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jfS A. CHABWICK.
TERMS The Caledonian will bo publialiod wookly at $2,00 par annum, or at $1,50 if pnid in ndvnnco. If pimnont is mado within six months from tho tirno of subsciibing it will bo rccoivcd ns ndvnnco pay. No pnnor will bo discontinuod until all nrroarngos . nro paid, oxcopt at tho option oftlio publishor. (EF Advorti?omonts will bo insortod for tho cus tomary pricoa. Porsons nro ronuostod to stato tho numbcr of wcoks thoy wish thoir ndvertiaamants publishcd, othorwiso thoy will bo insortcd till for bid nnd chargod accordingly. HOSCISIiliAIVlSOVS. AUTUMN. The following, from tho Louisvillo Gnzetto, (Kcntuckv)ofScpt. J, brenthes thosoul nnd fresh- ness of sonio of tho most dolightful pngcs of Ilowitt. Tho grcntcr portion of otir noblo kings of tho forcstnro hcro bcautiftilly ouibodied. Tho picturo is quito originnl and purcly Amcricnn JV. y. Slar. Autumn ! Tliou art with us. Alrcady wo fccl tho pricklcs in tho morning air. And tho Btars tshino out at night with n pcculiar lustro. Short 1y, wc shall t-eo tho rich tints which tfiou flingest on the woodlnnds, and then thy russct livery. And if thou art now bright, and gay, and bcnu tifi.il, tliou nrt not loss lovcly, when thy Iiazy nt tnosphcro sprcads a voluptnous softncss ovcrnn turc when thcsun himsolf is shorn of his beams, and liko u palo planet wnnders through the sky. Autumn ! With ita fields of riponing corn and its trces laden with fruit, and its vines with tho clustering grnpcs "Rccling to oarth, purplo and gusbing," and clenr, spnrkling strcams, and salmon-fishing, and field sports, ishero. Out in the Autumn woods! Tho broad lcaf of tho Sycatnoro hath fallcn upon tho strcamlct, and hath passcd on with its tumhling wators, or dispnrts them where it has restcd ngainst sonio obstrtiction. Tho Buckeys is barc. Tho Mnple is goldcn lcaved, save where, is spread on a field of orange, tho hestic fiush which mnrks ap proaching decay, or where the sap is yet faintly coursing, and a delicato green remains. Tho Onk is of a decp crimson, and the Gum oven yet of n bloodier hue. Far oflf, on the tall eliff, is tho spiral pino nnd ccdar, in tho etcrnal green. Out in tho Autumn woods! When the lcavea aro fulling, like the flakes in tho snow storm. It is a tirne for reflection it is timo for lofty contcmplatjon. Tho soul is full, if it liavo the capacity td feel, and it gushes forth, though tho tonguo sbenks not. And yet itis irrcsistablo, to roam through tho autumn woods, and Hsten to tho thousand whispering tongucs which fill tho air. The fuIJncss of fccling must bo relicvcd by the mcrry shout and loud halloo. We welcomo thce Autumn. Thou art thc dearest to us of tho scasons save thc flowcr tnontli. We hail thy coming snow, not as has been our wont. Sincc thou wast last herc, wo have lost friends; and in thy wailing winds, and out beneath thy sky, and roaming through thy vnricd gorgeous-Iivcried woods, our thought shall bo turncd to thcir momorins. From tho iVow York Star. THE SLAVE TRADE. Ono of tho most intoresting and valunblo works, perhnps, for its stntisticnl facts nnd sobcr reflec tibns on this subject, bas just becn publishcd in England, under thc title of "Laird's Expcdition to Africa.'' Tho dovolopements aro of tlio most astounding charactcr. Mr. L. frankly avowsthat rather than tho slavo trnde should bc cnrricd on as it now is asn contrnband commercc, he wouhl for humanity sake prefer to sco it legalizod. Thc onlv rorir? t0 cxtel'Pnt0 11 's to declaro it pim ,r favor of thc British Gov- ernmcnt tnking tnore cf!ioioi .mcasi' "h to nc- complish thisobject, ho statcs that evcn uC)vy drivcn, as tho natives aro, from tho const into thc intcrior by the