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Spirit of the age. [volume] (Woodstock, Vt.) 1845-1913, December 31, 1846, Image 1

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BY E. A. KIMBALL.
"Frccilom of Inqulry and thc I'owcr of tlic Pcople."
2,00 PER ANNUM.
Volmuc 8-Niuubcr 7.
WOODSTOCK, VERMONT, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 31, 1846.
PUSINESS C A R D S.
COIiLAMtill .V It A 11 II HTT.
1 1 o r n u V a n ii d Ciiiiiisullots u t 1, n w
Elm Strcct. 2S7.
kConCoLLAMF.it. JamksBarhiitt
O. I'.ClIANm.Uit,
ttornoy and 0 o u n s ol I o r
CentralSlrect,
at
L n w,
267
u owm iiiiTc:iiiNsf
IrTORNEyANUCOUNSCI.I.OIt AT LAW,
vwi, us IUUK, VT.
s a 5i u 1: r7iT71 n i c u .
.2 2 TO RR R Y A T L A IV,
A x n
llMCITOR AND MASTEU IN CIIANCCKY.
WIMlSOIt. VT. 287
SLWAI.L I'UU.AM,
ATTORX E V A T L A W, '
ludlow, vt. 287
H. II. STOUCHTON,
ATTOll A i: Y A T L A W.
Chester, Vt. 287
JAIUKS .11. ;ii,son.
ITORNCV AND I'OI NSt:i,l.lt AT I.AW AND SO.
l.iutoit in uiiAici:nv,
(iimiillt. (' n trj r Caimlu. I I.
VII uiniueii cittrmicil to hn c.iru, nruiiinlly ntlend
1. at(
ITTORNEV AND COI7.VK ELLOR AT LAW,
West Kiiinlolpli, Vt. 269.1)
CAM'IN FKHNCII,
Attomcy niiil Couniclor ut Law,
PROCTORSVILLE VT.
2S7
tVAIMtHN C. I'RKNCIf.
ATTOlt.N K Y A T L A W,
SHARON, VT. 2S7
S. R.STIUXIT.U,
Allorncy and Couiuclcr al Law,
BARNARD, VT.
237
J. U. IIAWKINS,
Attorney and Counscllor at Law,
f EI.CIIVII.LC, VT
287
J. 1 KIDDKK,
Atlorncu and Couincllar al Law.
Wc-t Randolph, Vl.
FltGDElUCKC. ItOItlllNS,
AUornaj and Coii'isellor al Law,
ludlow, vr. 267
I). V. WKY.MOUTII,
nOR jXE Y$C0 XI. X SKLLORATLAW
111, llllil., Vt. 31)711
HUNTON & JONUS,
;'TOnNEV8 AND COUXbKLLOKS AT LAW.
Uhehct, VI.
V. IIunton, 287 I". C. Jorfns.
AfiANSON DYItr,
IaGETAVER.V Al)l,IVCItVST,vni,CKCCl,EU,
ai.mi 01111111:1 nv Tiin
niERtxn iwsixr.ss, axd tiik maxvfac
TURKOP KOOV JXDSIIOES;
Or KVEUV VMUHTVANI) STVM3.
Eait llulnml, Vt 301
J. T. KUKMIAiM,
UNIQ N II 0 T n L
N0IIWICI1,VT.
3iatt
WIIITNHY'S HOTKli,
rner of Elm and Central slrects,
ij v n. v 11 itxe v.
J. H. SI3IONDS.
WINDSOR IIOUSE,
winnsoR, vt.
87.
sAMiTiu, fori),
C II ES II I R I'- nuuo r
KEEitE. N. 11.
i'VJ
s. morrii.l jr.,
VILLA Ci 10 T A V ERX,
SHARON, VT. 31S
Z. F.UYDI3,
KICK S T A r. II II O U S E,
l'nirlnrsvilli-j Vt. 257
iVAV EVfiLAND I IOUSP., IIOS'I'UN.
nt ol liicnilon iiiiik! inMicr iiciii; 111 111c rcnirui
I of tlio city aiul w i Hi 1 ti iwi inliiutci wilk ol Hie
post ofvvc:.
rchants viiiUns llnsttm wnij brasiHred oftht btst
tentinn, andnnlricl Ttz'trd mvcn tn tlrmihnest
Ihraitzhoiit llif niiirr txinmirnmtni.
l'AKVN ril l.viJNrs, rnni'itii: rim.
.I-JI1.N (iASS.
.1 M ERICA.V II 0 U SE ,
CONCORD, N. II.
tnazet in reaunetiio mnvcn ira"""' ""V10
ln aiul Irum inr.arjiai.
313
O. A.I5HYANT,
lrlnnng1Mi,rr'ih,nnil Amerlfnn urji.oiia,
V . I. IjlHMin, llllMllinnil'l
Crockcry Olnm- nml HurJ Wart.
ElmStrftt.
MI3I,I,ISIS & SI.ADR,
InUSIN Fl.OUIt, W.I.nO()l)S.VI!ROULKIL5
IAl.Sil COSITVKTI.Y "a IIAM't
S CONrncriO.NHItV.SIIMML'KimiNKSANW
' RliFUCSIIMr.M'S,
lnTBALSTREnT.Ufl'OHTl.WltlTSCV'PIJOTrl.,
M e I.I.1HII, VJi.il. ii.oum.a.
A. 11ATC1I. A ( O
InnsiNn.ovit w.i.r.Dohs ANonnocr.nins
iNTni TKlN ARY , ri t T M M H 1 1 l)ltlNKri,A Nl
inSHMBNTii.CONSTANTI.V ON IAM).
