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TKR3IS Tiuj Calkdonian will bo publishcd u'crklv ul !52,00 por armum, or nt 81,50 if paid in nilvunco. If paymont is mado within six moiilh froni tlio timo ol Hiibscribing it will bo coiisidorod ns ndvnnco pny. No pupor will bo discontinuod initil iill nrroarngo3 nro paid, cxcopl nl tlio option of llio puohslior. rrj'Advcrliscinciits will bo insorted for tbo cus toninry priccs. l'orsons nro vcquostod to stato tbo numbor of wouUs tboy wish tliojr iidvortiseincnts miblislicd, othorwiso thoy will bc insorted till for bid and churKod nccordingly. HOW TO IJJIPROVB A POOIi FAKM. lliehnrd A. Lconnnl, of Middletown, N. J., hiis fnrnislicd us nn iuterosting acoonnt of liis tnaii ner of improving n wom-out farm, niul of tho salo of its nrodncts tho Inst ycnr. jIr Leonnrd cnme into possession of 90 ncrcs of eultivatcd ltit exhausted Innd, iti Alny, J833. ln thnt year tho salo of its produots umounted to jawOSS ; iti 1834, tlio sales ninonntcd 738 05; in 1S35, to $1 125 01 ; mid in 183G, notwithstnnding tbo unfavornblc scason, -.. .1 tho failuro of most of sinplo crops, $11GG 13 ; llius inoro ilian donb iis produots, hy judicious uianngoment three vears. liis expeusc dur'ing thc Inst yoar for ln bor, inaiiuro, and freight, nniounted to $251 72, ilnis leaving h'nn a nct profit on hisfann of $912 41, or moro than tcn dollars pcr aero pcr annuin. Wo will qnoto ,Mr Loonard's siateniont of tho mrans ho adoptod to thus douhlo tho fertilily of liis soil. "My fann," says ho, "was in so low a eondition tbat it wonld not prod.icc morc than ton busho's of ryc, or twenly of eorn por acro ; anil as 1 had no other iwnmu but wjiivt I could niako npon my jHior fann, 1 sut abont farming in eiirnost. 1 lonnd it was vain to nttouipt improvenient with Mit inaiitin, so l conti ivod.to get about fonr hun .Ired londs n "year, ll.roo huudrod of whieh I mado in the fullowing manner. J huvo niarl, thoiigh of a vcry inlorior quality. J cart about f.iie hundred loads of this inio iny harn yard,aud nrd my eattlo npon it through tho scason; I idso cart abont lifty loads to iny hog-pon on uhich 1 kcpt u i v hogs llii! venr fouixl. In this i . i ' i i i". : WilV I ,'01 OU0 UUIIilieu luaci.s iiiijic, wiiiuii is rclii'til for potaioos, corn, &(..; and s my liirin is siinatcd nciir the bay, 1 ohtain froni NuwYork aiiiiindly from 50 to 75 loruls ul the bost stahh: (hiiiir, at ono dollar por load on dtdivory, and by itiiiiifi it with tlio oarlh, &, mnko np tho four huiniri'd loads. Ily this trcatinint 1 find my l.ind iinprovKs rapidly, and my inc.iino in a lihe pniporlion. I.nt 1 an'i )i ry to say tliuro nro nia ny farmortj aniong ns wlio nlill pnrsno tlft: old M::! k'lling systom, scarcidy inaUing hoih cikIh intet. I liii'lit say soniojliing conccrning tho lioiioficial ro.-nlts of iindordiaining, and of little i : ;i maniire; biit I conrlndi' for llio iiro.ont." This eoininnnicatioii nnordsa worthy oxamplo ol' indnstry and f.'ond inaiiagoiticnt, and .v !!, con a poor fai m, woll nianagiMl, niay ii:ini, rcd inoro promicmo inan many a yooi sot out in a its innL'nificcticc. 1 faiicy tbat I suo L'otitnnd dronsius, fcvers-and lethar'rios. with oth qv ininnnciahlo distcinpcirf Jying in arnhnscado ainoii!' tho (hshcs. JJuuison. fi"" IIHW If.-. Cvllh'atar. imtlcr hatl manageincnt. Albany ."i F o i- n r fisAi. , Ainong all tlio stnpcndoiis , i!,s o( Mmiii'", nit placo can bo eolcetod mon; ,1 it, ,i for tbo ("xliiliiiinn of Ahniylity pou or. 1 'i'ivo stood npnn tho Mimiuiis of tho giant Eiiiii, ; i.d lookcd ovcr tlio . loi:iiS floaiing bcncnih ii npon ii?.; old scenery of Sicily and llio dislant iMMiiilaiiis of Calabria; npon iho top of Vcsnvi-ii.