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Spirit of the age. [volume] (Woodstock, Vt.) 1845-1913, October 07, 1847, Image 1

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Y E. m. nnoww.
"Frccdom of lnquiry and tlic Power of the rcoplc."
Voliimc 8-Nnnibcr 47.
Wliole Nimibcr m,
t o r ii o y s nnd Cuunsclors a t L a w
ornnv nnil linnnanlnr
L n w
Altorncy and Countelor at law,
Ji U T U 11 JV K Y A T L A II'
niTnit AN!) MASTPli iisi miANnpnv
SKWAl.L fuli.am.
Chester, VI. 287
roRKtr anh couNsELon at law,
Wem Randolph, Vi. 289-1 y
VAItltliN 0. FKENC1I.
T T O 11 .V E Y A T 1. A W.
fcllAnoK, vt. 287
S. lt.STREETF.il,
Jiliomey and uounicior al L,aw,
Attorneu and Counselor at Law.
weii icantioipn , vi. anu
ui;tiili,, vt. 30711
R N E V 8 A t n C O U JV H K LU It H A 1 I. A
Chehea, VI.
etivpiiii i nii i i vnn v sr iu.nKF.nPEli.
Kvn v vi 1 1: r v a n ii s i l i.i;.
Kntt llultand, Vt. 301
nohwicii.vt. 318 II
""wTllTNE Y'S
II O T E I. .
r o .1 m ana u e nir a i o i r c c i s,
LMRIt. G. F. Wiiitney.
samuei. roici),
I L L A G E T A V E Ji Jv ,
CHELSEA, Vi. 326
r 1 i n a r n n rr (j p
en'rt rtailnento cnnvty ilsilertat lhi lloutt
l and from inr iltpot. U1H
O. A. Hlt V"A NTi
w.i (.noiM.anu Urnccrirn,
ruckerv Cllanh nnd Hurd Ware.
KlmSlrett .
i v i.'i nii ii w i n(inns.innnnt!liina
i.iaii. f!i:o. II.9i.Anr..
r M A K F. K A N I J E W E I, E II fi,
r. vt 11 1 1 n r 1 n iiui .iiiwu,i ihhl mnnbM
.-r J 1 J . .n,mnL
cwelry.Ontlcry nml Pitncy Oornli-
WhnlrtiHle mik! Uelttllf o7
. . . 1. ti.1.1 ri 1 J Ol..i
aornouthof Unian llatl,Etm Stritt,
r E n, and iiiiket inoN wnnKBR.
IOJVABLE T A l L 0 11 ,
T A i i. o a .
llame r tf B ti r rc t f t Office,
Klin nlrecl,
liAItNAHD, Vt.
ili (K. 1 V VI 1, lLACKHMIT118i
Inc of nll kiinln anJ Oni'lnm work olcvrry
deacriitlnii uonc lo nrucr.
r c.antt Uealrr in enbinel furniturt o
evrry iicicrtpiton .
I'ltnnnnt fiirtfl 287
IAN IIIITANIU rilAU l I I -Hj l.ll.
h f M plhnil lu 1 ii n i nl.rnnn inlmrrhpM .
Bg oui wnutcu in rAcnniii; inr i.mxjn uj
371 A. aiLAlliSBi
ihrr, woulil rpspecllully Inform llie lnliubl.
wnler. nnil viclnilv. Ilint hc hna lilrnl Ihr.
.l.l I.,.. tl ... Wr.l
I W Ilirn'S mori), tukcn nnd returned
, Junoll, 1747 370 Cm
D, HURD & C0.
in ZQQTi No. 103 Statc S!.,
r A. & A. I.awiience A; To.; Wiiit-
lemm IIutciiiniion A TirrANV.
f..Bar. hi.lnR llnnivu X r.n
MeMrs J.U. &C.JoNE. 3SI y
ncy nnd Slnple Dry Goods, Ready
0 Clolhing, Cnrpelinirs, pIc.
... rt . 1 . . .. I I r . I 1 1 ' . . T i
Hl., unni ij itiin ii niu. itiril nnu
nnd Oiln, Flour, 811I1, rinMcr, chnlm,
,1'lmv. N11IN, (ilnM, r.KAIN and
llaiiovcr, x. ji.
ii.ohino EsrAiii.ifliijiiiri t esnncc-
icd wlih the hIpstp- .
Gov, Wriglit's Aildress.