CEN rilAL S fllKKT. 0
l!l'SS.'.I.I.('I.AH),
. n u m k- r. it s ti n j.h w c 1. 1. r. n
IrnsiTF. wniTSLv'a noTCt., ckntiul sTncr.T,
n II KAII.RV.
leturer of-;ilvcr BomtH itiul ripei-t.idcs nnd Dcaler
ln .1 ewen v, i nucr iiiiu i iuii ) i.uw.ia-
in ..I ,,! Ilnluil. 11
I ...... . ... ri... Cl..4
inOSIIf 11'ftIIWCW S U01CI, OCII(II oiira.
nl'A'KV IIATCII.
lone dnortoutlt of Union Ilall,E!m Strett,
, c o r p K R , and h n i; t; t i u "
I,. IUCIIMONI), & co..
iDLE, IlAllAESfi, TUUXK MJ1IC
pns i.vn TllIMMRIl.
ttish's buildina. Central Strccl. 320
Richmond, N. I. I'arkhurie.
llVl.h 1J. AVITT,
SU1 OJfJl B LE TA I L O R ,
CCNTRAI. NTI1CET. 892
iUlClIAUli AlVIOItS,
T A I I, ) It .
Ovcr J. Collamtr't Office,
r.lm strcet,
JOIIJ KI'.I.I.Y Taihr,
Bvim s. uoswoRTirs sToni:,
IIaii nari) Vt.
K. W. S1IITII, 'I'aii.or,
UOOIl I1KI.OW Tllr, imt'KSTAOi: IIOlitjE
LUDLOW, V. 28li
I). M DI'.WI'.V,
I'ccrti r lic Imnrovf J llolmrl Wnnilrn Pttmpi.
itliovc riniipiuie w.irruutfil tmlriiw 11 lnrrcl
liiliiillc v 1 1 J 1 disr.nptn n linnilrcillcet .
It I onti' r"' ro nt 11 llsUnccprAiiiplljtittriiilciHn.
lliitorK vt. ai7
HArili & AVYVIT, lU.ACKsMiTiis.
lc Ironin? of nl I Miwls itml t;'imnt woik nlocry
uc-irripiinii uoiie ict nrutr.
cnvntAt. STIIIH'.T.
RiAnnnK i isiiF.it.
Leturer o),tnl ilralrr tn enWnel furnitvrt o
ei'frj iric.ripimn.
I'lcmnntrttrccl, 287
ni V II. II t AltKIVlt.
llMiONIN IIOTAMC 1H MJTITION Hll,
l.vecii llie MctlindlH I nnil IJpIacoiaUTnircliCfi.
LIVI'.RY STA1JI.K,
nv Ai-nnnT i'aukcii
Courtrttl,
C. M. SMITII,
lilVK IIY STA11LE,
at Tiin nr.x. noTni,.
Iriit Ilomrs ninl rorlfHCH rontnntly onlmml nnd
Ctlcttp 1IN CHII B ll" lli inr hi.iu "-ivwt
II. F. DICICINSON,
WASHINGTON 1FALL,
CHELSEA, VL
Trom lliii l'orl l;unl Argin.
REPOItT Oi'' TJJH SUCRI3TARY OF
WAR.
Wo cnnnot (!o nur rttnders liclter scr
vico tliiiu to ptiblisli so nuicli nfthis nble
docutnciit ns relnics lo tlic tnuvcincnls of
ilio iirmy duriiig tliu pnstycnr, simpl' prc
niibing ilint it uill 1)0 fotmd o.vccucliiitjly
intercsling, nml ti vnlunble rcport for fu
turo rcferuncc. Tlio kSccrciary suys,
Previous to iny Inst niiiina! rcport, tlic
largcst part of our rcgular ftnxc Iind bccn
conceiilrntcd Corpus Cliristi untlcr tlio
coiiiiriund (il'Gcncral Tuylor fur tlic pro
tcctiou o( Texns, nnd in Alnrch last, pur-
suiiut to iiKslriiciiona IVoin tliis dcpuit
ment, liu tnovud foi'tvnrd, to bc iu a sitnn
tion moro cfTuclually to cxooutc tliat ptir
pose, to tliu lcl't bnnk ofilio RioGrande,
whcro lic arrived abotit theendoftliat
moiitli, eclcctcd a position for tlio nnny
opposite to Mnlainoros, nnd procccded to
sireiiguien u ny uic erection ol necessnry
lield works, nt llie sninc tiine ostalilisliing
a tlepoi ol stiipliea at l'oint Isttblc, aliotit
iliirty milcs disiant iu his rcur, and iiear
tlic const.
Notuiilistanding ihc objcct of llns
moKCmcnt of our imops wns mado knotvn.
and nll intcnlioii of tluing niore than pen
cuably to occupy tlic lerritory of l'cxas
wns uisavowuu, soon alier thn arnvnl of
llie nnny on the Rio Grniitlc a hoslile fecl
ing lietfan to be manifested by ilieMexi-
can forccs stationed on llie oiinoaiic bank
of tlmt rivcr, and on tlie 2-lth of April thc
Aicxicnn gcneral, Arista. inlormed Gnii'r-
al 'I'aylor iliat "lie considercd lto 1 1 it ics
coriimenced, and sliould prosecutc thcm."
