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-A-3sr ua-niaxjXjXXJK.A.Xj jjstjd fjjlxtjTst newspaper ipoip, piKra p.trp.AiiiSTS ozf the a-m3E3sr isaioxjjsr'r-A.iisr st-atib. -nr- VOL. TIL-NO. 23: ST. tfRSOft MAT ll, 1877. WHOL NO. 335. s EGCtS FOR HATCHING. From Arst-oless stoek of rfjrmontH Leghorns, Dominique LGhnrmt .IIIkcIcIImi Game Uanlame, at tl per l do ten. EUUS from sumrlor l-eUIn Sneka, at ft per doten. Fowls for sale. Alio one pair each of Bui and White Uoehlns end Light Drah mil to make room. Allpackodsocureto go any dis tance. Address XV. 1. 8WCTT1 St. JolllMbllrj", VI. iiti:i'.iv mou.vrAiN POULTRY I'AJtDS. nririC! FOR IIATCIIINO, from my celohrated iilU"ljrO lloudans, U. H. roliih, llolden Sebright Mantams, $1.60 per riosen. Tekln or Cochin bantams, si.ouper uosen. MyetocK 11 irom j. s. mcxneirs Yardl. Imperial Pekln Ducks, $1 per iloi., from Pal mer last Importation. White Carrier l'lgoons, f 10. per Whtto-creitwl, Fantall and Jacobin I'liroons, i per pair, from Burpee's Loll. My prlcei In clude the belt package for eggs. I will tend the Poultry World ono year to all that order tiro dos en egjrs from my yards. Correspondence Solicited, and lallafactlon siren to all. Address c. ii. oAitrij.vrr.it, w. i:mi.iirRii, vt. EGGS JTOR HATCHING. FnOit Silver Spangled and Golden-Penelllod Ilamburgs and White Kose Comb uantams. 1 took the flnt nremlum and meolal on Ham burg! at Keene, Jan. 16th ami 19tb, 1S7C, and ' Orst on Bantams. Dec. mh.aitb.and lillt, 1876. Kck Warranted true to A'ame. EGG8 $1.80 per 13. Chicks Tor sale in the Fall. II. E. IIOJtKV, BInrliMV, V. II. EGGS FOIt HATCHING. I can famish fresh eggi that will HATCH rrom uioronoirinp; varieties: a. a. aim B. llamhurga selected from J. U. McKecn'a Brst premium stock, equal to any In New England, $1,00 per dos., Light Brahma. iwii , ii lutiu ftbWK. ...iai liar UUH V. HI I. (lames, $1.50, White Leghorns. II.S0. Idy stock Is all FIRST CLASS and most or It bred from Brst premium stock. Address 1. W. .TIcKEr.N, So. Acwartli, IV. II. JEGGS JTOJt HATCHING. . From the poultry yards of Ueo. 8. Wheeler, ZSk. New Ipswich, N. II., at the following prices, sJrLfljr a setting of 13i llronia Turkey l u i -a2ll'eklo Ducks, tJJSO-, Plymouth Rocks, 11. B. ft. U ame Bantams, and Black Leghorns, $1.00 1 White Leghorns, Brown Leghorns and L. Brahmas, $1.50. Hare shewn Bronse Turkeys, Fekin Ducks, P. Hocks and Black Leghorns, at several of the leading exhibi tion this lessen, and bare taken 1st premium on each. White Leghorns, Brown Leghorns, and L. Brahmas, bare not been exhibited, but the stock Is Orst class. All eggs sent out warranted new laid and to reach the purchaser In good condition. Address all orders to (ICO, s. AVIIKi:i.i;it, Now lpawlcli.lV.il. SHEEP LABEL cr..vri;.NiviAi. hiidai. AAVAHIU'.II ! Sites suitable for marking Cattle, Sheep and Swine. Prices A Samples free. Agents wanted. Address. C. II. DANA. West Lebanon, N. II. Gr ItVr-UDfiED UUTTIIK AS ?IAIU IIY COOLEY'S SYSTEM, Uniformly, without regard to season er climate. A pamphlet, descriptive of this nowly-dlsoovered system sent tree to any one sending address, with stamp to the veruioiti t nim .isiscimiw vu. Bellows Falls, Vt. -BUILDINGS MOVED. Having had a large Experience, and possessing all the facilities for ICnlnlng uiiil Jlo. vliiff ItullilliiK' of all kinds In the best possl. ble manner, the subscriber would sollelt a share of such work. Work done by the day or Job, at hard times prices. JOHN BARROW8, Hartlbrd, Vt. PISH GUANO! Dry Oriuiud Hull tJiinno, StolO per cent. Ammonlai 15 per cent. Bone rhotphate of Lime. Half-Dry Fish Scrap, good quality. Also Superphos phates and Pine Island lluano. PRICES LOW Address, Qtiluiiliititc fertilizer Co.. 1JU177 180 State Street, New Haven, Conn POLAND C JNA PIGS ! PIGS ! iiki:i lMiur. iiv L. H. MERRITT, HARTLAND, VT. Yiiinu stock roit nai.i:. STRAWBERRY PLANTS. lly tint 100, 1000 mid 100,000. I have the largest and (lnest stock ever oflcred in the New England States. Prices VERY LOW. Warranted pure. CHAN. S. l'ltATT, North Itemllng, 3Ii. Plymouth Rocks sa a V OXUV-LLUXJ m rX ACCOUNT OF IIAItll T H J prenainxl to sell eggs for hatching fi Ev birds at hard time prices J1.J3 per 13. U A speciality:. ruins I am ;from ilrstIass Boxed and do- llverod to oxpr.. Address ( Marlow, N. II, Please aay what paper you saw this In. ih? stnnn r-.i rr.l T. fi fi 11V. ! i J , nl Tt-C,AAlr bdwv Vim tTar tkt but and mutt rilialle Garden, Field and 1-lower c, c- , - , . ....i. t, ,r turn b atamps. BENSON A BURPEK, Seed Warehouse 223 vnurcn oireei, nuiaueipuia, r. MIUJtSO.Y JM'JElt FRUIT GARDENS. Many novelties In new aprlng price list. lroitty finaJllnv. Ciinf. Vnrli unit !IH fttbor Varieties O atrawberrles t Xliwuck uuil Dcliawisrv Rasp ulu Nirml.r-. nffrfflotlv hardv blackberrr. Plants $1.00 per doion by mall i or $1 00 per 50. New Unpea, rruit trees, eto., cis. iierry iib.i ki crates In great variety. Address 11. II, HAINES. IlaliUil-on-tlie-IIiiiIioii, N. Y. FARM FOR SALE. milR undersigned offers for sale the farm of Bam, L uel Drown in Westmore, six miles from Barton Village. Bald farm consists of 6 acres of the best of land, good Cedar swamp and aplendld lot of Bpruco timber. There la timber enough on the farm to moro than pay for It. A good houlo and barn with running water to both. Will cut twenty tons of the best sfhay I will sell with the farm one good cow, and S two-year olds, a yearling heifer, I good work horse, 1 harness, a one-horso wagon, traverse sled, and all the farming tools. Frlce for farm, stock and tools, thirteen hundred dollars, one-half down, tho remainder to remain on jnortgage If desired. For further particulars apply at once w II. I. l.l'CASj St. Johnsbury, Vt. -"-dfi. J S vlsvn - - I WOULD THANK farmers wishing me to repair mowing machines or other agricultural Imple ments to bring them to my shop at once, as I can now attend to uie business. JAN. HI. WAll.NIIH. St. Johnibury, April 1C, 1877. PLANTS & TREES FOR THE PARLOR, GARDEN & ORCHARD. Also a good assortment of Small I'm II", Nlirube, Senile, i:c. Cultivated and for sale by JT. P. CLOSSON, CaUloguofree. Tholforil, VI. This establishment hu been in successful operation for a quarter of a century and the largely Increased business enu me many oowpnineniary letters r.u.irou everv season sneak well of the uualltv of blants. trees, Ac, which