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j$Y A. . CHABWICK.
28, 1S3S. VOI. I. I0. 23. TERMS The CvtEDOMAN will bo published wcekly at $2,00 per annum, or at !$1,50 if paid in advanco. If paymcnt is mado within six months from tho timc ot subscribing it will bo considcred as advanco pay. No paper will bo discontinued untd all arroaragcs nro paid, cxcopt at the option of the publisher. rjAdvortiseinent3 will bo insertcd for tlio cus tomary prices. Pcrsons aro requested to stato tlio numbcr of wooks tboy wisb tlieir advertisotncnts published, otberwi3o thoy will bo insortod till for bid and charged accordingly. Sjaws oi' Vci'Mnoait. An Act for regnlating nnil govcrning tlie Militia of this State. continued. CIIAPTKH IX. Rttlcs and .'Irticln. Art. 29. Evory oflicer, who is rcquired by this not to make any roturn iu writing, and who shall ornit to tnako tho same, shall, for each omission, lorfoit and pay to tho quartor master to whieh he bolongs, tho sum of two dollars. Abt. 30. Tho lulcs and which aro or may bo establishcd by Congrcss, r'ir the government of the militia, wi on in aelual o"r;ico of tho United Statos, shall bo thc rules and urtu les for the government of ilio niilitia of this stato. Aiit. 31. Thoso rulcs and ortieles shall bo road at thc hcad of each company, on the first Tuesday ,if .Tuno annnally. Sec. 2. Thc sovoral fincs imposed by this act, and all monies collectod by roason thereof, whon no other modc is pointud out by this act, shn.l bo coliccted by tho regimental quarter-tnasters ii tho dolinquent bc a regimental officer, mu-dcian, or pri vate ; bv tho brigadier quarter-niaster, if tho dclin quont bo a brigade, line, or stall' officer ; by the di vision quarter-master, if the delinquent bo a divis ion line, or stafi' officer ; and by tho quarter-niaster-gonoral whon the delinquent "bo a ineinber of tho govornor's staff. Si.c. 3. All monoy coliccted by virtue of this act fchall bc paid over to tho quartor master of the regiment within which ihe delinquent residcs, and shall be subject to tho orders of tho comniandant of t!'o regiment, who is hereby authorizod to draw ipon tho quarter master from timo to tirno, for such suins of monoy as may bc neccssary (or tho pay lnont of officers and soldicrs. as providcd for by this act, and also for such sums as may bo neccssary ibr tho purci.asoof musical inslrumonti as providcd in this act. Sr.c. !. In caso thoro shall not be sufficiont mo ncy in the hauds of the quarter-mastcr of oach rog iment, to pay tho officers and soldicrs aa rcquired by this act, the quarter-niaster shall ccrtify tho same to tho commandant of tho regiment, and also the sum which will bo neccssarv for tho pavment of said oflicers and men for tho uoxt muster, training, or officers dril. ; wlioreupon thc commandant of aid rpguneiit iiw" draw upon the troasurer of this t.ttc iu favor of ,uil quarter-master, for such sum nt nv.ney as inny bo neeoss.ny for the paymcnt of said ofricrM and'soldiors, and the treasurer is hereby . mlmnzod to pny tho same out of any rnonej in the trea-airy not otherwise approptiated. fc;i.c."o. If, on tlio first day of Movemberof oach and every ycai; thoro shall iemain in the liands oi .inv repimcntal quartcr-mastor a larger amount of ni'inpy than the sum of ten dollars, the quarter-mas-. r i-fiall retiii' t! samo to the treasurer of this fiitr, who shr.'i OACcuto a receipt thercfui to tho aid qu'irtor master. cu.vPTr.h x. Trainings, Mustcrs, and Dri'Is. Sr.c 1. Evcry captain or commandant ofa com pany shall, annually, on tho lir&t Tueday in June, eall his company together for tho purposo of oxam ining and taking an cxact account of ovory man's arrns and equipments, and also for drill and disci pline ; at which timo ovory articlo rpquirod by this act shall be brought to the place of parado. "And it shall bc tho duty of said commandant of each company to mako out a return of the names of all members of his c"inpanv, specifying ihosc v. ho are fully nrmod and equippud accoiding to the prov i ions of this act : which return ho shall lodge with the town clcik of tho toun in which said company is situated, and if said company shall ombrace wilh in its limits morc than one town, said return hhall be mado to the tow n cleik of each town any part of which is Pinbraced in said limits. Sf.c. 2. Thc commissioncd, tion-commissioned