On ihc satne day a detaclimcnt ofotir
dragoon?, scnt up tlio lcl't bnnk of tlio
rivez to observo tlic rnovcments ofthe
Mc.xican forccs, bec.'nnc cngngud uitli a
! bndy of theso troops, andaftcra
sliort affair, in whicli tome si.tecn wcro
killciland woundcd, waa coinpnlled to
surrcnder.
After tlns occnrrencc, thcro conld no
onger be n dmibt iliat tlic iMe.xican au-
tlnu'iiies Iind dcsigtirdly clianged tlic rc-
lation ot pcace betticcn tlic two counirics
into a btatc of aclual vi nr. Gcneral Tay
lor, availing liimsolf of tlic antlioriiy vesl
cil iu liitu by your tlircction, callcd on tlic
!ivcrnors of 'l'cxas nnd Loui.sinna for four
regimeiit of voluntccrs frotn cncli Slatc, to
bc scnt fonvnrd willi ilieloast pructicablu
dclay. In thc mcantiint;, owing to ihc
scareity of provisions for tlio nnny cncanip
ed opposite lo iMatninorns, nnd bciuT ap
pi'cheniivc tbnt tlic cncuiy would ciitlea
vor to cnt ofl'tlie coniiuuiiicfitioii with tlic
ililtnt ivllOlll.1. Miilllt i.l-tu Ul.tllll, uiu
gencral, Icaving a patt of his Inrce to de
fend his cnircnchcd cnmp, (Fcrt Brown,)
niovcd with thc rcst of his armv to l'oint
lsabcl. After scciiring his stipply train,
he coniincnccd lns icturn inarcli on iht
ah ot IIav, auu on tlic nct uay eucoiin-
tcrcd the eneiny iu considcrnblc force nl
Palo Alto, where an nctiou cusucd, whicli
was ob.iiicatcly oontcsted by tlio ciicmy
fr-om two o'clock in thc afiernooii nnlil
nettriv dai'K, wnen llie Alcxican anny wus
hnally tlrivcn, with iniinciiio loss, Irum
tlie ficlu. Thc Anicrican forcc engaged
in tliis action was 2,2Sa. Tliat ol ihc
cneniy, as ailmittcu by ilieir own olliecrs
tnketi nnsoncrs. amounted to six tliotts-
nnd regnlnrs, togctbcr with a considera
bln irrcgnlar force.
On tlio next day thc encmy waa acnin
inet scveu milcs in advanco, at Resnca dc
Illinois, Indian.1) Ohio nnd Texns, for a
voluniecr force cqual to 2G regimcnts,
nmoDiitiiig in all, wiih a bnttnlioit frmn
tliis District nnd Mnrylnnd, to abotit 523,
000 efl'ectivc nicn, loservc for Ihc period
of twclvc iimnihs, or to the end ofthe war.
Tliis call wns rcspcnded to iu a prnnipl
and pntriotic tnanncr, and ihc force tluly
orgaiiizcd and scnt forwatd to tlio points
of destination with tlie lcast praclicablc
dclay. Much thc largest porliou or it wns
designed to co-opcrato with thc rcgular
nrmy tintler General Taylor, ihcn 011 tlie
Rio Grnndc. After 0btahli!hing his base
of opcrations on tliat rivcr for scveral liiin
I , i i , i
tircti inurs, ne inovco uito tlio cneniy s
cotintry in thc direclion of Montcrey, in
the depaitmcnt ol New con. Anoiher
portion wns conecntratcd, under Gen
Wool nt San Anionio dc Uexar, for a
movcment npon Cliihiinhun; aiul tlic vol
tinleers froiu tlie Statc ol Missouri assem-
blcd at Fort Jjeavcnworili, to coinpo.se,
witn a lcw iinnurru rcgular troops, an
cxpcdition to Santa Fe, under Gen. Kcar
ney. Owing to the grcat difficulty in prpvid
ing tlie mcans of transporiing supplies for
so large a forcc as tliat conecntrated on
llie Rio Grnndc; to the necessiiy of draw
ing al tlioso supplies from tlio IJnited
Siates thc cneiny's country bcing dus
titute of them; to thc unusunl freshets
which rcinrded the progrcBS ofhoalson
ihc rivcr, nnd lo thc imnrnclicnhilitv of
tlic landroute for wagons at tliat liinc,
arrfitigements for the inorcrncnt tipon
tMouterov from .Malimoros. bv the wnv of
amarao, llie rot'ie se ecteu bv the cnm-
mandiiig L'ciietal, wcrc not coinnleted un-
til the lattcr nart ol Atiusl. when a col-
tiinn, coiisistiug of abotit 0,000 rcgular
nnd voluniecr troops, cnniinenced a for
wartl movcment by brignde tipon Seralvo,
and thfiicc tipon iMonterey, before which
placc it arrivod on thc lOthof Septem
bcr. On npproaching Jlonterey, our nrmy
s.iw beforc tlitiui a city Mrong iu natural
dcfcnces, nnd inatlc much tnore so by
works ol art, with a eitatlel prolccting it tcr procceding about
on one piue, auti loriniea liDigius on au
otlier: ihc avenues to it irunrded bv for-
ircsscs, ell nrmcd, and fully mnniied,
nnd every housc a slrong hold. Thus
sttong in position, with more tiian forty
picces o mtillcry blullully placcd for dcs
tniciive rcsistaiice, wcll might its defen
ders exult iu their fanciod secni ily, nnd
dcfy their nstail.inls. Ilerc, thc vnlor,
skill, and hcroism which Iind rcr.cntly
thone so cnnspicuous ou thc well-foughl
and victorious fields ofl'aloAho nnd
Rfisaca de la Palma, wcrc to bc put to
la I'nlnia, wli'n e lic was drnwn up in iiqti-
:il force, wilh tlio ndvniitngi of positions
jtidiciouslly selr.cted by iiunell. Ilerc
auolher action cnsued, iu which llie. ene
iny was signally defeated, and driven a
cross thc Rio Grnude with t.till greaier
lnss, leaing a largc amntint of mtinitions
aiitl bnggaga of every dcscripiiou, which
fell inlo otir pnsscssion. IJis loss in kill
cd, woundcd, and missing, in thc two en
gagcmcnts, has becn estimaled at one
ihousuud incu.