horror of this trnflic bctwcon white dcmons and black nogro kings, tho tradc with Britain is cxtremoly valuable the exports from Britain to tho west const of Africa being half a .million sterling, nnd the imports ono million many times greater than with Svvedon, Donmark, IVuasin, or the Levant. Such is the cxtcnt to which the slavc traffic is carried on, that thcrc are often six or sovcn slavcrs lying at tho princi pal slavo ports. At present, to stop this, tho whole coast should bo lined with British' or othcr cruis crs anchorcd off tho hnrbors. Now, howcvor, thoy sail off and on to dccoy tkom out, and tho ve3scls aro purposcly built to our shame, we, as Americans, too well know where ot the clippor character, nnrrowandsmall, to escnpe, and thus tho niisery of the victims is tenfold increased by crowding. Besides, if cap tured, the cruiser, in going from thoBightof Bc nin to Sierra Leone with tho prizc, oftcn loses org sixth and more by tho fatal voyago along .coast, whilo across thc Atlantic to Brazils or Havaua, it is proved often not moro than an eighth. Besides, very improperly, tho British officer is only paid for thoso helands thero alive. And Mr. Laird justly remarks that "itjisjacurious fact, that tho officers and crews of British men of wnr, are tho only persons who can, at tho pres ,ent dny, leg'ally realizo tho living cargo of a slavo yessel. Thoy aro cerlainly confincd to ono mar ket nnd purchasor, Sierra Leone, and tho British Governmcnt." Mr. L. relntes that tlicro is proof of the horrid fact, that sovcral of tho wrcichcg epgagcd in tjiin traffic, whon Itotly pursucd, coneigncd wholo cur goes totho dcep. Uead tliis rcvolting picturo : "La Jcuno Estollo, being chasod by a British cruisor, oncloscd tvvolvo nogrocs in caska and throw them ovorboard. In 1831, tho Blnck Joko nnd Fair Rosamond foll in with tho Horculcsand ltogulo, two slnvc vcssols, off tho Bonny Rivcr: on porcciving tho cruisers thoy attomptcd to ro gain tho port, nnd pitchcd ovorboard' upwards of fivo hundred 'Jiuman boings chaincd togcthcr, beforo thoy wero capturcd : from tho nbundanco of shnrks in tho rivor, thoir track vvas litcrally a hlood staincd ono. Tho slnvcr not only docs this, but glories in it. Tho first words uttercd by thc captain of tho Maria Isabcllo, scizod by Lieuf. Roso, worc, that if he had secn the man of loar in chase an hour sooner, he would have throiun cvcry slavc in hi3 vessel overhoard, as hc was fully in- sxired. From Dr. Chanmng,s Letter to Mr Clay. THE DIGNITY OF THE LABOKER. Whoover studics modern history with any carc, must disccrn in it astcady growing movc ment townrds ono most intoresting result. I mcan townrds tho clcvation of tho lnboring cln3s ofsocicty. This is not n recent, accidental turn in humanaffhirs. Wecnn traco its beginning in thc fuudnl times, and itsslovv ndvanccs m sub&c qucnt pcriods, until it hns becomo tho mnster movcmcntof our ngc. Is it notplnin, that thoso who toil with thcir hnnds, nnd whose productivo industry is tho spring of nll wenlth, aro rising from tho condition of beasts ofburden, to which they wero onco reduccd; to tho consciousness, intol- ligonce, self-respect, and propcr happincss of men? Is it not tho strong tendoncy of our timcs to diffuso aniong tho many improvomcnts oncc confincd to thc fcw? Ho who overlooks this hns no comprohension of tho grout wbrk of Provi dence, or of tho most signnl fcaturo ot his timcs; nud is this an ago for offorts to cxtond and por pctuato an institution, tho very object of which is to kcep down the laboror, nnd to make iiim a machino for nnothcr's gratification? I know it has bccnsaid in rep'.y tosuch views, that, do what we will with thc laboror, call hini what wo will, ho is und must bo in