-', and lookcd ilown npon llio wavus of lavn,:ind tbo rtiinpd and half rcrovorod citios at itK foot; htit thoy aro nothing cotnparod v. ith tho torrific polittnlcs and bloak innji'ty of Sinai. Ati ob ff'rting travcllor has woll callcd it "a porfoot soa i f desolation." Not a troc, or .shrnb, or a hlado f.f grasri isto bo'ficon npon tho liaro and riiggod h'kIos of iniiniucrablo niotintninp, hraving thoir nakod swmniits totho p!;ies, whilo tbo oninibling mripsosof granitc all lonnd, and tbc distant viow oftho Syrian dcscrt, with its hniiiidlcss wastc of f;ands, form tho wildcst and niost dn;ary, tlio inost torrific and dosolato pietnro tlitit iinagina- tion can conccivo. J lio Icvol snrlncc of tliovory inp or pinnaclo, is abont GO foot pqtiarc. At onc ond is apingloi'ock about twonty foct high, upon whic.h as said the rnonk, tho f-pirit of God dc Roonded whilo in tbo erovicc boncntii, hisfavor od jcrvant rocoivod thc tablos of tlio law. The rtiins oftho, chiircb and oonvont aro still to bo poon npon tbc monntain, to whioh boforo tlio oonvcnt bolow was bnilt, tnonks and horinits us od to rctiro, and poclndod from tbo world, ing tbo praiscs of God npon bis chopon hill. Noar tliis, also in nn'ns, stands a Mohaininodan innscpie for on this sacrod spot thc followere of Christ nnd iIohaninicd have nnitcd in worshipping tbo truo and living God. Undcr tlio chapcl is a hcr niit'sccll, whcrcin tl.c iton ngc of fanatioism, tho urioritc, lingcipd out his days in fnsting, niod itation. and praycr. Incidcnls oj Travel, hy an lnwtcav. MoitTAMTV at N ATcnr.z. Tho II ississippi "roo Trndor contains anacconnt of-tho ravages ol ycllow fovcr in Natchcz, with tbo niiniber of j ( uiiisin tlio nionths of Septenibcr and Octobor. lboseia tbo forrncr month amountod to 7G, in thclattcr to 1G8. Tbo oditor adds, "this isfjtiite a lUbc abstractod fom tho numbor of our citizens "t.!,0 ,luv'5 ltjniiiitio(I in tho oity." llic ycllow fovur is niakinggroafhavocat Opc lotisas, La. I KMi-nnANcr.. Tho virtuo of tonipQiancc in tho usc of food i3 too little practicod by many, wbo, nt thusamc tmio, would bcsbockcd by thc chargo "I cxcess in the uso of strongdrink. Yct intem- urance in oating is, pcrhaps, no lo.s mischiovoiis timn in dniikingjand, whon proporlv conyidcrcd, uipially disgracoful. lixcess in tho uso of food ins at a point farshort of tbat brutal intomper "iico wluoh shocks cvury bobolder; it begins soon nter liiingor is appeasod, and thc animal spiiits , 'uheshod; it bogins when thc otbcrwisu satia- cu nppetito tiuist bo tcmpled by varicty and by "'untius; it begins whcn a pcrson begins to feel lpiossion. Vovmy part, whcn I bcliold n fashionabletabln. J1R WEUSTEIl'S SPEKCII, On tlio Currcncy and on tbo Now i'lnn for nolluc ting and Jcuopiug tho jnibliu tnonoy, dolivoiod iatbo Sonato of tbo Uaitud Statcs Sopt. 2Stb, 1837. Conehidcd from our Inst." Sir, inino is not thc ruthless hand that kIkiII strike at thc Statc JJanks, nor inino tho tongiio that sball carelcssly tipbiaid thcni with treaob- ory or porfidy. 1 adniit their lawful oxistenoo; adnut tlieir utilttv in thc cuclo to w bioli ilmv inopcrly bolong. 1 only .say they oannot pcr form a national part in thc oporations of cotn- tnerco. A gcneral and univorsal aeoredited our roney, thcrcfon', is an insininient of commcrcc. vhieh is necosiary to tho cniovincnt of its insi adyantagcs, or, in other words, whieh is ussontial to its benelicial regulatioii. Congross Iins power to estahlisb it, and no other powcr can ostablisb it ; and tborcforc Congross is hound to cxorciso iis own power. ltisan absurditv. on tha vnrv fiic.e of tho propositiou, to allegc that Congross sball regulate conimorco, but sball, ncvcrtln!l(;s abandon to others thc duiv of i,iaintaiiiiii' nnd ilating its ossenlial means and instriimont. We havc in actttal uses a mixcd ctinvncv : tho coin circulating tinder the atithoritv of Coii"ilss. thc paper undcr tho authority oftho Statcs. Jbit this papor, though it fills so great a portion of all thc channols of oiroulation, is not of gcneral and univorsal eredit ; it is mado np ol various local curroncies, nonc of whieh bavo tho samc credit, or tho saino valiic, in all nurts of ihc countrv : and thereforc those local eiurenoic.s answer but vory loosely and defieientlv thu purnoses of sicn- eral'cnrrenev. and of rcniittaneo. Now. is it m bc eontcudod that therc is no remody for this? Aro we to agrco that thc Constitntion, with all its care, ('ircuinspoction, and wisdoin, has, ncv eriholcss, Ieft this great interest uuprovidod for ? Is our coninicreial syKtoin so lamo and