During thc abscnce of Gcnnral Taylor
wilh a part of his forcc from Foit Drnwn,
llint post was bcnnbardcd by thc ciiPiny's
battcries from ilio 4th to thc 9ih ofMay
Of these gallant achiovomcnts it is not
nrccsary to spenk inore in detail, as llie
oflieial nccotinls ucra laid beforc Con
grcss nt the last scssion. They arc con
sidercd, everywherc in our own country,
&, tidniitlfd nbrond, to bc exninples of
cournge nnd skill scarccly cxcclk'd in the
history of mililnry opcrations roflecling
the highest cretlit alikc tipon tlio ofilcers
and soldicrs who participatcd in thcsc
tncniorable actinns.
Forfcvernl siicccssive ycars thisdop.irt
mcnt Iind nskcd nuthnrity to prepnrc n
pontou train, hut thc prospect of liaving
tiso for it scerncd to be so remolc tliat iio
provisimi Ihnrcfor had then bccn made,
and for want of incnnsof purstiiug the cn
eniy across thc rivcr, ilio coininanding
gcneral was tinable to nvuil hunself, to
ilio ulmost exlcnt, ofthe ndvnntages of
these decisivc viciorics; and it was not
till thc llitli iliat hc siiccceded in crossing
the rivei and tnking military possession
oftlicciiy of Mntnuioros; which was, on
his npnroach, hnstily abnndoned by the
Mexicni) troops, lnnviug bchiud thcm n
cotHiilcrnblo supply ot ordn.incc and pnb
lic storcs.
As soon ns it becnmc knnwn nt tliis placc
tliat Mcxico had commcnccd hostilitics,
Congress rccoouiscd ihc existcnco nf wnr
betwecn ttn Uuited Stnlps nnd ihm re-
pulilic, nnd on the I3ili nf Jlnv nuthoriz-
ed llie I'residont to accept ihc scrvict of
voluntccrs, not to pxcced 50,000. Un
der tliis nct, rcquisitions wero immedinto-
ly made tipon the covcrnors oftlie Stntes-
of Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Geor-
m. rr . t n
gia, iciinoese, iventucny, luissoun,
Tlio ailack was coun... ,
21st, nnd continupd through the two"st'ic
cessive days. Tlio cnemy was assailcd
in his fortificd nositions: his battcries
captured; his foitrcsscs oue after nuotbcr
carried; and at length, disposscssed of
most of his defensivp works and morp
than linlf ol the city, lie solicitcd tcrms
of cnpitul.'lion, nnd libcrnl tcrms were
grauteil.
No hcttcr jtistice can be ilono to thc
rricrtt 3 ofthe ofliccrs nnd soldicrs who
participatcd in thc nchiovcmenis of the
ihrcp glorinus days before Mcntercy, than
is ircscuted in the pcrspicuotis despatch
of Major Genpral Taylor, and iu the re
ports of the ofiicers in subordinalc com
mnnd on tlint nr.casion, which are liere
with traiisiniltctl. A plnin nnrrntivo of
thp'ir deeds is their bcst eulogy.
It is grntifying tolcnrn tliat in ihc scenps
nl IMonterey, where the bravery nnd con
duct of our nrmy wcrc subjected lo thc se
verest tcls, the volunteers, who werc wilh
llie atlvnncinir cohimn, borc a promincnt
part, nnd cntitlcd thomsclvcs to nn equal
shaic in ihc honor and glory of the a
chiovcmcnt. Neiihcr at Mnnlercy, nor on the banks
of ihc Rio Grnndc.wcre our brillinnt suc
ccsscs gained wilhout a prioe. Thc na
tion has to lanicnt a scvcre loss in odiceis
and mcn. .Muuy gallant spirits tbere seal
ctl thcre devotion to ihcir country wilh
their blood; lhey fell in the honornblc
discharge of their dutyi lcnving a nninc
which, whcnevcr and wherevcr mcnlioned,
will be thc tlicine of praise by their gratc
ful countrynien.
In fiilfilment of the tcrms of capitula
lion, the city, fortificntioiis, cnnnon, inu
nilions of wnr, nnd nll olher public proper
ty, wilh ccrtain exccptions, were surreu
dercd to our nrms.
On receiving Gcneral Taylor's despatch
cs auiiotiticiiig thc tcrms of capitulniion,
be was instrticted to give the rcquis'uc no
ticc tliat the nrmisticc, which wn9 made
subjoct to ihc rntificaiinns ofthe respect
ive govrrincnts of llie bcligerent forccs
would ceasc at onco, and tliat cncli parly
would bc at Iiberty to resumo and proso
culc hostilitics wilhout rcstriction.