hare been sent not only to every state tu New England, but to many of the other luu auti uiv i,auviH, Those who will aid ui In extending our business b, oraering cauiogues ror uieir menus wno are loieros aintueeetiiinssorinsveaKiii a yoou wuru lor WUI reoolro our kiaity Uiauks, Improvement of Our Common Schools In tho Interest of Agrioultnro. n Aililreii delivered tiefbre the Mate Board nf Agriculture, at North Trot-. ly T. II. Hoskins, M. M. Ooo of tho mcmbsra of this board, in a re cent address, iuformcd his hearers that though in the popular branch of our last cgislaturo thcro wore 188 farmers, whilo no other profession bad ovor 18 represent atives, vet this largo number oi farmers was practically controlled by ten or & dozen men ho troro not farmer-,, but mostly lawyers. Tbo statement was not a now one. Tho ob servation bas been mado many times. If a farmer should make it, fn an aggrieved tone, ono of tboso ten or twclvo legislative apos tles, his answer would probably bo, "Well, well what arc you going to do about it ?" Now, though this is but a repetition of tho Hon. Win, M. Tweed's answer, when ho was publicly charged with boing a tbiof, I talco in this ease to bo an eminently rroner one. This answer is but tho qucstfon which oveiy dissatirQcd farmer ounht to ask himself, What aro you going to do about it 1" Una thing is certain, notwithstanding the common assertion that in this country the majority rules. It is an iaeffacablo faet that mere numerical superiority does- not oontor political or social power. The majority may dcoido who fball rulo. That is tho extent of tho majority's power. In truth It is brains that rule, good and well (rained brains. This country is governed by tho sbrowd long heads who make politics a business ; and tbeso shrewd long heads aro mostly upon the shbuldcrs of our lawyers. Wo often hear tbe samo complaint made regard to congress ; that it is mostly mado i of lawyers, and that tho farmer is hardly represented there at all. But what would be tho use of sending even a large ma jority of farmers to congress? If tenor a dozen of our county court lawyers can drivo whither they will a herd of 133 farmers, would not tho same number of supremo court lawyers drivo or load at their will any flock of our bell-wethers we might select to occupy the congressional arm-chairs at Wash- ogton? That the great agricultural interests of this country find no real representative, cither in our stato or national governments, is a great evil. Laws are continually being enacted that must of necessity greatly affect tho tho farming interests for good or bad. Think you, is it possible, in law-making bodies where the farmer has no capable advocate, that laws will not bo continually framed which give to other interests and other in. dustrics an uufuir advantago over tbe farmer ? Do you think that that fundamental principle of free government equal rights to all, ex elusive privileges to none will be long main, tained by a Governing power where tho greatest, and collectively tho richest interest, is practically unrepresented ; whilo all tho speculative interests, nhich draw their life from tho labor of that great industry, aro fully represented by their attorneys upon tho floor, and by theirageuta in the lobbies of every legislative body in the nation ? Follow farmers, without a moro generally good common school education for tho mass of our children, and the opportunity for tho lest education to thoso among us who havo tho taste and tho means for it, wo shall al ways bo but as hewers of wood and drawers of water to tho professional and business classes. Wo never shall havo truo leaders and representatives, ablo and successful de fenders of our rights, until wo raiso them. And, fellow farmors, let me tell you as gospel truth, that no other class is going to do this work for us. Wo havo got to do it ourselves. Can wo reasonably expect that the classes which profit by our ignoranco aro going to spend their roonoy to give us instruction, to their own future loss? Tboro is philanthrophy in the world. Thank God for that I Here and there' is a poorly educated man who has raised himself to wealth, and who, aot forgetting his early struggles, has devoted that wealth to provid log tho means of education for other poor bovs. Thank God acain, I say, for such men'! Hut aro American farmers so lost to manhood that they will wait until tho char ity of tho rich provides that education for their children which will cnablo, and which is absolutely necessary to cnablo them to protect their rights as citizens, and save their property from being despoiled by the lawyers, lobbyists and speculators that swarm around tho stato houses of every state, and around our national capital? Truly said tho poet "Who would be free, tktmittitt must strike the blow." The common schools aro the farmers' ool leges. Wo may talk as wo will about agri cultural colleges. I bclievo in them myself when wo can get tncm. l beuove in every farmer boy having tho frco chanco to get all tho knowledge ho wants. I bcliovo in ovcry boy and girl in the nation having that free chance. Hut circumstances are such, and will long if not forevor remain such, that that moit of tbe children of our farms must depond upon tho common schools for such schooling as they can have. Now I claim that every common school ought to bo able to givo ovcry scholar of ordinary capacity such a start in education and such a lovo for it, that the progress of the scholar in learning will not stop when tho schooling stops. I claim that ovcry common school should lay in tho mind of every pupil, thoso foundations of learning upon which, in future life, ho may himself erect struoture of knowledge that will fit him for every duty of his calling, and for his still higher duties as tbo cituen of a frco and self-governing republic. Do our common schools do this 7 And they do not, by do they not ? And. bow can they bo mado to do it 7 These aro' tho three questions I oamo hero to ask, and offer, therewith, Bomo hints, imperfect as thoy may be, toward an answer. To the first question Do our common schools gtre that efficient primary education which so grounds the pupil in tho elements of learning'that ho may afterwards offeollvo- avail himself of tho various means of in. creasing his knowtedgo by reading and ptt vato study ; and abovo