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GhEEN MOUNTAIN FREEMAN.
MONTPKLIEB.VT. ,OiBce in the Urlok Block, Head of State Street. TIB-aWl Cl.so ICpald in edvauoe: otherwise, 3.oo. yuuut ma; be mi Jo by mill or otherwise to. H. K. WHXELOCK. Editor and Proprietor. The Feccmam, under the reoent law of Cona-reai .ciroulates tree la WaehlnirtoD County. On all pawn. Bent outalde Waahinfrton County, the poataa-e la paid by the publisher at the office In MontpeUer. fERMS KOItlADVICK'JISING For uiie eui of 14 Hue.' r leis of Afrate ty ,e, one H'lHHIlt HlMirtiOU, UCi l U, ,-,iiM are mut-keU ou tlie iIiichW until ordered nut iii'lj4iits uud ollja s talver iii-i-i I'm, v, h ; iih' i-il'-l II u 'n. h tli mulii'i- uf I i'lvM''l-e.i.iiit. it will I I. H ral ii-i Kitnt Hindi-iii-j..tf by tiie yi-ur. I'ruliate uuil CotuuiUsumera' Notirea, 83 'v. For Nolli'i-a nl Liberation, Kstruys, the Formation uud iJi-xdui luii ut UtriiurttirraluiiH, etr., tt.25 eacu fur leri-ii nioi-i'Ooii. lihtmtby luuil the njouey (oust ae !!juiim) Uiu iullef. Notu-i's in new rolilinlis.lOoeilts fier Hue each luaar tloti, but uo cltutttt'H made o lean than Ulia-uta. Notnf-e of Di-at'ia ind Marriages itiserti'd trratla, but i-xu-uilfd uoitourv N'ltK-eaof Foelr will be t'Jjafeud at thu rate ol a i taita ui-r hue. VOL. XL. MONTPELIER, VT., WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 7, 1883. NO- G. Jrtemait wctm StONTPELJSH. VT. KFE.DMESDAY, FEB. 7. 1883. Bunda y School Lesson flotes. BT RE V. J. O. 6HERBUBK. Feb. 18: Chrlat'an Couraye-Acta 4:19-31. This lesson follows close upon the events of the last. Peter closed his defence before the council, and the two apostles were ordered from the court for a few moments, nnd a conference was held unions the members of the tribunal. The case of bottling was undoubted. The man was before them whole, and there was no way under their law of bringing punish ment upon the men who had wrought the cure. Hence they determined to do the best they could for the future to suppress the doctrines of the apostles by threats and intimidation. So tliev gave a very strict charge to Peter and John, when they had recalled them. The language implies that thoy were neither to toaoo publicly in the name of Jesus, nor in private, among their friends, wore they to speak of hiin as the Christ. The oiinui vnd if heeded would have snppressod all the efforts of the early believers, and in reality restrained thorn from meeting together for acts of worship But they hod made a mistake when they supposed that Peter and John wero to be restrained by their threats. These disci pies wero not in the weak and halting state that they were a few weeks before when the Master was baforo the council. They n w aotod under the new and mighty reign of the Holy Spirit. Hence, boldly and promptly they denied the rightof the Sanhedrim to put any such restrioilona upon ihoni. They were willing even to submit the question to thecounoil whether it would b i right before God for them to hearken to the command of men rather than to God. The plain command of Christ when ho loft them was that they should publish everywhere the great facts parta'ning to his kingdom. Thay recognized this as a command of God. Hero comes In an assertion of their belief in Christ's divinity. Again they could with cr.nfi lenoe appeal to the higher hv bofore the counoil of their own people. Sjiue of tho most heroic pictures in tho tiistory of their peoplo were just of this nature, Men refused to obey laws contrary to the laws of thoir God. Daniel and the three worthies, and several of the old prophots had taken the same position, and God had honored and delivered them. Doubtless these examples were in the minds of the accused and tho accusers. The apostles strengthen their appoal by the declaration that it was a moral impossibility for thi-m not to speak forth the things they had seen and heard. This is conscience and duty grandly asserting their supremacy. When It be oorues impossible and unthinkable for a man to disobey God, then he is as nearly safe as be can be in this evil world. The rulers finding these men determined and knowing well that there was no cast against them under the law, added further threats, if they should persist in teaching Jesus, and then dismissed them, simply because they dare not in view of the condition of the public mind commit the flagrant abuse of punishing them when there was no case against them. This was a very poor showing of honor on tho part of thecounoil. They were only restrained from the vilest abuse of thoir authority by the position of the people. And yot this is better than going on without any restraint and no doubt at the present time many of our tribunals are strengthened and kept in tone by tho came dread of the people. We need, too, a new and more vigorous application of this corrective force in many of our courts at present. The apostles upon their releaso went at once to their own company. They jet had some common place oi abode, or at least of daily congregation. Here we have an excellent example for any who are in affliction or persecution. Seek the company of God's people In all suoh times. Many a soene of anguish might be avoided, and humiliating dofcat turned to complete victory if men would observe this rule. The conduct of the apostles upon receiving the report of Peter and John is worthy of note. They did not begin by conferring together and trying to hit upon some plan to kcepaconscience and still avoid the rage of the rulers; but they at once united in supplications to God for tho courage they needed that they might be bold and increasingly efficient in doing his work. There is something sublime in the natnre of their combined supplication. They stay themselves upon the thought of God's almigbtiness. Tbcy go back in their thought and language to the triumphant experiences of those who had trusted in God beforo their time. They catch the hidden, higher meaning of one of the triumphant strains of their groat national poet and prophet. They discover an application of tho language which they had not probably seen beforo. They see rulers and people united against the Lord's ni.oinled, hut they see all powerless to harm or destroy him. The 28th verse recognizes Gods foreordinatlon in regard to tho mission and sufferings of Christ, while wo have but a little while ago studied Peter's chnrge against his people of slaying Jesus with wichid hands. Man is responsible though bo be carrying out the oounscl before determined upon by Jehovalj. The facts stand side by side in the word of, God, I may say also in our oonsoiousnoss. The Bible seeks no system which will harmonize the two, and we may as well not seek to do what inspiration has not attempted. After the formal opening of the potion, wo come to the leal matter of supplication. "Grant thy ear vnnts boldness that they may speak thy word," one of the most pertinent and comprehensive prayors for the Christian ministry that was evor uttorod. God was pleased with them and with their prayor; for at once the plaoe where they were assembled was shaken nnd the mighty manifestation of the spirit cnmo again, anil, reassuted, It.ey we nt out to speak even more boldly tbo word given to them. Home