Thc advnnco colunin under Rrigndier
Gciiernl Wonl, about I ,.'00 strong, dcs
lincd for Chiliatihati, coinmenccd ils
niarch from San Autotiio de Bexar on thc
29th of Scpteinber, nnd was followed in a
few tl.iys thercafier by the rear division of
equal niimhcr. lly Ihc last ndviccs from
tlint officcr, a copy of which nccompauies
tliis rcport, it nppoars tliat thc column un
der his conimnnd has crosscd thc Rio
Grando, pcnctratcd the dppariinent ol Cna
huila it lii u thiriy milcs af Santa Rosa,
and wns pursuing its route to Chihatihatii
tlicnigh not odicinl, information hns just
bccn rcceivptl tlint hc cntcred Monclover
on thc 31 si ol'Ociober, wilhout resistnncc,
and was rcccivcd in a friendly tnnnner by
itsinhnhitnnls.
On tlie 3l)lh of Jtino, Brigndier Genornl
Kcarny, wilh the forcc under his com
matid, anioiinting, in all, to abotit, 1,600
mon, rogiilnrs and volunteerB, movod from
Fort Leiivenworth upon Santa Fe, where
hc nrrived, alior a inarcli of tJ73 milfH, nn
tlie 18th of August, nnd took miliiary
possession of New Mcxico wilhout rcsist
aiice. Thc Mexicnn forccs, about .1,001)
in iiiimbcr, whicli had becn collccted nenr
ihc city uniler thn Into. governiiieut. Ar-
mijn, to opposo his pmgross, disperscd on
the npproaeh of our troops, nud the gov
ernor lled hiuitelf with a smnll conmiand
ofdragoons in tlio direclion of Cliiliiiiihau.
Under the nppreheusiou tlint tlic force
which Mt Foit Lcnvenworlh, in Jiinc,
might not he siifficient fully to pflbct llie
purpose of ihc expeditinn, which was, if
Ibuiid practicable, topass on lo Califnrnia
nlicr conqueriiijr nud scctiriug New Mcx
ico, ueneral Kcarny was autliorized to
orgnnizc and nitister into scnicnn baltal
ioii of the emigrants whicli were on
ihc way to Calil'ornia or Orpgoti. Tliis
has bccn dono, nnd nlso one ihousnnd ad
ditionnl volunteers froni Jlissotiri v,cre
sent on ns reinforccments, nnd to nugment
his dnposablc forcc for Cnlifornia; but
they had not joincd Gcneral Kcarny wIipii
lic upiartetl lor tlint country. Alier mak
ing ihe nececsary arrangcmpiita nt Sania
Fo, contequcnt on thc militnry occupntinn
nf New Mexico, Gcneral Kcarny movcd
wilh a part of his forcc to tho villagp of
Tome, about 100 milcs tlown thc Rio
Grande, The inliabitants, not only at
Santa Fe, but throughout tho wliolo of
tliis dppartment, nrc rpprcsentcd to bis
wcll satisficd with thc change whicli linti
lukt'ii placc, nnd tho Gcncrnl reporls that
inerc can no longcr ue npprenentletl nny
organizcd rciittnucc to our troops in that
lerritory.
With n rcgular force of about 300 drag
nons, lcaving oiders fir a part of tlie vol
unteers to follow, ho conimenccd his
march from Sauin Fe for Cnlifornia, in
tcudiiig lo proeced dnwn the Rio Grande
about two htindred milcs, tliencc to strike
across to the Gila, and to niove down ihat
rivcr ncnr its ninuth, thcn across the Col
orado to Ihc Pncific, whcro he hoped to
arrive about the last of Novcmber. Af-
ISO tuiles on his
route, hc was inet by an express from
Cnlifornia, sent by Liciitenaut Colcnel
Frcpinont. On learnnig thc condition of
things in that qunrler, and deeming that
an ndilitioiiiil forco would not bo rrquircd
iu Calil'ornia lic dirccted tnost of tlint with
Ifuii to rcturn to Santa Fe. Selcctinir n-
siiion ou a inouniuiu overlookiug Moule
rcy, nt n distincc of nboui thirty milcs, en
nonched, it, rniscd tlic flng ofthe Uniled
Siates, und with his own nicn, sixiy-iwo
in niiniber, nwnited the ttppioach of the
coininnndani gcneral.
From tho 7th to thc lOthof IMarch,
Colonel Frcuiont and hii little batid main-
tuincil ihcir position. Geiiprnl Casiro did
iiotnppionc.li within atlnckiiig diitnnco,
nnd Col. Frcmont adlicring to his planol
avoiding all collisious, and dcicrmincd hpi
Ihcr to compromit his governmciit ner llie
AmerifiJii seiileis ready lo joiu hiin nt nll .
haznrds if ho had bpcn atliickcd.nhnndon.
ptl his position and nmrched to Oregon,
intcnduiL', by that rotilc, to reliirn lo the
Uiulfd Slulcs. Deeminj! all daner frotn
tho Mexicans to be pnsscd, lieyielded to
tho wislies of sonie his nicn, who desircd
to rcmnin in ilio country, dischuiged thcm
from his scnicc nnd lefuscd lo receive
otlicrs in their stcad so cautious wns hc
lo nvoiding nnylhing whicli would com
promit thc Anicrican scttlers, or givc evcn
a color ol'ofi'encc to the .Mexicnn aiithor
ilics. Iio iiursucd his march slowlv nud
lcisurely, as the stale of his mcn ft iirn scs
required, until t lic iniddlo of May.and had
l eached thc norlhcrn shorc of tho gicaler
Tlamath J.ahe, wiihin the limils of Ore
gon Territory, whcn he found his fiirthcr
progrcfs iu tliat direclion obstructcd by
impass.ible snowy mountnina and hostilc
ludians, who had becn cxcilpd ag.iinsi
hiin by Geueral Casiro, had killed and
woundcd four of his nicn, nnd lefi Inm to
rcpose rither iu camp or on his inarcli.