At tlm hxlnliilion of tlic Now Ynrk Stnlo
Acriculttinil Sociciy, Sentcmber lCtli
JUr. I'rcsiilcnl, and Gcntlemcn of the
Statc Azvicultural Societu. Ilud il buen
my purpose to cntcrtnin you with nn culo
giinn iipon tlic grcnt inlcresis confiilecl lo
your carc llie Agriculluro ofthe Slate
I shmild find myself forcslnlled by llie e.
liibiiion liicli surromidB us, and wliich
Ims proiiniinced iliat oulogy lo llie eye
much inorc forcibly, inipressively, elo
qiiently, tlinn I coiiltl comtnand lansunge
lo pruuouncc it to llio cor ol tliis asscui-
Ilad I mistalirnly proposed to nddrcss
lo you a discotirse upon ocriculturnl nro
dtiction, lliis e.xliibition would liavo drivcn
mo from my purpose, by the cunvictinii
lluit I ain a bacluvard nnd scurccly iniiialed
scholar, btanding in tlic picscnco of mns-
lers, wilh the lcaat ir.slrucled and rxpcri-
enceu ol wliom, it would ne my duty lo
cliango plncns.
1 lie ngriculturo of onr Slale, far ns il
yct is from tnaturity and pcrleclion, Iiqi
alronuy become an nrt, a scienco, n pro
lession, 111 uiiicli lie wlio nould inslruct
must be first liiinaelf imstrncted farbovond
1110 aovancemont ol liim wlio now adiress
es you.
J lie pervauing cnnracler of tliin crcal
and viul intcrest, houovcr, its iiitiuinlc
connection with tho wauis, comforls and
intercsts of everv man in every emnloy-
tnent and callnig in life, and its coniroll-
mg relatinna 10 tlie comtnorcD, ninnufuc
lures, (.ubstnulial indciiendcncc, and the
general henlthund prospcrity of our wliolc
people, )resent nbundnut subjects for con
templation unon occnsions li.'io tliis, vviiii-
out attenipting to explore llie dcptlis.or to
define tlie priticiples of a scicnce so pro-
lound, and to the uninitiated, so difiiculi
as tliat of ngriculture.
Agiicultiiral productiou is llie sub stra-
turn of tlie wliole superstructurc; iliegreat
elemciit whicli spreads the sail and inipels
llie car of cominerce.and motes ihohnnils
and turns tho machinery ol rrianiifactnri'.
The carth is tlie coniinon nioiher of all, in
vwiatcver cinploymeut cimaced, and the
fruits gathcred from its bosoin, nrc alike
the indispcnsible nulriuicnt nnd sunpori
ofnll. Tlie productions of its suifaee
and tlie trcasurcs of its niiues are llie nia
tcrial upon wliich the labor of the acricul-
turalisl, tho merclianl aud the nimiufac-
ttircr, nro nlihe bcstowcd, aud the piice
(or ulucli iill ahUc toil.
The nctivc stimulos wliich urecs all
fnrtvard, cxcitc3 iudustry, wnkens ingenu.
ity, nnd uringa out inveulion, is tho pros-
pect or ihe liope of a maiket for tiic pro
ductions of their labor. Tho firiner pro
(!uo:s 10 scll; the niprchant purchasen to
sell; nnd llie innniifiicturcr fabrics lo scll;
Self coii.suiiiption of tlieir rcspective goods.
altliouyli an indispnnsablc necessity ol life
is a inciie inciileut in the miud iinpslled to
ncpuisitiun. iogain lliat wlnch is noi
produced or ncquired, by llie salcoftli.it
wlnch is possessed, is Ihe grcat btruggle
of thu laboring man.
Agriculiural )roduction is the fnst iu
order, tho strongest in necessity, nnd llie
highest iu uselulness, in tliis wliole sys
tcm of acquisition. The other brnnches
fiinnd upon it, are sustained by it, and
wilhout it could not ejcist. Siill, it has
been rdmoet uniformly, as the wholo histo
ry of our Statc anii coiintry will show.tlie
most ueglccled. ApprcuticeBhip, cduca
tion, a epecific coursft of systematic in
slruction, Ims been, timo oui of miiid,con
sidercd an indisjicnsible prc-rcquitiic lo
credilable or succcssful engngeiucnt in
comnici'cial or mcchniiical pursuit.; while
to knuw how to ivield ihe nxc, to hold ihe
plow, nnd to swing ihe scythn, has been
decmed sufficicnl to eii'.itlc the posscssor
of tliat kuowledge to the firt-t place, aud
the highest wages iu ngriculiural cuiploy.
ihein to perfonn. Ile hnd nlmcst ovcr
lookci! tlie vitnl faci, thnthis Inuils like hi?
pnticnl tenins, rcquirc to be fed to cimble
thom lo perfonn well; nnd especinlly hc
liaB iirglectfd to considcr thnt thero is n
likc connection bctween the quantity nnd
the qutility of llie food they nre to rcccivc
aud ihe scrvicc to bo rcquired from thcin.