Secrets. The following from a valuablo exchango contains so much wholesome advice that we reproduce it for the especial benefit of our married readers. Possibly in tho whole rvnge of human characters there is none more deppisablo than I hat of one who acts as a spy or meddler in family matters. There is ocrlainly none who exerts a more deadly Influence on the peace nnd happinoss of homo, loung couples, above all, will tin (I the acquaintance of such a person almost fatal, and the sooner the connection between them and such officious oulslilors, is Bevered the better. No matter how perfect and angelio lovers may appear to each other, it will bo found out after marriage that they have their differences of opinions and tastes, and they would hardly be human it they did not discover some slight causes ot provocation wi h each other. Such things are as different from what we call strife or quarreling as a 8iuuiuer breeze is from a cyclone, but let ouu ot these oincioua people who delight in prying into family matters know oi tliom, and tho breeze may possibly become a cvclono beforo it ends the only sale rulo is tor married tolks to kotp thoir secrets to themselves. There in cnolo within -every nousenold into which tho outsider should never enter. It is the fhrine, the holy of holies made sacred by the great lovo a man and wife bear to each other, and mere thoy should a"ioe to bear with each other's failings to remonstrato or to complain, to forgive and nuke up. No school girl friend of the wile s, no college chum ot the bus band's lot them lie ever so dear should bo admitted into the inner court where i he married couple should stand alone How many have learned by experience what a bitter tiling it is to have a third person in possession of a secret they would give their lives, almost, to get back. When a cloud si omed to rest for a moment over the sunshine of their married life, when their hearts were grieved and their tempers milled, they were foolish enough to confide their troubles to some caller, or some officious friend always on hand to receive sucli confidence. And then, when the cloud passed and the sunshine came back, and the momentary bitterness was forgotten in the sweetness of making up, ob, what a torture it was to know that a stranger knew all! If all young married couples only knew the worth of their discretion! Ihey needed no third per.-on in tbiir love making, and II, after marriage, they find out, as mosi assuredly they will, that boing I uman they connot be fauljess, let them beware of taking any third person to settle their differences. Let them continue to be alter marriage what they were before, all the world to each other, and if in plucking the roses of married life a thorn would occasionally wound if a hasty word provoke an angry retort, if some thought less act bo construed into unkindness let the pain be ever so sharp, it will cease very soon. True love is a plant of strong growth; it will stand any amount of passing storms and still thrive in all its beamy and vigor. Hut it is extrcmoly ensitive, and shrinks from common touch; and if it is exposed to tho rude gi.ze and rough handling of passers by, it will not be long lived. It married people would ketp ibis treasure to the end of life, let them settle their own diuVencos ami make up with a kiss as they did in their courtship days, and let the ouisiue world be none tho wiser. How to cook a pieco of meat properly that is a great question with housekeepers and with all ot us, for that matter. The round table is spread three times a day witn snowy cloth, nnd the now of soul becomes subordinate to the least of rea son, in vtow ol tui3 tact, we ought to know how to serve up that best reason for a least, a. juicy and lender piece of meat. Says an exchange, upon this important subject : A well-cooked ptoco of meat should be full of ils own gravy. In roasting, there fore, it should be exposed to a quick Are, that tho external surface may be made to contract at once, and the albumen to coag ulate before the juico has had time to escapo from within. Tho same observa, t ons apply to boiling ; whon a piece of heel or mutton is plunged into boiling water, the outer part contracts, the albu men which is near tho surface coagulates, ind the internal juico is prevented either from escaping into the water by which it is surrounded, or from boirg diluted or weakened by tho admission of water among it. When cut up, therefore, the meat yields much gravy and is rich in flavor. Hence a heelatcaKor mutlon chop is done quickly and over a quick fire, that the natural juice may be retained. Un the oilier Hand, if the meat be done over a slow lire, the pores remain open, tho juice continues to now within as it has dried from the surface, and the flush pines and becomes dry, hard and unsavory. Or if it be put in cold, tepid water, which is afterwards brought to a boil, much of the a.bumen is extracted before it coagulates, the natural juices, lor the most part, flow out, and the meat served in nearly a taste less state, Hence to prepare good boiled meat, it should at once be put into witer already brought to a boil. But to make beet tea, mutton broth and other nioai soups the flesh should pe put into cold water, ana this alterward very slowly warmed, and finally boiled. The advan tage derived from simmering a term not unfrequcnt in cookery books depends veiy much upon llie elj'oots of slow boil ing, as above explained. The Itcv. Itobert Collyer on a recent Sunday preached a sermon on "How to be young at eighty." He told his hearers of his own childhood yoars in a tiny white washed cottage, where bo was fed on oatmeal and milk, with oat broad nnd butter onoe a week, and white potatoes and moat now and then. This laid tho foundation; a life of temperance, good humor and virtue has done (he rest, and Dr. Collyer at 60 linds himself hale and hearty, never having been sick a day in his life. Ho drew this pretty picture of bis rural home : "A oottago of two rooms and an atlic looking right into tho eyo of tho sun and away toward the great purple moors. A bit of groon sward before iho door, a plum tree nnd a clump of roses. The walls of ihe living room white as tho driven snow, and tho flagged floor so clean that you might eat your dinner on it. Tho house whitewashed twice a year with quicklimo, ibe tiny co -beds tilled once a year with fresh ohittt from the farms and how good it did smell, to be sure ! Pure white linen to wear and to sleep in, and once a week good sound scrubbing in a tub, with yellow soap that got into your eyes, nnd awnshtrwol. "Who hath red ev es?" I saul, quoting Solomon "who hath contention P who hath strife P" I can n member who had thein ull moro thn fifty yoars ago. But in that little home, uuu giuuuy in iuis naray mixture of oat meal nnd milk und tho enow white purity, the stanchions were driven that hum nover stirred to this day; and that tuado it easy lor me to livo a cheerful and sunny life, and to givo strong drink a wide bortii (though I was raised among those who drank boor as they a-to hread)whon I saw there was danger that it would bononie my tyrant and I a moro;slnye." .HOTIIKU'M WAV. urt wttlilu our little cotUKt, As tho shad wb frently jai