ofTicors and musicians of each regiment, i:i the uni Ibrm prpncribcd by virtue of this act, shall rendez vous within their respectivo limits two days suc cossivelv for tho purposo of training and improve- lnent in military discipline : the da's and place of rendezvous to be Uesignatcd in orders uy tlio com mandant of brigade, and the officers, non-commis-sioned officers, and musicians aforesaid, may be rcquired by tho commandant of regiment to appear at any such rendezvous, with such armsand accou trements as ho may direct ; and he may rcquire thcm to perform ovory duty bolonging to cornrnis-f-ioned and non-coinrnissioned officers & toprivatcs. Providcd, Tliat if any oificor, non-conmussioncd officer, or musician bo compelled to travel ovcr twenty inilcs for the jiurposo of aitending at said drill, lio shall be cntitled to receive travol fees at tho rato of eix ccnts por milo for all travol cxcccd ing said twenty rnilcs. Sec. 3. Thc mi'itia of this s'.-ite may bc assom bled in the juar 1S31), and evory tlnrd yoar, thcro after, betwocn thc twenty-fifth day of "Soptember, and tho thiid dav nf Ocitihor. for revicw. itispoc-- uon anu uiscipiiui', uy legimciu or scpnraic oauai iou, ns thc rnmmand mt of brigade shall dircct. Src.d. I'or all company trainiugs, ofli-:or drills, regirnental, or battalion reiew, proided foriu this act, the men shall be warned 10 moet at nitie o' clock in the forenoon, and they shall bo kcpt thro' the day, neccssary respites only oxceptod, in mili tary exercise. Sr.c. 5. The commandant of any rompany of light infjntry, riflemcn or artillery, !n this state, may, in his "discretion, call his company together, for military discipline and instruction, in addition lo tho tirncs heroin providcd, not exceeding two days in each year. CIIAPTER XI. Courts Mailial and Courls of Fnquirij. Sec. . Tho govcrnor or commander in c'hief bhall appoint general courts marlial, for the trial of all officers above the rank of captain ; tho brigadier gonerals, each within his own brigade, shall appoint brigade courts martial, for tho trial of oaptaius and all commissioned officers under that rank. And it shall be thc duty of overy officer who shall appoint a court martial as aforesaid, to approve or disap prove of evcry sentencc of such ro"urt marlial, by thcm appomtcd; and no officer who shall appoint a court martial shall be president thereof ; nor shall any sentonco be put in execution until it shall have becn approved of as aforesaid. A general, or br. gade court martial shall consist of twolvo niembers at lcast, and a president and marshal ; the president of which shall not bc under the rank of a field offi cer; and no field officer shall be tried bv a porson under the rank of captain ; and all officers shall lake rank on court martial, by eonionty of commis sion, vvithout regard to corps. If a general court martial is to he formcd. orders Rhall bo issucd to such divisions, as in the opinion of tho commander jn ciitef, may most convonicntly furnish tho mcm L'firs thereof; if it he a brigade court martial, ordors shall bo i?sued to such regiment within tho brigade, as in tho opinion of tho brigadier gonoral or cgrn manding officer of tho brigado, may most conven iently furnish tho tnoinbers thereof. And vvhcnovor acommanding officer of a division, brigade, or reg iment, shall bo ordored to furnish any ollicor or officers, as momber or membors, supemumerary or supernumeraries of a court martial, such oflicer or oflicers shall bo rogularly dotailed from tho roster of the division, brigado or rcgimont by tho conimand in" officer thereof, rospectively , forthwith, after Iia ing received orders thcrefor as aforesaid. Providcd, howcvcr, that in caso of inability, sick ness or absoncc of any oflicer, whose turn it vvould bo to sorvo on a cour: martial, tho detailing oflicur shall ccrtify sucfi circumstanco to tho officer who ordered tho court martial, and d.etail the officer next in rotation; and the officers ordered to bo detailed to scrre on courts martial, shall bo dotailed iu the following manner: major-gencrals by the com maridor in chief, or his orders, from tho general rostor ; brigadier-gonerals, by tho commanding offi cer of divisions, from tho division roster; field offi cers, by the commanding officers of brigades, from the brigado rostor; and captains and subalterus, by