impotont Aro our constitutioni.l provisious and our politi cal iiistitutions so radicalli' dofi;ctivo? I tliinl; not, sir. They do not dcservo this roinoacb; and 1 thiiik it niay now bo unsily shou u that, uudor all adiuinisirations, from Gcneral W'uli iiiL'tou's timodown to tbo thinl of Murch biht,tbo Govornmont has folt aiui acknowlodgod its obli gation in rcgard to thc curroney, to thc full x toiit in uhich I havc statod it, and has constant ly cndoavoriid to fulfill that ohligation. ADow motogo haok to tho hcginning, and tracc ihis maltor dnwn to our liiuos a littfo in dctail. In his first spocch to Congross, in 1789, baving just Ihon assuint'd his new oflico, Genoral Wash ington locomuioiidod no particiilar .suhjocts to thc cousidoration of Congross; but in bis speech at thc oponing oftho soeom! sossion, ic suggest cd tlio importanccof a unifor'in curroney, without distiiignishiiigcoinagc from paper; and'tliis body, in its ansuer, assured h'nn that it was a subject that shonld roceivc its attcntion. Kocollcct, .sir, al tliat tunc therc werc Statc Uanks having notcs in circulation, thoiigh tbcy werc fcw. Thc (irst JSati Ic ol thc Uiiitod S:atcs was ostablishcd at tho llnnl sossion ol thc Coiigrcss, in 1791. Tho hill for its crcation oiigiuatcd in thc Senatc ; thc dc lintos in uhich at that titnc tirc not public. V havo, howcvor, thc dobates in thc Uotisc, we bavo tbo loiiorts of tho Secrclaiics, and wo havc thc law itsull. Lct us cndoavor to learn, from theso soun:o;t, for ivhut objects this instilulion was crc alcil, and whclher a nalional cumncy was onc of llwsc oltiecls. Certainly, sir, it must bo admitted that curron ey was not thc only objcct in incorporating tbc liank ol .191. X he Govornmont was new, its (ic;d aflairs woro not woll ariaugcd, it was great ly in dubt, and the political stalti ofihings at tbo t'une rondorod it bigbly probablc that suddcn oc casions for niaking loans would ariso. Tbat it niight assist tbo ojioraiion.s of tho.Trcasurv.thorc- forc, and Jhat it might niakc thosc loans to Gov oiiunoiu, n prossnig oocasions siiouki ansc, woro two ol tlio purposcs liad iii vicw in cslablishiu tho banlc, Bui it is o(pially clcar that thero was a thinl purpose, and tbat rcspectcd conunorco and ourroiicy. rJb fttrnish a cwrency for gcneral cimdtrfion, and lo aid cxchangc, rcas, dcmonstrahly, a clcar, distincl, and avowcd objcct, in thc crcalion oj tltc iirsl tmnc. On thc 13th of Dceombor, 1790, thc Socrolarv ot thc Ireasury mado a report to the Ilouso of lic'presontalivos, rcconunending a national bank. In this report, hc sot fortli thc advantagcs ofsuch an institution ; onc of theso advantagcs, hc says, consisls "in incrcasing thc rpiantity of circulating incdiuni, and quickcniiig thc circulation." And hc tlicn prococds to obscrvo : "This lasl may rc quiro sonic illustration. Whcn payniculs arc to bc mado bctwcen dillcrent placos, having an in tocoursc of biiftiiicss with cach other, if thcro happcn to bc noprivato bills at niarket, and tliorc arc no bank notes whieh havc a currcncy in both, tho conseqiicnco is, that coin inust bo remittcd. 1 his is attondod with trouble, dclny, oxpensc, and risk. If, on tbc contrarv, thcro arc bank notes ciurent in both places, thc trausmission of uioso, ,uy tnc post, or any othcr spccdy or con vcnient conveyanco, answers tho purpose, and theso again, in tho altornations of dcmand, arc frcqucntly rctiirncd, vcry soon aftor, to tho jilaco wlionco they werc first sont; whcnco thc trans portation and rc-trausportation of tho motals arc obviated, and a moro convcnient and a inoro cx peditious mcdium ofpayment is substitiued." Is not this clcar proof, that onc objcct, in cs tahlishing tho bank, in tho opinion of thc Sccrc tary, was thc crcation ofa currcncy whieh shonld havc generai crodit throughotit tho country, and, by incans of such credit, rshould beconio a con vcniont and cxpcditious incdiuni of cxchangc? Curroney, bir, currency and cxchangc wcrcthcn, bcyond all douht, importaut objects, m thc opin ion oftho proposerof the measure. to bcaccotn plisbcd by tho institution. Thc dobates whieh took placo in tho Ilonso of