Wtille the suulitrht touches aoftly One sweet face upon the wall. Do wo vettier close together, And In hushed and tender tone Ask oach othor for fortrlveueaa, I'ur the wroutr that each has doue. Should you wonder at the custom, At the ending of the day, Eye and voice would quickly answer, "It was once our mother's way." If our home be brukt und cheery, If It hold a welcome true, Openluir wide Its door of greeting To thu many, not the fow; If we share our Father's bounty With the needy day by day, 'T is bocauxe our hearts remember This was ever mother's way. Somoliinaa when our hearts irrow woary, Or our task9 seem very long, Wliou our burdens look too heavy. And we deem the right ull wroutf, Then wo rain a new, froah courage, As we rise to proudly say: "Lot us do our duty bravely. That wui our dear mother's way." Thus we keep her memory precious, While we never cease to pray That, at last, when lemrtnentnfr shadows itlock the evening of our day, They may flud us calmly waiting To tro home our mother's way. Dyspepsia.. I wish to convinoe your readers of the fallacy of taking drugs for the euro of dyspepsia. I have had a Ufo long oxperienco witli that complaint having inherited it from my futher. Although not a physician myself, yet I think I can safely say without fear of successful oontradiction that it is a disease that nover can bo permanently cured, so but what if the same onuses which produce it at first are broug it to bear it will be produced again more readily than it was the first time. Dyspepsia is brieflv a weakened stomach, and tho only office nnd duty ot the stomach is to digest the food. Now if tho stomach is already weakened in consequence of being overloaded, over taxed, more asked of it than it is ablo to perform, it is suicidal folly to ask the poor weak organs to try to digest drugs, which aro wholly indigestible, and more or less poisonous. My view of it is in dyspepsia the stomach wants rest, and it never can rest so long as we keep swal lowing substances for it to digest. If we have an old, tired horse, that Is most worn out with hard work, and needed onlv rest to recuperato, we are none of us so simple as to requiro him to perform a certain .mount of labor every day, when the only thing he needs is to desist from labor until be is restored and recuperated Dyspepsia exhibits itself in a great variety of ways, and is, ns old Dr. Chase says, a "many headed monster." There are scarcely two persons mat nave it exactly alike. I have been so weak, years ago, that I could not walk half a mile. My experience is, as a general rule, that one should eat very moderately at first of such kinds of food as agrees w:th him, and as will of itself keep the bowels open and looso. lake no drugs, no cathartics. Take all tho exercise in the open air that is possible to take with out getting very weary, for the person is not the stomach, nor tho stomach the person. Vet, if a man gets excessively weary, it will weaken tho stomach, but a moderate amount of outdoor exercise will create un appetite and excite the fluw of gis ric j lieu into the stomach, which will servo to assist it in digesting food. The same kind of food tloi's not agree alike with ull dyspeptics. What is good for one is poison to another. Toledo Made. An old man is a beautiful object in his own place, in the midst of a cirole of young people, going down in various gradations to infancy and all looking up to tho patriarch with filial reverence, keeping him warm with their own burning youth; giving him the freshness of their thought and feeling, with such natural influx that it seems ns if it grew within his heart; while on them be reacts with an influence that sobers, tempers nnd Keeps them down, tits wisdom, verv probably, is of no great account he cannot lit to any new state of things; but, nevertheless, it works its effect. In such a situation, tho old man is kind and genial, mellow, mora gentlo and generous anil wider minded than evor before. But, if eft to himself, or wholly to the society ot his contemporaries, tho ice gathers around his heart, hope grows torpid, his love having nothing of his own blood to develop it grows cold; he becomes selfish, when he has nothing in the pies nt or the future worlh caring about in himself; so that instead of a beautiful object, he is an ugly one, little, mean and torpid. I suppose one chief reason to bo that, unless he has his own race about him he doubts of anybody's lovo, he feels himself a stranger in thu world and so becomes unami.tblo. It is a very common thing for one lady to remark to another, "What beautiful teeth Mrs. has! They must be false." This is certainly a high compli ment for art and a cruel slur upon nature or our abuse of nature. Here is an item which tolls how those pearly products are manufactured : In tho process of manufacture silax and feldspar in their crude state are submitted to a red heat, and then suddenly throwD into cold water, the effect being to render them more easily pulverized. Having been ground very uno in water, nnd the wator evaporated, tho two matorials men tioned aro driod and sifted. Tho kaolin is washed froe from impurities. The-ie materials, with feldspar, sponge, platina, and flux in proper proportion for the enamel, are mixed with water, and work ed into masses resembling putty. This done, tho unbaked porcelain masses are ready for the moulding room, The models are in two pieces, nnd are made of brass. one half of the teeth or sections being on either sido. The coloring materials are first placed in tho exact position and quantity required, and the body of the tooth and the gum is inserted in lumps corresponding to the sizo of tho teeth. The molds are then closed, and thev are dried by a slow heat. Whon perfectly dry inoy nro iBKen out ami sent to the trimmers' room. The trimmers remove imperfections, and send them in trays of fire clay to the furnace, where having remained for twenty minutes, thoy are complete. Instincts ov the Dkkr. Where the deer is much huntod his enrs become ex ceedingly acute. Mr. Van Dyke has seen one spring from his bed and run away at race norso speed before he was within 200 yards of tho animal, althongh he had not louohed a single hush or twig in approach 1ng the game, and alt bought he was pos illve that a mail could not at 20 yards dis tance have heard the soft tread of mooca sins on the light snow. Deer, too, with in tuitive correctness, are able to measure the distanoo and oharaoter of sounds. They will often lie all day within hearing of the woodman's axe, and tho shor ts of the teamster. As a rulo, too, the crash of the squirrel's jnmp, tho roar of thunder, the snapping of trees with frost, thoir creaking or falling In tho wind does not alarm them in the least. Yet the faintest press ure of tho loaves under the hunter's moooasln may instantly send them flying. A doer onn also see a long way. On one ocoasion Mr. Van Dyko saw one watching a brother sportsman a mile away, whose motions he could hardly himself make out. It is true that for recognizing an ( hjeot at rest, the eyes of a deer are about hb dull as those of a dog. If un ilarmod be will not distinguish a man from a stump , on open ground II the man is seated nnd perfectly motionless. Un