thc commandin!; officer of regiments, from tho regi mental roster. Whene vor a court martial is ordored , the officer ordering it shall appoint thc president and marshal of the sam; hegrnay, also, at his dis cretion, ordcr a numbcr of oflicers, not exceeding half tho numbcr of membors of which tho court is r-omposed, to be detailed as supornuinerarics, in addition to thc members, to altoud tho court at the oraanization thereof; and in caso thcr-. hhall be anv vacancy or yacaucies, ino juugo auvocate snan fill such vacam-y or vacancics, from tho sunornu mcries, beginning with the highesl in grade, and procceding in regular rotation. And the officer who shall oppoiut a court martial, shall at the samo time appoint a judgo advocato, whoso duty it shall bo, impartially to state evidoncc, hoth for and against tho oflicer under trial, tako acourate minutes of thc cvidenco, and all the proceedings of tho court ; all of which ho shall transmit, w ith tho judgmcnt ot tho court thereon, under soal, to the officer whosc uiity it is to approve or tlisapprove ot sucli judgmcnt. All persons shall be holden to appear and givo csvi dence beforo any court martial, under tho same pcnalties for neglect, as aro by law providcd for witnesses in othor cases, when tliereunto sununoucd by a iusticc of the poace ; and tliall be cntitled to the samo fees as witnesses attendini; th countv ! court, to bo paid out of tho stato trcasury ; and ail witnesses shall bo sworn by tho judge adocate, beforo they givo their evidenco to tho court. lioforo any court martial shall procecd to tho trial of any officer, the judge adv ocato shall administor to thc president and each of tho membors tho following oath, viz : " You do swcar, ihat you will well and truly try the cause now before you, be- twecn tho titate of Vermont aud the pcrson or per sons to bo tried, according to cvidonce ; and you do furthor swear, that you will not divulgo tho sen tenoo of this court martial, until it shall be apptoved or disapprovcd of, and that you will not on any account, at any time, discover tho vote or opinion of any mcmber, unl.ss rcquired to givo evidoncc thereof, as a witness, by a court of justice, in a duo course of law ; so help you God." And the president shall administcr to thc judge advocato the following oath, viz: "You do swear, that you will not, on any :ccount, at any timo whatever, divulgo tho voto or opinion of any member of this court murlial, unless requireu to give evidenco thereof, as a witness, by a court of justice, in duo course of law : so help you God." When any member of a couit martial is chjllen ged, either on the part of the govornment or the accused, the causo of tho challenge must bo statcd iu writing, of which the court after due delibera tion shall determine the relovancy or validity, and dccide accordingly ; and no challcnsc to more than ono momber at a" time, shall be received by tho couit. On nuestions of challongo, the member ob- iccted to shall not voto, but the presidont may voto .....l. .1 1 t ol. .11 r.rr,!.r,. bo ac'.ed upon, until the president and judge advo cato, and tho intended inembcr.s, aro sworn. All trials by court martial shall bo carried on in the day timo; and vvhou the votcs arc called lor, on aqufa tion, tho judge advocate ahall bcgin with thoyoung est in cummission, and proceed rcgularly lo thc oldest. Aud at all courts martial, unVoss two thirds of tho members agree that tho accused is guilty, the judgo advocnio shall record his acquittal ; but if two thirds or inoro pronounce tlio accused guilty, tlio court shall scntence him, if an officer, oithor to bo reprimanded in orders, or removcd from ofnce, or to pay a line not exceeding one hundrcd dollars, in the discretion of said court, according to the ag gravation of his ofFence; andif a non commissioncd ollicor, musician or privatc, to such fino, forfeituro or othor puni3hnient as is or may be provided by law. And if any officer bo sentonced to be removed from ollice, the court shall judgo him to bo disqual ified for, and ineapable of holdiug any military of fice under this stato, either for life, or for a term of ycars, according to the aggravation cf his oft'encc; which sentence either of roprimand in orders, ro moval from ofiice, fino, forfeituro or othor punisfi ment, if approved of, shall remain in fall forco; but the