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Vermont farmer. (Newport, Orleans County, Vt.) 1870-1877, May 18, 1877, Image 1

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Entered according to Act of Congress, In tho J ear 1877, by Royal Curomlngi, In tho olBcs of llio Librarian Of Congress t Washington,
-A.3sr jftuC3-K,iaxjiiiTxts,A.Xi -A-tstjd jpjiLxxrsr newspaper fob- the bxjbalists o:f the gbebn nvroxjisrT.insr state.
VOL. YII.--NO. 24.
ST. JOHNSBtTJKY, FRIDAY, MAY 18, 1877.
WHOL NO. 38G.
VVfi l II L
. 4- 1 1C IH-I'I'III.IIJ-
From flrgt-cUxs stock of Plymouth
llorki HrniTti Lrglinriii White
lej(ltnrii. irnmlitlqitr Iteglirmi,
- lllnck Hnl C3nnin ItnittniiiR at II nor
Ducki. at i per doipn. Fonts for caIo. Also one
pair each of BtiiT and White L'oehlni am. Light Drnh
tooa to mako room. All packod aocuro to go any dis
tance. Address
W. I, SWirrT, SI. Jnlmttmr) , VI.
1 dozen. KflGS frcm imiorlor 1'rklit
mr.r,:v kmivi'ai.v
POULTRY JiAJlDS.
-I O FOH HATCHlNfl, from my colohratod
llVjrVJO Houdans, 0. N. roiuh, (lotion Sebright
Jiaotaras, il.fi0 por tlozcn. Fektn or CocMn llantams,
f 1.00 per Doien. Mr (took Ii from J. V Illcfcnell'a
Yardt. Imperial Pokln Docks, tz per dot., from Pal
mer laat Importation. Whlto Carrier Pigeons, (10. per
pair. VVhlto-orostcd, Fantall and Jaoobln Pigeons, (3
per pair, from Ilurpoe's Loft. Sly prices In
clude the best packago for eggs. I will tend
the Poultry World one year to all that order two dot
on eggs from my yards. Correspondence Bollcltod,
and satisfaction glvon to all, Address
C. It. VAUlMl.Vrr.lC, W. i:iiiiNliirrli, vt.
EGGS JPOll HATCHING.
FROM Silver Bnanslnl and Golden-Fondlled
liammirgs anil Whlto itoso comn uaniaio. i
I took the first premium and special on Hain
tmTgs at Keeno, Jan. isth and 19th, 1976, and
' Int nn Ilantami. Doe. 10tli.20th.and 21st. 1S7C.
Kbits IVArntntrtl trhe to Xante.
KUUS Sl.BO per 13. Chicks for salo In tho Fall.
ii. i:. no.vnv, niuriiitv, n. ic.
EGGS FOR HATCHING.
1 can furnish fresh ecu that will HATCH
from tho following varieties. U.K. and l.
MB. Hamburgs selected from J. l. McKeen's
-ursi premium stock, equal to any in flw
Knzland. li.oo tier duz.. Light llrahmas.
Todd's stock, i i.(0 Dor dot. HeatlMTood
(Junes, 11.50, White Leghorns, f I.W.
My stock Is all FIRST CLASS and most of It brod
from (Int premium stock. Adlress
II. IV. 3lcKi:i:., Mo. Actvwrlli, IV. II.
EGGS JFOIt A TCITING.
yp, rrom
From tho poultry yards of (Jen. 8. Wheeler,
Ipswich, N. II., at the following prices,
a wttinir of 13 1 llronieTarlcetfl Vni) i
Pekln IJuekt. MJiOi PHimmlh Rocks. 11. Tt.
Loeborns, llrown Leghorns and L. llrahmas, f,M.
llaro shown Hronxe Turkeys. Pekln Ducks, T. Itocks
and Black Loghcrns, at several of the lending exhibi
tion this season, and have taken let premium on each.
Whlto Leghorns, Brown Leghorn?, and I Iirahmas,
hare not teen exhibited, but tho stock Is first class,
Alt etrjs sent out warranted nmr laid and to reach tho
purchaser In good condition. Address all orders to
ji:o. s. viel:i:is1:k, civtpw1cIi,.ii
SHEEP
LABEL
t'i:Ti:N.M.i, ii'.iiai,
AW.Vltlllll) !
Sites sultablo for marking Cattle,
Sheep and Swine. Prices Si Samples
free. AzcnU wanted. Address,
C. It. DANA. West Lobanon, N. II.
il,t-i:im;i:i iiirrrmt as ?iaii: itv
COOLEY'S SYSTEM,
Uniformly, without regard to season or climate A
pamphlet, descriptive of this nowly-discoverod system
eent free to any one sending address, with stamp to
tho Vermont I'nrin Jlitt liiiitt C'.
Bellows FallsVt
. BUILDINGS MOVED.
Having had a largo Eipcrlcncc, and
possessing all tho facilities for Kalslng onit .11 o
vltir; IliilltllnN of all kinds In tho best possl.
bio manner, the subscriber would solicit a sharo ol
such work. Work done by tho day or job, at hard
times prices. JOHN J1AHU0WS, Hartford, Vt.
PISH G-TJAWO!
Dry (irniuitl rials (iiintio, 8 to 10 per cent.
Aminnnlat 1 per cent. Hone Pho'phate of Lime.
Half-Dry Fish Scrap, good quality. Alsu Superphos
phates and i'lne Island iia inu.
l'HIUES LOW
Address, (litimiiplitc I'.-rlllixrr Co..
Uul-7 160 State Street, New Haven, Conn
rbAmciii:A
PIG-S ! FIGS !
iuci:: imjui: ttv
L. H. MERRITT, HARTLAND, VT.
i'Olt.NO STOCK FOII SAl.i:.
Plymouth Rocks
A SPECIALTY.
Ox Accoii.vr or iiaieii tliiin i am
prcpaired to sell egs for hatching from lirstlass
birds at hard time prices Jioo por 13. Boxed and de
livered to express. Address
J. II. MonnisoK,
Marlow, N. H.
Please say what paper you saw this In.
STRAWBERRY PLANTS.