all, do thoy stimulato such a faife for knowlcdgo as to make that pupil a student both of naturo and of books rough all his after llfo 7 To this question there can bo but ono answer an answer in the negative It is beeauso they havo not ono this that our agriculturo is in tho back ward condition we all know it to- be. It is because thoy havo not done It that 138 farm ers In our legislature can bo brought, ses sion after session, by a fow lobbyists and cunning politicians, to white-wash and en ilorso tho management of a so-called agri cultural collcgo whloh, without a single teacher of any branch ol agriculture, and without an agricultural pupil in tho whole ten years of its corporate existence, has yet that time drawn nearly ninety thous- atultdollor,of th publio moooyrand-is still drawing it' nt tho rato of over $8000 a year. say that if our common schools had been what they ought to bo, and what wo can mako them if wo desiro to do so, nono of tbo wrongj of which this is a sample oould bo perpetrated upon the farmer. Tho next question is Why do our com mon schools thus fail in their work 7 My answer is, only and solely from tho want of good teachers, intelligent methods, suitable buildings and tho proper apparatus for in struction. Tho great majority of our district schools to-day are as far from beiog means of genuino, effective instruction, as our dairies turning out two and thrco tubs per cow of second and third rate-butter are proper rep- rcsentatievs of first class dairy husbandry. As it is impossiblo to turn out a large mako of gilt edgod butter from a dairy of scrub cows, poorly fed, poorly sheltered, roughly bandied, filthily milked, tho milk and cream kept in a room to which tobaeco smoko and tho odors of tho kitchen havo frco access, and tbo whole process of manufacturing in tho hands of a careless, dirty and incompetent person. So it is impossible to turn out good scholars from Bchool Rouses lacking in ovcry clement of comfort, convenienco and health, or from schools taught by young men am1 women who bavo never been properly taught themselves, who bavo no real interest in any thing but their pay, and who aro changed every fow months for others no better. nio tmra ana last quest. on is. 1 ow can can our scnoois uo raaao emcieni ouucaiors of the children of our farms, so that tho next generation of fanners shall havo all the knowledge requisite to mako them masters of their business and masters of thoir publio servants? In tho first placo wo must bavo good school houses. I do not mean, necessarily, that wo must havo costly school bouses. I do mean that wo must have school houses that aro comforta bly cool in summer and comfortably warm in tho winter ; with wholo and tight windows, and with doors so situated andprotoctcd that they will not throw a draft oi ioy air across tbo persons of a number of children perhaps delicate or thinly dad. A largo proportion of our school houses seem to havo been plan- nod by King Herod, for tho slaughter of tho innocents; and that parents will send their offsprings into theso slaughter pens is a sad commentary upon our civilization and our Christianity. Often havo I visited schools in winter, whero tho chorus of coughing al most prevented tho possibility of proceeding with tho exercises of tho classes. Hero tho seeds of diseaso and early death, rather than the seeds of knowlcdgo and future usefulness, are Bown. Cold feet and burning heads ut terly unfit oven grown persons for any sort of intellectual labor. Yet that is tho condition of moro than half the scholars in tho schools of Vermont this very day. How can thoy learn, even if they woro well taught by tho best of teachers 7 liut you cannot hiro any man or women who knows enough io teach, or oven to protect their own lives, to teach in such buildings. Wo bavo a superintendent ol Kdueation in this state. I know him, and ho is ablo man. I say to him that tho very first work for him to do, and tho essential prelim, inary to any other improvements in our Bys, tern of education, is to teach our pcoplo how to build school houses. Lot him havo drawn and printod a scries of plans for school houses of all grades, from the littlo district schools for ten to twenty scholars, up to tho large graded schools of our village districts. Let thcro bo embodied iu tbeso plans the latest improvements in hoating, lighting aud ventilation. Let us begin by having a do, cent and healthy school bouso tirst. I say decent with a very particular meaning, for, asido from tho provisions for destroying the health of our teachers and children, wo of ten seem to design tho fittings of our school bouses purposely to deaden tho senso of shame, and undermine tbo perceptions of morality and deccnoy. Having secured tbo bodily comfort and health and physical morality of our cbil dren by a properly constructed school building, tho next thing is to havo it suit' ably equipped wth tho implements of teach, ing. Wo bay improved mowers, rakes and ted dcrs, patont milk pans and churns,but wo raro- ly think of fitting up our district schools with the improved implements of education. A blackboard is about as far as wo genorally go, and thero aro a good many publio Bchool rooms in Vermont without even that. W hat would one of our old fogies with five bun drcd dollars worth of patent farm tnachinos around his buildings, say to raising a district tax of 8200 to purchaso globes, maps, mod, els of tho mechanical powers, a magnifying glass or a oheap mioroscope, and a cabinet of minerals, aa means of instruction 7 I know what he would say, for I have talked with him. x'erbapa 1 shall start him up bere to-night. Having provided proper buildings and tbo necessary implements of tuition, wo aro then in a position to ask an intelligent, well, trained and capabio man or woman to as, sumo the responsible task of instructing tho children God has given us, and tbo heavy dren theso things of which thoy aro thomr selves ignorant Y i Wo want our mother tongue thoroughly taught in our oommon schools. Then wo want common arithmetic. In thts thero Is responsibility of whoso future lifo, here and hereafter, rests on us. Thcro aro such mon and women among us, men and women worthy ten thousand. fold tho honor and estcom wo accord to them. Naturally I cstocm tho profession of farmer as the first and noblest of tho secular occupations of