judgmcnt of disqualification may be reversedby tlio legislature. And all fines imposed on an); officer in mirsuanco of this section, shall be sucd for aud recovored by action of debt, brought on this statute, Uclore any court ot cotnpcten: jurisoiction ; anu n the officer aentcnced to pay aftne as aforesaid, shall be a captain or subaltem, said action shall bo brought in the namc of the qnartcr master of the regiment to which said captain or subaltem bclongs, for tho uso of t:n:d rcg'uncnt; if a regiment-al, field, or staff officer, said action shall bo brought in tho namo of tho brigade quartor master of tho brigado to which said field or staff officer may bclong, for the uso of said brigade; if a brigadier "general or brigade stafl officer, by tho quarter master of the division to which such brigadier general or brigade staff officer may bt-long, for tho use nf such division ; and ifany otlier ofhcer, in the namo ot tlie quarter master gen cral, for the use of the militia of this stato. And all courts marlial aro authoriscd hereby to preservo order during their session and if any persons in proence of a couit martial shall bchave in adisor derl v manner, or make any tumult in, or disturb any court martial, and shall not upon the command of tlie rnaislial UiercotjUesist.tiioreirom, u snan ue law ful for the court martial to confino such disordorly person or persons, for a time not exceeding eight liours. Sec. 2. The commander-in-chief mav call boardsof officers whenever in his opinion they may bo neces sary forsettling militia questions, or for other pur poses relative to good order and discipline. And the commandcr-in-chief, and thc brigadier-gonerals or other officers commandinc brigades, each in his own brigade. may ordcr courts of enquiry, to cxam ino into tho nattire of any transactions, or accusa tion, or imputation, against any officer, when mado by an mferior. Provided, hoicever, Tliat all courts rr.I or field officers. aro to bc or dored by the commander-in-chief; all courts ofin- quiry on captaina, regimeniai siau uuu buuu..o nrrlnrpit iiv liin briiradier-Eencrals or com manding officers of brigades; and courts of inquiry shall nlways consist of threo olhccrs and a juogo advocate, to bo appointod by the person ordering the (CONTINUED ON THE FOUHTM PAOE-) ON THE ACCUMULATION OF l'HOl'EUTY. V THE IIEV. J. S. C. AI1UOTT. Iti tho lnst mimber of tlio Mugtizino it wns attt tcd, that wenltli, in itself consitlured, is reganlt-d by God as a blesying ; tliat it is tlio duty of uvory nian to he diligentj in businoss, nnd to he euc ccssfnl, nnd that in our cniTcnt exponditurcs, otir stylcoflivingimisti.il some degreu conform to our incomo. A caution wns adtled against neg lootingotlicrdtities in application to husiness,and nguinst e.xpendtng our incomo without rogard to thc greatcst uscfulness. Thcn procccding to remtti k upon tomptations to wliicli thoso aro oxpo sed, wlio nro cngnged in thu tagcr pursuit of wealth, whethor sticcessful or unsuccessdil. 'Tliey that will he rich fall into.'tcrnptation and a snaro.' In tho former tintnhcrj wo dwelt upon the 'temptution ;' in tlio presont ono I wonld lead your thottgiits to the 'snure.' I aupposc tho progrcss and tho declino offam ily fortuttL'a havc heen essontially the samo in all parts of tlio vor!d,if wc except thoso coun tiies iu whicli the laws of cntail and piimngoni tuio preservo thc oldest son from tho roverscs whif.h otherwise inevitably onsue. A young man comes into tlie city from his re si)ectable liomu of industry in tlie country. Ile comes with cnergy of chnraetcr and industriotts liabtts, nnd is innred to oconomy. Ile has noth ing to depend upon but his own rcsources of ilil igence and fidelity. After a fewycars, he comrnenccs husiness for himself his only cupital isa gooil natne and husiness tallent. Theso guide him to wealth. In a fow years ho is found one of tho most opu lent and inflticiitiiil merchants in tho city, nnd the country boy who romes into Washington street as he did, in search ofa fortunc, now looks up to him with rcverenee as one ofthe noblestof ihe land. " This is the history of tlio first merchmjuy of ljoston aad New-York. Thcse poor wium'ry boys witli the virtues which are nnrtuMjil iu an ecouomical homo, cotne into our greatjmieg-nnd lake the lead in law, in politi.:s...iu merellan- dize. Thero aro