Ily tin, 100, 1000 mill 100,01)0.
I havo tho largest ami finest stock ever oflcrcd in tho
Now England SUtos. l'rlcos VKUY LOW. Warranted
pure.
ciian, s. pii.irr,
Nordi Iivmllmr, .Huns.
1877 sci:i c.iT.tr.oGUV :
And circulars of lllooded Ltro Stock rncK. We offer
(At orsr and matt reliable (Jurdeii, Field and Flower
8eeds. St r namplf paelaget farm atriti fret for two 3o
stamps. UENsO.N-A IltflU'IlK, Seed Wurohouso -tii
Church Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
IIVJtSO.Y III IJC
FRUIT GARDENS.
Many novelties In new spring price list. lro ii 1 y 'm
Nt'cilllui,', ..' t. Jack and 30 ether varieties o
strawberries i 'I'liwurk mill DdtiAvuru Rasp
berries, Syiulrr a perfectly hardy blackberry.
Plants $1.00 per doien by mall; or $100perSO. New
0 rapes, Fruit trues, etc., etc. Horry lliikhct and
crates In great variety, Addross
It. II. I1A.I.NK8.
Mn1leii-ou-the-I!m1soiij N, V.
FARiVa FOR SALE.
rilllll undersigned offers for salo tho firm of Sum--I-
uol Drown in Westmoro, six miles from llarton
vlllago. Bald farm consists of 65 acres of the bost
of land, good Cedar swamp and splendid lot of Spruce
tlmbor. There Is timber enough on tho farm to inoro
than pay fur It. A good houso and barn with running
water to both. Will cut twenty tons of tho bost of hay,
I will soil with tho farm one good cow.and 2 two-year-olds,
a yearling heifer, I good work horse, I harnoes, a
ono-horse wagon, traverso sled, and all tho fanning
tools. Trice for farm, stock and tools, thirteen hundred
" doffS?J, one-half down, tho romalnder to remain on
mortgage If deslrod. For further particulars apply at
encoto II. -'. I.I'CAS,
St. Jolmsbury, Vt.
I WOULD THANK farmers wishing mo to repair
mowing machines or other agricultural lmjde
moots to bring Ihem to my shop at once, as I can now
attend to tho business,
.1 AS, .11. WAltMllt.
St. Jobnsbury, April 10, IS77.
PLANTS & TREES
FOn THE
PARLOR, GARDEN & ORCHARD.
Also a good assortment of
Small I'riilto, Shrub, Nct'iU, Iltr.
Cultivated anil for salo by
Jr. P. GZOS802T,
Catalogue froo. Tliclfortl, VI.
This establishment lias been In itnu.As.rul nneratlon
for a quarter of a century and tho largoly Increased
uusiuuu anti me many pwiipiimentary letters reoeivea
every season sneak well uf thu niinMtv it tilmiti.
trees, Ao., which have been seut not only to every
tale lu New Knglaud, but to uiauy of tho other
ttates and tho Canadas,
Those who will aid us In ' 'tondlng our business by
ordering catalogues fort1' lends who are Interest
ed in theao tblnjts or in '!. a Kood wold for ui
wui svueivo our uearty vmf
Treo PlantiDg.
KvcryLody who hits visited Wood's Hole
at Fulmoutb, tho plaoo of departuro by
steamers for Nantucket and Martha's Vino,
yard, is struck by the luxuriant patches of
Ibrcat la unexpected places on a coast gener
ally dcvo'ul of trees. When of it hot sum
mer day tho gte.ro nnd gllllcr is oppressive,
the air of Wood's Holo is breezy nod tho
wholo sccr.o refreshingly ishady and doll
cious to tho eye. Mr. Joseph S. Fay brought
nil this to pass by clothing barren headlands
with a forest verdure, nnd it has not taken
cither a great many years to do it. In tbo fol
lowing extracts from a letter ho tells how ho
did it, together with tho uses and general
economy of tree planting :
"W&cn 1 was qulto young I became inter,
cstcd in planting trees in my father's garden
and now tharo aro growiog thoro along its
margins largo elms nnd horso chestnut trees,
which I put thero from tho seed. Where
ever I have lived I havo led trees that I
havo planted ns my landmarks, which I am
always glad to seo again. Although now
well ntong in life I shall plant trees, for they
aro never ungrateful, never disrespootful or
irreverent, but always manifest God's good
ness in their regular growth and verdant(
beauty in summer, nnd by their picturcsquo
forms and sturdy strength, when, stripped of
foliage, they battle with tho winter's winds.
Now what 1 would like to call attention
to is this, that any littlo boy or girl, whoso
parents havo land, whether a largo or small
tract, should nsk the privilcgo to plant a
few seeds, whether of fino or of oak, or of
hickory, or of chestnut, Indeed, of almost
any tree, and watch their growth and pro
tect them. How many littlo corners thcro
are, which aro left to weeds and briers and
bushes, whero a few trees might bo started
to grow up and givo shade and beauty to
tho now baro and saudy country roads. It
is n very simple thing, and would yield a
vast amount of 'satisfaction. As a general
thing, seeds are best gathered and best
planted in the fall, but if children will hunt
about under oak and hickory or walnut trees
in tho spring, thoy will Gnd acorns or nuts in
the boles covered by leaves, which arc all
sprouted and beginning to grow. Then thcro
aro many trees which throw up suckers,
which can bo dug up and planted out by
themselves, ant' none of these afford a better
result than tho yellow locust. It is a native
treo and grows very rapidly. Tho foliago
is of a very pretty color (light green), nnd
gracefdl, and tho wood is as valuable to tho
farmer as any other, whilo for boat or ship
timber it is unsurpassed. A hundred or
theso any boy or girl could plant out iu tho
courso of a holiday and mako a quarter or
au aero of land, now perhaps idle, becomo
very valuable. And then it is said to ira
provo tho soil whero it grows, which in it
self is an advantage. Tho willow will grow
from a slip or cutting, and tho kinds of
theso aro valuablo and handsome. A stick
cut about two feet long and set in tho ground
about eighteen inches and tho earth prcsicd
tightly around it will bo quito suro to grow."
