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ME ST. JOHNBSURY CALEDONIAN, MARCH .1, 1899.
4 . i . . .. .- i mi l mm m v u j TRAVEL IN THE PHILIPPINES. A trip over the Manila and Dagnpin railroad, which occupies eight or ten ionrs, and during which one is carried 180 miles northward from Manila to the eaport of Dagnpin, located on tho western coast cf Luzon, enables one to ee about all that has ever been done toward facilitating land transportation here in our new oriental colony, for this is tho only railroad lino on these islands. Under Spanish dominion tho authorities took but very little interest in such matters, and were seemingly blind to tho commercial and agricultur al advantages of the islands. This neglect is apparent on every hand. Roadmaking and street improve ments were lost sight of by the corrupt Spanish rulers years ago, and local funds collected for snch improvements were misappropriated. If a bridge chanced to breakdown anywhere in tho country districts, it was left unrepaired, and unless a raft was provided, the trav elers had to ford the stream. Such are the conditions of tho roads here in these islands of a single railroad line. But notwithstanding all these facts tho Spanish government granted the Manila and Dagnpin Railroad company very liberal concessions, probably with the hope that a largo revenue would be reaped from direct tax on the road and the advantage in transporting troops. The real beginning of tho idea of a railway line in the Philippines dates back to 1875. In that year an elaborate scheme for the construction of railroad lines was formulated, it being thought that npder government ownership or subsidized companies and by private concessions granted by tho governor general a number of lines would be constructed, but the only result was tho construction of the Manila and Dagnpin road, which was subsidized in 1885 nt $7,650 per mile and guaranteed an an nual dividend of 8 per cent on a capital of $10,61:1. This offer was accepted in the fall of lssfl by London capitalists, with the provision that the road should be completed within four years from July 22, 18S7, and that at tho end of 1)9 yeurs the road and rolling stock wero to revert to the government without compensation. Tho road as projected and as now operated extends from Manila to Dagn pin and gives an outlet to tho largest area of valley land in the Philippines. The roadbed is fine and the lino lias few curves. Thero is not n single cut of any consequenco on tho lino. Thero aro many bridges on tho line, and thn floods are frequent and destructive. The average elevation of tho roadbed is not moro than three or four feet above tho general level. Tho ties are made from tho hard woods found abundantly all over tho island of Luzon. Tho track is 8 feet 0 inch gauge and laid with steel rails weighing 45 pounds to tho yard. There are in all 00 bridges on tho lino. The rolling stock is very light as com pared with the substantial character of the roadbed. Tho locomotives are built Pas sengcr Onch on the Man on the "pickaninny" plan, and look something like our narrow gango loco motives. Tho carriages are of three classes, all being divi.led alike into three compartments, with an outside gangway. Each compartment will seat eight persons, and the first class car riages huve comfortable cane chairs, while tho second and third classes huve wooden benches. All tho buildings along the lino aro of first rato quality, and they are largo and roomy. The Manila depot is a well arranged two story wooden structure with great train sheds in the rear. The general offices are located in the second story of the building. There are 28 oth er depots on tho road, and they are all of a uniform type, although they differ in size. The machine shops of tho road are at Caloocon, four miles from Manila, where General Manager Higgins has his residence. With tho exception of a few English overseers, the road is oper ated by natives, who work for a salary of less than $20 per month. The rates on all kinds of traffic aro considerably lower than ordinary rates for corresponding distances in the Unit ed States. Sugar and rice form the great bulk of the tonnage. At present there are thiee freight and three pas senger trains each way daily, and the passenger trains cover tho liJU miles in about eight hours. An ordinary nassen' ger train is composed of eight or ten coaches, half of winch are third class. and these are usually filled with natives on short journeys. The passenger rate varies from 2 to 5 cents in gold tier mile. There are at present no statistics as to the original cost or present finan cial standi ug of tho road. The line of the road traverses diago nally a continuous level or slightly roll ing area and passes through the six provinces of Luzon namely, Manila, Bnlacan, Pumpanga, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija and Pangusinau, Imagine a wide level landscape with the view inter cepted at many points and cften entire ly shut off by groves of bamboo, some times 60 feet high, and in and around the groves dense thickets of tangled shrubbery ; open spaces filled with im- mense green fields of heavy rice or sugar cane; villages and groups of palm thatched bamboo huts on stilts and many marshy overflowing rivers with great sheets of water extending ont into tho fields. This with a few variations will give a good idea of tho view along tho Manila and Dagnpin railroad at this season of the year, when the rains are frequent and heavy. For tho first 15 miles out of Manila tho land rises in irregular, long sloping hills, never rising more than 50 feet above tho general level. Tho villages aro apparently smal'. and around tho first half dozen stations, beyond Caloo con, four mill's from Manila, thero is very little sign of lifo until Dagnpin is approached. After leaving tho hills be hind and passing through half a dozen miles of very swampy land, with great ricefields, we arrive at Malolos, the eighth station, and situated some 20 miles from Manila. This place is tho headquarters of Aguinaldo, and the capital of tho so called Filipino repub lie. From tho station one can seo little of the town. There are only an old mon astery and a few wooden buildings, with more native shacks in tho town. At the station a score or so of the queer car romutos are lined up, and there is quite a bustle, among the native travelers, beggars and loungers. Here some in surgent soldiers go through the train to look for Spaniards, and then we proceed, leaving behind Malolos stretched among the trees and ponds. It is at Malolos that tho so called Filipino congress holds its sessions and where Aguinaldo was declared president. Nine or ten miles farther on we reach Culnmpit, and in that interval we have crossed nine streams, all of considerable size, and just beyond Culnmpit is the Rio Grando do la Pampanga, ono of the largest rivers on Luzon island. Hero the stream is probably 200 yards wide. A few rnili beyond Calumpit tho road leaves tho stream and murshy lands be hind. Draitiago becomes much better, and the soil has tho appearance of inex haustible fertility. Hero palms and canef.elds begin to succeed tho ricefields and tho bamboo jungles. San Fernando, ten miles beyond Cu lnmpit, is said to contain a population of 80,000. It is ono of tho finest places on tho line, and contains car and engine houses. A pottery factory and sugar re finery aro located here. Thero aro also two convents. Beyond San Fernando the mountains to tho west como into view, and here ono sees some fair pasture lands. At Bom ban tho line has reached the mountains, and hero ono can enjoy fine hunting, for tho woods abound with deer and wild boar. A few miles further and in a direction opposite tho moun tains thero extends a strip of thin for est, and the tree tops tower high above the underbrush. From this section much wood is shipped to Manila. By this time we have entered the province of Tarlac, and here wo see great stretches of uncultivated land, and ila and Dngupin Kail road. much of it is covered with tall, coarso grass. Occasional cocounnt groves are seen along this part of the line, and tho bamboo hero almost disappears. Tho town of Tarlac is an important insur gent seat. Tho remainder of tho trip to Dagnpin, somo 40 miles, is through a level stretch of land containing cocoa nut groves, canefiolds and ricefields, and the only largo town passed is Bay ambang, on tho Agno river. The Eng lish firm of Smith, Bell & Co. of Manila have several rice mills at Buynmbniig and Geronu. At Calasiao, the next sta tion to Dagnpin, aro mado tho finest of tho world famous Manila huts. This rapid sketch of what can bo seen by a few hours' travel along tho line of tho Manila and Dagnpin railroad can not present any comnrehensivo idea of the resources of tho territory traversed. In this natural garden spot a phenome nal agricultural development is certain to follow quickly upon tho heels of a stable government. Native labor is cheap and quite efficient, in spite of all tho ill effects of Spanish rule, and new ideas aro dust ined to work hero in this and other parts of these islands won ders undreamed of heretofore. outlaw bands. A Vendetta vows to kill an American Soldier every rik. There nio many native outlaw or ganizations on these islands, und at first wo credited this outlawry to the natives as a class, but wo have learned our mistake. They are not confined to any one class, foreigners as well as na tives being members of tho various bands. Probably the greatest of theso organ izations is the Maecubebes, who are especially strung in Manila and on the island of Luzon. Almost every night these organized freebooters find victims in tho city and suburbs. Chinese, Spun