man, but if I wero disposed to yield that position to any other, I should assuredly yield it to tho teacher of youth. I say wo havo them among us, ablo, sinccro, zealous, progrcs sivo, encrgetio meo and women whoso hearts are in tbo work to which thoy havo choson speoimcns of natural objects, and by explain to dovoto their lives. But they aro all too ing them. Let him do the samo with differ few. Vet perhaps thoy aro as numerous as tpt farm machines and implements, tho man wo desorvo, considering how wo, cntc,(tafa aaneut of.crop8,.cto., cto. Thon let him re them, qnire a scholar to write down what bo can In the besinnins. having provided good I school houses and properly equipped them, I we must tako tho best tcaohcrs wo can find ; and wo shall find oven an ordinary teacher will bo ablo to do tho children much more good in a good room and with proper teach- ing tools. Yet it remains a fact that white we havo somo good teachers, tho large ma- jorlty of tnem aro ba(jy prCparod for tho re- sponsiblo task they undertake Tho fault is not with them so much as in tho want of well endowod, well equipped and well taught high schools, academics and normal schools, wherein young men and women may bo pre pared may proparo themselves, - rather for their profession. Every county ought to havo at least pno frco high school, tho highest grade of whioh should bo a normal school. Every town should havo five or six scholarships in this high school, and should send to it from its district and grammar schools thoso scholars that havo a desiro and show aptitudo for teaching. What do I mean by scholarships in a frco school ? Woll, 1 mean just this, that tho town shall pay tho board of theso schol ars whilo being instructed as teachers, with tho agreement on tbo part of the scholar that ho or sho shall hold him or herself ready, tor a specified uumbor of years after graduation, to leach in that town at a ccr. tain salary, if required to do so. I know old fozies will bold un thoir hands in holv uorror 4t Buch an .,cxpeDslve.. notion ui ,Lt. ,, sp , i. ,,, aDi moro than poor teaching, then thoro is econ omy, not only in building good school houses and properly equipping them, but also in se curing competent teachers ; and I know no better way than this of stimulating tho poor but ambitious scholars or our common schools to Improve their opportunities. Of courso thcro will bo selfish rich men and women in ovcry town who will bo opposed giving thoir poor neighbors' children such a chanco ; but tho poor men aro in tho ma jority, and need not beg for a favor liko this, if they know how to put their votes whoro thoy will do tho most good. And a sens! bio rich man oughj to boo far enough boyond tho end of his nose to understand that tho moro tho children of poverty nro encouraged to train themselves for honorable and uso ful work, tho fowcr of them ho will havo to bo taxed to maintain in tho poor houses and tho prisons. Wo farmers suffer enough from tho aristocracy of the towns and cities, without encouraging suob bob-tailod aria too racy as this among ourselves. But now wo co mo to tho top of tho question. Whero shall wo find teachers for our county high schools 7 Well, fellow farmers, I think about tho poorost placo wo can go for such teachers if wo regard tho interests of agriculturo is to our classical colleges. They don't teach much in thoso colleges which wo want our children to know, and thoy do tcacn ono thing thcro which is ii, l.i hin ih 1 1, a p workinir men oueht to bo tiucht-contemnt iiiiv iua iuiui: uint ii v vuiiuivu ui for manual labor and the manual laborer. I say they don't teach much in tho oiassi- oniinna i,snh n o.nt n- .(.ti.u.n n know. Witness tho following recent fact iu proof of tho assertion : At tho last Harvard examination filly-two per coot, of tho stu- dealt failed in English composition, though but 10 per cont. wero laokifig in Greek grammar. I think wo surely don't want tho teachers of our district iwhool tcaohcrs to como from an institution of which anything liko that is true. In tth it I. r1ifl.ei.il tn find thn riffht men for such a responsible position as ,B0 - O hand maabirahln of a Iran countv hirU and rrrammar school. If I were tn iro anv whero o ' o J to look them up, it would bo to the gradu ating classes of our best scientific schools and agricultural colleges. And uow let me glanco at the queition What do wo want taught in our common schools, in tho interest of agriculturo 7 Wo want first tho English languago thor oughly taught, so that boy and girl, bofore their school days aro over, can read it, writo it, spell it, compose in it, speak in it, with correctness and easo. This is the great pri mary failure of all our schools, and even of our colleges, at this very timo. The Eng lish languago Is neglected for tbo foreign and the dead languages in tbo colleges and academics; and when wo tako their grad uates for teachers of our common schools, they cannot read entertainingly or expres sively, they cannot writo legibly, they can not spell, they cannot composo or speak In their mother tongas with clearness and con rcctness, and how can they teach oar cbil- less failure, though tho method of tcachin g is too mechanical and unintelligent, and it takes four times as long as it would do if tho teachers understood principles as well as rules, and knew how to briog them oat in teaching. Thirdly, wo want tbe powers of perception and observation developed io our children. We want them to learn to see and notice the wonders of creation around them, and to this end thero is nothing better than elementary instruction in tho natural potenoes. l'ow of Ihf teaohets, ,cvn in oui .igfter- kch'OoVa'Iid' ac - .aenjica,nrQ nt present capabio ot giving tb.is instruction, and our classical colleges aro but just boginning to glvo attention to this class of studies. . I believe that a qualified tcaebcr, whilo l-tcachiog tho Kngllah language, in his reading lessons, his writing lessons, and his speaking lessons, might bo ablo to commuuicato all the elements of tho natural sciences in a way greatly to entertain and interest his pupils. Let his reading classes take for a lesson the account of soma natural object, somo plant, animal, rock, or mineral. Let tho teacher illustrato tho lesson by word, and by sketches on tho blackboard, by tho oxhibitiou of spec- imens, by roquiring tho