the other hand, to oatcb a motion a deer 8 eyes are very quick and the fact that he is generally at rest while the hunter is moving gives mm nn immense advantage. Even tbo slow lifting of your head over a ridge, or the slow dragging of your limbs over the trunks of trees or tho slow advanoe of your oreeping body along the ground is a most instantly detected, unless the motion happens to be while they have I their heads down, feeding or walking. A point in etiquette recently decided a lawsuit in n queer way. A traveler on a German railroad train attempted to cat a lunch while on the journey. While putting a piece ot Dologna sausage in hid mouth the train stopped suddenly, causing bis cheek to be badly cut on the edge of bis knife, which he was using. The man sued the company for damages, but his claim was not sustained, on the ground that it is a breach of etiquette to eat with a knife. Tho consumption of wool in the United States for 1882 is put at about 366 000,000 pounds, or about 15,000,000 pounds more than the previous year. The estimated product of wool in ihe United Stales for 1882 was about 300,000,000 pounds, being an increase of about 10,000,000 over the previous year. The increased product in Texas and the territories has been about 11,000,000 pounds ; in California the falling off has been about 350,000 pounds; while at othor points there hits been a slight increase over 1881. Shaking. If you shake up a basket of fruit or of gravel the small portions will go toward the bottom, the larger ones will come toward the top. This is the order of naturo. There is no way of evading it. And tne same order prevails in the basket of human Ufa. Tho world's shak ing will send the small characters down ward and bring the larger ones toward the top. The larger ones are not to blame for this, the smaller ones have no right to complain of it. It is tbo shaking that loes tbo business. A comfortable little garment is now knit for little children under ten years of age; it is so pretty and sensible and so easily made that it is a groat acquisition to a child's wardrobe. It is a combination and underskirt and petticoat knit ribbed siiich, and straight down in two pieces. the front and oaeK alike, then these uro sewed together at the sides, leaving a nlace in which to knit sleeves. A slightly rla ing flounce is then added to the boitom, a narrow edge crocheted to the neck. In which is drawn a ribbon to gather it more closely. This little garment is close fitting, and not at all bungling. Smooth and Rough. The old proverb says that every burden we have to carry ouei s two nannies tne ono smooth and easy to grasp, the other rough and hard to hold. Ono man goes through lifo taki no things by the rough handle, and he has a hard time all the way. He draws a tight harness, and it chafes wherever it touches him. He carries a heavy load, and he finds it not worth keeping when he gets It home. He spends more strength upon the fret and wear of work than upon the wmk itself. He is like a disorganized old mill that makes a great noise over a small grist, because it grinds itself more than it grinds the grain. Another man oarries the same weight, does the same work, and finds it easy, because ho takes everything by tho smooth handle. And so it comes to pass that one man sighs and weeps, and that another man whistles and sings on the same road. The Oldest Bank-Notes. Tho oldest banknotes aro the "fling money'' or ' convenient money," first issued in China, 2697 B. c. Originally these notes were ssued by the treasury, but experience dictated a change to the system of banks under government inspection and control. The early Chinese "greenbacks" were in all essentials similar to the modern bank notes, bearing the name of the bank. the date of issue, the number of the note, the signature of the official issuing it, indications of its value in figures, in words, ana in the pictorial representation of coins or heaps of coins equal in amount to its lace value, und a notice ot the pains and penalties of counterfeiting. Over and above all was lacoric exhortation to industrs nnd thrift : "Produce all you can; spend with economy." The notes were printed in blue ink on paper made from the fibre of the mulberry tree. One issued in 1390 n. c. is preserve! in the Asiatic museum at S'. Peters burg. Death of a Man 110 Yeaks Old. a well authenticated case of a man living 110 years, was brought to notioo in New York-on tho 23d, the person being Bernard Doran, whose death was reported at the bureau of vital statistics. Doran was bom in tho county Tyrone, Ireland, on January 7, 1773. His children have possession of his baptismal certificate, which bears the date of January 18, 1773. His father was Thoma Francis Doran, b farmer. Doran came to this country in 1839, and for six years worked as a laborer. On October 10, 1815, he wits appointed by the public schools society janitor of the public schools in the fourteenth ward, and since that time has continually held the same office under the city government. Ho was married twice, and since the death of his second wife in 18ul has lived with his son Barney, who is 60 years of age. The eldest daughter of his first wife is now living in Cincinnati, and is nearly 90 years old. By bis socond wife he had three sons and a daughter. His youngest son, John, is now 56 years of age. His death was due to capiiliary bronchitis. Say what you will, economy is ono of the best home virtues, and one whioh is every whe' e needed. No matter if persons are rich or have large inoomes, they should be economical. To waste is wicked. There aro better ways to spend money and goous man waste mem. it is tne poorest use they can be put to. Many people womu ue euououjiutu ii mey anew now. It is an art to practice economy. To do it well, one must know the art. All can have it if they will. It is an arithmetical art. It is the conclusion of numbers. All must live and ought to live well, but how to livo at the least expense is the work of figures to tell. We must count the ways and means and compare them. Mnny people use expensive articles of food and dress when cheaper ones would be in every way belter and mora servioable. Especially in regulating the table expenses is mere a wantoi economy. A little useml information concerning the qualities of food, the amount and Itind of nutritious mattor thoy contain, the wants of the human system and the best ways of oook ing, would often save fully one-third, and in many instances, half the expense. A wise eoonomy in table expenses is favor able to health, and In this way saves time, drugs, expense and doctor bills, strength, flesh and happiness. The whole system of greasing and preparing, and what is called enriching food, is expensive, unhealthy and useless. Fat, oil, tallow and oleaginous substances can be put to a better use than greasing food and diseasing the digestive economy. A Coal Mine Shaft. A mile or two from 1 ottsvillo, says a newspaper oorres pnndent, is the chief coal shaft of this region, owned by the Philadelphia and Reading coal nnd iron company, and named tho Pottsville shift. Though opened only a few yoars ago, It is famous throughout this whole country for the completeness of ils machinery, its