iards, natives and Americans all fall prey to these outlaws. Lately they havo made u vow to kill at least ono Ameri can soldier each week, and they have been succeeding in their resolve. Tho death of the Maccubobo organization in Muuila will bo only tho question of a few months, for our officials aro now hot on the trail of its leaders. There are other lawless classes of natives on theso islands. In many coses they are led by "anting auting, or charm men, ana their system of robbery and plunder ex tends over largo districts. A just ad ministration will eliminate many of these outlaw bands, whose existence in muny cases was brought about by the outrages of their cruel and oppressive Spanish masters. Lately I have had occasion to learn much about the inhumanity of Spanish officials in tho Philippines. Every day theso tales of barbarity are cropping out. It was in tho collection of taxes that the Spaniards were most unrelonting. Tho natives wero taxed for everything, even to their children. Out in Malubun a native had three children, and when tho taxgathi rer arrived tho native had but money enough to pay tho tax on ono child. Ho was given a choice of which this should be, and the other two wero beheaded before his eyes. This is only ono of many similar cases. It is no wonder that tho insurgents re cnlr.nrt nrrsiiriKt their inhuman rulers. ond their thirst for Spanish blood is but natural in view of the circum stances. Tho loper colony of Manila is located in an old convent out on the Passe del Norte beyond the Santa Cruz district of New Manila. During tho turbulent INSURGENT OFFICERS. times of tho siege and blockade vigilance was relaxed, and many of the poor wretches escaped from their prison and commenced wandering aljont the streets in search of food. As soon as we entered the city tho work of returning theso lepers, somo 200 or 800 in number, was begun. Every time one crept from his hiding place ho was loaded on a bull cart and taken back to his dreary prison to slowly rot away. Tho appearance of the leper is repulsive yet pitiful. Thero are seen faces so contorted and disfig ured by the terrible disease that every vestige of humanity seems to be lack ing ; eyes from whose leaden balls comes no gleam of answering intelligence to tell that in that deformed and shriveled frame thero still dwells a human soul. I have seen bodies and limbs so shrunk en, twisted and decayed that it seems a marvel that so battered a hulk had still sufficient vitality to hold imprisoned tho smoldering spark of life. Manila has no theaters worthy of especial mention, the Znrilla, the finest of the playhouses of the city, being at present occupied as barracks by our troops. The Philippine theater, down in the Sniapo district, is about the only playhouse whose doors are now open to the public. Here a number of native productions have lately been given which are certainly unique if not ar tistic specimens of the histrionic art. Out to the north of Manila is situated a native cemetery in which is located a chapel with which is connected some stirring events of the late war between tho Spanish and the insurgents. At the breaking ont of the insurrection two years ago the Spaniards built a block house, which is still in good condition and an interesting place to visit. Thif blockhouse stands about 200 yards to the north and east of the church and in an open field about half a mile from the Callo do Real. It is built in the form of a hollow square, with conning towers di- ugonully placed at the northeast and southwest corners, and seemed to be impregnable. However, in providing for an emer gency tho small Spanish detachment garrisoning .the blockhouse forgot to secure a Bupply of water. They hud only a small tank and vere dependent upon the rains to keep up the supply. When tho insurgent forces appeared upon the three sides at once, the garrison was not in the least daunted, as plentiful n AN INKU1U1KNT ON GUAM). supplies of food and ammunition were stored within tho strong stono walls. For four days and nights they kept the Insurgents at buy, but tho water supply was gone, and there wero no signs of rain as it was the dry season. Two days longer tho garrison held ont and then retreated under cover of darkness to tho cemetery chapel, no doubt believing that they were safe from tho vengeance of the natives un der the sanctity of the cross. The insur gents closed in and occupied the block house deserted by the Spaniards. This position commanded the north walls and Windows of the chapel, and under the cover of their guns tho insurgents crept np and commenced the work of cutting a passage through the two foot stone wall which surrounded the cemetery and chapel. The Spaniards could in no way check this movement, as there was no way of reaching the men on tno out sido of the wall without exposing them selves to the deadly fire of the insur