reality, a slavc. Tho doctrinc has been publishcd at tho south, that naturo has mado two classcs, tho rich and tho poor, thc omploycr nnd tho employcd, tho capilalist and tho oporativc, and that tho clnss who work, aro to all intcnts, slavcs to thoso in whose serviccs thcy ava cngngcd. Inn rcport on tho mail,reccntly ofTercd to tho Scnatcof thc Unitcd States, an efFort wns mado to estnblish rcscmblanco bctwcon Slavcry and tho condition of frce laborors, for tho purposo of showing that the shades of diflorence bctwccn them aro not very strong. Isit possiblo that such rcasonings cscapcd a man who has trod tho soil of New England, and was cducatcd at ono of her collcgcs? Whom did ho mect at that col Icge? Tho sons of her lnborcrs, young men, whoso hands had been hardoncd at tho plough. Docs ho not know, that tho farailics of laborors bavo furnished cvory doparttnent in lifo among us with illustrious incn, have furnished our hc rocs in wnr, our statcsmon in council, our orators in thc pulpit nnd ntthobnr, our merchants,whoso cntcrprises ombrnco tho wliolo carth? What ! the laborcr of the frco stato a slavo, and to bo rankcd with thedcspisod nogro, whom tho lnsh drives to toil, nnd whose dcarcst rights arc at thc mercy of irrcsponsiblo power? If thero is a firm indcpondent spirit on enrth, it is to ho found in tho man who tills tho fields of tho frco statcs, and moistcns them with tho swcat of iiis brow. 1 rcccntly heard of a visitcr from thc South, compnssionating tho oj)cratives of our manufactorics, as in a worso condition tUail tnc sIav0, Whnt carries tho young womnn to tho manulhci'Ory? Not gencrally tho want of a comfortablc homc, but soiilPtimes tho dcsirc of supplying herself with a wardrobc, wiiiph ought j tosatisfy tho afHuent, and oftcncr thc tlcsiro ot furnishing in moro than deccnt stylo tho homo whcrc sho is to sustain tho ncarcst relations, and pcrform tho mcst sacred dutics of lifo. Gener nlly spcaking, each of thcse young women has her planof.lifu, hor hopcs, and bright drenms, her spring ofaction in lier own frco will and nmiilst toil sho contrives to find seasons for in tellectual and religious culturc. It is common in Now England for tho sons of fnrmcrs to repair to thc largo towns, and thero to establish thomsolvosas domestics in families, a condition which tho south will bo disposcd to identify with slnvcry. But what brings tbesa young men to tho city? Tho hope of earning in n shorter timo a sutn with which to purchase n farm at homo, or in tho West, porhaps to becomo tradors; and in theso vpcations they not unfre quently riso to considorntion, and what in their placo of reBidcncc is called wcalth. 1 have in my thought an individual distinguishcd aliko by vigor andelevation ofmind, who began lifo by hiring himsclf as a laborer to a farmcr, and then entcred a family a3 a.domcstic; and now is tho honorcd nssocinto of tho most cnlightoncd men, nnd dovotes himself to tho highest subjccts of human thought. It is truo that much rcmains to he dorfo for tho laboring class in tho most favored regionsj but the intelligcnco alrcady sprcac) t jirough this class, is an carnes.t bf hrjght er dnye, of tho mosr-glbrious rovolution in histo- ry, of tho clcvation of tho mnss of incn to tho dignity of humnn bcings. It is thogrcnt mtsMon ofthiscouutry to forwnrd this rovolution, nnd novor wns n sublimcr work uommittcd to n nntion. Our mission is to olovnto socioty through nll its conditionsj to scciiro ovcry human boing tho nienns of progrcss, to substitute tho Governmcnt of Inws for thnt of irrcsponsiblo individunls, to provolhnt undor populnr institn tions, tho pcoplo may bo cnrricd forwnrd, thnt tho multitudo who toil aro capablo of onjoying tho nobleat blcssings of