extra ordinary depth, and tho light shed by ll on the shnpe and direotion of the strata below. The perpendicular depth of the shaft is 1,575 feet as I am told, the deep est coal mine on the continont. Fiona Its vast depth', almost a third of a miledown, two hundred cars holding about four tons each are lifted each day. The cars are run upon a platform and then the whole weight of say six tons hoisted at a speed that makes the head swim. The timo occupied in lifting a full car and in lotting down an empty one through n distance of about one-third of a mile is a little more than a minute and a quarter. A few fig ures will show that the cars pass up nnd down at the rate of about a mile in four minutes, fifteen miles an hour, or say, the ordinary velooily of a freight train on a surface track. Standing on one of the levels, 1000 feet down, the cars "snap" past, upward and down, with a speed so great that the human eye soaroely sees thorn pass. The Belgian engine which docs this lifting is a beautiful pieoe of mechanism, wUh its drum twenty feet in diameter, and its wire rope which has a thickness of two inches, coiled around a center of hemp that allows a nicer adjustment of the wires when stretched by use. iho dra matic figure of the engine room Is the engineer, a man picked for his skill, his steadiness and sobriety. Day after day throughout the year the fate of every miner bangs on bis nervo and steadfast attention to duty. Monotony must not make mm oareloss, the strain of responsibility must not weary him; his eye must be quick lor tnesignais for down in the mine, his band must be true to its cunning in "slowing up" and starting ' on each of which depends Ins costly machinery, or, it may be, preeiotrs lives. Not olten aro the idea and tne ideal of duty more visibly incarnated lhan in this silent thoughtful man, his hand on the lever, bis restless eye on the signals or fa is machinery, and his whole life of seemingly dull routine filled withouroand accountability. Farmers' Meeting At Wells. The meeting of the Board of Agriculture for this place was held at Unison's Hall, on Tuesday and Wednesday, January 30 and 31. At 11 o'clock in the forenoon ol the first day the meeting was called to order by K. R. Pember, Ksq., when Mr. Wesley Kowe, was elected cnatrman. Mr. Pember next gave a tew luting words of welcome, lie made ome refer ence to the condition of larming fifty years Hgo and the changes that have been made since. Wo cannot do n.w as was done at that time, and muoh moro attention must be given to our occupation to produoe profitable results than was formerly the case. This is owing in a measure 10 me degeneracy of the soil and the immense competition to whioh we are subjected by the great west. To assist us in our endeavors to bo successful cultivators of the soil is the object of these meetings; that through their agency we may be the better propared for the labois that are before us. Ho welcomed the board in fitting words, and hoped for much good as the result of this meeting. Succeeding this address Dr. A. C.Grove of Wells gave a paper on " Chemical Fertilizers." This was a very plain and direot address, and should bo read with interest by all when published. succeeding this paper a uiscussion ensued. Mr. Davis made some remarks on the use of commercial fertilizers, and of the necessity of careful trial willi these n order to find whether or no tney win bo adapted to the soil of any farm. Ho would advise farmers to make and save all tho manure possible on tho farm, and ihen, if this is not sufuoient for the pur pose, purchase those special fertilizers that are found to be wanting in the soil; he believes that this may olten te done ilh advantage in the improvement ot our farms. E. 11. Towle spoke of bis exporienoe with superphosphates, and of the necessity of every farmer trying this maiter for himself on a small scale at first, and if sucessful, then use as wantod. Tho same with other fertilizers. Mr. Goodwin inquired how many of the farmers present had used commercial fertilizers. A considerable number an swered in tho affirmative, and almost all with satisfactory results. The soil has been gradually depleted of certain ele ments of fertility and these must be suDnlied in some way. Thinks this oan be done the soonest by the use of special fertilizers. As thero does not appear to be demand for nitrogen to any great extent, it is unnecessary to purchase this expensive material in the fertilizers. Is in favor of using ground bone and hard wood ashes. Uses one barrel ot one Done to three bushels of hard wood ashes, moistened, to the acre. Also uses muriate of potash, 150 pounds to the acre, with good effect. Is in the habit of experi menting with different fertilizing agents, so as to find what will do best on his soil, or for certain crops. . On some farms clover will be found a most valuable aid in the enriching of the soil. With this crop sulphate of lime, or land plaster, will usually pioduce good results. Several farmers present had received benefit from the use of wood ashes. Mr. Goodwin stated that if ho could buy good wood ashes at 25 cents per bushel, be would nrefer these to the German potash salts. Farmers here apply ashes generally in the bill, but Mr. (iuodwin would appiy broadcast. Potatoes exhaust the soil lamely of potash, hence tbo necessity of suppling this fertilizer quito largely. Sir. Davis spoke in favor of raising clover and using plaster on tho croi. He also made somo remarks in relation to a proper fertilizuion, noithor applying too little nor too much. The discussion having lasted until dinner time, tho meeting was adjourned till afternoon. TUESDAY AFTERNOON. Immediately after coming together the subject of the renovation of pastures was taken up, E. It. Towle leading off in the discussion of this important question, and was followed by the larmers present. As usual much interost was manifested in this subject, and the entiro session could have been profitably employed in the discussion. Farmers hero are endeavoring to imnrovo their pastures by various methods. Inquiry was made as to the probable value of ensilage, and it was answered that it is considered permanent in charaoter. Henrv MiFadden said that farmers ar troubled much with golden rod, and is anxious to find by what means It can be destroyod. It was answered that plowing would accomplish tms, or perhaps persist ent mowing. This is a bad pest in many parts of the state. The hardhack is also very difficult to exterminate. This gen tleman ha reoeiven mucn prom irom sowine Nova Scotia plastor on Holds covered with the white daisy. He spoko of a meadow that had not been plowed lor 20 years nnd was covered with a growth of daisies. Ha sowed on plaster, and for several years tho daisy was kept mirlv in Ihe shade bv the larcrer croD of grass, tie has since plowed mis neia, ana the dTsies nave again maae inoir appear ance and promise trouble unless they oan be subdued by the use nF plaster. At this stngo of the meeting Mr. D tvis took up the subject of the "Production of Milk." Ho gave groat prominenoe to the proper selection of cows, and gave a description of what ho believed lo be a proper and profitable animal fo the dairy. Spoke of