gents. To cut a hole through the wall re- quired two days, and then a hole only sufficient to admit two men at a time was made. Through this opening they flocked into tho yard, and then, making a charge on three sides of the building, climbed in through the windows and killed the 28 Spanish soldiers of the garrison. What a scene of carnage there was the next morning when the sun sent its golden rays through the gothic windows in the dome of the chapel ! On the floor beneath lay the 28 dead sol diers, the remnant of the garrison of the ill fated stone fort, struck down be neath the cross which had been the rod of iron used jn tyrannizing over the poor and ignorant natives; surely a retribution on those, who, by their bru tality and nn-Christianlike abnse. taught their victors to know no pity I When Cavite fell, a single Spanish officer escaped capture or massacre. He sought refuge in a small room which, like several of its kind, opened into a court from which an arched passage way led out to the street. His flight was observed at the time, but the in surgents, busy with their bloody slaugh ter, forgot him. But toward evening his flight was recalled, and o horde was soon upon him. He hud barricaded the door, and ut last this was broken down. The officer then fought fiercely for his life, and only after a great struggle, in which a number of natives wero struck down, was his sword arm piecred by a bullet, and, disabled, he fell an easy prey to their thirst for Spanish blood. Finally hia head was severed from his body, and one of the natives, boldei than tho rest, set it up on a window and, falling down before it, shouted, "Sextus gloria I" and thus the bloody work was christened the sixth glory. When it is remembered that the established church of tlie Philippines has but "fivo glories," the significance of this bloody work to the long op pressed insurgents becomes apparent. Finally ono of the natives took up the head upon a pike and headed the pro cession about the room, and all shouted "Sextus gloria I" as they marched. This was another dark day for Spanish rule in the Philippines, and countless others just as horrible can be recited. Had Manila fallen before the hordes of Aguinaldo horrprs more terrible than the modern world has ever known doubtless would have ben enacted. The church in the Philippines has been a great fomenter of evil. It would be a hard matter to tell' just what the position of the church here is at pres ent. It was established here coincident with the establishment of Spanish rule and is the established church of Spain, fostered by Spanish rule, supported by FILIPINO AND HIS UMBKELLA. Spanish grants of land, its priests be ing paid from the money extorted from the natives through excessive taxation and customs fees. The church as it ex ists here today is not the true Catholio church. There are many ecclesiastical orders here, some of them being strictly native and naturally in sympathy with the insurgents. It is to some of these ecclesiastical orders that the real cause of these native uprisings is largely dua William Gilbert Irwin. Manila. TALKING PEACE. Filipinos Show Disposition to Surrender, Accord ing to Spanish Commissioners. Manila, Hb. 2K The casualties to date, by rtgimcnts, on 83 killed and 347 wounded. The Washington rcgimctit land worst, with 14 killed and 69 wounded. The Fouruenth infantry hud 1 killed anil 35 wounded. Two Spanish commissioners, Senor Kosatio and Abogndo. who were tier milled to pass through our lines and conlir with Aguinaldo with relerence to the Spanish prisoners at Malolos. re turned through our lines yesterday, near Caloocan, wnh sealed dispatches lor the Spaiiinn s. The comniisMoners say that Aguinaldo and Samliko were both at Mh1oIo8 and inclined .to pacific overtures While the Filipinos are not yet prepared to surrender the Spanish prisoners, they will gladly icltiise to Americans, who nave Deen In Id lor six weeks, on the nav ment ot $30, the value ot the food and clothing lurnished them. Shortly nUerwoods the rebels sent out afligol truce borne bv Commandnnte Sii.loieso De La Cruz, nnd several liuiv died ol ihe enemy Kit the Filmino lines The eoni:.iHndnine mid that tullv SOOO ol his men had enough, and were nnxiutis to furrt nclcr. Among I lie enemy in the jungle many women nnd children were visible. A woman laid down her rflc nnd nt tempted to cross with the parlcyers, hut she was sent back. General Wheat on relieves General King, who is sick at San Pedro Macoii. Alter the party returned to the Ameri can lines, the enemy on the riht fired a volley, the bullets dropping at their feet. An enterprising South London under taker displays in his window this notice: "Why WHlk about in miserv when vou can be decern ly buiied lor 30s.?" Tit-Bits. Extra Early Tomatoes Ths idea of utilizing tomato varieties of the dwarf champion type for the purpose