Itoady, nlniost nlways, to tho cxlent of
their nhiliiy, to tnako ndvniiccs or the
purchaie ofinoro lands, how few of our
larmers, in the cnmpnrisnii, are willing to
mnko ihe ncccssary oulluys for the profu
able iniproveinent of the laud they alrcady
Thcso, nnd kindred subjecls, are bcgin
uing to occupy tlic niiuds of our fiirmers,
nnd tho debt they owo to tliis society for
Hs cflbrls lo wakcn their ittcution to tliesc
irnportant facis, aud lo stipply usel'ul nnd
slnto of tlita counlry, the condilion of ils
sociciy, nnil tho tcndency nnd iiiolination
ol ils populnlion, asto tlieir industrml pur
suiis, are sucli, at the present tiuie, or can
ho cxpcctcu to be sucli for general ions yei
to coine, as lo rouder it possiblo to eon
siime witliin the counlry ihe surplus of ihe
proinictions ol our ngriculturo. 1 hc ilie
ory ol nn exclusively domejtic markct for
ihi.i grent domestic interest, is ecrtainly a
vcry ncatnilul one, as theory, and r.an
scnrcoly fail to Ftriko the mind favorably
upon n first impression. Slill, exaniina
lion has produced diflereiiccs of opinion
betwnen slnlesinen of cnual iiilelligcnco
and jiiitiiotism, as to its influcuccs upon
tho liappiness nnd prospcrity of a counlry
and ils poptilalicui. Any pxaniinniion of
tliis ipicslion would lcnd to n discussion
A simple principlc of produclion aud of
traue, always prnctically applied to nianu
faciures nnd commerce, tliat the best and
chraiesi nrticle willconimatid the market,
and pvrove the most profitable to the pro
ducer and the sellcr, becnuso most hciiefi
cial lo the buycr and consumer, is but be
ginning to, roceivo its application in agri
culture. Tho merclianl wlio, from n
tnore oxtensive rcquaintnuce with his oc
ciipntion, h 111 ore attentive observation
of the innrkcis, bettcr adnplcd means,and
a more cnreful npplicaliou ofsound judge
mcut, uuliriiig enurgy; and prndent indua
try, cnn buy the best and sell the chcapcst
has always bccn Been to be the enrliesl
and stirest lo acomplish tho grcat objcct
of In'j clnss, an indepcndciico for hinisclf.
So the mechnnic, who, from a nioro
thorough instruclion in the jirinciples and
handicrafl of his (rade, or n more intense
application of tniild nnd jiidgcmcut with
labor, can improvo ihe anicles ho fnbri
cates, or tlic machinery and modcs of
llieir maniifncturc, and can thus produco
the best, nnd scll the chcapcst, has always
been scen to rcnch tho samo advuniago
ovcr his competitors, wiih equal rentliness
and ccrtaiuty, nnd that llicse resulls sbo'd
follow ihcsc mcaiis and cfiorts, has been
cnnsidercd uatural aud unavoidublo.
Still ihe ngriculturnlist has been content
to follow the beatcn trnck, to pumuo, 'and
lodepend upon tho enrih, the soasons,
good fortiine nnd providenco, for a crop,
indulging (hc hope thnt high prices mny
coinpcnsnte for diminishcd quantity of in
ferior qualily. Il has scarccly occurred
to him thnt tho Btudyoftbo priticiples of
his profcasion had any thing to do with his
succcss as a farmer, or thnt wliat hc had
deinandcd froin his soils should bc cousid
ered in connection wilh whnt he is to do
or them, and wliat he is about to nsk of
practicnl tuforination iu rcgard to them,
is gradually receiving n just appreci-
alion, as tho nssmblage wlnch suirotmds
us, and the cxliibitions upou t his grouud
most gratifyingly prove.
JManvolour agriculiuralists are now
vigorously comincncing ihe study of ihcir
soils, the ndaptation of their niar.ures to
tlic soil nnd crop, the nntures oftlic planis
they cultivaie, the lood they reqtiire, and
the bosi mcthods of adininisteriiig thnt
food (o produce hcnlih, and vigor, aud
fruit; and ihey nro becominp convinced
lliat to uiiderstand how to plow, nnd sow,
and rcap, is not the wliole education of
tlie farmer, bui thnt it is quile ns irnpor
tant lo know wliat Innd is prcpnrcd for the
ow, anii wliat seed it will brinff loa har-
vest worlhy of the labors of the sicclc.