At thc snme linie infornialion reachcd
Inm tlint Gcnoial Casti o, in nddiiinii to
his Indiau nllics, was au'vnnciug in pcrsou
agniusl i 1 1 in with r.rt iller y nnd
Wholc Numbcr 340,
thc flcct would co-operntc iu the pursu t
of Castro nnd his forccs. Thc flng of
indeppndeiice was hauled down, nnd tlint
ofthe Uuited Siates hoisicd auiidst tho
heariy grecltngs nnd to t Iio grcat joy of
tho Anicrican scillcrs nnd the forcrs un
der the cuintnnnu of Colonel Fremont.
Tlio combiucd pursnit wns rapidly con
liutied, and on ihe I2ih of August, Com
modore Stockton and Colonel Fremont,
with a dctnclininit of marines from tho
squndron nnd soinc riHcmcn, enlcicd tho
City r.f tho Angels witliout resislanr.e or
ohjeclimi, the 'Govcrnor Gcneral, Pico,
ihe Commatidanl General, Casiro, nnd nll
ihc Mexicans nuihnritics haviiif? fled nnd
dispcrscd. Cominodoro Siockion took
pobscssion of Ihc wholc country as a coti
quest ofthe Uuited Siates, and nppoiuted
Colotipl Ficmont govcinor under the law
of nntions, to nssume the functions of that
ollico when hc sliould rcturn to the squad
fon. Thus, in thc sliort spaco of sixty dny3
from thc lirst decisivc movcment, ihis coti
quest wns achicved, by a smnll body'of
uien, to nn exlcnt bpyond their own cx
pcctation; for thc Mcxican nuihorilies
procluinicd it n conquest, not mcrely of
llie iiorthern patt, but of the wholc pro
vincu ol the Californias.
Tho Conimandnnt Gcneral, Cnstro, on
ihe 9ih of August, from his camp nt tho
Mcsn, nnd next day "on tlic road lo Son
ora," annoiinccd tliis resull to thc pcople,
togctbcr with thc nctual flighl and dis;er
iion ohhc former amhoritics; nnd at the
samc tinie hc olh'cinlly cotnmunicalcd thc
facls ot ihe conqucst to thc Frcnch, Eng
lish, and Spanisb consuls in Cnlifornia;
nnd, to crown thc whole, thcofficial pnpcr
cnvnlry, Ofthe Mexicnn "ovcrnint'nt
nn Ilio Ifiil,
ntthc head of d or 5 hundred men; that 0f Octobcr, in laving these oflieial com
ihey werc pnssing around thc hend ofthe municatious bcfor'c the public, iutroduccd
Day of San Frnncisco to n rpmlpsvoiis of them with the eninhutic decluratiot."
oflhc Californias is consinnmat
tuo norin siiie oi 11, anu tiini tuc atnpricau
scttlers in thc valley of ihc Sacramenio
wcrc comprchcnded in the schemc of de
struction nicdilutcd agaiusi his owu par-
'y- ,
Under these circumstnnces he detcrniin
cd to turn upon his .Mexicnn pursucrs and
seek safcty, hoth for his own parly and
the Anicrican settlcrs, not nierely iu tlic
dpfcat of Castro, hut in the tolal ovcr
throw of tho Mcxican aulhority in Califor
nin, nud tho eslnblishment of an indppcnd-
ent govcriiincnt in that exlensivc depnit-
i i ?
uoui one iii. u,reii mcn to accompany inm, Incnti it was on tle Cl, )lf Jll)0) an(
",m"" mamuii'. 1 ne proinpt i i,elorc tlic coninipnccment of tlmwar be-
and energeiic niauner in vhicli Genenl j twecn the Uniled Siates and Mexico conld
Kcarny has conducled lo a fiicccssI'uI tcr-liave )CL. ,,cl.e kl..vi, ...... ,..-s
minotion a verv difTicult nnd diatant cnter
piisc, is worthy of lngh commciidu-
U0" , iiwnVloemcd
portant that unTilnry occujiation .sliould bc
taken of Cnlifornia. Enrly ntunition wns
itfveti to thls snbject. Genornl Kcarny
was directcd to procccd, with wliat forco
ho could spare, across t lic Itocky inoun-
tains to that country. A coinpany ofU.
S. arlillery, iu July, nnd a royimcnt of N.
Vork volunlcer infnntry, in Sept., wcrc
'Ctil lo son by Cnlifornin; but bel'oro llicsu
forces reachcd ihcir dcsiiuntion, and cven
before their dppnrturc from tho Uuited
Stntes. thc Mpxican ntithorilv 111 thc whole
nroviuce of thc Californias hns becn sub-
vertcd. As thc scries of evenls whicli led
to llie overthrow ofthe Mcxican powep in
that extcnsivo country. and ils uociijiatiori
as n conque.st of tho IJnited Siates, nre
not contiiiued in nny oflieial icport yot ic
ceived, but collccted from various souccs
considurcrcd ntilhciitic, dcem it not in
npporpriate to prcsent thcm with morc
than usual purticulnrity.