scholars to bring In remember of what ho "has read and heard on a particular subject, copy it upon the black- board, and thon let tho wholo class be exam- iocd, to see if thoy can correct and add to what their companion has written. In this way, whilo tho training in languago is going on, tho miod is boing filled also with useful, practical information in rrgard to things of daily life and use. A child will learn moro in a week, in this way, than ho will in six monthsof ordinary school drill, because, if tho teacher understands his business, tbo pupil wilt be heartily interested in what he is being taught. When wo add - to tho things mentioned above a littlo geography, I am inclined to bclievo we havo got about all wo waat in the ordinary district school. A boy or girl of seventeen, leaving such a school, having mas tered what has bcon taught there, would havo a better education for all tho practical purposes of lifo than many of our collcgo graduates possess. Especially in tbo mas tery of tho English tongue, and in tho terms ol the natural scicuccs, (which are such a troublo to most of us who want to under stand what scientific writers havo to tell us upou agriculturo,) tho young roan or woman possesses tho instrument for oponing all tho learning of tbo world. And tho taste for learning will also havo bcon imparted, which b tho most important thing of all. With ii,i t.dn imninni in ihn mm,l nr h Dg eratloM how long would it bo bo foro tho vexed question of town libraries would bo solved? Iho hunger tor moro knowlodgo makes as impcrativo a demand upon tho intelligent mind as tho hunger for food makes upon tho stomach. The demand will havo to bo filled, books will be bought, and libraries will bo begun every where. I know I havo wearied many of my hear crs, but I have a few more words to add about that county high school. I thiok to every Buoh school (and why not to tho common school, too.) thero ought to bo attached a , ' . ii .1-. .i miBo B4iuvu mi o.u... u..-. .Uv . . , c.i i l d .-i - r intnlitnrn nF thn tMcnurii. Kuch a lurm or ... , ... garden would servo to exemplify much of tho teaching, would servo for tho trial ot many instructive experiments, and would furnish also much food, which might be allotted umong tho poorer pupils, according to tho voto of their companions, to assist in their maintenance whilo pursuing their studies. In this school for the education of teach ers whoso duty it is to teach tbo children of our farmers, a knowlcdgo of tho elements of scientific agriculturo is important, and wo know not how moro easily it could bo ao- quircd than from such an appondago to tho school, especially when tho principal is him self a graduato of an agricultural collcgo. If any of tho ideas I havo advanced to you this evening, fellow farmers, should ap pear to vou of any practical value, let mo appeal to you not to let them pass away in tno speasing oi tncm. x ou uavu lunucro I . i it .a P l 'utjs. yu havo 6raDges. Jou ' havo BBtl(!Ul tural societies, you havo meetings at homo ttni1 abroa,J- ut m0 enlreal J'ou t0 mlko this nucstion oi improving our common schools in tho interest of agriculturo a sub Ut of theught and discussion on every suit ftbl occasion. Immonso interests depend upon it, tapi tal in tho bands of speculators and gieat cor- porations, is crowding labor harder and I harder, and unless the working men of this country fortify themselves with knowledge, and with all their getting, got understanding of tho great and momentous problems upon I I e s . - . ;. I i..t... wmen wa luwro PnPnV "ocrtics or our country uuj.euu, vuu uuuuk 8 not Bering for our children. This is tho first country whero tbo workiog man has ovor had a chanco or has ever enjoyod genu ino liberty. As wealth accumulates, and luxury prevails io our great confers of popu latioos, tho rights of tho workers bcoomo more and moro in danger, bocauso tho pos scswrs of that wealth will control our legis latures and mako our laws, unless wo with' stand them. It is an entirely now danger, Ono hundred years ago thcro was not a roan on this continent possessed of a million of dollars. Now wo havo thousands of such men, and wo havo wealthy corporations with out number, interested in diverting the little rills .of prosperity that ought to fertilize our farms into thoir great reservoirs. It is a now danger. It is our business to investigate and understand it. And tho moro wo inves tieato tho more we shall be convinced that our only safety lies in a better education for tho children of tho working poop le. .1. Th r,illi,o, fi,, nMshA. i siraa goou practical larmer, is prepare e.m.r tuo ... j. " j . r. . .1. Z 6nf 'TU7;7 "he J;Da four bushels air slaked liino and eight lush els of good wood ashes t add to this as much in bulk of clear sand or loam, and put a largo handful in each bill. This quantity is sufficient for an acre. It is cheap, and easy to procure and apply J and the quantity of tbo potatoes and abundant yield win sat' isfy any ono who tries it. Besides the arti cles are all good, and much needed by most of oar toils, iry It. Potato Bugs. ' I sco that many of our farmers, antici pating tho ravages qf tho potato bug this season, recommend early plantiog, thinking by so doing to get tho start of tbo bug. Wilt tlfoy succeed 7 Tho bcctlo is already out of tho ground prospecting for potato tops, and if thcro is a green vino onywhero in tho vioinity of his wintor rcsidcaco, ho will bo sura to find it, and tho vino will grow so slow at this season of tho year that it will roquiro constant watching and caro to Bavo it, I havo practiced planting my Early Hose potatoes for sovcral years past the first of Juno, and havo suocccdcd every season in getting a good orop of potatoes of tho first quality aud matured in ten weeks from tho time of planting. 