Expctience is stcadily proving tliat, by n
due attention to ibc.iu cotisiderntions. n
belter arliclc, doubled in qnaiitily, may
be produced from the snme acre ofgroiind
wilh a sniall proportionato increasc of la
bor and expeuse, and ihat tho farmer who
pursues tliis improved syslem of agricul
turc, can, likc the mcrchaut and iiieclmn
ic rcferred to, enter tlie market with a bet
tcr prudiiction, at a chcaper pricc, ihan
his less ciitorprising couipciiior.
1 hc change in tho agnculturc of our
tate and coiintry, oiiens to tlic miud rc-
llcctions of llie mnst-clieering charactcr.
Ii-....! 1 . . . -VLVW ...
ii cnriieu oui to 1 1 a:r-
iproperly corisidernl iolilical, if uoi parti-
iinnlo rcsults, it
' our fanncrs
sifor iufcri-
(ng 1
promiscs a compe'l
uot to obtain tlfc',
il in imuulliilicun
the best, and-il)3:J
rics of hiiinan lifbi
turai piospenty, uilli ifi
bread, furuishcd iu iibuud.i
wlio will eut willun tho mlo prcj
falleu man,in tho sacred volumo jn
Stcudy rcsolu,ti
gy arc rcquired I
uroveniciits to tr
dicutcd alikc byU
' 41
liuiulous of a
inarltel will rousa
norve that energy.
rcsulution aud
Wilhout tliis encour-
agcmeiit iu prospect, few will pcrsevcrc in
niQking improvcmcnls wliich requiro close
and cmistanl mcntal npplicaliou, as wcll
ns severc physical labor.
Agriculturo will nevcr be healtlilully or
profitably proBecuted by him whose con
trolling objcct is his own consuinptioii.
I he hopo of gaiii is the molive power to
hunian indiistry, and is as ncccssary lo
the farmer ns to the mcrchaut or inanu
fncturer. All who labor are equally stiin
ulaicd by the prospect of a ninrket wliich
is to rcmunuralc them for their luil, nni
vvitliout tliis hopo neithcr mcutnl activiiy
uor physicnl cnergy will characlcrizo their
True is il that tho farmors of our coun
lry, ns a class calciilntc less closcly tlic
irofits of their lubor and capilal tlian mcn
cugaged in most other pursuils, and nre
conteiit with lower ralcs of gain. The
most of them own their faruis, their stocks
and fnrining iniplcmcnts, uncncuinbcrcd
by debt. Their business gtves but an an-
nual roiurn. 1 hey livo frugally, labor pa
tienllv and failhfullv. aud at llie clnsc of
llie ear, its expenscs are paid Irotn its
procceds, tho hullance rcmaiiiing bcing
accounled the profits ol tlic vcar. Alili'o
n modcralc siiin produces contcntmcut,
witliout a computniion ol Uio rato per
cent. upon the capilnl invesicu, or llie
wngcs it will pay to tho propnclor and the
mcmbers of his lamily. Tho rcsull is the
grcat objcct of liuiiinu labor, nnd, if not
rnpid, it is safe and ccrinin. Il is a sur
plus beyond the expenscs of livmg, to be
addcd to tlic cslale, nnd may be rcpcatcd
in each revolving yenr.
Jf, bowevcr, tlns surplus is lcft upnn the
liands of the farmer, iu his own products,
for wliich there is no market, his cnergtes
nro parulyzed, his spints sink, and he
scarccly feels thai ihe year has ailded to
his gains. Hc sccs litllo cncouragcmenl
iu loiling on, to cultivulo beyond his wants,
prodiiciions which will not scll; and tho
cbnnccs are, that his farm is nrglectcd, his
liubbaudry bccomcs bad, and his gains iu
faci ccaso.
To continiio a prngressivo slato of im
provement in ngricultnre, llicn, aud to
give cnorgy and prospcrity to t his great
nnd vitnl hranoh of hunian ir.dustry, n
licnllhful and slablu markct hecoines uidis
pensable, and no objecl should more carc
fully occupy the attention of the farmerB
of tfie Unitcd Stato.
Ueeply impressed with tho conviciion of
tliis trtith, bcncvolpiit ininds havc cherish
ed tlic idea that a doiueslic markct, to bc
iuilucncrd only by our owu ualioual poli
cy, would bc so far preferable, in stabiliiy
and certainty, to the opcn markct ofihu
connnercial world, as lo havc persuaded
thcmselvcs that n siifticicui markul furoiir
agricultural products is thus altainahle.
