to recommend her
self by the exhibition of frivolous accomplish
ments and mawkish sentiment which are shal
low as her mind.
A good girl always respects herself and
therefore, always possesses the respect of other;.
A Frenchman is said to have invented a ma
chine capable of doing every description of sew
ing except stitching of button-holes.
Effect of Example.
What extreme advantage great persons have, espe
cially by the influence of their practice, to bring God;
himself, as it were, into credit ! how much is it in their
power easily to render piety a thing iu fashion and re
quest! for, in what they do, they never arc alone or ill
attended; whither they go, they carry the world along
with then: ; they lead crowds of people oiler them,
well when they go in the right way, us when they run
astray. The custom of living well, no less than other
modes and garbs, will soon be conveyed and propa
gated from the court; the city and country will readily
draw good maimers thence, good manners: truly so
called, not only superficial terms of civility, but real
practices of goodness. For the main body of men go
eth not "qud eundem, sed qui itur." not according to
rules and seasons, but after examples and authorities ;
especially of great persons, who are like stars, shining
in high and conspicuous place, by which men steer j
single or solitary ones, but arc, like their persons, of a
public and representative nature, involving the prac
tice of others, who are by them awed or shamed into
compliance. Their good example, especially, hath
this advantage, that men can find no excuse, can have
no pretonce, why they should not follow it Piety is
not only beautiful, but fortified by their dignity; it not
oi.ly shines with a clear luntre, but with a mightier
force and influence; a word, a look, the least intima-
i . M :ii j .. . 1 .1 -.1 I 1 A
liii.il (.iruiai;, uicu .tiwnn ail iu lit iut,nuniyv 11..1 aa
uuu lruill uieill -fill uu uiuro vwu upsu vuicnf ucti ti-i ,. . . - , , . , , .. . . , 4.
oquence, clearest reason, most earnest endeavors. For Ior of skin, had as little to do w ith the
it is in thorn, if they would apply themselves to it, as fights of man, as the content ofhis pocket? But read
the wisest prince implies "to scatter iniquity with their further :
eyes." A siniln of theirs were able to enliven virtue ; AnJ lhat w are lm,rur,,re driven to the ulterna
and diffuse it all about; a frown might suffice to mom-1 . .
fy and dissipate wickedness. Such, apparently, jtive of excluding all,,.r allowing all these people to
ti.cir power of honoring God: and in proportion thereto, j vote ut an most dtxiltdlyof the opinion thel all should
surely, great is their obligation to do it; of them, par-; Je exhukd.n
twuy, God expects it, ad all equity exacts it.-i.j This is good. Because injustice is done to a
' j portion of a certain class,;tho wrong is to be corrected
, jbv being unjust to the whole! But the reason giver
Deferred Items, ! is a no less choice specimen of the principles of the
. : movement party,' the 'young Democracies'
Crimes of a Year. By a statement furnished to the i " We cannot regard them as belonging to the race
.Morning Xews it appears that there have been, in the : to w i,, ulC government of this country is committed ;
various Criminal Courts of N. Y. city, 3,(15 trials du-... , , .
ring the year. In the Over and Ten' Wr there have i that tiw 18 a nalUfal t'"t'f,,tt bt'twen the race8'
been six trials for murder, which resulted in two con- j founded on strong natural and physical differences,
convictions and fout acquittals; two trials for arson.both j forbidding social or political amalgamation, that the
acquiUalH : and one conviction for manslaughter in the
second degree. In the General Sessions there have
been 281 convictions and Hi acquittals. Among the
former there are 1 1 fur forgery in the various degrees,
jy for burglary, 13 for grand larceny, 'i6 petit larceny,
5ii assault and battery, do. with intent, &c. 8, rape 1,
ro'ibery 2, riot 7, false pretenses 8, perjury 2, receiving
stolen goods (i, disorderly houses 7 ! gambling houses
0! illegal voting 0 '. libel 2, &c. &c. Of these convic
tions one has been sentenced to be hung, and another
is awaiting sentence. Sing-Sing receives 125 of the
convicts, 5 of whom are women. But the Special Sess
ions have done up the greatest amount of small crimi
nality the petit-larceny convictions in that Court a
mounting to 001, and the assault-nnd batteries to (il5.
713 men and lfSl woaien have been sentenced to the
Penitentiary ; S8) men and 88 women to tho City
Prison : 87 boys and 1 girls to the House of Refuge.