1 usually plant on greensward plowed in tho fall and work ed in tho spring with tho cultivator, but not doep enough to disturb tho old sward. In a week's timo from planting the potatoes aro up and ready for tho cultivator, and grow vory fast under tho warm and genial sun and showers of Juno. This June planting is for my field crop only. Plant in drills, two oyes in a hill about twenty inches apart, rows thrco fcot apart. In or lor to get a good yield of Early Itoso they shoutd bo planted as eloso as thoy can bo workod and woll hilled up. Islander. Soutk iero, Afay S, The Root Crop. Last spring I read everything L could find on roots and root raising, coming to tho conclusion that cows in milk would do better on roots and hay than on grains of any kind and hay ; so I put in a lot of mangolds which canio up well. 1 saw your nuvico to those who bad neg lected beets and rutabagas until too lato to sow, to put in flat turnips ; so I thought al though 1 was not one of tho negligent ones, that 1 would put in somo flat turnips. Tho next thing was to find a place to put them. (Jo looking round 1 louod about three- fourths of an acre, not over, of oats ready to cut for fodder, which I cut, hayed, and got into the barn. Then I took tho land, thorough ploughed and harrowed it, plough ing in a fair dressing of stable uiauuro, after which 1 bushed in half of a pound of flat turnip scod, putting In tho 10th of August. They grew well, and Nov. 1st I harvested six hundred bushels of turnips, somo weigh, in four to six nounda. Tho boots wero pounds, iho beets dnmnired Iiv the drv weather, nnd I cot four hundred bushels : however I was satisued with tho result, considering it was my first attempt. iNow let us sco ; 1 get six hundred uusn- els of flat turnips, from which I cut tops enough to keep ono cow a hundred juys, which paid for raising and harvesting, but tho beets cost mo about fifteen cents per bushel to raiso and harvest. Somo considered mo toolish in raising roots, they considering them hardly worth harvesting, but thoy wero somewhat sur prised to sco mo harvest such a crop, and still moro surprised at tbe result of feeding tho roots. I fed out all tho roots to cows in milk with poor poor hay, from which I got 14.000 nnarts of milk, and when tho roots . . , r ,, woru ig'J out, lisvu iu iiioir umuu wui muui.o I . . .V. . 1 , ot shorts nud two quarts ot meal per uay, . ' ch on wllicn tho fol( 0ff j milk to each cow, on which thoy foil off in over 15 per cent., showing roots to bo better as a milk producer than grain. (Jaro should bo used in tceding mo roots as well as in cooling tbo milk, as it is neces sary to get out tho animal beat beforo ship- pine and tho roots should bo given soon al ter milking. I think that cows do better on roots than grain, cousidcring their general health, as I was not troubled with gargot as in tho past. Trv roots this season and report them next winter. Cor. Massaaimsetts l'lowmman. Trim the Hoofs of Colts, In many iustanccs tho insensible portion of tho hoofs of colts and of young horses will grow out so round and Hat that fragments sometimes will bo broken off. 'Ibis is moro particularly the caso if colts aro allowed to run at largo occassionauy on naru grouuu, cravolly and stony lands aud bard roads ; the hoofs will wear fast enough, as naturo evidently intended thoy should. But if young borscs aro kept on smooth turf, their feet must be kept short by artificial means. Tho roost convenient way to trim long hoofs is to let one person hold a block ol hard wood nirainat lllO hoof. Or hold tho llOOfon the , ,1 square cod of tho wood whilo an attendant cuts ou Bmau pieces witn a snarp cuisei nuu mallet. Use an inch fiuo chisel rather than a largo ono, as a two-inch chisel will requiro heavier blows with n mallet. A pair of sharp nippers (somotimes vulgarly called suips) mayoltcn DO cmpioyeu lor sucn a purpoeo when a colt is bo rcstivo that a chisel and maiiei cauno uu usuu. Wo havo in mind a colt having unusually lone hoofs, which bad in his play Stepped upon some naru suuaiaucu uuu uruaou uu iu 11 i . i t i. -jv 1 1. front of 01.J part of tho loot to tho quick. Tho acoidcnt was attended with somo bleed- ing anu excessive lameness, iu buouuS bruto beiog unwilling to put his foot to tho ground. Ten miuutcs' work would havo saved tho animal much pain, and tbo owner 1 - - 1 . 1 , . 1 1 , : micht havo had the benefit ot three months ".L :i..,i'ri..i. : .....ui r,. ii,.i grun tti, mi-Ivan ui na.iu in .Hin .ui " period, isut too occasional oroaiting on 01 a part of tho hoof is a mero triflo when com- pared with omcr iniscnicia resulting irom too samo causo. mien mo 100 m too long uie strain on mo iouock juini win uo greauy iu- .1 J" l i- f T.i ...ill I - ii.. !.. creased, bo that pormancnt injury to tho bus- poosory ligament ot tho foot ofton lollows. Young borscs frequently havo wind-galls and and other evidences ol sprains bcloro they aro put to work. In many iustanccs such ailments occur whero shortening of tho too bas bocn neglected uutil tho hoofs havo grown to an unnatural leugth. Practical banner. A I'ossmLH 1'itojECT. A moro gigantio plot for enhancing tbo valuo of real estate through tho wholesale iinprovmeot of tbe climato was never proposed than that which contemplates UIOOKing mo oiraiu ui hcii Isle to the end that tho Uult ot at. Lawrence bo changed from a refrigerator to a tepldar- ! ll", I. .1.- . !.- ,1 .. 1.. "" Jurougu iucbo s.raua iu jni,, 1 urnis an almost eouioss nrocrasiuu 01 icu - d considerably lower the average tern peraturo of tbo surrouuding shores, How tho mechanical difficulties aro to be overcomo is not yet announced, but the project bas the merit ol being a bold ono. A politician who wished to dogrado a Lit ter opponent, said of him, "givo that man a fair chanco, and 1 will warrant that he would be meanor than the rneaooat man in Councotlout 1" Taming Cows to Pajtsro. Thero is great differenco of opinion among dairymen in regard to tho timo when cows should bo turned to grass. Many contend that all kinds of stock should bo kept off pasture grounds during spring until thero is a good growth of grass. In other words, tho hcrbaga must havo obtained su'ch a start that the stock will not bo ablo to cat it down short during tho season, and thus they bo llevo a supply is more fully insured. Another plan, practiced by many, is to let stock have tho full run of pastures as soon as tho snow is off tho ground, allowing it to pick on the old grass and cat of the early vegotation as soon as it springs up, Tbo chief reason urged for this latter courso is, that tho change from hay to grass in feeding should bo as gradual as possible, in order that slock may bo kept io good health ; that, if cows in spring nro turned suddenly from dry food upon luxuriant pasturage, the change is very liablo to produce serious troubles execssivo scouring bloating and othor disorders that impair