having cows In his own herd that produce 7,500 pounds of milk in a year. In relation to breeding cows for the dairy be emphisized the Importance of selecting sires ot excellent parentage on both sides, of good butter making qualities. Believes that farms can bo more easily kept in a good condition with butter than cheese dairies. As to feed in summer there are not many pastures that will turmsh the requisite amount for moro than about two months, and the balanoo must be made up from various soiling crops and grain. Would raise plenty of rye and sweet corn lor the purpose. Would advise farmers to raise more corn Spoke of the necessity of having plenty and good water, and ot the nece-stty ot numlhng cows and heifers very gently at all times. lie spoke favorable In relation to ino system of ensilage, believing that it will be quite generally adopted by farmers Mr. Davis answered that be did not raiso roots, hut feeds cotton seed meal. Gave his method of feeding corn fodder and straw with corn and cotton seed meal. When oats are low in price would feed. but when high should prefer to sell and substitute moro ooncentrated food. Would grind corn with the cob, as he believes there is considerable value in the last Mr. Goodwin spoke in favor of grinding cobs with the corn, but it should be ground quite fine. Is now practicing feeding corn in tne ear to his horses, and hncis mat tney do well in this way. Is much in favor ot cotton seed meal lor cows. Liives ij pints of cotton seed and two quarts of corn nnd cob meal to his cows per day, and this feed causes the cows to give a good product of bu'ter. Has fed somo of Ihe cotton seed meal to cows in summer with good effect, but too much should not be given at a time, us this would cause ihe butter to be oily. Always get that which is ground fine, as that is best. An interesting discussion having lasted until quite late, the meeting was adjourned until evening. Attendance goon for the first day and interest well sustained. EVENING, Leoture by Mr. Goodwin on the culture of Indian corn. Would recommend the study of the growth of the corn plant to young people, as its growth is wrapped in mystery from its time of germination until it is ripened. The firsl formed ears are never the most perfect, and so would not recommend picking the first ripened ears for seed. By a careful selection of seed any variety of eorn may be changed from an earlier to a later, and vice versa. Explained in nn interesting manner tho way by which corn mixes, one variety with another. The pillen of ono variety, the flower of the tassel falling upon the silk of another. The same rules which apply in the breeding of live stock hold equally truu in the raising and hreeding ot any variety of corn. Our yellow corn grown in the west becomes the dent, a peculiarity which is owing to climatic influences. Would not raiso a too large growing variety, but one that is compect in its growth; car not too large with kernels close together, and sure to ripen. Prefers sod land for corn, and would insist that it be thoroughly done wilh no balks. On a heavy soil would plow in the fall, spread on in the winter on the snow; would not put on more than twelve loads, or four or five cords of manure to the acre. In the spring put on tho diso harrow for planting. Marks in rows 3 1-2 feet apart. Uses a eorn planter guaged lo drop as many kernels us he wishes, and makes the bills from eighteen inches to two feet apart. Would rather have his corn planted wilha machine than with a hoe. After tho corn appears above the ground puts on a light harrow with half inch teeth, starting backward at an angle of 45 degrees, which destroys all the weeds and does not injure the corn. If tho ground is very weedy a second harrowing will be necessary lu a fow days. As the corn gets larger uses a cultivator, going over the ground once in 4 or 5 days or more accord ing to tiie weather, till the tassel begins to appear. At this time the roots begin to fill the ground, nnd so completely that not a square inch of soil can be found but is filled with roots. Would never bill corn. Would cut corn as soon as the kernels are glazed, not waiting for it to fully mature. Binds the oorn in bundloi nnd sets several together, thus making them con venient to handle. Puts on fertilizers broadcast; would never put it in the hill. Mr. liowe inquires if it is more profitable to put the phosphate on in March than just bofore planting? Thnks it is. Does not believe in plowing under manure generally ; would have it covered from 2 to 3 inches deep. WEDNESDAY FORENOON. The meeting was oalled to order at 10 o'clock A. M. by the president, Mr. Rowe, and an address given by Henry Lane of Corwall upon " notation ol Crops." Ho remarked that he should lay down no special system of rotation, but yet he deemed it of great advantage to the farmer to have a system of rotation that would in oach case tend to fertilize the soil by liberating plant food or rendering it more suitable lor tho inooming crop Nature is our example for rotation of crops in the change seen in the lore-ts wherever ono growth is removed tne now growth shows change. So of weeds, as even they change, for one will hold pos session a oertain number of years when they give plaoe to another variety. lot there is no system of rotation that if the crop is removed each and every year will keep up the fertility of the soil for any long term of years. Hence we should see to it that our farms are not depleted, but fertilizers should be used to keep up the condition, yet a system ol rotation is con ducive to better crops. The amount of matter taken from the soil may be ascertained by burning and weighiug the ash wliioli represents the mineral constituents. This shows that clover requires loss fertility from the soil while it tunes more ironi tne ntmospnere than other crops usually produced, and hence is a good orop for such as oan raise it. The roots of tbo clover leave more nitrogen and potash in the soil, and as they extend deeply into the subsoil they exercise doubtless a beneficial action upon the sou lor tne next crop. This lecture was followed by some remarks by Dr. Cutting upon the amount of fertilization that can be profitably applied. This can only be determined by experiment, and always should be so determined by every farmer. It will often be found that au p. units ot dissolved bone superphosphate can be more profitably used per aore than 230 or 300 pounds oan. Nitrogen Is not often required In greater amount than any farm can supply from its stables. His remarks were listened to wilh great interest. AFTERNOON. At 2 o'clock H. E. Paul of Wells gave a paper upon " Farming." He remarked : It tms paper i nave been invited to read to you has any merit it is brevity, and being rather dull and pointless will afford a variety and furnish a baokground so that succeeding papers of abler men will ap pear in a better and brighter light just as a sunshiny day following a dull or stormy one is mcro beautiful, As wo tako a retrospeotlvn view of tills subject in the light of expni'leuw, two di. rover in tho first place in our own town a soldier number of farms, consequently fewer farmers, lhan thero were some fifty yoars or more ago; the mora