Ileprcsontativcs con firm tho saino itlea. fllr Madison, wbo objcctcd to tho bill on constitutional gronnds, admitted ncverthclcss, that ono of tho advantagcs of a bank consists " in facilitating occasional romit tancc?, from difloront placos whcn; notcs happen to circtilato;" and IIr Amcs, who was onc ol tho inost distiuguishcd fricnds of .tho nicasurc, and who represontcd a coninicreial district, enlargod on tbo great bcncfit of tho proposed institution to cominerce. Ilc insistcd that thc intcrcoursc be twccn tbc Stntcs could nevcr bo on n good foot ing, without an institution whose paper would circulato moro oxtonsivoly than tbat of any Statc bank ; and what hc saw in tho futurc wo havc scen in tho past, and fool in thc prescnt. Othcr gciitlcincn, also, contcndcil that soino stich insti tution was neccssary,inorder to cnublu Congross to regulate tho couinicrco of tho countrv, and, for that rcason tlmt it would bo constitutibnal, as boing propcr nicans for lawful ond. Whcn tho bill had passcd thc two IIouscs, tho President, as wc all know, askod tho opinion of his cabinct npon its constiltitionality. Thc Scc rctary of Stato ancl thc Attorncy Gcneral woro against it ; and aniong thc gronnds on whieh ho placcd thc riglit of Congross to pass thc law, was its adaptation to tho excrciso of the coniuioreiiU power, eonfcrrod by tho eonstitutiou on Congresd. His languagc is "Thc institution ofa Jlank, has, also, a natural rclation to thc rogulatiou of trado betwcen tho Stater, in so far as it is conducivc to tho I'.reationjof a convcnient medkiin of oxchango nctwcen tneni, and to tlio kccping up a lull cir culation, by preveuting thc frequent displacoment ul thc nictals in reciproeal rcniittanees. ftloney is thc vcry hingfc on whieh couinicrco turns. And this does not moan morcly gold nnd silvor; many othcr tbiugs havcserved tbo nirposo, with (liflbrcnt dcgrech of utility. 1'apor lias boen cx tonsivcly uinployod. It cannot, thorefore, bc ad niitted, with thc Attorncy Gcneral, tbat thc reg ulatioii of trado bctwecn ibeStales, as it eoncerns tho mcdium of cireulaton aud cxchangc, ought to bc considcrod us confincd to coin." "And it is," hc adds, " in rcforcnc.o to theso gcneral rcla tious of commcrcc, tbat an cstahlishmcnt uhich fcrnishcs fucilities to circulation, aud a convcn ient incdiuni nf cxchangc and alicuatiou, is to bc rcgardcd as :i rogulation of trado." Nolbing can bc plaincr, sir, than this languagc; and thereforc uothing is morc ccrtaiu than that thosc who rccomnicndod and siipportcd thc first bank, rcgardcd it asa nt aud nroossary measure, in ordor to cnablo Congress to excrciso its iin ponant duty of rcgulating coinnicrcc, aud to ful lill, cspecially, that provision of a propor and suiliible currcncy for circulation aud cxchangc. JJut it is not ncccssary to rcly ou theso opinions ol individual fricnds of thc nieasure. Lct the aet spcak for itself. What arc tho gronnds nnd objects of tbo law, as sot fortli in tho law itscll ? Tbo prcaniblo tclls us. Iidoclarcs "That thc establishing ofa bank will bc vcry conducivc to tho hucocssful eondtiotiiig of thc national financcs : aud will tcud to givo facilltv to tbo obtaining of loans for thc uso of Govt;in iiicnt in sudden onicrgcncies ; and will bc pn Uuclivc of coiisidcrablc advantagc to Iradc and in tnslry in gcneral." Trado aud indnstry in genoral, thereforc, con stittiteii onc (listinet aud definito objcct of thu in corporation, if llio law truly oxpounds its own purposcs. It was not icvenuo alonc ; it was not iho faciliiy of making loans nicrcly ; it was not moro utility to Govorninent ; but, iu addition to iliesc, it was trado aud bus'nicss in gcneral, whieh aniong other consideratioiis, foinicd an inipoitant part of tho objects of thc incoi poration. And indocd, sir, cvents provcd that it was vastlv tho most iinportant part of all. What clsc did the first bank do, for the Govorninent of thc country, at all to hc coiuparod, in thc aniouut of hcuefit, to its lnlltioneo on tho ciirrencv aud llio cxeliangc& lt is as clcar as dcnicnstration, theicforc, that tbc Govoininoiit in Gcneral VH&hiiiioi'-4ifnf,j1ttrovoi did lecl itsell aiilhoriseii ny tnc coninuuon, and hound m dutv. to providc a salc currency. or iicneral credit. for circulation and for (!xchan''c lt did nrovido such a currcncy. It is rcmarka blo onouuli, so couitiatatively small was thc inoro objcct ol kccping thc public tnonoy, tbat no pro vision for that purpose was inscrtcd in thc char tcr; nor was therc anv law ou thc subject, so far as I roineniber, till tho ycnr 1800. rhci bank wcnt mlo oporation. aud its suceess was L'rcat and instanianeotis ; and (luriiiL' tho ubob; iii'iiod of its cxi.