cxceptiQiis, but-iliis is llyfQgvj- cral rtile in all thc princfpal cities of this cojuJKry gland. What is the subsequefjU3s- and in I: tory ? -'- i The sons and datightcts of thrs'novv'rich man, find a difi'crunt cradlo from that which their fatli er found iu his ptuental home. Profusion and splendor arc all around them. Their farther trod a painted floor, or perhaps ato his bread and milk from the eartheru bowl or tho tin dipper. They niove in npartrnents fiirnishcd with splen dor, and take tlieir coffee from cups of silver. I atn not now sayingthat this is wroug, but simply describing the process which Iappreliend is gen eral. Under such influenccs they have many itn agiuaiy wants and tho ptrjfusion around them destroys all habits of economy. The sons feel that they aro notdependent onv their own excr tiona Ibrsupport ; that their fathcf is rich ; that ho willset them up in husiness, andHhey thiuk that property will flow iu upon them, as easily as it fullows the well dirccted ellbrfs of their futher's strong miud . They fortn uo habits of strong applications. Tliey" have received no instruc tion in tho hard but useful school of adversity. Thc fatlier has felt that iu amassiiig property, he was promoiing the welfare of his fnmily. He would bc rich, aud he has 'falleti into a snare." The fatlier dies. Tho property is dividnd the sons are in husiness ; thuir habits are such, that they cannot avoid heavy .expenditures, and they cannot eiiduie the ngor of unweanoil exei tion. Tlieir fatlier icr commenced at thc bottom of j tion, and was above suspicion or icproncli han gradually ascchllcd. Ile catne I dliug thousands daily and givmp eutiro satisfac ouse an.l rose by degrccs to op- tion to his employer?. In 1C31 or ,?2 ho was the laihler, anJ Iioni tlie farin house anil rose by degrccs to op tilcnce and hixtiry. The si.us coinnience at the top ofthe laihfer and go dowu. Yoar after year tlie property dwindles away, and the chil dren are soon fairly down in the walksof obscur ity and poverty. The son ofthe coachman and his tnaster simply chango j)laccs. Thc one with wife and children takes tho iuside seat. Thc other with tho whip and rcins tnounts the box. It is tlnis thc wheel is continually revol ving. And this is not through the caprice of blind fortiiue, but through the operation of clearly de fined and natural cattscs. Now, hore is the stinre into which hojfalls who will borich. He may be laboring nll his hfo for accumulation of property, anil thtit very property be the cause of the ruin of his family. The exposure ofthedaughter's happ'mess,may be still grenter than that of tho son's. When an afFectioiiato hcarted lady awakes to the con sciousness that hOr husband has taken her but as the neccssary incunberanco of her father's prop ertj', the mcastirc of her wrotehedneess is al- most full. The danger of unhappy marrtagesis, under all circtimstances, great. Even where there is no allurcment, to the connection, but congeniality oftnste and aflection, tho numbcr of ill-sorted and discordant unions is fearfully great. 13ut the'chanccs of hap)iness which a'yoting lady with an independent fortunc has, arc very sinall mdeed. The very fact that sho has rnouey, will be rcgarded as an objeetion by mauy of the best mitids and heaits, while the tiivilotis and the hcaitless, and the profligate will crowdj around her. An ingenuious young man shrinks frorn the imputation of marrying for monoy, and he fear.s to tukcas a compatiion through life's hard pilgrimagc, one who has been mtturcd in fasluon aud Itixun-. Thusdoesa man not unfrequently laborfor his whole life, to accumulate property which ruins his sons & destro3's his daughters. He neglects God, gives himself no timc for prcparation for another vvorld, and when age and infirmities press heavily upon him, 'he finds that he has spent his strength for that which is not bread, and his labor for that whicli profiteth not.' Tho great men of our country, those who havc scnt their names aud their "mfluence through the union. havc almost universallv cotne from what would generally bo called the humble walksof lifo J was once walkuig iu tho tiulds witti one oi the most distinguished ofthe political men of Massachusetts, when he suddenly stopped nnd said, 'I have spent many liours in picking up the stones from this field iu frosty autumn moinings with