health, oltcn lor a considerable length of timo, and even if thoy do not lead to tbo total loss of tho ani mal, they causo tho loss of her milk for long er or shorter periods. Now a middlo courso, between tho two plans named, we think, is to be preferred and will givo tbo best results. In tho first place, it may bo remarked, pasture lands will be injured in productiveness by allow ing stock to roam over tho fields early in spring beforo the ground is settled, and whilo It is soft ana easily trodden. Tho "poaching of tho land," by tho frequent tread of cattlo, destroys tho grass in places while thesurfaco is rendered uneven or filled with holes mado by tho feet of cattlo. Again, when tho frost is coming out of tho ground it is often rendered so looso in tcxturo that tho roots of grasses aro easily pulled out and cows feeding on the old bcrbago not unfro- qucntly mjuro tbo tun by pulling up grass by tho roots. It will bo advisable then not to turn stock upon pastures until tbo ground is lully settled, and is not in condition to bo injured by tbo feet of cattle. Nothiog is gained by allowing pastures to get a tall growth ot grass bcloro turning stock upon them, bocauso thoy tramp the hcrbago down in places, and by neglecting to leed otber portions down, it soon becomes hard and woody and will not bo eaten. Urass is sweetest and gives the best re sults io milk when it is eaten off at regular intervals and is not allowed to get a largo growth. In this way tho produot is greater wbilo the exhaustion to tho soil is less than it is whero tufts of grass aro allowed to mature and go to seed. Cows ought not to bo turned at onco trom hay to pasture, sinco a sudden chaogo of this kind will bo apt to ""' nvauu. jt. uunor wuy vu givu them tho run of pastures for an hour or two at first, and so allow them gradually, from day to day, to become accustomed to tho tho change ot lood, and they snoulu bo ted from timo to timo with hay after thoy have becu turned to pasturo altogether. Cows will frequently eat greedily of hay when thoy have been out to pasturo lor a consid erable length of timo and rations of hay will often bo found useful in correcting a tendenoy of looseness of tho bowels or scouriug. Some dairymen aro in tho habit ot giving salt to aniuials at certain intervals ot time, but tho better way is to keep it constantly beforo them or within their reach so thoy can tako it daily or at will. iNaturo rcgu, l7 ' mu.cn DCl,cr than it can bo done by portioning it out at intervals, and if tho animal always has it within reach thcro is no danger of over-feeding and tbo milk will show loss variation in character. Au important point to bo observ ed in tho management of milch-stock is to kcop them in a bcaltby, tbrilty condition, and if cows on turning to grass, aro inclined to Ioso flesh and run down weak and thin, they should bo fed rations of ground grain aud thus kept up to tho maximum ot bcalth and Btrengtb, Tho Advantages of Evergreen Trees. Tho earlier settlers wero not unmindful of tho advantages of shelter, hcoco their dwel lings were generally located at tho base ot a hill that the ficrco blast of winter might pass abovo unheeded , for scienco had not then recorded tho greater degree of cold pertain ing to valleys, though perhaps felt less from tho absence ot winds, isut in suclt situations tho fogs are wont to linger wbilo tbo hill sides are clear, and fogs aro destructive to health and comfort, at any season of the year. Theso facts being at present generally understood, persons about to iocato a dwel ling chooso an elevated position as being more chcorful and healthy, and affording a finer and moro extensivo view of tho land OtajlU, UUk DUUJVb. IU IUU I..IIUI Miu.ia wl wjntor wnieh in many situations aro of Buch scape but subject to tho fearful blasts of sever,ty as almost to mako an otherwiso BErccabl0 residence untenable. Yet happily, man Ba. power to overcome and set at nought, in rcat mcasurc, tho ficrco winds that sweep th0 land in wjntcr by confronting the clo- mcnts ja nature's own way by surrounding oar habitations with strong belts of hardy snrnce. which when planted eloso torm a comnlcto barrier to tho wind. I have suob . 1H,lm, nlnvn vcmrnnlanteil. which is fully I " . r r . J 515 j-uct n,feh anj g0 iion3e aa to completely brca. th iorco 0f th0 wind, in a situation whoro (omcrly tho ground was swept bare of 1 . . - w . .. taoyf ju wlnt0r and tho soil Was cast about jn 00Uj8 0j Ju3t, 'j'bta has long been tho i10m0 0f lnany singing birds which gladden niaeo w!ii, musio. for although tho condition nr mind mav bo such that tho sweetest . r . . noios ot tuo numan voioo may lau to piease, yet man is over mado happier and bettor wui nia B0U j3 gtirrcd by tbo welcomo of birds, and it is a duty that tho owners of tho soil owo to humanity and to Uod's little song. I . . . . f gterg that thoy furnish them a placo ot shel lcr from the storms and refuge from their onomies, for if it woro not for the assistanoo 0r birds in kocping tho insect herds in chock, man would plant and sow In vain. It is surprising how great a number and how vast a variety ot birds will dwell about a placo whero thero aro many evergreens, bomo enterprising citizens are endeavoring to iu troduco quails into this country, but quails and partridga require a eloso covert ot ever greens for protection in severe storms, thoy ofton huddlo together for days under tho soow-ludeu branches of evergreens, Theso are also a chosen nesting placo and place ol roiugB 111 mui: ui uaur, luauy uuu visriuus aro tno auvautugesoi piaiiuug iieauiiiui ever green trees, not tbo least of which is tho I 11 .).! . ,. 