Needs for the Future The Prospect
It is very evident that raising and feeding
animals fur meat, must receive more atten
tion than has hitherto been given to this
branch of farming. Tho speculation in pure
bred livo stock, if it has been an evil at all,
or has been carried to an excess, as many
persons havo believed, has not been an un
mixed evil by any means. As wo havo
thought, and havo frequently said, tho spec
ulative furore excited public interest, and
tho undoubted merits of the animals them
selves, havo fastened attention upon them,
and by their means vast improvement has
been effected in our herds and flooks. If
somo people havo gono in oo heavily, and
havo sunk monoy out of present sight, they
havo at least gamed wisdom, and by aud by
tho increaso of their stock will bring ends to
meet again. Tho vast increaso of wealth
contributed to tho agricultural interest by
these improved animals, is now being mani
fested. As good stock is coming forward
from tho prairies and plains of Kansas and
Colorado, as havo hitherto como from Illi
nois and Kentucky pastures. Tbo value of
the product is thus doubled. This is but
tho beginning of tbo shower, which must by
and by bocomo a torrent. A channel seems
to havo been opened for tho incrcasod sup
ply of largoly improvod beef, mutton and
pork, now being produced, which promises
to bo highly profitable. Thus tho long hoped
for opportunity of changing our system of
farming, has probably arrived, or is very
near. Whilo wo wait and hope, events shapo
themselves by forco of circumstances which
wo cannot control, and which tccm to bo
mcro accidents. Thus tho experimental
shipmcut ot a lew carcasses of beof to Eng
land, a year ago, seems to bavo opened
way for us to chango our cxhaustivo system
of farming. Let us avail oureolvcs of tho
opportunity ; feed as many auimala as wo
can, and raiso root and fodder crops for this
purposo. At first wo must uso artificial fer
tilizers freely, and afterwards as may bo
needed, to keep crops up to tho highest limit.
"High farming" must uow bo tho rulo if wo
aro to mako money. Wo must get rid of
our scrubs ; of cows that neither givo milk
nor yield butter i of sheep that neither af
ford wool nor mutton ; of pigs that mako no
pork or lard, and of poultry that lay no
eggs. Wo must keep only tbo best, that is,
grades from puro bred males ;,wo must feod
high and maturo quickly, mako rich manuro
grow heavy crops, cultivato thoroughly, turn
off from ono aero as much as wo havo dono
hcrctoforo from two, thrco or four, and then
American agriculture, which is tho freest in
dustry in tho world, will bo tho most prof
itablo. Aim i icon Agriculturist.
In England, it is estimated, thoro are 60,'
OOO.UOU acres of land under cultivation, one
fourth of which is manured annually with 15
tons of manuro per aero, making a total of
I7,VIUU,""U ton.
Onion Bailing.
Farmers who aro wall situated in regard
to market, and who aro well provided with
help for light work, cannot ordinarily raiso
a moro proBtablo crop than onions. To suc
ceed with this crop, howovcr, it is nocossary
to commonco operations very early in tho
spring. It is useless to sow onion seed lato
in tho season unless ono wants to raiso a
crop of scallions. A crop oi onions may bo
raised with tho least expenditure of timo
and money on an old pasture sod, especially
ono that has loog been pastured by sheep.
Firkt-class plowing will bo required so that
tho furrows shall bo straight. Tho harrow
ing must bo dono lengthwise of tho furrows,
aud immediately before tho seed is sown.
The object of sowing onion scod on u rich
soil is to avoid weeds and render cultivation
easy. As largo a orop cannot bo expected
as when tho seed is sown on a well pulver
ized soil that has been recently manured,
but tho labor of cultivation will bo very
greatly reduced.
Onions will ordinarily succeed on any
land that will produco a good crop of corn,
providing it is dry enough to plow very
early in tho spring. A dark, sandy soil, if
highly manured, will gcnorally produco a
good crop of onions of excellent flavor. Bot
tom lands that aro naturally rich aro favor
ablo to onions, as thcro aro likely to bo very
few weeds to interfere with their growth,
The only troublo with this sort of land is its
liability to bo wet early in tbo season. A
rich soil is of tbo first necessity for this crop.
A good amount of manure will givo tho
young plants a good start in tho spring and
will help produoo a largo crop. Tbo manuro
applied should bo freo from foul seeds. It
should not bo green and rank, as it would
havo a tendency to produco maggots, nnd
might havo a tcudonoy to interfere with tho
germination of tho feed. Old hog manuro,
tho droppiogs of fowls and sheep, aro tho
best, though well rotted barn-yard manure is
very good. Whatever kind of mauuro is
used should bo well pulverized and harrowed
in. A top dro.sing of wood ashes is excel
lent, both as a means of preventing tbo work
ing of tho maggots and of insuring a large
crop of onions. A top dressing of well pul
verized air-slaked lime is also of advantage
Commercial mauurcs aro preforablo to farm
yard manures, as thoy contain no seeds of
weeds.
Next in importanco to your soil is good
seed. It should bo plump and of the last
year's growth. Many prefer to uso two
kinds of seed, as tho red WeathersGeld and
Yellow Danvora, so if ono kind fails there
will bo hopo for tho other. About Cvo
pounds of seed are required for an acre.
The drills should bo about six inches apart,
and tho hills six inches from each other.
From six to eight seed should bo placed in
each hill. If tho seed is soaked for a week
in tepid water before planting, it will como
up quicker. For convcuicuco in planting it
should bo mixed with dry land plaster. Tho
rows should bo straight for convcnicnco of
working. As soon as tho seed is up so tho
row can bo seen, tho soil should bo shaved
with a hoc. Iu fact, this is tho only work
ing required during tho entire summor. It
is better not to dig tho ground but simply to
kocji it clear of weeds.
Tbo greatest kbor required in raising this
crop is, tho hand weeding that must bo dono
when tho plants becomo well established.
At this timo tho number should bo reduced
to four or Cvo iu a bill. They appear to
grow about as well iu clusters as singly. In
ordinary seasons tho soil should bo scraped
over oneo in two weeks. As tho onions ri
pen tho tops fall over. They aro theu ready
to harvest, though thoy may remain where
they grew until tho approach of cold weather.