'live Western liivcrs. The Memphis Eagle uf the
12lh ult. says nil the rivers above are frozen, the Ohio,
Cumberland, Tennessee and Mississippi. There is no
river communication between Cairo and tit Louis, the
Mississippi being frozen over and nearly dry, a few
miles above Cairo. The river continued to fall at Mem
phis ; tho packet steamer Monarch, Bulletin and Maz
eppa remained aground.the water being low er than ev
er before known. The steamboat pilots say the Miss
issippi river was never known to be su low ns it is
now, and it is still falling rapidly.
Baptist Mission. Missionary .Meetings iu connex
ion with the Baptist Church, have been recently held
in Philadelphia, attended by the Rev. Dr. Judson mid
Rev. Messrs Kincaid and Abbot, which have been at
tended with unusual interest. The noble sum of twelve I
4l. I ,l..ll.. i :i 1 .... ..i i.. .1
thousand dollars was subscribed, so that not only the
incubus of debt which w eighed down the energies of
the Baptist missionary Society is removed, but liheril
means are provided for the more extended operations
of their benevolent enterprise.
Arrest or Si.avk Ships. The Sierra Leone
Watchman of the HOth August, says :
"Commencing from the period when the strength of. lle f- . J ham, j the , ft considerable nnm
the squadron was augmented bv the addition ot steam I , , r ., , ,
power, (being also the date of Commodore Jones's ar- j bt'rs Lioerty p irly men ready to choose pro
rival,) in April, 1 1-', up to th last month, (June) so I slavery voters adherents of pro-slavery parties
short a period as fourteen months, no fewer than be-j f,. reformers aud rcmodellers of Civil Gbv
tween Sixty and Seventy vessels of various si;v..s have , . r j .1. . .1 .
.111 i ' . i e i I eminent. I am informed, that there are to be
been captured by her Majesty a cruisera, for being en- i . '
gaged in the slave trade. Out of tins number, not one j ' ?S Conventions held in our Sfate for the
has escaped condemnation, either for being erpiippd 1 purpose cf discussing the question, whether it is
j latter case, upwards of five thousand slaves have been
' rescued, and emancrpited by the courts in tins colony.
Fire. The store and merchandise of Messrs D. Si
A. Collins of Prandon, was consumed by fire on Sat
urday morning 3d inst, together with some five or six
uwusana pounas o woo. ana 1 mj aoinrs i in nuney.
i Loss about $000 ; insured for about $1500.
,,r ,
;u Slaves bv V iiiiles.u.k. rhebeor -
.... ., r
r states that a notorious uero thief,
gia Courie
named Yeoman, wasirr
. , ., ,,
(1 there on the night
of the 27th ult. He has len engaged in run- i
ning negroes from Thomas and Low ndes conn-1
ties, Ga., and Jefferson county, Fla., for some I
time, andthe citizens not being able to lay hands
ou him formed t!isni3e!ves into a society, and a-
dopted resolutions offering a reward of $230, for
his apprehension, which has led to his arrest.
He is a man about 30 years of age, of dark com
plexion, and weighs ahiut 15'J lbs., with blue
eyes. I he citizens of Georgia hive suffered to
the amount of 9100,000 by this man.
Hujf to Oregon. Th Ulstauce to Oregon,
t i be sailed from New-Yoi k to the mouth of the
Columbia River, by the way of Cape Horn, is
estimated at 15,009 miles. A ship canal to Pa
nama, to be cut through the Isthmiis of Panauu,
which is only 37 miles, would save 9,000 miles.
or more than one half ihe distance, reducing the
voyage out and back to less than the time now
required to make the passage out. The distance
from N. Y. to the mouth uf the Columbia by
land is about 3700 miles.
("The Postmaster General lias issued an or
der to the City Postmaster at Washington, to the
effect, that nil letters" or documents fiauked by
members of Congress shall be charged with let
ter postage, unless it shall appear that said let
ters or packages emanated directly from the mem-1
bers themselves. ,
Army and Navy. The number and class of
vessels iu the Naval service on the first day of
October, is stated by the Secretary as follows ;
Ships of the lino, 11; frigates, 14; sloops of war,
23; brigs, 6; schooners, 6; steamers, 1 1; store
ships, 5; total, 76. The whole force enrolled
on the 26th of Nov. was as lollows: Officers,
733; non-commissioned officers and servanrs, mu
sicians and artificers, 7883; in all 8616; men.
Anti-S l.nrery.