industrious anil successful having absorbed tb' land as soon as It was ready for sale. Now, what is true of our own town we think more or less applicable to neighboring towns, nnd in tact to all those states which have been tilled for half a century and upwards, As a result, we learn that the soil of those large farms has very much tetei io rated in value, within the memory of our oldest fanners. Now in this connection, although foreign to our subject, we ask oandidly : Is this process of absorption to continue until the land of this country like that of Great Britain is owned compara tively by a few individuals? In our review of the past, we discover in the second place, generally speaking (for there are exceptions to all rules), that our smaller farms also are not in that high state of cultivation which we ull should fondly hope to see It needs only a passing glanco ns you travel the highway in summer to convince yourself of this fact. Now, who shall tell us how to pursue farming on correct principles and take us back to the point W3 bavo lost, viz., of producing two blades of gras3 where we now do one. For, one who sells the larger part of tho hay and grain his farm oro- duces. considers that he is right; while on the oontrnry another remarks that he is not going to take bis farm to the city one load at a time. Another considers that it is best for his farm to raise beef for market. But in either case, and in fact oy most of our farming as at present conducted, are we not robbing tho soil of some of its most neoessary ingredients for ibe growth ot plants, and thus becom ing lund poor? By robbing, we mean that we do not retu.n an equivalent for what we take from the soil. Are we keeping tho amount of stock in our town that wu ought considering its size? How ninny larmers and other condueting farms in town can say that farming pays? Perhaps Ihey ate gutting a living (for we have not as yet heard that any farmer in this vicinity h is died of starvation), but are they doing as well as they ojghir Is there no remedy for the ills which have fallen to our lot? Time will tell. Firtly, from a humanitarian point of view, whioh considers tne greatest good to the greatest nutubcr, we, as a nation of farmers. on whose success depends the success of so many of our national industries, should bo united In a policy, tne tendency ot which will cause manufacturing establish ments to spring up, and thus utiliza the great water power and privileges which Ibis country affords. Then, as a natural result, farmers will find a market for their surplus near their loor with corresponding beneht. Who will consider that it pays equally well to dispose of produce 100 miles or more from homo when nt 10 miles it can be sold for tho same money? Consider for a moment the practice of sending millions of bushels of wheat some 3000 miles from homo, paving the cost of transportation, and then taking in exchango costly goods manufactured in a foreign country. Will not such a policy take the life blood from our soil? Suppose that everything goes ell now, so long as we export more than wo import, how long, wo ask, can such a poli.y hold out? If this saying be true, viz , that "west wild the star of empire takes its way," then is it also true that the wheal belt of this country is taking tho same direction, and if we are to judge the future by the past, will soon reach its terminus on the shore of the Pacific ocean. Oh, Farmers! Shall we live for ourselves alone without regard to posterity ? We feat time will show that in this respect we were not wise in our day and generation. If it is not visible now it soon will be the necessity for a change, viz: That we should manufacture more of the raw material produced in this country, and oonsume more of the grain product of our soil. Then will a point be reacbod that will be of some practical benelit to tanners. Secondly, to return to our own vicinity, and dropping the question whether 50 acres or 500 is sufficient, we need to adopt some plan that will lend to restore our soil to its former fertility. Much of our soil is in the condition of a man reduced by sickness, nnd needs something nourish ing and strengthening. Who knows but the system of ensilage, now springing into existence, may prove to be one remedy we need? If by its adoption we oan keep two cows where we now do one, and cause two blades of grass to grow wheie one now grows, the desired result may be obtained. At least, as the prospect is, wo shall sooner reap benefit from this plan than the one before mentioned. Tho sugar beet industry, we hope, may eventually prove another remedy for us. In this brief and rambling review of farming, with suggestions for its needs, we shall be pleased if we have furnished any matter for your thoughtful reflection. AFTERNOON. Hon. Barnes Frisbie, of Poultney, gave an address upon the "Seienoe of farming," which will be published entire. This was followed by a discussion upon the hard hack and means of killing the same, the result of which was that it could be often out and killed, but would spring up from the seed uniil the land was so fertilized that it would produoe grass. Dr. H. A. Cutting then made some remarks upon milk, urging all to look out for taints and smolls, as they would effect butter. He remarked that smoking while milking or about the milk room would flavor the buttec Ho also spoke of the want of ventilation in close barns as detrimental to the butler Interest. Referred to various cases, among which was Charles H Cole, of Lunenburgn, that built a superior barn, but for lack of ventilation his milk was injured. Ho increased that ventilation and all was right. A gentleman in Orleans county with a new barn was reduced 8 or 10 cents per pound on the price of his butter, which was only restored by proper venti lation of hit stables. Barn cellars should always be ventilated. Capt. Clark, of Monlpelier, lost some young cattle for want thereof, and in several cases loss or damage has resulted from this negleot. In ono instance the hay in the barn above the oellar was so contaminated that it could not bo fed to milch cows without injury to the butter produot. EVENING. Dr. H. A. Cutting addressed tho audi- enco whioh was vory large, upon the "Means of foretelling storms." After describing the atmosphere and its capabilities, he took up one by one the many signs whioh havo been observed by the farmer, and sifted therefrom the wheat as it were, giving the scientific faot on which they were based and their value. He discarded the moon's influonoo or the effeot of Its changes on tho weather, holding the audience in wrapt nttentinn for two hours. The audience then asked several questions whioh were briefly answered, after whioh the following reso lutions were presented by II. E. Paul. A. C. Grover and M. Francis, and unani mously adopted : Whkkkab, The leoturiw and diicitMioni of the board of aKrit'tiltnre and others from ahroad eo-Ofieratluir with them have been blKnly intereatlav aud beuettoial toon. .j... ... our hearty thanks, bat our aratitude for their cnrotuir Kiwlrtn, i nai we nereny wooer m tnnm noo ouiy uere, to am ua in our ariciii,urai inK-ronia , of the first Importance to us aa a community. ral Interests