-teiiee, thcro was no coin plaint of thc statc oftho currcncy or thc cxchan- gos. And now, sir, let inc ask, what was it tbat j'avo this succcss totho new institution? Iis capital was innall, aud Govorninent had no par tu-ipaiioii iu its (Iireciion ; it was conumttcd cn- tircly to individual maiiagcnicnt and conirol. Jts notcs, it is irue, woro inauc rccoivanic in paymonts to governincnt : that was onc advan tagc. lt had a solid capital, and its papor was at all timcs convcrtiblo into goid and silver al tbc will and plcasure of llio holdcr ; tliat wasanother and a inost linnortant Mound ol its prosncritv lbir, sir, thcro was soiucthing moro than all this. 1 bcrc was soincthing whieh tonchcd mcu s scnti ments, as woll as thoir uudorstaniJings. Thcro was a causc whieh carricd thc crodit of tho now horn bank, as on thc wingaoftho wind, to cvcry Itiartcr and cvcry cxtrcmity of Ihc country. riicro was a cbarni, whieh crcatcd trust, and faith, and rcliancc, not only in tbo great marts of couitncrce, out iu cverv cornor into wincli ino- noy, in any form, could pcnotrate. Thtit caust was its naiionality of character. It had thc hroad scal of thc Union lo its charicr. It was tho in stitution of 'tbc nation, cstablisbcd by tbat new Governincnt, whieh tbo Pconlo alrcadv loved ; and it was known to bo dcsiuc(i to rcvivo and fostor that cotnmorco whieh had so long becn prostratc and lifoless. INlr rrcsident, lct itbc bornc in iniiid tliat l am not now ui'miik thc constitutioiiahtv or prescnt oxpcdioncy of n Ihink of thc Unilod Statcs. Rly sontimciits aro alrcady woll known on that sub ject, aiHi it is not now boforo us. IJut I havo advcrted to thc historv of thc first bank, aud cxamiiicd tho gronnds ou whieh, and tbo purposcs for whieh, it was cstablishcd, in ordcr to show tho fact,that thc Govornniout froni tlio first, has aoknowlciiod thc imnortant duty nnd obligation of pvoviding for currcncy and ox chango, fas part of tho ncccssary rogulatiou of conitncrce. I do not jnean, at prescnt, to say that a bank is thc only, or tho iudcspcusihlc, means by whieh this duty can and must bc por fonned; ultliongli 1 certainly ihink it is thc bcat. Yct 1 will not sot limits to thc wisdoui and saga- oity of gontlc.ncn, in tho invcntion aud iidnpta- tion ot means. If tlicy do not Iiki; a liatiK, lct tboni trv whatovcr tboy do liko. If they know a hottor instruincnt or agcnt,b;t ilicin uso it. liut I maintain tbat tho pcrformancc ol thc dnly. hy soiiii! nicansjorsomc instriiniont, is iiKiispcnbioie; aud Ibat so lon-r as it sball bo negloctod, so long tho coniniorco and biisincss of tho country inust stiucr and as fully aud clcarly,asany of his prcdcccssors. 1 1 is various adinissions, or rccognitious of this obligation, aro too roccnt and too frcsli iu cvc ry ono's rocolleglion, to rcipiirc,or to justify pnr ticnlar ciiation. All tho isvila wo now feel, in docd wo havo ciu'ountcrcd in thc starch of a hcl tcr currcncy. It has hccn in iho avowcd tittcnipt to dischargo tliu duiy of Governincnt, councct cd with thc circulation, that tbc latc administra tion has lcd us to wbero wo now aro. Tho vo ry liwt chargo thut tho latc IVosidont ovcr brougbt against thc bank was, that it had not viainlaincd a sound and uniform cuncncy. Most pcrsons, probably, will thi'nk tho charge quito tinfouudod; yct this was the chargo. Jts (lorcliclion of duty. or is want of abilily to perfonn what had hccn cxpccted frotn it its litilurc, iu souiu way, to maintain a good currcncy, was tho original pro fcssed causc of dissatisl'action. And whcn thc bill for rcchartcring tho bank was negativcd, it was