In harvesting thoy bhoulil bo pulled and al
lowed to remain on the ground for a week to
dry. Tlio tops should then bo cut off, and
tho onions placed in a cool and dry placo.
Five hundred bushels to tho aero is not an
unusual crop. Tho prices of onions vary
greatly in different years, but it is unusual
for them to bo a drug in tho market. Dur
ing tho war onion raising was exceedingly
profitable. Chicago Times.
A New Way of Growing Strawberries.
Thcro is no doubt that in many parts of
the country Ibo "hill" or "stool" plan is a
failure because of hard winters. Fruit is
much larger aud fiucr grown by tho stool
system (that is, keeping all runners clipped
off), and tho reasons for this Is, that tho
ground gets bcl jr cultivated, and tho plants
being worked upon all sides, mako a luxu
riant growth, and bear in proportion. Now,
if wo can adopt somo plan by which tho soil
can bo kept better btirrcd all around tho
plants, wo know Gno fruit will bo attained.
Therefore, wq proposo what wo will stylo tho
"matted hill system," which is as follows ;
Prepare tho ground well, mark it 3 or 3J
feet each way, as for corn, and at each
crossing of marker sot a Btrawbcrry plant
(or, if you havo plenty of thorn, two in each
placo will bo safer and bettor). Keep tbo
cultivator runuing both ways, and quito often
as plants commonco to run freely, and by do
ing this, and whon cleaning tho hills by
haud drawing stray plants and covering with
earth, a matted hill will soon bo formed 1 J
to 2 feet across. Wo havo not iced that
whero thcro aro vucanoics in matted rows,
and dumps of plants horo nnd thcro, that
tho fruit was much finer than wbcro tbo
matted rows of plants was continuous,
ltoota of Btrawbcrry plant run much far
ther than what ono would supposo, and
where tho ground is Gilo J with thorn, tho
finest la not 80 fino as when they can havo
moro room. Wo adviso tho trying of this
plan by thoso who havo plenty of laud and
borso help, aud but littlo band help. After
they aro through boariog, a small plow, with
a sharp knlfo or wheel, can bo ruu through
both ways, and hills plowed down closely,
ground lovclled off, and cultivator and boo
run through as before. Fruit Jlecordcr.
Cows Loafing,
Tho following from tho pen of a corres
pondent of tho Ohio Farmer, certainly has
tho merit of originality, aud certainly no one
will accuse its author of plagiarism : "Dors
tbo dairyman ever suspect that somo cows
are drcadlul loafers? Where there is a
pond of water to stand in, if flics rioppen to
bo particularly bad, somo cows will spend
most of their timo standing in tho water,
when they should bo mowing tho lawn.
Somo dairymen think tho act of standing in
in water absorbs tho milk from cows. Thoy
littlo suspect it is simply tho effect of loaf
ing iway her time, Shade trees art.a pro
lifio sourco of laziness in cows. Many hours
aro passed in .luxuriant laziness, enjoying
tbo cool shade when the cow could bo much
moro profitably employed eating grass for her
master's Bako. To bo sure cows suffer from
heat just as do horses, oxen, sheep, pigs and
all other animals, but after observing to bow
much greater extent idlo men suffer with
beat more than men who bard at work, I am
satisfied that tho cow that is busy minds tho
heat less than tho ono that is idly endavor
ing to kcop cool. I oneo knew a dairyman
to build a lano through bis npplo orchard to
prevent his cows from loafing under tho
trees, ho stating ho had no objection to their
getting tho fallen apples ho preferred tbey
should, but ho said that nothing but starva
tion would prevail upon them to leave tho
inviting shade. Ho asserted that his cows
bad increased a largo, pcrccotago in their
milk sinoo they were compelled to go to
work lika any other beast. And proy 'why
should not sho too cam her fodder by tbo
sweat of noso 7''
If tho writer had, liko tho cow when sho
stands in tho shade, occupied a limited por
tion of his timo in working his material over
again ho would not havo advanced such a
peculiar theory ; tho time required by a cow
in gathering bcr food in good pasture is
much less than that required for tho purposo
of socond mastication. Tbo fact that sho is
not at work filling her stomach from tho Gold
is no proof that she is "loafing." If tho pas
ture is what it ebould ba tho cows cau in a
few hours, morning and evening, store up in tho
first stomach enough material fordoublo that
timo spent in mastication which can bo per
formed as well io tho shade as anywhere
else. Philadelphia Times.
Early Chickens.
A great many poultry growers, and I sus
pect somo who havo no practical knowledge
of tho matter, strongly advocato raising only
early chickens. Now it is dosirablo to havo
all of them hatched early in tho season.
Liko cxtrectDi in everything clso extremes
iu tho poultry business will bo found disad
vantageous. 1 should as coon think of hav
ing all of my vegetables early, and all my
flowers blossom before summer was hardly
begun, as ol having all my chickens batched
very early in tho season. No farmer would
think of having his cows or bis sheep all tho
samo ago. Ho would very much prefer to
havo them of different ages so as to havo
somo young stock to tako tho placo of thoso
which havo grown old. Why should not tho
samo rulo apply to hens? As thoy aro com
paratively short lived animals, and as breed
ers seem to be agreed that it is not profita
ble to keep them moro than a year or two, it
follows that thoso who full iu with tho pro
vailing fashion will, of necessity, havo all
tho bens just on an ago ; or at most will have
only two sets of hcus and all in each set of
tho samo ago. Now I very much prefer to
havo somo oarly chickens and somo lato ones,
and do not caro if 1 havo a fow betrceu
tho ages of theso. Then I am much surer
of having a constant succession of oggi than
I could bo if I raisod only early chickens.
Tho early onca as a matter of courso, begiu to
lay first. When they havo stopped for a
breathing spoil somo of tbo later ones tako
up tho work, and thoy are at length succeed
ed by thoso which were hatchod last of all.