waleb are NMiii-mf. That we Invite the return of tha State Board of Afrrtrulturo as often aa their official duties will permit, aud in sodolua we express the wishes ol the people, Under Ihe head "Bodily Delormities in Girlhood.'' it is remarked in the Popular tkiinee Month' n r.l "the ingenuity of an Etlison rnuld not devise a machine to favorable uj ibe pioiluclion of flat foot as tho tight fitting, high heoled, long topped boot nt present worn by girls." Domesticity as a Cause ok Insaniti. Mrs, M Hyd il, mother of eight children, acute m.anit. Tho husband, when asked if he could suggest any cause for her illncsi. exclaimed with" much animation that he could not conceive any reason. "She is a most domestic woman ; is always doing something for her chil dren, is always at work for us ull; never goes out of the house even to church on Sunday; never goes gadding about at the neighbors' houses or talking from one to another ; has beon ono of tho best of wives and mother.', anil was always at homo." The superintendent in comment ing on this case eays: This appreciative husband could hardly h tvu furni-lied a more graphic delineation of the eiuses of his wife's insanity hid ho understood them never so thoroughly. Report of Hartford JlereiU for Imam. Puacticai. Infokmation. "What is rack rent, dad?'' inquired a yonig Com stacker, who had been reading the news from Ireland. The patient paront laid down thu stock list and replied : "Do you know how much I charge Mr. Boggarty for his room up stairs?'' "Yes sir; $12 a month." Well, now, suppose Mr. B iggarty should takn it into his head to have at. his expense new paper put on the wall, the ceiling whitened and all tho furniture mended the room would luok a heap sight better wouldn't it?" "Lor!'' murmured the intelligent boy. "Well if the minute Boggarly had got all these improvements made, I should go np and look around and jingle my money in my pocket and remark :"I'his is a pretty good lay out for a single man, Bogarty, and you've altogether too soft a thing, Your room rent will be $-M a month hero after, what would you think of il?" The innocent child gigg'e I and said : "That would he cheek, wouldn't it dad? "Bet your money on it, boy," replied the father, beaming kindly upon his off spring. "That would be rack renting Mr. Boggarty, and if be kiuked and claimed that all the improvements has been madn by him without costing me a cent, and I should fire him out, that would be eviction, I will now," continued the parent, warm ing up, "briefly review the history of Ire land for tho past 700 years. When Britan Sorhu " But his son had fled. Kirfinit City Chronicle. A Warning. A distiuctive fire whioh occurred the other day and rendered houseless one of our most worthy citizens was caused by the recent change from tho very warm to very cold weather. During warm weather Mrs. G ippleson always makes tho fire in Ibe kitchen stove, but when cool weather oomes. the colonel at tends to that piece of menial performance. The colonel had matlo arrangements to visit a neighboring town on business, and had told his wife that he must have break fast before daylight. He was arroused at the proper time by his wife, who said: "It's awful cold this mornlag. You'll have to gel up and make the Hie. You'll find the kindling and everything ready." The colonel hopped out of bed, lighting a small hand lamp, hurried to the kitchen without putting on his clothes. Pretty soon he returned and hustled under the covers, shivering and congratulating him self upon the completion of his task. "What did yon do with the lamp, col onel?" "V-o-3 cold, let mo tell you." "I say what did you do with mi lamp?" "Voo-oo We'll have a good fire in a minute. Hear the stove roar, will you? Talk about making a fire! ' "I say whatdid you do with that lamp?" exclaimed Mrs. Gappleson. "Lamp! that's a tact. By George I left it selling on the stove," and he leaped out of bed and reached tho door just as the tiling exploded. Of courso nothing was saved Warning to women Don't let your husbands make tires. Arkansaio Traveler. Frightened-. Stage drivers among the Rockies and Sierras learn to be as pre emptory as they are daring and probably from the same necessity. Thoy will have their orders obeyed. This is not saying that in the instance here told the Jehu might not have built his scarecrow story on some bit of fact. A correspondent of tho San Francisco Post relates the following incident of a stage ride through the mountains. Wo were going to say that on this par ticular triu. we passengers wereexceeding Iv annoyed by the piesistenco which young Fosb, the driver, demanded that the Stage doors be kept shut, particularly when their being opened caused tin appreciable cir culation of air. Just as we were rounding a particular narrow turn in the face of the bluff. Foss noticed that the inside door, so to speak, was again being held aj ir. Promptly putling on the brakes and bringing bis horses to a halt, he descended. "Do you see that rock? ' he said, point ing lo a large bowlder ahead that barely left room for the stage to pass. "What of it?" "Only this. Last season a stage was passing that rock when somebody opened the door, ino door oaugnt on tne roes, and as it opened further just pried the whole business over iho clitt. lhat littlo speck way down there is one of the hind wheels caught on a tree. Now will you keep that door shut r It took half an hour to get that door opened when we got to Callstoga, every individual on uoarn naving separately tied it shut with his hantlterchiel. "Wiio Stbuck Billy Pattekson ?" William Patterson was a very wealthy tradesman of Baltimore. In tho early days of Franklin county, Ga he bought up a great many tracts oi iana in ine county, and spent a good portion of his lime iu looking after his interests there. He was said to be as strong as a bear and as brave as a lion; but like all brave men he was a lover of peace, and indeed a good, pious man. Nevertheless, his wrath could be executed to a fighting pitch. On one occasion he attended a public gathering in the lower part of Franklin county, at some district court ground. During ihe day two opposing bullies and their friends raised a row, and a general fight was the oonsequenoe. At tne beginning ot mo affray, and beloro tue uguung began, uniy 1'alterson ran In to persuade them not to light, but to mako poace aqd be friends. But bis efforts for peaoe were unavailing. and while making them some of the crowd in the general melee struck liilly rat erson a severe blow from behind. Billy at once beoamo Bunting mad and cried out at IDo top of his voice, "Who struck Billy Patterson?" No one oould or would tell him who was the guilty parly. He then proposed to givo any man $100 who would tell him "who struok Billy Patterson." From $100 ho roso to $ 1,000, but not $1,000 would Induce any man to tell him "who struck Billy Patterson." Years afterward, in his will, ho related tho above facts, and bequeathed $1,000, to be oaid by bis executors to the man who would tell "who struok Billy Patterson.'' Ilis will is reeorded in -th ordinary's office at Carnosville, Franklin county,- Ga., and any one curious about the matter oan there find H and verify tho preceding statements.