not on thc "roiiinl that Goveruniciit h:id nothing to do with thc national cunency, but that a hottor provision for it might bo inade,thau wo had in tho bank. Tho duty was not to bc disclainied, or thrown ofi, or negloctod; new a gents only werc to bo cmployod, tbat 't might bo beticr pcrfonncd. Tbo Stato hauks ould do hottor than the national bank had done; thc I'residont was coiilidout of this, and thcroforc hc rcjcctcd thc national bank as an aycnt, and u doptod tho Stato hanks. And what ho so coii stantly promised us would happcn, hc as rcso lutcly maiutaincd, alicrwards had happcucd. Down to his last nicssagc, down to thc lato hour of bis administration, lio iusistod upon it that iho'Stato hanks had fulfillcd all his cxpoctations, and all their own dutics; aud had cuabicd thc GovcnuiKMit to aceoinplish, in tbo j vcry bcst manner, ihc great and iuiportaut objects ol cur rcncy and cxcliangc. Wc havo thc samc hcad of tbc Trcasury, sir, who has repeatod and c h oedall tbcsc stattMiients, whctbcr of prophcc or tiillilincnt, iu succcssivn n por's, soinc ot tneni not lcss tcrscly and intclligibly wriitrn than tha' now boforo us; and wc havc boads of othcr !c parttncnts, wbo concurrcd, I prounio, from tinic to timc, in thc original statfincnts, aud iu thc (aithful cchocs of thcni from thc Trcasury. All thesc iunctionarics havc becn laboring with thc utmosi zcal, as tboy "profcsscd, to pcrforiu their constitutional obligations of furnishiug thc coun try with a good currcncy; and they have drag ged Congress, draggcd the country, aud draggcd theinselvc.s, into difliculty, perplcxityind di?trcss, in this long and hot pursuit. Aud now, hchnld, tlicy draw up all at onc.c, and declare thnt thc objcct of all this loil and slruggle is onc whieh tboy havc nolbing at all lo do ! liut, as thc last messago ol thu lato I'lcsiiicnt was loud and warin in its praiso of thc Statc hanks, for tho good scrvico whieh they rcndcr cd lo currcncy and cxchangc,so nodoubt. would ihc fnst uiCAMigo of the prescnt I'lesidcnt hae coupiKMi !((! with oqual carncslncts, tho succcss with whieh Govcrnuient Iins hccn ablc,by nicans of thc Slatc bank, to dischargc this iinportant part of its duties, if thc i vcnt of iIay last had not lcft thcni subject no long(;r a topic of feliei tation. Uy thc susponsion of spccic payniculs, all was ohangod. Theduty of Govci iinicnt was furthcr. Sir, lct ino tuni to tho incssago itsolfj to show that all its rccommendations, and, in dced, all tho objects in calling Congress togcthcr, arc confincd to thc narrovvand cxclusivo purposo of rclicving tho wants of Govorninent. Thc I'rcsidcnt says, that tho rcgulations cstab lishcd by Congress for tho doposito nnd safo keuping of tho public monoys, havo bccomoin opcrativc by thc suspcnsion of paymcnts by th& banks, and apprchonding that thc snme causo would bo diminish thc rovonuc, that thc rccipts into tho Trcasury would not be suflicient to dc fray tho cxpciiRes of Govorninent; aud as qucs tions werc oxpcclcd to ariso, rcspoctitig tho Oc loher lustahiicnt of thc doposite to tlioSlatos.and douhting whctbcr governincnt wculd be ablc to pay its cicditors iu spocio or its cquivolnnr, ac conling to law, hc lclt it to bc his duty fo call Congress togcthcr. Those aro tho rcasons for calling Congross togcthcr. Thoy aro all tho rca sons; and thoy all havc cxcltisivc regard to tho Govcrninoni itself. In thc next jilacc, let us sco what ineasurcs tho incssago rcconimcnds lo Congress. In its own languagc, ihc objects dcmatiding its atlcn tim; arc 'To rcf.'ulatc, hy law, tbc safo-kocpiug, trans fcr, and disburscnient of tbo public inoucys; to dosigtiith; tho funds to hc rcceivcd and paid by thc Governincnt; to cnablo tbo Ticasury lo incct proniptly cvery dcinnnd upon it; to prcscribc tho terins of indulgcncc, and tlio modc ofscttlcment to ho adoptod, as woll in collocting from individ uals thc rovcuue that has accmcd, as in with drawing it from former dcpositorics." Tiiese aro ull thc objects rcconimcnded pnr liculary to tbo caro of Congress; and tbc ouunicr alion oftlicnt is followcd by a g'Micral suggcstion that Congress will ndopt such furthcr