aho socinl stato. Tho projudico, that labor is dcgradation, ono of thc worst priuciplcs handcd down from bnrbnrous ngcs, is to reccivo hcro n prncticnl rcfutntion. Tho power of hberty is to raiso up tho wholo pco plo, this is tho grcnt idca on which our institu tions rcst, and which is to bc wrought out in our history. Shall a nation, hnving such a miaVion abjuro it, and cvcn fight ngainst tho progrcss which it is spccinlly callcd to promoto? MAJOR DOWNING ALIVE. This "celebrntod personage," according to iiis own nccount, hns bcon travclling in foroign pnrts with thodcsignof nccuninting himsclf with other Governmcnts, and nboutfour wcekssincoarrivcd nenr Now York, in thoship "Two Pollica." The following is tho sccond Ictter writtcn by tho Ma jor 8inco his appronch to Unclo Sum'a shores. Nigh tho wrcck of tho Two Pollies, Rockaway, L. I., Sept. 16, 1837. j.o ttc Mjauorspj tiicjyciv xqtk. Mixprcss ; I got ono of vour nnncrs in whicli vou nrintcd my last letter to "Unclo Sam," nnd when rcadin on't, it was fortunatc for you that you was 20 nnles off, for I ncvcr did sco such 'tarnnl work as you mado of sonio pnrts of my lottcr. Ilqw sovor, nll I'vo not to snv nhout it is, if folks who read my letter m prinl, find any thing in 'cm that don't read smooth, and aint correct as to dntes nnd fncts, they may sct it down ocin tho nrin tcrs. It wns jest so onco with n young Doctor, n incnci ot minc, in tlio Colarc timcs. Ho writ a long letter onco, about how ho curcd folks bv giying Calomel ho writ, "Cnlomcl in doscs very minuic" nnd tho prinlera put it in print, "Cnlo mcl in closcs everu mmutc." Up wont Calomel among tho Pothccarys and down wont tho poor Hick tolKs. It wnrn't tho Doctors fault, for it was nll owin to the printers and n httio 'c" Now nfore I trust you with other mntturs, 11 1 rivo vou tho nrintin of n storv I'vo L'ot to toil. nnd 5'ou mny stick ns many E's nnd 6's nnd Ps into it as you plenso, nnd I don't caro what you make on'tso long as folks tnko tho moihcrioil and barin on't. It is a story about "Uncle Snm," nnd sonio of his capors amonc the womon tolks. Unclu Sam, you know, alwnys was n socialle kind of crittur; nnd from his first comin into lifo. nover could git along woll withnut hnvin his hull. family about him, all on 'em givin him "a boost up tho trco," but Unclo Sam found, as most folks do, aforo thoy nit grny, that unlcbs ho took a wifo to lake ctro of his buttons and kcop things slick'd up about houso ho would git into trou blo and so forth. Woll, nftcr tryin various plnns and scein a good deal of troublo ono way nnd anothcr, hc took ndvice somo twcnty ycnrs ago, and got marricd to n smooth quiet (piakcr Indy, worth twcnty cight millions of "dollurs, nnd ns Unclo Sam wns considcrablo libcrnl in his way, ho put into thc family Etock 7 millions of dollurs: (not in the "ralo grit," howscvor, but what hc said then was just as good as "crit,") and so to gcthor thcy had 35 inillions. Well, 35 millions was no trifle,and things wont on slick nnd smooth for nigh upon twcnty ycars, and every body said, at homo and nbroad, thero ncver was n happicr couple. Unclo Sam's wifo did nll n wifo could do, and tho' Unclo Snm would onco and a while sicell up, and talk big, his wife snid nothiu, but kept Btitchiu np his breechcs, whon ho'tl split 'om, nnd sow on buttons when ho twitch'd 'em off. But by nnd by Unclo Snm got tnixcn up with odd compnny, and among other things, got a kinfc in his hotul out of Fanny Wriglu7s doc- trines, that a man of bo much importnncc, hndn't ought to stick to ono wife, but imvo ns many ns thc grcat Mogul. "I swow,"says Unnlo Snm, " I'vo a good mind to try it :" and so ho talk'd to othcr folks about it, and to rights tho gals got tho notion