1 : . v.iuo .uUj uUU ,u . ii .K..o. .. - f rCardod - 1 hu ihisv, wuuiuvi-r uua m tuu uuauiv, unovi - by a purchaser, which is of importance in this land of unrest where the larger portion of homesteads aro awaiting a purchaser. Dutchess tanner, A little girl who was sent to tho -pasture to drivo home tho cow, full and was severely scratchod and bruised. On returning sho was asked if sho cried when sho fell, "Why bo," she replied. "What would have been tbe uso? Thcro was nobody to bear me," The Higher Aim In Farming', A reoeat writer says : Tho higher aita of every intelligent tiller of tho soil should bo the improvement of tho productiveness, of his land until it reaches tbe point "whiro. maximum crops aro produced at the least expense. Wise husbandry regards tho farm simply as a machine for turning out crops. Tho machine is tho matter of first impor tanco. This Is always to bo kept in good running order, and its efficiency is to bo in creased by all economical methods. The man who farms upon this system will never sacrifico soil for a great crop. His aim is to havo ovcry crop taken off, leaving the) land in a better condition than bo found it. lie aims in overy workfng of tho soil to in crease Its depth and to odd to it moro ele ments of fertility than bo removes in the crops, and to mako tho crops pay not only for themselves but also for tbo improvement of tho acres upon which they aro grown, la carrying out this aim, so as 10 roaliw theso rbftilts, a man shows his skill as a cultivator It is a comparatively easy thing for any ono who has monoy to improvo tho soil so that it shall produco crops paying for the labor of growing thorn and tho interest on two or threo hundred dollars an aero. Stablo man uro enough, well ploughed in, will do this. But it is altogether another matter to mako this improvement pay for Itsolf. Yet it is a possible thing to do this, and there are farm ers skillful enough to accomplish this result, and this we hold to be tho truo aim in tho cultivation of the soil. Tho most judioious improvements those which finally pay tho largest profits requiro sovcral years to bring in their full roturns. It is a matter of great importanco that tho farming population should not only bo settled, but that thoy should feel settled, and plan all their oper ations upon tho farm as if thoy expected to spend thoir days upon it. Cuickek Cholera. When we see among young chickens ono or two standing about in a listless manner, their feathers ruffled and their wings hanging loosely, we look for symptoms of cholera. Ordinarily wo should lay tho troublo to vermin in sbapo of head or body lice, but theso do not infest our chickens, and among tho many hundred that wo bavo growing up not a single louse is to be found. Cholera among chickens begins with a slight diarrhoea at least cholera in this section of tho country does and its presence may readily bo detected by exam ining tho excremont of the chickens, which if tho birds aro diseased will havo a yellow ish and grocnish tinge. If tho chickens aro examined there will be found below tho anal aperture a few feathers or particles of down ticking together, iho liquid exudation from tbe anus by which the adhesion is mado indicatos cholera, and if it is dried on tho feathers it is as sticky or rather it holds tho feathers or down exactly as would glue or mucilage. Treatment at this early stago may bo mado successful. For a mcdicino give extract of Jamaica ginger in milk in tbo proportion ot a tablespoontut to a quart of milk ; by giving them nothing clso to drink for a day or two a euro may be effected. Massacfittsetts Flouglunan. PASTIME. "I havo a pardonablo desiro to live else where," said a man writing to the president for a consulate. AVhich is tho oddest fellow, tho ono who asks a question or the ono who answers 7 Tbo ono who asks, because bo is tho querist. It is said that the now style of tho com mon band-organ has only ono stop. It be gins in tho morning and stops at night. Wo havo roason to think that Cowper tho poet didn't pay his hotel bills, for ho ohed for a lodgo in somo vast wilderness. A Missouri paper, In speaking of tho cold winter of 1827, said : "Ilogs, cattlo, ducks and turkeys, roosting on tho trees wero froz en to death." Thcro is a placo in Maino called Mcddy hemps, it having been christened after all tho words ending in skook, coggin and goggin bad given out. "Ho, all yo dyspeptics 1" says a patent medicine advertisement. If all tho dyspop- tics would hoo regularly,tbeir number would be reduced. Tho Now York woodcock aro said, upon their first arrival in tho state this season, to Btop at tho nearest bookstore and iuquiro for a copy ot tho gamo laws. "Did you do anything to resuscitato tho body 7" was recently asked of a witness at a coronet's inquest. "Yes, sir. We searched tho pockets !" was tho reply. Tho English claim to havo been tho first pooplo to uso forks at tho tablo. Probably invented for Queen Bess, She always want ed something handy to throw at a fellow. "We're in a pickla now !" said a man in a crowd. "A regular jam !" said another. "Heavon prcscrvo us !" Ex. llight in for sass," wercn t tnoy ; Policeman Orbus appears on tho rolls of tho San Francisco foico. If in order, wo riso to suggest that this is a clear caso of collar 'cm-Orbus. Tho foolish man will ask a woman if her baby is not a trifle cross-eyed, but tho wiso man will tako tho oars lor Uhtcago and mako his inquiries by postal card, Tbo St. Augustine hotel in Florida is tho largest hotol in the world. It must be for a correspondent says that among tho guests aro "tho Smiths ot flow Xork." Tho Norristown Herald suggests that tho guillotluo bo oalled into requisition to sup press tho tramp, Woll that would bo a cap ital way to get a head of him, that's a fact. "Mr. Jones, don't you thiok women aro moro scnsiblo than men?" asked Miss Smith, And Jones, after scratching his favorite bump, for a moment or two, said : "Why, certainly they are they marry men, and men only marry women," Miss smith beat a hasty retreat. Tho Grst thing a young man docs on Boo ing a friend with a new hat on is to tako it off and serenely try it on his own head. When a young lady sees an acquaintance with her new boonct on sho justs lifts her nose and serenely wonders "whero tho thing tho fright.' VatskM liecoraer. "Say, Pat, suppose Batati was to como along uow, and Bee both of us hero, which do you supposo he would tako you or ine 7" "Oh, faith, yer honor, he'd tako me." "How so?" "Well sir," said Paddy, "ho'd tako me now, bcoauso he wouldn't bo sura of mo when he eaino again; but he'd bo sure of you any timo, and oould afford to wait." In a prominont interior city a professor of physics was giving a deeply learned lec ture on light, with Experiments of a most convincing nature. At tho end of the dis course tho professor, ajdrowiug with a tri umphant air bis audlonee, exclaims : "It seems to mo that a demonstration liko this is worth soinolbiug." "Lot's go cout," says an economical backwoodsman to his son; "(hey air a gnioe to tako up a collection."