It is not designed to discuss tlic soiinduess
of tliis theory, whcre it can be rcduced.to
praciice; but only to inmiiro whcilr liio
shii, and an sucli discussions il is my set
lled purpose to avoid, as innpproprialc lo
tho placc nnd llie occasiun.
I siuiily proposc to cnqiiire ns loa fact,
which must cnnirol llie application of tlic
orics and principles of political econouiy
toiichiiig ihis point, to our country nud its
agricultural populntinn, wilhout raisiug
any qucslioii as to the wisdom oftlic one,
or tho soundness of tho other. Is Ihe
consumption of ihis country rqunl to ils
agriculiural productiou, or can il hccomc
so wiihin any calculablc pcriod of years?
Uow is the fact? May I not inquirc witli
out giving ofTence, or trariscending the
limits I have irescnbed for mysclf iu the
discussion? Cnn a fair oxuuiinntion,
scnipuliuisly conliucd to t his point, lake a
political bearing, or disturb u political
fceling? h is certainly not my design to
ivound the fcelings of any mcmber of the
society, or of any citizen of tlic country;
and I have convinced mysclf that I mny
ninke ihis inquiry, and cxpress Ihe cnn
clii5ions of my own mind as to tho result,
wilhout doing cither. If I should prove lo
bc in c'rror, it will bo nn error as to the
fact iuquired after, nnd uot as to the sound
nesfl of the principle in political ccoiiomy
depcndcnt upou tho fict for its application,
hccaiisc ;is to tlic souudncss oftlic princi
ple, I nttcmpt no discussion and ofl'cr no
opinion. Il will be nn orror as lo the np
plicabilily of a theory to our country, and
not ns lo tho wisdom or policy of thu the
ory iisclf, becuiise of the soundncss, or
unsoiiiidncss of llio theory, whcu it cnn bc
prnctically applied, I studiously refrain
fmii any cxpressiou, as inapproprialc here.
jmihjjllie iniliilgencc ol tlic society, 1 will
nypns u iue iuci.
csUnlrv is vcry wide anii cry new.
fSVery vnriety of climatc nnd
iiuiu iu ui luuiiui ui iui ouiia.
ready nlmost cvcry agricul-
nnd llie most iniporinnt nre
tirflfflkrv produciions of extenaivo scc-
of the counirv, and are now sent lo
tho mnrkcts in grcut nbiindaucc.
Yel our ngriculturo is in its infancy al
mosl cverywliere, nnd at iis matniity no
where. Il is bclicved to be entirely safe
lo nssunie that thcre is not ono single ag
riculiural county iu tho wholo Union, fill
ed tip in an agricultural sense not one
such county which has not yet innd to bc
hrought iuto cultivaliou, nud much more
nud, ihe cultivaliou of which is to be ma
terially improved, beforc it can bc r.onsid
cred as hnving reachcd the mensure of iis
capacity fur produclion. If tliis bc true
of llio best cultivated agricultural counly
iu the Union, how vast is tlie proporti.in
ofihose couutics wliich bavo cniirc town
ships, aud of tlie btatcs, which havc not
meit'ly coiinties, but cntire districls, yct
uliolly unpeopled, and unrcclaimed from
the wildcrness statc?
Wlien to tliis broad nroa of the agricul
iural field of our counlry, we add our ini
monso territories, organi.ed nnd unorgan
ized, who can compiilo llie agriculiural
capnciiies of the Unitcd Slate.", or fix a
limit to tho period when our surplus agri
culiural productions will increase with in
crensing )enrs and populnlion? Conipare
lhc censtis of 1830 and 1810 uiih tho rnap
oftho Union, nnd witness tlie increasc of
population iu tho new slntrs, uhich are
alinns-l exclusively ngriciillurnl, and who
can doulit tlic strong and resistlcsa inclin
alion ol ourjjeiile to ihis pursuit?
Counect litvjUi these consideralions of
cxtcnt of countrf, divcrsiiy of soils, varie
tic.i of climalc, and parlial and iiupcrlect
cultivntinu, the prcscut ngncultiiral pros
pects of tliis counlry. Wiincsss lhc rnpid
ndvanccs of lhc lasl dozcn years in llie
charactcr of our ciiliivntion, lhc quality
and quantity of onr productions liom a
given brcadlh of land, and llie improvo
ineiit in all tlie iniplcmcnts by which the
labor of the iarmer is asisicd and applied.