Progressive Democracy;
The real Simon Pure Democracy, the only genuine
article, the unpolished diamond fresh from the only
mine that can be depended upon as giving us the real
thing Tammony Hall, has broken upon the dazzled
world in a newer and brighter light At a meeting in
Tammany, on Friday evening last, they passed a res
olution, which commences as follows:
Resolved, That the distinction established in the
present Constitution between people of color, allowing
such of them as have property, to vote, and excluding
others, is an anti-republican distinction, as the possess-
:,. fmn,,. ;a ,,nt the toot of intelligence or of
Good. What more can be osked or expected from
a party whose distinctive doctrine as announced by
one of its great leaders is that true Democracy, is "the
supremacy of man over his accidents.''
Who could help being cheered, when reading the
firbi clause In the resolution, with the hope that the
discovered, that tiie slighter
attempt to unite the races, by constitutional or legal
provision, not in accordance with public sentiment in
this respect, would again fail in elevating the colored
race to a practical participation in the Government of
this State, and that it is most unwise to adopt any con
stitutional provision w hich will not in fact be sustarnedt
by public sentiment, or to attempt to make such senti
ment conform to a constitutional provision.''
It has been well said lhat if the 'l atural antipathyr
is mutual, it is as good a reason for depriving the
w hites as the blacks, of a share in the Government
Tho whole meaning of the resolution, reduced to plain-,
language, is simply t is : that the strongest shall gov
ern, and the only standard of human rights is to be
found in the spirit of caste, and in the (www of the
strong, to tyrannize over the weak. This is the De
mocracy p ir excellence of this country. Jl. S. Standard'
Piom the Liberty Press.
Petkiuioko, Dee. 29, 1845.
Mr. Bailey, For several years, I have spent
portions of my sabb iths in preaching the Bible
view of Civil Government, or, as it is reproach
lully called, in "preaching politics." Mcny
think, that, if, in the place id' this exercise, I
had advocated the claims of the Liberty party, I
should have done more good. Dut, every day's
observation convinces me, that Liberty party
llleM as we as 0t,er men )aVe radically defec
' ' J
live conceptions of the nature and office of Civil
Government, and need to know, far more than
they litivi hitherto known, what the Bible teach?
es of that nature and office.
I would that many moie anti-slavery lecturerr
had betakpn themselves to "preaching politics."
i Had thev done so. we should not now see. on
, .. r.ir , I.iliei't V UartV men to choose such
voter? fur such a responsible service. Strange,.
that, at this time of diy, there should be need
of such a discussion ! Strange, that it is yet to
be decided, whether, iu the esteem of Liberty
j pnrtv meilj they who can vole the helplesj, un
- Boor inlo thfi u.UiU of C,v or Polk.
or any other trafficker in human flesh, are fit
; persons to devise the forms and specify the du-
,1. , ., . ... , J
ties of Civil Government 1 Oh, when will Lib-
. . . , , .
env uariv men muni iu men riv; una men
, v . . . . : '. . .
: neari on iirt puiic.ip.es : ji is umj iuigci-
ting t!ic..e principles, that they can ever incline
to du tli;:t, which violates them.
I know not, that my private business, laying
claim as it does, to all time, will allow me to at
tend the great Conventions, to which I have re
ferred. Should I however hsve the pleasure of
attending them, I should like to submit to them. '
the following Resolution:
Whereas the protection of the weak and ig
norant against the designs of the strong and'
crafty, and the ever watchful and tender care of
the poor especially the poorest of the poor
constitute iu the light of the Bibje, a large share
of the busiuess uf Civil Government :
Resolved, therefore, not only, that he, who
has a heart to rob, aud buy, and sell, the poor,,
is unfit to administer Civil Government ; but,
that he, who can choose such a one to adminis
ter it, is himself unfit to reform and remodel it.
. This Resolution being disposed of, I should
like f teijt the Republicanism of the member!
of the CwtrquUoBt by offering the following "
Resolution : 6
Whereas the great distinctive doctrine of Re
publicanism is, that "All men are created equal"
Resolved, therefore, not only, that Republican
ism is an entire stranger to the hearts of slave
holders, but that he is very imperfectly acquain
ted with its genuis, who, for reasons however-
plausible, can consent to vote political power
and influence into their hands.
Do these Resolutions virtually affirm, thatma
ny of oui most honored and admired citizens
are ignorant both of Republicanism and of the
merciful intent of Heaven in the gift of Civil
Government ? They do : and it becomes those
citizens, not to deny the truth of the Resolutions,
but to cast off their own unworthy views of Re
publicanism and Civil Government.
The readers of this letter will, perhaps, say,
that I am too rigid; and that such rigidness will
diminish, rather than increase, the number of

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