In Mny, 1815, John C. Frecmonl, then
a brcvet captain in the corps of'I'ypo
graphical Enginecrs, nnd sincc nppointcd
n lieiitcunut colonel, lcl't hcic under orders
from Ihis dppnttnipnt to purse his cxplora
lions in the rcgions beyond thc Rocky
inouniains. Thc objcct of this scrvicc
were, as thoso of his previous exjilorations
Iind becn, of asciciiufic charncter, wilh
out nny vicw whaicvcr to miht.iry opcra
tions. Mol an ollicer or soldipr ol tho U
nitcd Stntes army nccompanicd hiin, and
his wholc forco consifted of si.xty-two mcn,
cmploycd by hinisell' for sccurity against
Indinns, and for prncuriug stibsistcncc in
tho wiltlcruess and desert counlry through
whicli lic was lo pass,
One ofthe ohjccis ho hnd iu vioiv was
(o discovcr a new and shorter route from
tlic wpstern base of tho ltockv tiiountains
to thc mouih oflhc Coluinbia rivcr. Tl.is
searcb, for a part of thc distance, would
carry hiin through the unsettlcd, and af
lerwards tbrnngii a coruer of the setllcd
narls of Californin. Ilc appronchcd the
selllcments in the winler of lfcU."i '(i.
Awarc oflhc criticnl Ftato of afl'iirs bp
twccn the Unitetl Siates and Alcxico, and
detennined lo give no catiso of offi'ncc uf
the nnthnritics ofthe provinco, with conv
tnendable prtidencc he hnlted his com
maiid nn the frontier, one hundred milts
from Montcrcy, nnd prucpodrd nlone to
ihnt city, tn csplaiu tlic object of his com
ing lo thc Coiiiniandant gcneral, Casiro,
and to obtain uprmission lo go to tho val
ley nf ihe San Joaquin. where thcre was
iinmo for his nicn nml grnss for his horses,
nud no inhnbiianis to hc molested hy his
prescnce: Thc lcavc wasgmnlcd; but
scarccly had hc reachcd tlio dcsired spot
for rcl'rcshnient aud reposc, bofori? he rc
ccivetl information Irotn tlio Anicrican sct
tlementa, nnd by cxprcsses from our con
sul nt Montcrcy, iliat Gcneral Castro wns
prcparing to nttnck hiin wilh n compnrn
tively large forco of arlillery, cavalry, nnd
infnntry, npon the pictcxt tlint, under thp
cover of a scicntific mission, ho wns exci
ting thc Anicrican scltlrrs lo rcvolt. In
vioiv of this dangcr, nnd to be in n condi
tion to repel an nttnck, hc thcn took a po-
tion was takon, nml by tlic Olii ol July it
wns carried into ell'ect by a series ol rn'piil
filcn hiiucr tno c'onlnidi ui .ib -nucnu
leader, qtiick to perccive, and nble to di
rcct tho proppr mcasiircs for nccomplish
ing such a daring euterpriso.'
On the 1 1 of Jtino, a convoy of two
hundred horses for Cnstro's cnmp, with
an oiliccr nnd fourlcen men, were surpris
ed and captuied hy twelvo of Fremoiu's
parly; on the lulh, at dajbreak, the mili
tary post of Sanoma w.ts alo surpriscd
aud taken, wilh uiiic brass caunon, two
hundred nnd fifiy stand of niuskels, nnd
seveml ofliccrs, aud somc nicn and niutit
tions of wnr.
Lenving a small garrison in Sanoma,
Colonel Fremont went to the Sacrnmcnto
to rouse the Americaii settlers but scnrce
ly hnd hc nrrived llicro, whCn an cxprcss
renchcd hitn from ihc garrison nt Snuonin,
with informatinn tiiat Cnstro's wliolo force
was crossiiig the bay tt atiack thtit jilaco.
This iuteHigcncc wns rcccived iu the after-
nooti of thc 23 of .liine, while hc wns on
rho Aiiieiicnn fork oftlie Sacramenio,
cighty milcs from ihc little garrison ut Sa
noma, und at 2 o'clock on tho niorning
ofthe Suih hc nrrived at thftt plncc wilh
ninciy rillcmen frotn thc Aliicrici.n scttlers
iu that valley. Thc cnemy had not yct
appcnred; scouin werc scnt out to recon
noitrc, nnd a party of twcnty fell in wilhn
sqtiadrnn ofseveuly dragoons, (all ol Cas
iro's forcc which hnd crosscd iho bay,)
nltackcd antl defenlcd it, killiug nud
wotinding five, wilhout harm to iheinselves
ihc Mcxican cotnmnnder, De la Torrc,
bnrely cscaping, with tho loss of his trans
poit bonis, aud nitic picccs of brass mtil
lcry spiked.