Mnrk the vast change iu the current of
educated mind of llio country, in rtspnct
to tliis pursuit; lhc nwnkcd allcnlioii to its
bigli rcspectnbility ns a profession, to ils
safely from hazards, lo its lienllhrulnpss
to miud nnd body, nnd to its produclivc
ness. LiMen lo tho cnlls for iiifonnation,
for education, upon agricultural siibjects,
and to tlic dcmntids thal tliis edtmntion
shall cnustitntc a depnrtuiput iu the grcnt
nud all pnrvndingl sy.Hcm of our coniinon
school cdiicution, a subject at tliis inoment
receiving llio cspccial nttcntion, nnd bcing
pressfd forward by the rcnewcd cnergies
of Ihis society. Hehold iho nnnibers of
professors,' honored with tlic highest tcsti
inouials of learning conferred iu our coun
lry, devoting their lives to goologicnl nnd
chenucal rcsearchcs calculated lo evolve
the lnws of niiture conupctcd with agricul
tural produclion. Go into our culleges
and inslitutious of lenrninff, and count the
. .!!.. ...i. i.. r
ynilllg mcil Hlllllli; inuiiaii inuaiy nn iiii:ii
diplomas, to qualily liiemseives 10 uccomc
nraclicnl nnd succcssful farmors, alroady
convinced thnt equality wilh the cloricnl,
tho logal.and thomodical professions, that
of ngriculturo rcrjuiros a thorough and
systematic cdiicntiou, nud its successful
prnctico ihe cxcrcisc of an nclire uiind de
votcd to diligenl study.
Apply thcso brighl and brightening pros
pncts to llio nlmost houudless agriculiural
field of our country, wiih ils varied and
suluhrioiis climato, its frcsh aud unhrokeu
soils, its choap lands and free, siniile tiilcs,
and who cnn hojie, if bo would, to lum the
inclinaiions of our pcoplc from tliis fnir
field of labor and of pleasure? ilero tlm
toil which secures a ceriaiu indepcndencc
is Hucetcncd by the conslnnlly vnrying cx
liibitions ol nnturc in hcr most lovcly
forms, and chperod by tho most bcninniit
nianifeslatiuns of lhc wondcrful power and
goodnesa of Nnturc's God. Cultivated by
the rcsolutc hnnds nud enlighlencd ininds
offrcemeu, owncrs of the soil, properly
educnled, ns farmers, under n wise and
just ailuiiuistration ol n syslem ol libcral
pubhc instruction, should ttnd will bc, nnd
nided by ihe rcsenrchea ol geology nnd
chemistry, who can calculale the pxteul
of the harvests to bo gathcred from this
vast field of wiscly directcd hunian iudus
1 he present surplus of brcadslulfs of
this counlry, could not havc bccn prcsented
in a more distinct nnd interesliug aspect
ihan during llio present year. A faniine
in Eurojie, as wide-sprcad as it has bccn
devastatiug and turrildo, has mndc ils dc
mauds upon Amcrican supilies, not sim
ply to the extcni of Iho ability oftlic suf
fenng to purchasc food, but iu supcraddcd
appenls to Amciican syrnpathy in fovorol
tlic dcstitute and siarving. Every call up
ou our markcts has bccn fully tnet, and
tho heart ofEuropehns been fillcd with
warm nnd grnlcful responses to ihe be
ncvolencc ofour country, and ofour
counlrymcn, and yet lhc avpnues of com
merce are fillcd wilh the productions of
Americau ngricullure. Surely the con
sumption of tliis country is not now cqual
to its agriculturiil productiou.
Ifsiich is our surplus iu tlie present
limitcd extent and imperfcct condilion of
our ngriculturo, can we hope that an ex
clusivc domestic markct is pnssililc, to
furuisli n deinnud for its maiure nhiin
dancc? In this view oi'ihis grent nnd
growing interest, can ue sec n limit to
iho period, whcu tho Uuited Siatcs will
present, iu lhc cominercial markcts oftlic
world, large surpliiscs of all lhc varieties
of brcndstull's, ol beef, pork, bulter, checse,
colton, tohacco, and ricc, beyond lhc con
sumuiion ofour own country? And who,
uiih tho pviori'noo oftlic lasl few ycnr
bcfore him, can doiiln ihnt tho tinip. i
now nt hand, when lhc two grent slaples
of wool and hcmp will bc addcd to the Iisi
ofour exporlatinns?