too ; and then Uncle Sam got ono Amos Kindlo to go round and sound about, and sec if thc gals would stand tho rnckct, and he coinc back, and says hc, "Unclo Snm thero's no mistnkc nbout it; thc gnls nro rcndy, nnd moro tbnn you cnn shnkc a stick nt;" nnd suro ono'.jgh, just then tho gals all liaving got thc notion, sct to, thoy prniscd up 'Uncle Sam,' and abused his good old quakcr wife Oshocking! thero's rio tcllin what thcy did'nt say ; and among other things thcy said that Uncle Sam's wifo wng Pshew ! ! you don't &ny so ! ! nud marcy on us ! ! ! Woil, tho next thing wo soo of Unclo Sam was, ho look'd as fino as a fiddle rufilcs round botli onds of his shirt, and sich a caperin ns ho cut among his new wivcs for n spoll, ncver wns scen nfore nnd sich frolics!! and nll his old cronics as busy as ho wns among 'em, till somo folks bcgnn to wink nnd whispor "thnt Unclo Samicas solibci-alha hnd wivesenuf 'for himself and friends.' " Things went on thus for nhout threc ycnrs, when Unclo Snm bcgnn (ns most folk do who got too much of n good thing) to smoll nnd fccl troublej; nnd jcst then 1 got back from foroign parts, nnd 1 mct Unclo Sam, nnd if it had not ben for hisfoyn my own blood relation, and knowin him andfdvin him in any shapo, as I do my own father and mother, I nevor would have known him at all. VVhy,' snys 1, 'Unclo Snm, is this you ?' says 1. 'I don't know, Mnjor,'- says hc ; 'but why do you nsk don't I look ns nnt'ral as over?' says ho. And thero ho stood holdin his breechcs up with both hnnds, nnd his elbows both torn out and a dirty shirt slcovo ipecping through, and holcs in his stockins, and his shin3 all plastered over. Why,' says I, 'Uncle Sam, whatonnirth ailsyou? Come,' says I, 'givo mo your hand my old friend, nnd let us tnlk it nll over together.' 'I nm sorry, Mtijor,' snys he, 'I cnn't shnko hands with you jest now my hands nro busy,' says ho. 'What,' says I, 'holdin tho moneyayc, Unclo Sam both hands full, ns usual,' says L 'N,dt oxactly, WajoiV says hc ;, and with thnt ho cuin closo to mo, and whispcVcd in tny car, 'I nm in a bad hox, Alnjor,' says he, I Imvo, got so many wivqs, I aint got a button lolt for my suspondors they nro nll off.' ' Do toil, now, ' 1 want to know ! ! ! ' ' It'fl true,' says ho, ' nnd you mny sco for your solf.' And with that I look'd, and suro cnuf, tlicro nover was n mnn in pich a picklo. 'Woll,',saya I, 'Unclo Sam, thin comcs from folks givin you bad udvicc, or rnthcr from your not takin good ntlvioq. You forgot,' snys 1, 'ono fact und that is, that it wns intendcd thnt your family fmutlcrs slioul.i hc rogclntcd on tho saino plnn of every othcr well rcgelnted fitmily nnd thnt thougiryours is tho General Govermcnt fam ily, it was intondcd to bo rcgelnted jcst on tho samo.plnn as tlio family ' tho humblcst of your maslcrs and thcrc,' says I, 'was tho molhcr im'f of tho thing.jn thc beginuin. '.What maslcrs ? nnys ne, spunkiu upnnd tryin toswcll, (but takin caro to hold on to his breechcs) "Who aro my viaslcrs ?' says ho. 'Your masters ?' says I, ' why, thc pcoplc and ,1 am ono oti 'cm. Unclo Snm nnd if you hnd stuck to tho rulo thoy nmdo for thc rcgclnting of your tnnnly, you would not now Do in your pres ent condition.' - 'Now,' says I, 'Unclo Sam thero is but ono way, thnt I cnn sce, for you to tnkc nnd thnt is, for you to call all your young womon nbout you and tell 'em thnt you cnn't Imvo but ono wife nnd they must git husbnnds cnch in thcir own States.' Ucro Uncle Sam shook his hnndind look'd considerablc sad ' l am afrnid, Mnjor,' says hc, 'it's too Into it was an casy job to git rid of onc ivife, but to git rid of so mnny all at onco, 1 nm ni'rald 1 shall git spank'd ns rcd ns n chcrry.' ' Ncvcr mind that,' says I, 