I consider this a common enso way of get
ting eggs week after week and month after
month. If tho bena are all of tho samo ago,
or if thoy aro all of different years' growth
but still were all hatched at just about tho
samo timo of year, thoy will bo very likely
to all lay at onca and thou all stop to rest at
tho samo time. Under this system tho own
cr will havo eggs in nbundauco when ho has
auy and then will ho obliged to go a long
timo without. This does not seem to mo to
bo oithor pleasant or profitable. Consequent
ly I do not believe in tho oxolusivo growing
of oarly chiokens. Cor. JV. E. Homestead.
ISU'OVEMKNTS IN l'LOUOH. If pcoplo
generally kuow how much better tho dow
ploughs of to-day would work than somo of
tho old patterns whioh havo been in uso a
half a century or moro, thcro would bo
something of an accumulation of old iron at
tho junk stores. Farmers buy now parta
for old ploughs which aro really not worth
housing. Thoy aro unprofitable to uso be
cause thoy often draw or bold so bard that a
strong man and heavy team are needed,
where a light team and boy could do better
work with tho modern implements. Ono
farmer, who has just scoured ono of tho new
swivol ploughs advertisod in tho Farmer,
and sent out as a premium for now sub
scribers, writes that ho triod it first with a
pair of four-year-old steers and a pair of
horses. Ho ploughed grass ground soven
inches deep, but Boon found that ho was us
iog moro team than ho ncodod, bo he tried
first a pair of horsos, and found thoy could
handle it easily without tho stoors. Ho then
tried tho steers, and found thoy also could
draw it with caso. So ho left his boy to do
tho plowing with tho steers alone, whilo ho
went about other work with bis horses, How
long it will take to savo enough in team
work to pay for a new plough, is a question
which tho owners of hard running and hard
holding ploughs would do well to consider,
New England Farmer,
Sheep Husbandry.
Less attention has been given to tho rais
ing of mutton and wool ler two or thrco
years than formerly, on account of tho pre
vailing low prices. Hut sinco tho scalo of
of prices has turned in tho ascendant, an
increased interest In tho business may bo ex
pected. That thoso who "may go into tho
business may get started aright, and that
thoso who aro already in it may got somo
valuablo information, wo condenso somo sug
gestions presented by a well-known breeder
of sheep to tho Vermont board of ogricul
turo. Good eheep husbandry, ho Bays, costs
less than poor, and pays much larger ; this
consists io n great measure in doing tho right
work at tti right timo. In relation to shear
ing, this rule applies with great forco. Juno
jj ono of the best months in tho year for
sheep t5 thrlvo.'lf'they aro shorn. It costs
less to houso a flock of sheep that aro just
shorn, before a storm, than it docs to cart
them lo tho barn when tbey nro benumbed
and chilled, It costs less to mend tho fence
before tho sheep get into tho habit of being
unruly as wo call it. It costs less to cut and
euro tho hay in season and whon tho sun
shines, than it docs to do it out of season,
and in rainy weather. If Irom any reason
bay Is poor it costs less to feed somo grain
in season, than it docs to let tho sheep loso
flesh and get poor,-and then spend our timo
In nursing and doctoring them, I think
thcro is a proverb which is, that good food
is cheaper than doctors.
Tho cutting of tho hay in proper season
and curing well, and storing tho samo, is ono
of tho essential points of good bheep hus
bandry. If, from any cause, wo fail to do
this, our sheep tho next spring aro poor and
weak, and wo havo bad luck in raising
lambs, tho sole cause of which is, that the
sheep during tho winter havo been eating
poor hay. aud vainly endeavoring to obtaiu
from the samo tbeir necessary amount of
nourishment which tho hay did not contain.
Coarse and rank timothy makes fair eheep
hay, if it is cut a few days before it begins
to blossom and is well cured.
Nearly all kinds of low lands and swamp
hay are good bheep hay, if cut in scapori
and well cured. Sheep prefer a varioty of
good hay instead of being confined to ono
only.
Lambs should bo weaned when they nro
four months old, and turned into good feed.
If they aro fed daily, in addition to good
grass, and ono pint of oats nnd shorts apicco
until tbey aro turned out to grass tho next
spring they will havo a good start toward
making a sheep with a good constitution.
If wo would raiso sheep with good constitu
tions wo must supply them liborally during
their growth with that kind of food that will
furcich them with tho necessary amount of
bone, musclo and strength.
Sheep, and Iambs in particular, should bo
housed during cold storms in thu fall and bo
fed with hay, which they should learn lo
cat before thoy aro entirely deprived of
grass. All kinds of sheep and brccdiug
ewes iu particular, should como to tbo barn
in good condition in the fall. This is ncces
sary iu order that thoy may bo ablo to well
develop their lambs. All kinds of sheep
should bo allowed to run out daily upon tho
ground daily in tho lato fall nud early win
ter aud spring. Sulphur nud ashes should
bo fed to shocp with their salt during tho
winter. Sulphur is health for thu sheep,
and is offeusivo to vermin.
Ashes aro also healthy and essential for
breeding ewea. It somotimca happens that
strong lambs droop and dio whilo tha dama
hvo a good supply of milk. If tho Btoni
neb of such lambs nro opened thoy would bo
found to Ijj packed and distended with bard
curd, which was tho causo of their death.
Tho remedy for this is to feed tho breeding
owca with somo kind of a mild alkali, liko
ashes, for somo timo previous to tho timo of
dropping their lambs.
Sheep should bo turned out upon tho
ground daily, ns soon as there is a spot bare
that is largo enough for them to stand upon,
fur tho air in their pens and (tables la gen
erally impure, and no amount of good feed
will supply tho lack of good air and exer
cise Thoro aro various disea'scs which shocp
nnd lambs sometime have, and troubles to
encounter in breeding sheep. There aro
causes for all those. It should ba ono of
tho studies of tho bheep brooder to learn
what thoso causes nro and how to avoid
them ; when wo do that we shall havo good
luck iu sheep husbandry.
A Year's Dairy Business.
Tho View of n 1'rnctlrnl Mnll.
Mr. Jotham Weston of Skowhegan, Mo.,
gives tho following statement to tho Maino
Farmer of tho income of his dairy for 1870.
Wo commenced tho year with rovcu oows.