Thcse coiisiderutions, and oihers ofa
kindred chnracter, wlnch lime will not
premit mc lo detnil, seein to me, with
unfcigncd defcreiico, loprotc that ihe
ngricullure of llie Unitcd States, for an
iiidefiuitc period ) ct lo coine, inust con
tinue lo yicld annual supplies ofour piin
cipal staples, far beyond any possible de
iiiam! of tlic domestic tr.arkct, nud must
ihercfore rcmain, as it now is nnd has
ever bccn, an exporling interest. As sucli,
it must have n direct conccrn iu llie for-
pin trade and cominercc oftlic counlry
and in all the rcmilntions ofour owu aud
ol'forcign goveriimcuts whicli affect eilhcr,
cqual lo its inicrcsl in a siable aud ndequ
ntc market.
If the coiiclusiou bo sound, thcu our
farmers must surrender tlic idcn of a do
mestic markct io furuisli tlic dcmand, nnd
mcnsuro lhc valuo of their productions,
and must prepnro themselvcs to meet the
compctitiou oftho connnercial world in
the sale of the fruits of tlieir labor. The
marts of comincrco must be their market,
nud lhc demand r.nd supply which mcci
in lliofc maris must govcrn their prices.
Tho dcmand for hoir.c consumpition, as
an clement in that market, must directly
and dccply interest them, and should be
earelully cnllivalcd nnd encouingeil, while
nll iho other clenicnts ncting wilh il, aud
consiitnling togcther the dcmand ol the
maiket, should bc .sludicd wilh cqual carc,
and, so far as may bc in thtir power, and
consisicnt wiiii oihor and paramotint du
lies, should bc chcri.-hcd with cqual carc.
Does nn one bclicve, lliat for gcnern
lions yct to come, llio agricultural opera
tionsoflhe Uniled States nre lo bc circum
scribed witbiu narroworcoinparaiivp limits
Ihan the prescni; or that the agriculiural
productions to ihe counlry are to bcar a
l?ss ralio to our population and consump
tion than they now do? I cannot suppnse
that any citizen, who has given his atlcn
tinn lo llie coiisidcratious which havc been
snggeKtcd, finds bimself ablo to ndopt
cither of llicse upinious. On lhc contary,
1 tliiuk n fair cxnmination must satisfy
every mind that our ngriciiliund surplus,
for an iiidefiuitu futurc period, must in
creasc much moic rapidly than our popu
lation aud llio de m nnd for domesiic con
sumption. This 1 beliovo would bu iruc
withoul the cfihits of nssocintioiis, such as
this, to improvo onr ngricultnre. Tlie
couditinn of tlm country, and tlic inclina
tion and preferencc ofour pnpulaiion for
agricultural pursuits, would render lliis
result unavoidablc; nnd iflhis be so, when
llie impeliis given lo agricultural prudiic
tion by ihe iinprovoments ol tho day; tlic
individiinl and nssociatod cfforts constnnt
ly uiaking to push forward thcso improvc
mcnls with nn acculeralcd inovomciil, tho
mass ol educnled mind turncd to scientific
rpsearches in aul of agricultural labor;
lhc dawning ofa systematic and uuiversal
agricultural educniion; aud tlic immciisc
bndics ofchcap, nud frcsh, nud ferlilc
Innd), which invite the npplication ofau
improved agriculturc, aro nddcd to ihe ac
count, who can niensuro tho extent or
duration ofour agrtcuHural surplus, or
doubt tho soiindness of tjc conclusion,
thnt Ihe export tradc must exercise a great
inllucnco upon Ihe market for tho agri
cultural produciions of the country for a
long series of years to come ?
Such is tlie conclusion to whicli my
uiind is lorced from an cxaminalion of
ihis subject, in its domestic aspect simp
ly; but ihero is anolher now prcsented of
vast magniiude nnd engrossing interest,
nnd demanding alike from the cili7en and
the stntesman of this rcpublic, the mosi
carcful coiuideralion. All will at onco
understand me ns refcriing to ihechanges
nud promises of change iu llie policy of
tho principal cominercial nntions of the
world, touching tlieir tradc iu the produc
iions of ngricullure. By a singlo step,
which wns nothing lesa ihan cotnmercial
rcvoluiion, Grcat Britain practically made
uio cuangc as to ner irade; and subse
quent eventshave clothed with the ap
pcaranco of nlmost super-human sngacity,
ihe wisdom which thus preparedthat coun
iry to meet the visitation of famino, wliich
has so soon followed, wilhout tlic addi
tional cvil of trampling down iho systems
oflaw lo minister to tho all conirolling
neccssiiies of liunger. Changes similar
in charnclor, and measurably equal in ex
tenl, though in mnny case3 tcmporary in
dutation have been adopted by several
other European governmeuts, under cir
cumstnnces which render it vcry doubt
ful how soon, if over, a reiurn will bo
madc to tho former policy ofa close trado
iu ihe necessaries of htiman life.