of raising extra early tomatoes is considered by T. Greiner in The Farm and Fireside. He finds the two most promising sorts among these to be Ford hook Fancy, with purplish fruit, and another new kind, the Ideal, which has ted fruit. Plants of either may be start ed very early under glass, and if given half a chance will ma' e good, stiff, strong plants that can bo transplanted to open ground at the regular season while in bloom or even fruit with out suffering the least check in growth. He says: "This year (1809) I shall sow the seed in flats some time in January, and for a later lot some time in Febru ary. I hope to be able to have ripe to matoes in June ; have had them year after year as early as July 4, and plenty of them in the latter part of that month." From the originator of the Fordhook Fancy Mr. Greiner has received an in teresting letter, in which the following occurs: "Some time during the past year I wrote you that I intended to try your plan of raising early tomatoes namely, by using the dwarf kinds and growing them under glass as long as possible, thinking that the dwarfs would grow to a much greater age with less trouble than the large kinds. The plan succeeded, much to my satisfaction and profit. I started my plants early in March, and they did not draw or get leggy by the time for setting out, about the middle of May to the 1st of June. I picked my first ripe tomatoes July 8, and commenced selling the 13th. For about a month I had the control of this small market, or until Aug. 15, and up to that time my tomatoes sold for 8 cents a pound, or $1.50 a bushel. Then they dropped to 50 cents, and finally got down to 25 cents. My profit came from my early tomatoes. My plants produced abundantly in the lat ter part of the season. It seems as if those that produced the earliest fruit gave also tho most late fruit. 'I used dwarf Fordhook Fancy. It appears to me to have several points ahead of the old Dwarf Champion. The fruit is larger and of better shape. Tho plants are more compact and are more upright, and seemed to be slow to throw out laterals, so that tho first fruit set gets the whole strength of the plant. It sets fruit under circumstances that the Dwarf Champion will not, as this docs not seem to produce enough pollen to fertilize itself until it gets to growing thriftily. This I believe to bo an im portant point with an early tomato. I have seen a new dwarf which might be called a Dwarf Early Advance. Like the Early Advance, it grows its fruit in clusters and seems to set its fruit under almost all circumstances. I tried the Ideal yon sent me last spring and find it a very fine red dwarf, one of the best I have ever seen, and am certain it will be of value where such a tomato is desired." A Promising New Apple. One of the latest and most valuable successes of Luther Burbank of Califor nia is, as it seems to a writer in The SEEDLING OF GRAVF.NSTKIN. Rural New Yorker, an apple, a seed ling of the Gravenstein, of which Mr. Burbank wrote as follows: "By this mail I send you a medium to small sample of my new Gravenstein seedling, six weeks later than its parent, ripening exactly with Baldwin and Rhode Island Greening. The tree is a grand grower and as productive as an applo can possibly bo. I think the qual ity, tenderness and texture remarka ble." Of the specimen in question, a half section of which is illustrated, The Rural says: The apple was slightly shriveled when it was received. The flesh is yellowish, exceedingly tender, spicy, rich, subacid. It has a flavor all its own, and we do not think, taking it all and all, that we have ever eaten an applo that more nearly approaches all that wo need ever hopo to get in an apple. In appearance and coloring we may say. in a word, that it resembles the Bon Davis. Just before Senator Morrill left the sennte for the Inst time he received as a gift a handsome solid silver, soup tureen taken from the Cristobal Colon. The tureen had engraved on the side of it the letters "C. C." Senator Morrill noticed the letters, said that they stood for Charlie Clark and sent the dish to the famous battleship, the Oregon, where it is now doing duty. Mr. Morrill and Cnpt. Clark were well acquainted. At this season ot the year a good many people arc wanting to know where to go to escape the severe winier weather. The climate ol North Cnroliim in nnriim. larly plesant during the winter months. u is not so warm as the climate of Flor. ida and yet it offers rebel from the severe weather of this locality. S mi I ilprn Pines, N. C is a newly founded village wnere nuiuircos oi Northern people are sojourning. We nvise the reader to take a run down to that locality and see what it is like during the winter months. The railway fares cost but little and Piney Woods Inn, the new big hotel, an elegant hostelry will care lor you at moderate rates. Ai?oiuieriv.i'"'" I