'you'll git no moro thnn you desarve if you uo, folUs thnt dnnco must pay the fiddlor.'says I, ' Unclo Snm.' ' But,' says ho, ' Mnjor, must I divorcc them all ?' ' No,' tlicro is no divorcc in thc mnttcr; you cnn't do thnt unloss vou cnn nrovc crun. con.: tliats tho law,' says I. ' Well, can,' says hc, 'I can provo that tho Post Ofiicc, tho Land Office, and Amos ' ' Hush,' says I, ' Uncle Sam, don't tnlk so; for it is an old story iu nll,countries, that a man who has moro than ono wife, is a biggcr tool than his friends, und has moro Jinends thnn buttons. Now don't sny nnvthino moro nbout it. You havo cot in a scrnpo, and tho bcst wny is to gct out on't. You'll find thnt your young wivcs will ne as glncl to git nu of you, ns you will he to git rid ot them. But you tnusn t talk ol di vorcc, or thoy'Il hring you to the proof, nnd show thnt you first cnmo n courtin. And by tho timo you prove guilt on nny on 'om, thoy'Il git you on the 7iip, nnd kcep you thero too,' snys 1 ; "Now look nt your courtin, nnd comparc it with what it wns it's a sad chango ;" says I, ' Unclo S.nm, aint it? howcver, saysJ, 'myold mend, you havo had a raro frolic, and this is tho ecnd on't, and prctty inticli tho cctut ot all trolics. iNow, says I, 'wc must go and sce what can bo donc with the old wife: I'll he bound,' suys I, 'sho is as sound as over shc wns, and not tho worso tor liaving takcn sheltcr in hcr old nativo Stato of Pcnnsylvany. 1 II go on first, says I, Uncle Sam, nud tell her to git her buttons nnd sope rcndy tor you, mul it l uont miss my gucss, you will in n fow wcoks look oschiry ngin ns a boy and as sho is n gqod natur'd crittur and likcs to sco all happy about hcr, shc will do nll sho cnn to pro vido for tho yong women you havo bccn galava niuh with of Into, for shc thinks you more to blamo than thcy bc. And then,' says 1, ' Uncle Sam, when all "its shck d up, and you cit nl your buttons sow'd on, you will havo n spnro hand nhvnys rcndy to wolcomo a friend or knock down an enomy. At present, says J, unclo sam, you nro hum-bug-d.' And with that ho twitch'd up Iiis breechcs, and snunk d up considerablc, and wo moved on together. I'll tell tho balanco of this story anothor tirne. Your Friend, J. DOWNING, IHnjor, Downingvillc Militia, 2d Brigndc. CONVERSATIONAI. Im'EUCOORSE OF THK Sf.X- es. What ninkes thosc nicn who associato ha bitually with tho women, snperior to othors? What mnkcs that wornnu who in acciistomcd to, nnd at case in tho compnny of thc men suporior to her sex in general? Why aro the women of Franccso universally ndmircd nnd lovcd fortiicir colloquial powoi-s? Solely becnnse thoy nro in hnbil ofa frec, graccful nnd continuul conversa tion with tho other sex. Women in tfiis wny looso their frivolity, thcir fnculties nwnkon, thcir dclicncics and pcculiaritics unfold nll thcir hcau ty and captivation in thc spirit of intcllectunl ri vnlry. And tho mon losc their pcdantic, rudo declnmntory or suilon mnnnor. The coin oftho iiuderstnnding nnd thc hcurt is intcrchangcd con tinually. Thoir aspcritics nro rubhcd off; thoir bcttcr matcrinls polished and brightcncd; and thoir richnoss, liko fino gold, is wrought into fin er workmanship by tho fingers of women, than itevcr could bo by thoso of men. Tho iron and stccl of our charactcr, are laid nsido, liko tho liarshncssof n warrtorin tho timc of pnaco nnd security. Scheneciady Democrat. Gamhlino. It is but a line thnt separatcs in noccnco from sin. Whoovor foarlossly approach es the line, will soon havo crossod it. To keop nt a distance, thereforo, is thc part of wisdorn. No man cver mndu up his mind to cousigu his soul to ruin nt once. No man over ontcrs the avenucs which couduct to such an end with firm and undauntcd