At the end of thrco months I purchased ono
moro, and a three year old heifer; and ono
month later I had a yearling heifer como in
nt 11 mouths old. Now, by reckoning thoso
two hoifors (na farmers frequently do), equal
to ono cow, 1 hive, with the nine months of
tho cows purchased, eighteen months, or ono
eow aud a half to add to tho seven, which
will givo mo an average of eight and one
half cows through tbo year. One cow died
in November, just after calving, which was
a loss to tho dairy of six weeks of a uow
milch cow, or sixty pounds of butter, accord
ing to her former record, 1 mako no account
for this, but throw It In to mako good tho
account oi tho hoifcrs, Tho death of this
cow, which was caused by accident, U tho
first and only one lost in thirty-flvo years,
which is tho whole tlmu I havo been keeping
ing cows ; and this 1 think is au argument
In favor of good keeping, warm stablos and
careful management of cows generally. Wo
find that our dairy book has a credit fur tho
eight and a half cows of 025 pounds of chcoso
and 2,281 pounds of butter; and tho family
cstimato that tho milk and cream used by
tho family, and sold, and given away to tho
noighbors, would bavo mado 150 pounds in
addition, Please note that this last is an
estimate nnd not figures. With this cstimato
(and it was intended to be below the figure
rather than above) wo havo for tho year
2,-13-i pounds of butter. Tho wholo amount
sold for $1,001.41, by reckoning what wo
used . in tho family nt (he samo prico wo
sold for. How much tho fkira milk was
worth in growing and fattening 2,300 pounds
of pork I will not cstimato.
I will sq'taroly stato that thero aro no pe
culiar circumstances about theso cows, or
making tho butter, nor about reporting tho
reporting tho incomo. Decauso thcro aro
many neat wives io our farm houses who do
not, and perhaps cannot mako fanoy butter
becauso of certain circumstances boyond tbeir
control, is no agrumcnt at all against tho
suggestion that to raiso tho htandard of in
como from our cows, it is not only desirable
but necessary to havo such wives, ir to at
tend tho dairy of eight or ton cows is ns
much us a woman can do, can sho
not superintend a dairy of twcnty-Gvo or
every soventy-fivo cow if sho is
furnished all tho half sho is furnished all tho
help sho needs to do tho hard work ? A
neighbor recently visited a farm iu tho west
ern part of tho Stato, whero a man was keep
ing soventy-fivo cows, and his wife was super
intending tho wholo buiiness. I know thcro
is many a farmer's wifo who would bo glad
to, and would mako good butter if sho had
good material furnished her to mako it of ;
and there are mauy other wives who nover
will mado good butter with any material,
becauso thoy think they must not digress
from tho ways of their grandmothers. A
man having examined a herd of cows recent
ly, with tho intention of purchasing one for
hia own uso, I asked him how ho liked them.
Ho said ho didn't know, for thoy were so
thickly coated with manure that ho could not
got near enough to them to tell. Now,
brother farmers, this ought not to bo bo, and
there is no need of it. Just think of a
woman trying to mako factory butter from
milk drawn from cows so besmeared with
Glth that a man canuot get near enough to
them to toll what they are; it is impossible,
and unjust to expect it of thorn. If a man
is keeping coirs for their incomo, it matters
not whether ho bo a lawyer, legislator, or a
man of any other profession, or if ho is a
farmer who obtains his living off hia farm, it
ia nil tho samo, provided equal judgment is
used in used in caring for them, and they
kept for profit and not for tho object of learn
ing how many cows can bo dragged through
the winter on tho smallest amount of hay.
It may bo said tho avcrago farmer baa no
grain to feed his cows, nor monoy with which
to purchase it. Perhaps this troublo can bo
remoJicd. Lot mo illustrate. Supposo a
farmer has in tho fall six cows that ho in
tends to winter ; if ho docs so ho must feed
them hay but no grain, and tbo consequence
is a small yield of poor white milk, up to
thrco or four months before calving, and
then thoy go dry. Tho result is they como
out weak aud poor in tho spring, and are
worth about half prico through tho summer.
From theso poorly fed cows tho neat wifo
makes in tho winter a littlo poor, white but
ter, unless alio oolora it, and them sho has a
little poor colored butter, enough perhaps
for the family to cat, and a littlo to sell If
sho can find auy ono who will buy it. This
is tho way tho farmer gjta S50 incomo from
a cow but not ona ecnt of profit.
Now tako another view of tho case. In
the full this man sella two of his cows, say
for 800, if thoy aro pretty good onoa, and
with tho monoy he buys tlnvo tons of shorts
or its equivalent in whatever ho likca beat,
and ho feeds this to tho four cows that ho
has left. Now, what is tho effect ol this
chango? I will givo it from my own stand
point. First, tho manure mado by tho four
grain fed cowa will bo worth na much aa that
from tho six without grain, nnd ho has six or
seven tons ol hay in hia barn which tho other
two cows would havo caton, for I tako it for
granted that ho would in both instances havo
coimnonccd feeding hia cows early in tho
full, aud uot havo let them grub tho Golds
until thoy could grub no longer, by reason of
tho snow that covered them. Secondly, the
four cowa will givo milk two mouths longer
than in tho other case, and tho milk will
mako twico as much butter, and instead of
being obliged to placo hia butter on tho mar
ket at a low prico bo will bavo an article
if ho has n good helpmeet which is firm aud
waxy, and which will command a fancy
prico at his own door. And lastly theao four
cows in tho spring will bo in good
coadition, aud worth mora aud will
bo mora incomo through tho summer
thau tho six would havo been, aud if ouo of
them should break a leg, tbo farmer will
bavo bopi) beef for a butchor instead of bones
for tho soup maker. This ia tho way tlx
farmer obtains $100 incomo.
Green Fodder Crops.