New markets of vasl cxtcnt and incal
culablc vuluc, have thus been opened for
our aaricultural surplus, tlic durability
aud steadiness of wlnch it is irr.possiblo
yel to measurc wilh certainty. It is in
our power to sny, howcver, that n great
body of provocations to cotintervatling
restrictivo commercial regulalions',,i's now
removcd, in some instances permanently,
and in others ternporarily in form; and it
would seein lo be the pa'rt of wisdom, for
ihe ngricullure of this counlry, by lurnish-
iiig iiiefe marKets to tlie extent onhe do
mand, wilh the best articlcs, at the fairest
prices, lo show to those countries, nnd
tlieir respectivegovernmcnts, tliat recipro
cal cominercial rogulaiions, ifthey offer
no other and higher attrnctions, present
io ilieir peoplo a safeguard agninst slarva
tiou. Such is tlic connection, now, between
our ngricullure nnd the export trado and
foreign mirket, and thee relalions are to
be extended nnd strengtl.ened, ralher than
circtiniscnbed and i.-...i, i,y nMr ng-
ripullnrnl nili-nnroo Tho COIISumptioii
of the counlry is far shortofils produc
tiou, and cannot become equal to it wiih
in any calculablc period. On lhc con
trary, tlic excess of produclion is to in
creusc with the increasc of population and
setllenicnt, nnd llie improvemcnls in ng
riculturo and agricultural education.
Theso nppcar lo me to be facts, arising
Irom lhc condilion ofour country, and
ihe lastcs and inclinatious ofour people,
fixcd beyond the power of change, and to
which theorics and piinciplea of political
ecouomy must bc coiiformed, lo be mado
prnctically applicablc to us.
The Amcrican fnrincr, thcn, whilo
cnrcfully siudymg, as hc should not fail lo
do, lhc nccessitics, ihe wnuls and tho
tastcs of all classes ofconsumers of his
produciions in his own country, must not
limit his respnrclies for a market witliin
thosc narrow bounds. He must exlend
his obscrvaiions along ihe avenues of com
merce, as fur as the commerco of
his country extends, or can bo ex
tended,? and inslruct hitnself ns to tho
uecpssiiies, aud wants and lastcs oftho
consumcrs of agricultural productions in
other countries. He must observo atlen
tively the course of tradc, nnd tho causes
calculated to exert a favorable or adverso
inlluciicc upon it; walch closely the com
mercial policy of other countries, nnd
guard vigilantly thnt of his own; nccom
modute his productions, ns far as may be,
to tho probable demauds upon the market,
and understand how to preparp them for
tho particulnr markct for which they aro
designed. Nexl to tlic production oftho
best nrticle at the chcapcst pricc, its prc-
seiitation in markct in llie best order nnd
most inriiiug condilion, is irnportant to se-
curo to the fnrincr a rcady and rcmuncra-
iiug market.
So long as our agriculturnl shnll con-
tintic to be nn exporling interest, thcse
considerations, ns sccond only to tho
scicnce of productiou iiself, will demand
the carcful attention aud siudy ofour far
mers; and in any well digested syslem of
agricultural education, its connection
with manufactures and llie mechnnic aris,
with commerce, with tlie cominercial poli
cy ofour own nnd other countries, nnd
wiih llie domestic nnd foreign markets,
should hold n proniincnt placo. A
thnrough nnd cnntinucd education in theso
collatcral, but highly ncccssary branchos
of knowlcdgo lo llio fnrmer, will prove ex
tcnsivcly uscful to lhc Amcrican citizen,
bpyond their application lo the produc
lion and snlo of lhc fruits of his labor.
Thci will qualify him the moro safely and
iiilelligently to dischargo lhc dutics of a
frccman; and, if callcd by his fcllow citi
zons io do so, the more bencficially to
lervc his stoto nnd country iu legislalivo
and other puhlic trusts.
1 hope 1 may offer anothcr opinion in
this connection, witliout giving offence,
or trespnssiug upon the proprietics of iho
placo aud occasiou. Is it thnt lliis cduca
tion in ihe just und irue conneclion be
tween the agricultural, the cnmmercial
nnd tho mnnufncluriiig intercsts ofour
country, equally nnd impanially disscm
inatcd among llio classes of cilizcna at
tachcd to each of these grcat branchcs of
labor, would efiectually pul an end to the
joaloueies too frerjucnlly excitcd; demon-

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