stop. Thu brink of ruin is, np proachcd vith catition nnd by impcrccpliblo do grees; nud tne wretch who now stnnds foniloss lyscofiing thero, but ycstcrdny had shrunk back from tlie tottcring diffwith trcmhling. Doyou wish for an illuhtiation? The gnm blcr's unwrittcn history will furnish it. Howin offonsivo its commcncemcnt; how suddon and awful its catastrophy! Let us roview his lifo. Ilq commenccs his plny; but it isonly for nintiso mcnt. Next ho hnzards a triflo to giyo intercst, and is surpriscd when ho finds himself n gaincr by tho hazard. Ho then veutures, not witliout misgivings on n dccpcr sfakc. That. stako hc loscs. Tho loss nud guilt oppress him. Ilc drinks to revivo his spirits. His spirits reviVcd, hc stnkes to rctriovc his fortune. Again ho is unsucccssful, and again his spirits fing, nnd oncc moro tho iuebrinting cup rovivcs him. Eio he is awaro ho has becomo n nnnkrupt. Resourco. fnils him. Iiis fortuno is gone. Tho domon of dcspair takcs noFscssion of his bosom. Reason desoits hini liu bccomcsn ninniac. couiu:sroNnENCK of tiik nosxoN atlas. Wnshiiigton, Sept. 19, 1837.- The following nreextrnctslof Mr Hives' spcech in cxphiiuitioii nnd dofonccof thcBill, introduced by him, ."to dcslgnnto tho mcdium in which gov ernmcnt dues should bc pnyablc." Tho bill nrovidcs that nll dohts duo the governmcnt mny ho paid in spocie, or billsofspocio pnyingbnnks. Rivf.s said, thnt tho qucstion, whnt mcdium tlio governmcnt wouhl reccivo in pnymonta into tho public treasury, was tho groatcst qucstion raisoil by tho Prcsident's met-'stigc, nhd tho most importnnt nnd intoresting to tho pcojilc. IIow-i ovur tho Commiitec on Financo hnd judgcd pro pcr to report no bill toiiching this grcnt mntter, the mcssngo rccommcnds that hcncoforth tho rovenuo should ho rcceivnblo only in gold nnd silver. If such wns to bo tho policy of thc gov ernmcnt, it ought to bo known. At present, tho mnttcr wns left in n stnte of unccrtninty ; tho law was ono wny ; tho rccommcndation of tho prcs idcnt, and tho policy of tho govcrnment, anothcr. This uncertainty ought to bo rcmovcd ; nnd it ' bolongcd to Congross to roniove it. In fact, sincc ho gavo ,notico.of this bill, two distinguished gcntlcmcn- Calhonn and Benloii had biought forward propositions to carry into cffoct tho rccoinmendations of tho Prosident. ' Tho details of their plans diflercd but thoy ogrccd in tlio objcct of rcjecting nll hank pnpcr from tho financial trnnsactions of tho govornment. This would ho to hring about n total rovolution in tho administration oftho Treasury. From tho very origin3of tho governmcnt, the notes of spccio pnying hanks had bccn rcccived, the samo as spocie, in payincnt of public dues. This prnc tico wasconfirmod and fanactedjnto a lnw,by tho rcsolutiou of J81G. This practico continucd un til tho issuc oftho epccio circulnr, rcquiring coin in payment of thc public land ; n mensurc highly justifiable, porliaps, as n tempornry thing, but ns n perrnanent 1neasuros highly rcprchensible. Tho issuc of this circular drow tho public atten tion to tho subject, and a bill was passod by both branchcs, by n voto of n'mc tcnths in tho Sonnto, and of three Jourlhs in the Ilouso ; and almost universally, by the pcoplc ; a bill which ro-onuct-cd tho resolution of 181G; but which failed to bo como n law, bo would not say how, or why bccausc ho wishcd to cxcito no unplcusnnt feel ings in any quarter. But it failed to bccome a law; and ho now again presentcd it to tho Sen atc, in tho vory words in which it wns then ox prcssod i for notwithstnnding tho difliculty which hnd boon discovcred in its intcrprotation, ho had not thought it ncccssary to nlter a singlo word Mo hnd addcd two provisos, ono in favor of tho Treasury notes