mcasiires as may promoto thc prosperity of tho, country. This wholc cnunicration, it is obvious, is confin cd () tbc wants and convcnicncc of thc Goveln uicnt itself. Aud now, sir, lct 113 sco on what gronnds itis thut tho nicssagc rcfrains froni rcconunending mcasuics of gcnercl relief. Tho Prcsidcnt says 'It was not dcsigncd by tho constitution that thc Governmont should assuiuc tho managcmcnt of dotncstio or forcign cxchanges. It is, indecd, aulhorized to regulate, by law, tho comincrco bctwcen thc Statcs, and to provido a geneml staudard of vnlue or nicdium of oxchango iii gold and silver; but it is not its provincc to aid iudividuals iu tho trunsfer of their funds, othcr wiso than through thc fucilities nfiorded by thc Post Ofilcc Dcpartmcnt. Asjustly niigbt it bo callcd 011 to providc for thu transpdrtation of thoir incrchandi7.c." And again: 'II,thcrcforc, 1 rcfrain froni suggcsting to Con gress any spccific plan for rcgulating tho cxchan cs of thc country, rclicving niercnntile cmbar rassnicnts, or intcrfcring with thc ordinary opo rations of forcign and domcstic cominerce, it is And I now proooed lo sav, sir, that tho latc Prcs. of tbo tJ. S. hasacknowlcdi'cd thc duty of Congress to provido a national currcncy as oftcu chaugcil, aud tbc constitution waschangcd also. Governincnt was now to give up, and ahaiulon tbat verv ihing whieh had becn tho pro fcsscd objcct of its tnosi assidtious carc, aud most carncst pursuit, for cight long aud arduous ycars! Alr. I'rcsidcnt whcn I bcard ofihc suspciisiou of ihc banks, 1 was hy thc sitlc of thc Obio, 011 a jotirnoy,in thc (.oursc of uhich 1 had occaaion, froqiicntly, lo cxprcss my opinion on this now slato of tbings; and those who havo hcnrd mc, or notieed my rcmarks, will bcar witncss that I constantlv exnressed thc oinnion that a new era had cotnmcnccd; that a (picstion of priuci plc, aud a ipKistiou ol tbc iMghcst importancc liad ariscn, or would iiiiinediatcly ariscj.that hcrcaficr tho disiuito would not bc so iituch ahoui means as cnds; tnat the cxtcut of thu conslitu tional oblifiations oftho Governincnt would ho controvcrtcd; in short,lhat ihc ipiestion, u bethel it was thc dutv of Congress 10 couccrn itscll uith thc national ciirrencv, inust, iurvitablv, bc coinc tho lcadiug topic oftho timcs. So I thotigbt, whcn 1 had tlio plc.isiirc of addrcs-uig my fcl- low-citizens, and so 1 feel and th'ttik now. 1 sa'nl oftcu on ihcsc oceasions. and I sav now, that it is a (iiKistion whieh tho pcoplc, hy tho rcgular cxorciso of thoir clcctivc franclnsc, must dccidc. Tho subject is onc of so inurh pcrinanciit unpor lancc, aud public mon havc bcconie so coininit tcd.on tho ono sidc or tho othcr, that tbc dccision must, as 1 think, bo niado bv tho country. Wc sco an cntncly new stato ol tlungs. Wo nchold new and untricd principles of adininislration ad vanced and adoiitcd. Wc witncss an avowcd and bold rciuntinn of thc policv hithorto always provitiling. Tho governincnt has couio, not to a nansc, but to a revulsion. It not only stops, but itstarts uacu; 11 anauuons 1110 courso wnicn it has hccn pursuing lor noar imy ycars, aiui 11 rcproacbes itself with having hccn acling, all that tiinc, bcyond thc litnits ol its coiistilutional powcr. it was my scconn proposiuou, sir, uiai 1110 incssti:c. tho" bill, and tho ainendincnt, taken lo gothor, dony, in subslancc, that this Govcrnuient has any poWcr or duty conncctod with thc cur roney, or tho cxchanges, bcyond thc moro regu latioii of the eoius. And, sir, is this not Irue? Wo arc tojudgo of tlio incssago by what it onnts, as woll as hy what it proposcs. Congress is callcd togcthcr it coiuniorcial criMS. Thc wholu biisi ncss of tbc country is arrcstcd by 11 suddcn dis- ordcr oftho currcncy. And what is proposed? Anv thing to rcstoro thc currcncy? Any thing, with a dircct vicw of proihieuig tbo rcsunnition of navmont hy thu banks? Is u singlo nioas- nro on'cred, or suggcstcd, thc maiu purposo of whieh is gcneral rchct to thc country.-' INot ono, . ,1,1 . 1.. 1-... . sir, not 0110. 