Tho attention of farmers nud dairymen haa
for somo timo been direotod to tho soiling sys
tem. Tho ndvautagca to bo gainod by feed
ing green food aro so apparent and so fully
moot tho requirements of tho small farmer
aud suburbans residents that may adopt tho
system without sufficient information in re
gard to it, and of courso, fail to meet their
expectations, Othors, more cautious, only
food grocu food during tho autumn months,
or during drought In summer, generally feed
ing ooru-loddcr oneo or twice each day in tho
field, To thia wo may odd the oloaring up
of food which froat would othcrwiso destroy
aa turnip-tops, culls from tho cabbage
Gold, immature Bquashcs, pumpkins, cto,
Thia practice, though not nearly as profita
ble as soiling, requires no additional help
and enables the feeder to oarry amuch largor
stock than ho otherwise could, as well as pre
vents loss by shrinking of milk aud flesh
during droughts. The advautagos of an In
telligcut system of soiling aro so many and
important system of solllug nro bo many and
important that wo propose somo of them
together with some information nbout feeding
nnd tho crops needed to furnish a supply of
green food during tho year. Hoping that
this articlo may not only benefit tho agricul
turist, but also that large class of people
who supposo that thoy are at the mercy of
tho milkman, but who could with a littlo ex
ertion supply their tables with puro milk,
butter, and cream, and the children with tho
ouly food that furnishes the necessary condi
tions for healthy growth of body and mind,
tho following hints are given. Estimates of
tho Amount of land needed to supply a cow
twelve months with a sufficient quantity nnd
variety of food vary from ono to two acres.
My own opinion is that ono and one-half
acres of land in good cultivation will furnish
tho fodder, green and cured, together with
furnished tho fodder, green and cured, to
gether with roots for winter focding, to kocp
a cow in thriving conditiou ono year. It
will bo profitablo to feed meal or bran, which
in this cstimato ia supposed to bo purchased.
A eow can bo "kept"' upon tho products of
lesa land ; but it is supposod that overy ono
at nil interested in soiling has becomo awaro
that a cow is a machino for tho manufacture
of milk, butter, and ehceso, and that it is im
portant that this machine bo run to its fullest
capacity, by supplying it with all tho food it
will consume, to produce tho best results.
Not only this, but every step a cow takes in
search of food, beyond what is needed for ex
ercise, is diverting food from tho milk-pail
iuto wear and toar or, rather, friction of tho
machine. Thia wo will considor tho Grat nd
vantogo of soiling. Second. Tho machino
can be crowded into its full production of
milk or flesh, na is needed. Second. Tho
residue, or manure, is increased in quannity
and quality, nnd cau bo applied where it is
most needed. Third. Tho injurious: effects
of compression of tho soil by tho feet of ani
mals whilo grazing is obviated. Fourth.
More thico as many animalt can bo soiled
thau grazed upon tho samo area oi cultivated
land. Fifth. No division fences are needed,
except for enclosures near buildings. Sixth.
The soil ia being constantly benefited by fre
quent cultivation p nd increased amount of
manure applied. Sovcnth. Tho fertility of
tho soil gradually increasing, tho capacity of
tho farm to carry moro stock, and conse
quently pay larger dividends, increases
in like ratio. Eighth. Tho system
of soiling stock requires thorough careful ap
plication, and business management, which
will dovclop tho farmer as well as tho farm.
Stock should bo fed in tho stable, regularly,
and free access given to water. Most kinds
of green fodder should bo withered slightly
before it is fed, and long fodder aa corn, or
grain when in hand should bo cut. Tbo
food should bo of a character 'o produco what
is desired. If milk, to increase tho quantity ;
if butter, richer food and plenty of mcatl.
Exercise should bo given in roomy enclos
ures or a small pasture-Gold, about two hours
each day in tho summer, during tho cooler
part of the day ; during winter, at midday.
Salt should bo kept where the stock can help
themselves at any timo, or at least each day.
A good way to secure this ia to nail boxes
containing salt against tho fence of tho ex
ercise idclosurc, protecting it from tho rain
by u roof placed low and one-half feat above.
Hock salt is best ; but solar salt can be mois
tened nnd caked by exposing it to the sun.
Ono man, with a horso and cart or a team
will bo needed for. about twenty-five cows to
cut and prepare food, feed, water, clean
stables, etc,, but can givo some assistanco in
planting and cultivating.
Fodder crops cau be divided into classes,
comprising : First. Thoso grains sown in
autumn, to pruduco green food early
in spring. ltyo sown early will
afford considerable padturaga during
dry or frozen weather and an abundaneo
of early fodder in spring, ltyo should bo tho
main reliance for this purpose, as it docs
well on nil soils and is rarely injured by
winter-killing, lioth fall and spring grain,
ir cut early, before tha seed-stalk ia advanced
enough to bo injured, can bo depended upon
for a second crop, na good and very frequent
ly better than the Grat. Thia, if not needed
for food, can or rather, should bo turned
under for manuro, can or, rather, should bo
turned under for manure, na a preparation
for spring grains or a crop of corn-fodder.
Thcro is no better way to enrich tho soil that
to turn tho land often, and always with it
stablc-munuro or a green crop.
Secondly. Spring grains, sown oarly with
gram aud olovcr, keep up tho succession un
til corn-fodder comes on. Oats aud peas,
mixed and sown one bushel peas aud two
of oats per acre, make tho most profitablo
crop for feeding green or dry. The ttraw
ia equal to three-fourths its weight in good
hay, whilo tho grain ia valuablo for cows,
fed ground, before aud after calving, and is
equally valuablo for all kinds of stock. Sweet
corn is best for fodder. Should bo planted
early and planting kept up until July.
Millet can bo sown uutll August. If out
green and properly cured, will yield at least
thrco tons of good hay per aero.
Thrco. ltoot-cropa aud vegetables. Flat
turnipa and yellow turnips cau bo sown until
tho middlo of July, aud will not injure tbo
quality of milk or butter. Mangolds, car
rota, and parsnips wore sown early in spring.
A good orop of maugolds will bo about twcnty-Gvo
tons; carrots and parsnips twenty
tons. Squashes aro better than pumpkins
aud as easily crown. Six to ten tons of
Hubbard or Marblehead squashes can bo
grown per aero, which can bo kept until
nearly spring. Corn-fodder should bo the
main rclianco during winter. All coarso
fodder should bo out, or chaffed and steamed,
to obtaiu best results. Tho beat evidence in
in favor of soiling is that nono who try it
fall back to grazing again, Thcro are many
inconveniences at first ; but theso a littlo ex
perience soon removes. N. Y. hulejtewlent.