my fingcrs aching with the cold. If I could only bnng up my boys as my fatlier brought up his, I shouldj hope so'mething from them.' Any one who will enqnirc into theearly histo of the principa.1 men of our country, or will look into thc biogrnphies ofthe prineipal men of the world, will bc struck with tlie fact, that almost all tho talcnt and tho enterprizo have como from tlio cottage, & not hoin man3ionsof tho wealthy. It is very seldom tho onsof dislinguishcd mun bacomo distinguiahed tliemsclves. The fatlier attains celehrity and wealth ; the sons encrvated by this wealth docay. There cei tainly aro ex ecptions to this rule, highly honorahle excep tions;but tho gcucial proccss is undcniublc. If wc can place any rcliaiico upon thu expnri ence, which our observation givcs tif , wo cannot doubt that in this country a wcalthy fnmily hap, on tho whole, a far moro unfnvornblc prospect of happincss, than onc in the enjoyment of a mod crato competeneo. I oncc heard a gentleman of grent influonco say, '1 canno: bc sulriciently grateful tliat I had not a rich fatlier.' And tho remark was ono of souud philosophy. Thc probability altogethcr is, that if this gentleman's fatlier had been ricli, ho nevcr would hnvo hecn stimnlated to those exer tions, which so aluitulamly contributed to his reputntion tuiil his hnppincss. Thc details of the following sliocking occur rence, aro from the Louisvillc Advertiser of the Gth inst. ATTEMPT AT UOBDEItY MURDER AND SU1CIDE. Tho Mechunics' Saving Institution was drcn ched with blood yesterday evening. The Treas urer, II. S. Juliaii, h.-.d gono to dinnur, leaving the first clerk O. M. Parker, in tho FmnU. After tlie Treasurer left, it suems Clarenden E. Dicks was adm'tted into tho Insti'tition by Mr. Parker, who had been ncnuainted with JJicks from boy-1 hood. Under what pretext JJicUs entereil, or how he acted irnmediately after oblaining ad mission, mu&t be a tnatter of ronjecture. It ap pears, however, that Mr. Paiker was killed at his ilesk bv a blovv with thc hammer used in 001100111111; notes paid. He was struck on thc top : ot tlie heau, nnd tlie iiammer tmnod to tne uan dh: in his brain. At this instant it is sttpposed Dicks commcncud his search for monev, as a dravvtir in which bank notes are usually kcpt, Wil IUUIIII WtllllV II 1111. UUNUII .....!.......!., ,!,..., ...iu Ai.. r,.n.,,, the 1 reasurcr, arnvcu, anu uuocueu at tne uoor Dicks onened the door, adm'.ted Julitin, fehut thc door again, and commenced an attack upon him with the liamtnor with whicli Parker had been killed. Julian, not apprised of what had occurred, parried the blows nimed at him, and begged Dicks to pause, tisstning him that he was mistaken. Dicks contitiued his assault making blow after blow until Mr Julian hadan opportunity to sci.o tho hammer, when, strttg gling with his arlvcreary, Julian f-!l, but not without wreaiing the hammer from Dicks. Dc prived of the hammer, Dicks begon to rcel for his pistol. Thc aim of Dicks was scen, and as Julian rose from thc fluor, discovered I'aiker lyingdoad in the room. Suddenly Julian rai scd a chair, threw it at Dicks, and thus gained timc to rush out ofthe door, and gave the alarm to some two or thtcc pcisotia in the immediate neighbourhood. At this moment, Dicks, fiuding that detection was inevitablc, raised his pi&tol to the sideof his hcad, and shot himself. Mr. Julian, we nro hnppy to learn, though wounded on ihe head and in thc face, is not considcred in a dangerous situutiou.. But, j)oor Parker he was cut otTin his prifne,'jleavingoii in teresting wife and threc ehildren and, as for Dicks, the robber, murdcrer and suicide, he wns the victim of gambling. Wc kuew him foryears, when clerk in one ofthe first houses in this city wheu he Imd not been t orrupted by ttssocia- made master of aeteiim-noat, wincii proved an unprotitable couccrn ; and hgre, it i supjmsed his career nsa gambler commenced. In 1833 lic obtnincd thc sitttation of clerk ofthe Philadel phia, which boat was robbcd of fivo orsix thou sand dollars, whilst Dicks had chtuge of thckcy ofthe tion chest. Suspicion rested-on him, and it was therofore (Ttftiult if not impraetieuble for him to obta'ua employmeut. llaving lost what money ho had at the gaiming table, he was driv en to desperation und hence thc bloody occur rence we have just detailed. Lntekesting to FARMEns. An