nbout to bo issued ; tho other, moro importnnt, with n design to cncourago nnd facilitatc tho rcsumption of spccic paymcnts, It indicatcd a tirne (lofl blank in thc bill, and to bo fillcd,so fnr as he was concorncd, with a scrupu lous regard to thc intcrests of tho banks) for thnt rcsumption , nnd cuforced it, by motives both of hope and fear. Ho did notdoubt it would havo a powcrful influcncc, nnd hc refcrrcd to a similar resolution of Congress in I81G, ns hnving in fact produccd tho rcsumption which then took. plnce. But this bill would havo u wholesome opern tipn, not only upon thc banks, but on tho coun try. Whnt wns tho naturo of our present diffi cultics? Our lnnds, our labor, our capital, all tho elements of prosjicrity still rcmained. But industry wns parnlyscd; tho currcncy wns-do--rungcd; nnd wnges, profits, cnpitnl, cvcry thing, felt the cficcts of that dcraugomont. What is tho rcmody? It is simnle; it consists in thc rcs- toration of confidenco. Now tho first stcp to wnrds thnt rcstorution of confidenco, is, tho rc.--turn to specio pnymcnts. And how are tho bnnks' to bo cnnbled to return to snccio nnvmonts? Bv' u mnnifostntion ofoontidcncc on tho part oftho governmcnt. This is ull that is necdcd, to cnablo them to resume. Thc eouniry, at this moment, is bcttcr providcd with spocie, than ever it wns uciorc; tne loreuni deut is tnst pnvinjrofl: tho banks wnnt nothing to cnablo them to rcsumo, cxccptnn exhibitiou of confidenco on tho part of tho governmcnt. Thcy havo bccn honestly propnring to resume, rcducing thcir discounts, rcducing their circttlntion. Thcy wish to re sume; anu thoy can uo so it wo uut mnnitest our confidenco in them. That confidenco is in -- ispcnsablc; and itis tho business, thett oftho' governmcnt to mako a manifestation of it. Right- or wrong, justly orunjustly, tho banks npprchend hostihties from thc governmcnt; and it the oqv- crniiiRiit do not inteud them, ussurances to that eflect ought tti bo givcn. Ho refcrrcd to tho couduct oftho Jintish cov- crninont in 1793, and to tho loan ot six, millions to tho banks authorisod by tho Stnte of N, York during tho panic. of 1834, ns proofs.of tho influ cut:e to bo oxorcised by a moro manifestation of confidenco in the bnnks, on tho part of govorn ment. And how did it happcn that Euidaud, drnincd of her usual supply of spocie ns sho wns, hal not siulorod a snsponsion on tho. part ot ncr banks, while wo had sufforud onc, with an cx--traordinary supply of'spccio in tho country? Bc causc, iu Eiiflanil thero wns conudcnccf hcro thcre was nouc. Uo did not blnino tho govcrn ment; but tho fact wns, thero was no efibrt Ucrcy by tho govcrnment to sustain eonfidence? on tho coutrnry, it wns from the govornment, thnt hostil itios wero piincipnlly upprohcndod; and tho at- trociotis doctrmes avowcil m certam qunitcrs, (niid hcro ho poiutcd directly to Bcntori); tho moruid hostihty cxlubited townrds tlio oanus, tlio doelaration of a dospornto vvar ngainst. them, niight well oxcito opiirehonsion. A nronosition was now nctoro tno snnnte, ot- fored bv tho Kenileumn. from Mfcso'uri, with tho npprobntion of thc oxooutivo, which if ndoptcd, would swccp thc country with thobesomof dcs olntion. This wns tho crisis tljetj, nt which an exhibitiou of confidenco on thc bnrt .o'f Cbngrqss, was impnratively dcniandcd. And wliat vns- asked? A small boon only tbut wb should promisc to do, what tho Rovernnieut always'had doue, from its earlicst origin. If tlieopnosito policy should pievail, it' rnrijlit bo demonstratcd, ves dcuionstrnicd, thnt ,'it.lwns absolutelv impossible fnr. tlic. .batiUs..jo. Rcsumo ..." v-i .. i .t : . : . j :.. sjjui:io paynienis. uuki iuiu onvui la.iui V'V. miuin. Whvr Becauso tnatalono wpi scrvo to