Thu ennt from tha chimncvi should ba
ivA.1 A rdnt nf annfc in a nailful of water
n . - ----- , -.
will make a liquid manure of great value
lor Uowcr Dims aua piauts ot an kious.
tho Farm.
A lady thus writes to tho Mass. Plough,
man : Observing that nearly every writer
upon tho nbovo named subject, speaks of
tho "drudgery" that falls to tho lot of
farmers' wives, I cannot help wanting to say
a fow words upon tho matter. 1st. What
is drudgery ? Webster dcGncs it as hard
work, depressing toil. Nearly every ono
will conccdo that any form of labor may bo
followed so industriously as to make hard
work or it ; so that definition of drudgery of
docs not apply to tho work of a farmer's
wife, any moro than to that of any other
person.
I do not bco bow work ono ia interested
in aud enjoys performing, can bo depressing ;
and it scorns to mo that only thoso will talk
of drudgery of women on tho farm, but
thoso who aro doing that work unwillingly.
Interest in tho work and tho desire to do it
in tho best possiblo manner, clovatcs it
above tho term of drudgory, and tho worker
abovo tho position of a drudgo. Being a
farmer's wifo I think I know some
thing of tho lifo of women on tho farm.
Farmers' wives have no need to bo idlo ;
work, and enough of it too, can bo found to
do almost any timo ; but tho devices of tho
brain can lighten tho labor of tho hands
very much, and is it not n pleasure, to in
vent somo ingenious plan to do a picco of
work moro quickly, and in a moro satisfac
tory manner?
Look at tho different ways in which farm-
era' wives work over their butter ! Somo,
as if determined to mako tho hardest work
of it possible, hold a lump of butter upon
tho end of ono paddlo and pound tho butter
milk out with another ; whilo others will
press tho butter against tho sides of an un
steady woodcu bowl, serenely unconscious
that a butter board would savo nearly half
tbo labor, and the quality of tho bnttcr be
improved by being ablo to mould it with
lesa handling.
When pcoplo condemn farmlifo becauso of
ita "drudgory," I wonder if thoy over count
up tbo advantages of living on a farm. Tho
fruit, tho vegetables, tho fresh eggs, poultry,
milk and butter, to Bay nothing of tho many
rides tho family enjoy, how many of theso
could bo indulged in if tho family lived in
town, and the same capital was invested
there, that it takes to carry on tho farm?
When about to movo on to our farm, an old
lady gavo mo thia rather doubtful congratu
lation, "And so you aro going to bo tied
down to a farm !" "Yes," said I, "and to
answer you in words I havo beard my moth
er say many times 1 would rather bo
tho wifo of no intelligent farmer than
the wifo of a man following any other oc
cupation you can mention." Siuco tho hard
times 1 havo felt liko repeating tho samo
mauy times, with interest. To mo town lifo
would be unendurable aa country Ufa would
bo to ono who delights in tho bustlo of the
city. I love tho quiet lifo on a farm. Tho
horses, the cows, tho fowls and even tho pigs,
I am interested in.
My husband talks over with his plana for
for future crops, and 1 watch with interest
hia efforts at improving upon last years suc
cesses and failures. My health is never
better thau when I spend the moat timo in
tho open air, and I consider myself fortunato
wheu tho work in tho houso doea not require
my oversight, and I am thus enabled to
help about somo of tho lighter farm work.
I havo another and a greater reason than
any yet mentioned for liking tho farm. It
is such a good place for tho children. Tho
fresh air, tho freedom from restraint, tho
influences thcro brought around tbcm, all
tend to make them healthy, happy boys and
girls, and later, good and honest men and
women. Givo them au interest in a patch
ot ground soino ol the animals to care lor
and train ; if their taste points that way,
givo tho inventivo ability a chance to ex
pand: mako homo attractive as it should bo,
with books ami music, and tho children will
love tho farm and tha homo too well to ovor
wish to leavo it for tho ovcr-crowdod and
dangerous city.
FARM CHIPS.
Tho Dolawaro peach crop is estimated at
0,000,000, baskets.
Belgium spends for agricultural education
about 15 per 1,000 inhabitants ; Austria,
S50 ; Franco, gG2, and Prussia, S90,
Svcuty-Gvo pounds of decomposed potato
tops aro equal iu value, in tho nitrogen thoy
contain, to 100 pounds of barn-yard manure.
English farmers traco the outbreak of tho
cattle plaguo at u farm near Grimsby to a
quantity of foreign bones taken to the farm
tor manuro.
Canada farmers claim that G bushels of
peas are equal to 10 bushels of corn for fat
tening hogs, aud that poaa yield a larger
number ol bushels to the aero than corn.
With wheat at 2 por bushel, gold under
10 premium, and his coining crop looming
up most hopefully, even the chrouio grum
bler among farmers might cherish a senti
ment of gratitudo and gratification.
Many consider that ducks aro more profit
ablo than hens for homo uso, taking into ac
count tho number aud uiza of tha eggs laid
by them. Tho solid matter and oil in a
duck's egg exceeds that of a hon'd egg by
fully ono-fourth.
Prominent European capitalists havo
been negotiating for soino time, and at last
successfully, with tho Land Commissioners
or Florida for $8,000,000 worth of erangs
lands. They intend to bring into tho state
2,000 or 3,000 hardy furmors from Eogland,
Germany, Frauco and Italy.
Work horsos, if at all, should bo chookod
very low ; thoy uan thus pull to greater ad
vantage, prutoct tbeir eyes from rain or
snow, aud are less liablo to stutnblo or injure
thcmsolvcs. City railway companies bavo
largely abandoned thu uso of ohoek-relna,
Tho great question with our farmers ia,
bow to rnive labor. Tho man who oan tell
ua how to raise ten bushels mere oorn to tio
aero, with no moro labor than before, is
more weleome to ua than be who tolls ua
how to raiso ten bushel by bo much harder
work. It Is the labor that bothcra us,
Women or

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