English pa per relates that a practical farmer at the annual dinner ofthe Preslon Agriculturnl Society, gave some accounts of various intcrestiug discoveries in farming, particularly as related to economy' of seeds. He said ihatllc had always been of opin ion that much lcss seed than was generally used for gra'tn would answer the purposo. With this impression he made experitnents upon differcnt portious of the grouuil. He had plauted ut the rate of onc grain of wheat to a square foot, or nine grains to a squarc yard. In several iusttinces one grain had prodticed thirty-eight stcms, in others rather less, but in all a erop amply suflicient. Ile had also examined tho heads, and found that one head containcd as many as foity-two grains. The general result of his ealculatiou showed a produco at the rate of forty-two bushels per stat ute acre. There wei e dG40 grains in half a pound of wheat, and thus, according to the proportion ho had named, 4 Ibs. 10 oz. of seed would be found sufncient fora statute acre. This ho thought was a subject ileserving tho considei'ition of ag ricullurists. He had this year drilled thtcc acres of wheatattho rate of six bushels for lhr.ee acres, in rows of from twelve to thirteti inche.s asunder, and though this wns oniy to a small extent fol lowing out tho former cxperiment, yet it would be a guide to the ptinciple. JUercantilc Journal. FlNE TIME FOR THE GlRT3. TllO following is an extract from an act of the Scottish Pailia meut, passed in the reign of 0.uccn Margaret, a bout the year 12S8 "It is statnt aud ordainit that during thc rein of hir niaist blissit Magcstie, ilk maidon iadye of baith highe and lowe estait shall hae liberty to be sjicak ye man she likes; albeir, gif ho refuses to take hir to be-his wif, he shall be mulcit it in ye sumc ofanc hundrelh ptmdis orless, as his cstat moi bo,except and alwais gif he can make it ap pear that he is betrothit to ane ither wotnan, that then ho shall bo hee." A Dcmagogue. There is hardly a more con temptible chiiractcr, than the man who strives for poptilarity by flattering the prejudices and the passiousof the illiterate, thevicious, or theweak. Tho office-hunting demagoQiie is always a de spisable chnraetcr. Coaisrcssioaaal. Uorrospondence of tho N. Y. Expresa. Washington, Jan. 9. The messnge reported to tho IIoubo yesterday in relntion to Cannda matters, camo up fh tho Senate to day, and created ti discussion of somo lcngth. Mr Clay made somo reniarks, whon Alr Cal hotin rcmarked that a warhetween Great Britain and the United Smtes would he ono of the great e&t calamitics it would bo jiossible to conccivo of. He wes for throwing cold water upon tho reccnt outrage, and roversed the recent caso at Schlos rer, and supposed that wc had dono what Uritish troops havc done, atid asked if no analogy could he found in that case. Mr Calhoun was for put ting dowu nll oxcitement nnd for excusing, na far ns possible, the recent outrage. ftlr Clay said, thnt the Seliator had a right to his opinion, and he (Mr Clay) said he certainly had a riiiht to his opinion also. The outrage up on the Caroline he looked upon as inexcusable, cruel and atrocious m the extremo, and he could find noapology for it. Ile was ns much opposed as any man could be to pushing neutralities to oxtremities, but he wished for a full, completo and immcdiate satisfaction. A message was read frotn the Secretary ol thc Trcasury in legnrd to the number of Treasury Notes issued, and the inteiest those notes bore. Mr Wcbster mado onie remarks upon the mes sage, or informntion received from the Secretary ofthe Treasury. 1 le condt'tnned the manner of issuing notes by the Treasury Dcpartment somo neaiing an mterest of one null, anu othersan in teiest of six per cent. Ile condemfied this dif ference on account of its inequnlity and injustice. An i?sue of this kind was amatter of coercion on the part of the Government, a coercion too, which oppresscd thc people and made theso Ireasury Notes several per cent below eneeic par. Al- ready, he said, he had been requested to petition Congrcss for losses sustaincd by the pcople. Mr W. concltided his remarks by saying, that when the subject ofthe Finances caine before the coun try, he thotild addressthe Senate upon this sub ject. Alr liuchanan reported a bhl of several sec tions, for the preservation of neutrality