II H HOW ULUUUO UCUtUH,M)r The following poem was written by the poet of the Third Tennessee regiment, U. S. V while the regiment was enjoy ing (?) camp life at Chickamauga in the summer of 1898. It was first published in the Chattanooga Times, Backward, turn backward O'tlme In your Feed me on grub again just for a night; I am so wearj of sole leather steak, Petrified hard tack a sledge would not break, . Tomatoes and beans In a watery batn, Sow belly as strung as Goliath ol Gath; Weary of starving on what I can't eat, Chewing on rubber and calling it meat. Backward, turn backward, for weary I am, Give me a taste of grandmothers jam j Let me drink milk that has never been skimmed, ... . Let me cat butter whose hair hat been trimmed, Let me eat once again an old fashioned pie, Then I'll be ready for Cuba and die. T.ionnVr fi. Cole, one of the wealthiest residents of Oakland. Cal., was stricken with paralysis Feb. 11. Me is a native of Montpelier and well remembered by the older residents of that city. Actual Business Practice is the only method of teaching hook keeping that proves satisfactory to intelligent boys and gin a Tht nvrrnt'e bov does not enter a profession but goes into business of some Htna. It is incrciorc umy reasonable that he should receive a preparatory training in a practical ntmineMR line. Our method of teaching proves of inestimable value to young men wno rmret to work on a farm or in a store or shop Of all systems of teaching this is the one that gives the pupil the greatest returns for his time and money. Citizens Bunk Block, St. Johnsbary, Vt. SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS MEN ALWAYS CARRY INSURANCE And appreciate the fact that it strengthens their credit. "THE BEST INSURANCE IN THE WORLD." NATIONAL Life Insurance Co., MONTPELIER, VT. W. W. SPRAGVE, Gearral A teat, St. Johnsbary, Vermont. THE REASON WHY Our Wrapper Department is such a busy corner of late is because our . , , . New Spring Wrappers Are not only sightly, but put together in a manner which at once commends them to the customer, and besides are made to fit. One thing more the prices are much lower than you' would expect to find on such nicely made garments Wrapper Materials. You may belong to that army of women who prefer to make their own Wrappers and Tea Gowns, or have them made to order. If so, we are ready to show you a most carefully selected stock of New Spring Prints, 36-inch Percales and Beautiful Dress Ginghams. You can rest assured that our prices on the above are at least as low as the lowest for the same grades, Our Sale of New Idea Patterns Is something phenomenal, There is reason for it, Style, tit and Price, are all in their favor, lOo. buys any pattern in our New Spring Fashions, (Write or send for lateBt Fashion Sheet,) See oar New Gathered Ribbons, Both Wide and Narrow. LOUGEE BROS. & SMYTHE. ST. JOHNSBURY. x Terms Easy; few parti to ol! and few to wash. I lay It is tbe best and my word l good. This is a case where you are not obliged to take it. An examination of this machine and those of my competitors show the truth of my statemrnt. IT IS ABSOLUTELY THE BEST. D. C. GAGE, Agent for this county. $2.50 buy9 a Woonsocket, Boston or Vale9 Goodyear rubber boot at our store. We carry no second grades. Among the second grades is the Woonsquatucket.and the similaritj of names between this and the Woon socket may lead to some confusion as to grades. The Woonsquatucket is a second grade and should be bought at much lower prices than the Woonsocket. Don't pay a first quality price for a second quality boot. Bandy's Shoe Store, C. B. WEEKS, Manager. 45 Main Street. The Little Giant Fire Extinguisher. Price $2 each. The I.ilile CSinnt gets better results on fire than i xtinguishers . out ing Irom $15 to $123 The only fire extin guisher indorsed a d used by the Fire and Marine Insurance Companies, as a whole, in New ork City; also used in the New York Hire Department. Everv M unci pal building belonging to New York Cily is equipped with this extinguisher j aso adopted and uaed by the United States Navy and United States Army. Light, cheap, simple, durable and efficient. Have extinguished hundreds of accidental fires in the pust two years. NVvcr lulls to put o it tire. Needs no care or attention. Any child can work it. No acids are used and no guses are generated until the solution comes in contact w ith lire, thus preventing explosion. This cannot be said of any other fire ex'lntntishcrin the world. e-AG ENTS WANTED. ?.:-Hooks and pamphlet sent FREE on uppl cation. Our nook of jo piigs de scribing accidental Sres rxtioguishtd, yoa will tintt most iniere tin I. Wegnnrnnteei every xlgulher, m4 when Hard si nrrid. ntnl flrrs thry are rrplncrd with new sari by giving leaiinioninl ol ihe fire acknowledged be fore on ary public. THE LITTLE CIANT FIRE EXTIN CUISHER CO.,22 Llbetty St. N. Y.