1 uc aiuiuiusiraii()ji. comiucs us moasurcs to tbc Governniont itself. lt proposcs a loan hy tho incans of Trcasury notcs, to inako rood Iho dchcioncv, 111 tho rcvcntic: mid it pro- noscs securo vauits, auu strong noxcs, ior tno safc-kccping of tho public nionoys; aud hcro its patornal carc cnds. uocs tho incssago proposo to grapiilc, iu any way, with tho maiu ovil of tho timcs? Sccmg that ovil is onc ofiocting tho currcncy, does tho mcssiigc, liko that of MfV Madison in 1815, addross itself dircctly to tbat point, nnd reconimond ineasurcs of adcqiiato 10 liof? No such thjng. It abstains froni all gcn eral relief. It looks out for tho intcrcst of tho Govcrnuient, us a Gorerntnciit, and it looks no from a conviction that such mcasuics aro not within thc constitutional provinco of tho Gener- nl GovcnuiKMit, and thnt thoir adoption would not promoto thc real and pormancnt welfare of thosc thoy might bc dcsigncd to aid." Thc Prcsidciit, llicn, siiyleclines to icconnnend i.uj' incasiiro for thc relief of commcrcc, for tho rcstoration uf the cunency, or for thc hencfit of cxfl.'ii'igcs, on thc avowcd ground, that, in his opinion, such ineasurcs aro not within tbo con stitutionnl power of Congress. Hc is distinct and explicit, and so far ontitled to credit. lio ilenies broadly and flatly; thnt therc is any au thority iu this Governincnt to regulate tho.'ciir roncy, and tho cxchanges, bcyond its carc oftho coin! Tbc (picstion, then, is fiiirly statod. lt caniiot bu inisunderstood; nnd wo are now to sco how Congrc??, and, what is niucb morc im portaut, how tho country will fcttlc it. ftlr. rrcsKlcni, il, iu niay last, whcn specio iiayincnts werc stispcndcd, tlio jircstdcnt ol 0110 of iho banks had callcd bis council of dircctors togcthcr, infonucd thcni that thoir aff'airs wero thvcatened witb daugcr, that they could not col lcct their dobts in sprcic, and might not bo ublo lo pay their cicditors in spccic, aud rccommcnd cd such mea?ures as bc thought thoir intorcst rcipiircd; his policy, iuall this, would have bcen 110 inoro cxclusivcly confincTl to iho intorests ot bis corporatiou, than thc policy of tho tnessago is confincd to the intcrests of this great corpora tiou of Govcrninent. llolh in practicc.theroforc, and 011 priucipln, iu lcality, and avowcdly, tbo administiation abandons tho currcucy to its fatc. It surronders all can; ovcr ir, declincsallconccrn about it, and denys that it has any duty conncct cd with it. Sir, thc qticslion thcn conies to bc this: Sball 0110 ol ihc great ptiwers oftho constitution. u powcr cssential to it, on any just plan orthcory of governincnt, a powcr whieh has bcen cxcrcis ed Irom tho beginning, a power absolutcly tic ccBsary and indispcnsablo to iho propcr rcguhir tious ol thc coinmcico oftho countrv, bo now surrcndcrcd and abandoncd forcvcr? To this point wo havo conic, sirj'aftcr pursuing tho "ox pcriniont" of the latc adininistraiion forlivo ycars, And from this point, I am piirsuadcd, thc coun try will niovo strongly, 111 ono (lucciion or auoth cr. Wo sball cithcr go ovcr to tho gontlemau from Missouri, and suller hini to einbracc us in liis "old and silvcr arms, aud hng us to his hard- inonoy breasr, or wo sball rcturn to tbc longtricd, well-approvod, constitutional praclicc of thoGov.- orii'ucut. cs to tho omployinciit of the Statc banks, for tho pnrnoso of inaintaiiiin" tho cinrcncy, and carrying on tho oporations of cxchangc, 1 cer tainly nevor had any confidonco in thatsystcm, md I havo 110110 now. I think tho Stato banks cnn novcr furnish a incdiuni for circulation, whieh sball havo uni vorsal crctlit, and bo of oqual valuo cvcry whcre. I think t hov havo 110 poworsor iaciuues,wiiicn can cnable tlicnt tbrcstrain their cxcCssivo issues of iwper. I think thoir rcspcctivo sphcres of action uro so limitcd. and thoir curroncies so local, that thoy can novcr aceoinplish what is.dgsircd in rolation to cxchnugcs. Still, l proliir tho elnploymcntpi tstute naiiKs tothoprojcct boforo us; bccauso itis less ofa; projccl; hcc.auso it 13 lcss daugcrous; and,.chioly, hecnusu it does not surrcndor, eltoctuuiiy aiui in tcrms, a great powcr ol tho Oonstitution. In nvcrv rosncct 111s nroiect is oniuctionauio. Il is but anothcr "r.xi'EniMEST nnd those who V r