Thc country north ofthe hay ofSnu
t'rancisco bcing clearptl of ihocnelny,
Colonel Frcniotit rcturucil to Sanouin on
thc cvening ofthe dih of July, aud on thc
morning of thc tOtn callcd the pcople to-
ixcthcr, explatncd to tlicin Ihe coni.'ition of
things in ihc provinco, antl recoinmendcd
nn inwnedmlo declaralion ol iiidp)eii(k'ticc
Thc dcclarntion was madu, and he was sc-
lecled to tahu the diief direclion of nf
ftiirs. The ntlack on Casln wns the next ob
jcct. Iio wasal Santa Clnro, nn en-
trcuchrd post on the tipper or south sidc
oflhc bay of San Frnncisco, with 400
mt'ii and two pieeeA ol lield nrtillory. A
circuit of inoro tlmn nn hundred miles
iniist bc traversctl lo rcnch liiin. On ihe
Gth of July the pursnit was eommpiiccd bv
a botly of 1 GO inotintrd rillctnrn, com
tnundetl by Colonel Fremont iu person,
who, iu threc days, nrrivetl nl the Anicri
can solllutncuts on tlje Ilio dc loss Jlnuri
canos. Ilore ln Ipnrnt that Castro had
nbantloiicd Sautii Clarn, nud wns retical
ing south lowards Cuiihul du lus Agilcs,
(tho Cily oflhc Angels,) ihe scat ofthe
govcrnor general oftlie Califoruitis, nud
distaiit four hundied miles. It was in
Ktauily resolvcd ou lo puisuc hiin to llint
placo. Al tho iuoinct.it of dnparture thc
gratifying inlelligciico was rcccived thnt
wnr with Mexico hnd cninmencctl; that
Montcrcy had becn taken by our nnval
forco and tho flng ofthe Uniled Slnlos
The os.!
cil. 1 lie wholc provinco was yiclded up
to the Uniled Stntes, nnd is now in our
mililnry occupancy. A smnll part of thc
troops sent out lo stibject this provinco
will constitnte, it is prcsumed, a sufficieiit
lorcc to lctnin our possession, and Ihe re
mainder will be disposable,for olher ob
jncts of wnr.
In thc foregoing rcmarks I have presen
ted to your considcration thc destination
and opcrntion of ihc public forces sinco
ihc couiiiienccment ofthe wnr with Alcxi
co. Whcn its existancc was rccognizcd
by Congicss in Alay last, our entire mili
tary force, then stationed at difl'crent
points in our widely cxtendpd country, did
not cxcced 7,G 10 men. Our prcnnrituui
for a lorgc cxpansion of tho arniv, nnd
rotiuiis'uuyuoV.rinrigon military ope-
iu iiiitny rcsnccis. nmin "''tJ.
ns were tlcmandcd 'to ,PP, , , ,0"t" Sud'
nn army mi.iji ..i, ....(,.aMJ.1.le 'vnnts of
to more thnn 30,000 men, to be sent lorin
on several difi'crent nud disinnt cxpcdt
tions, could not at once bc made.
The dutics of this tlcpnrtnicnt havc
bccn, sincc thc conitncnccment of the war,
arduotis nnd eti'.bnrrassiug, and iis unre
milticd efiorts haebecn dirccled lo dis
cbarging thcm in the tnanncr best calcula
lcd to lacilitate the opcrations of our forccs
inthc field. To these furces helonges
the tnerit of the sticccsscs which havc at
lendcd their rnovcments, and these suc
ccsscs arc not inconsiderable. By tho
opcrations of the laud and naval forces wo
are now in military possessinn ofthe de
pariment of Titmauliptis, oftlie rigbt bnnk
oftlie Rio Grande fur several hundred
inilea Ironi its tnoutb, and of llie deparl
nicnt of New Leon. Coahuiln nnd Chi-
htiahtia are, iu cfl'cct. wrcsied from tho
control of Mexico; all Mpxican nnthority,
bolh civil nnd military, has bcpu diplaced
in Now Mcxico aud thc Cnlifurnias, nnd
these Inrge and important provinccs aro
in our qnict occupation. Such nro tho
achicvctnciiis ol'our nrms wiihin tho short
pcriod of scven nionths from the com
mcnccnient of n wnr, suddenly forccd up
on tis, whcn our forco iu the lield was less
Ihan thrce ihousnnd efl'ectivc men, wilh a
hoslile nrmy of doublc ils iiumerical
strctiglh prcpnred lo assail it, nnd exult
ing in ihc confident liopc ofa decisivc
victory.
In rclation to thc fiirthcr proscculion of
the war ihc Sccretary says:
Aulhority wnn given at Ihc last session
of Congress to increase the rank and filc
ofthe regimcnls in tlie rcgular scrvicc to
more than doublo tlie former number.
Protnpt tncasures wcrc tnkcn lo ptocuro
recruits; but they liavc not heen ntlendcd
wilh the desired elll'ct. When fillcd up
to thc maximtini nllnwed by law and cxecu
livc approbniion, nur rcgular forces will
bo 1C".)93 ollicprs nnd men; but it does
not now excccd 10,300. The want of hct
tcr sncccss iu rccruiiing is, I npprehcud,
maiuly tobe ascribetl to tho largo number
ol volunteers which has in tho ineantimo
beeti callcd oilt. Thc volunteerBorviccts
rcgnrded gencrally bj our citizcns aspref
eablc to that in thc rcgular nnny; nud as
long ns volunteers nre cxpctcd to bo callcd
for, it will bc dificuli (o flll ihc rnnks of
rcgular rt'gitiichts, tinlcss atlditional in
tluccniciiis nrc oflcred, or thc lerms of
scrvicc inodified. A small pecuniary
boniily given nl tho litne of thc eulistment,
or land nt the end of ihc terin of scrvicp,
wonhl, it isbelievcd, have a most bcnefi
cinl eliect. Probnly an cqual favornblo
rcstill would llow from nnnexing a condi
tion to the presenl pcriotl of sprvice, allow
ing the rccruit lo he dlschalgcd at ihe end
of the present wnr.
It is not possible to forplcll with much
prccision what number of iroops (hc cxi
gencies of the war mny requirc for thc
cnsmng yenr. llie csnmates prescntcd
thore rniscd on tho 7th of -Tulyt and that. ln ,lllJ 6ecrolar-of the I rca-iUry havo

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