betwcen neighboring countties. The bill givcs the Pres ident great powers authoiises him toseize arma stop communicatiou punish and confino per sons going to thc neighboring country with lios tile intent takenway armsand munitions of wnr suppo?ed tobc intended for a foreign invasion. It embrace3 six or scven sections aud John Bull could not havo drawn a slronger bill to meet his wants on the Canadian frontier. Mr Buchaiian gave notico that as soon as the bill wns printcd and Senators had time to examine ir, he shoultC move lo have it brought up for immediate action. Mr Calhoun's slavery resolutions were againt the subject of a lung debate, which called fovth. onc of Mr Clay's most eloquent and most abla speeches. The fotirih resolution passed without discussion, and with a few verhal amendments. The fifth created a long debate. Mr Clay spoke for nearly an hour, and mado one of those huppy, soothmg and bcautiful speeches which no man but Mr Clay can make. Coming after some intemperate and exciting remarks lrom Mr Calhoun, it had a wonderful effect upon till who henrd it. Mr Clay's notions dificr frorn Mr Calhoun's upon almost all subjects. The one is for coercion, the other foruppeal the one for scttling tnattersby forcn of ai ms,nnd the other by the strength of argument ihe one for warlike, and tlie other for pacific measures. Mr Clay said there were but threekinds of pe titions that could b presentod to' the Senate, thc first of which prayed for what might be palpably uncoustitutional, fcand for what Congrcss could not even thiuk of answering, the second might be a petition about which there was a contraric ty of opinion, whelher Congress could or could not, and thc last a prnyer asking for what Con gress had an nndoubted right to grant. The first of theso petitions Mr Clay said shotild be rejeet ed at cnce the second and thinl shotild not. Mr C'lny ranked the abolition petitions among thc second cluss, and assured the Senate that it was the part of wisdom, policy, prudence nnd justice, to receive thcsc petitions to refer them to re port upon thcm. Coercion would not do for coercion would incrcase and multiply the pres ent difliculties. Mr Clay concltided his remarks by oflering a substitute of nine resolutions, for tho resolutions offered by Mr Calhoun. The res oiutions are ofa mild and pacific character, cal culated to bretd down the barriers now cxisting betwcen the two sections of the country, and to tranquilize and haiinotiize both the Southcrn slaveholder and the northern petitioner. Washington, Jan. 10. The first of Mr Calhoun's resolutions came up for consideration. Mr Clay's amendment was read. Mr Clay proposed it as a substitute. This amendment says that it w ould be wroug to abol ish slavery in the District of Columbia while Vir ginia aud wlaryluud hold slaves, and while tho District protested against abolition. Mr Calhoun made foitr objections to the n mendnient. The first, that the amendment was litnitcd to thc District of Columbia, nnd made no provision for thu countryj second, that it recog nized the powcr of abolishing Slavery by pur chasing the slaves in the District; the thinl, that it ackuowledgt'S the right of petition; the fourth that the resolutions were too much subdued. Mr Clay answcred the objections one by one. The Prstreason, he auswered by saying that his amendment said nothing of the territory of Flor ida, beeause ho had introduced another resolu tion to meet the case of Florida the second,that it ncknowledged the powcr to hrcak up Slavery by purchase. Mr Clay said that his resolution snid nothing and intimated nothing of this mat ter. The third objeetion of Mr Calhoun con ccrncd the right of petition. Mr Clay here dc fended this right, with great powcr and eloquence. "1 will not," said he, "accuse the Seliator from S.Carolina oi wishingto bring about a dissolu tion of thc Union. I do not impcneh his mo- t-ves J .will uot I Giight not and I wish not btit-it is the sincere -convifttion of my hearl, nnd nn opinion which mynalmestjudgment sec- onds, that lris acts are calculated to bring about this melaucholy and fatal measure." After a long and complex proceeding, Clay'n substitute having been modified, itwas finally a doptcd (2-1 to 13) in the following form: "Resolved, That the interference.'by tho citi zensof anv ofthe Stntes, with the view to the.