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.'J . i '( :f iT U J i N .U ii VOLUME 3. S. HOWARD, Publisher. " (luocuiiique me For tuna ft rat, lbo hospes." the presidents message. , ; many free Americans of African descent, Washington. Monday, Deo.,1, , to favor their emigration, with a view to Fellow-citizens of the Senate and , . such colonisation as Was contemplated ' in House of Representatives : recent acts of Congress. Other parties at Since your last annual assembly another home and abroad, some from interested yeirof health and bountiful harvest hvs motives, others from patriotic considera Lssed, aud while it has not pleased the tions, and still others influenced, by phi. Almighty to bless us with a return of lanthropio sentiments, have suggested sim peace. wc can but pass on, guiJed by the Hur measures; while on the other hand, beat slht He gives us, trusting that in several of the Spanish American republics His own good time and wise way, all will have protested against the sending of such le well. colonies to their respective territories., ITn- roBEioN kblations. ; dcr these circumstances I have declined to The correspondence touching foreign af- move any such colony to any state, with fairs, which has taken place during the out first obtaining tho consent of its gov lastvear. is herewith submitted, in virtual ernmcnt. with an asrecraent on its part compliance with a request to that effect made by the House oi ueprcseiuaiivcs near tho close of the last session of Con- gross. If the condition of our relations with other nations is less gratifying than it has usually been at former periods, it is certainly more satisfactory than a na- tion so unhappily distracted as we arc, might reasonably have appreheuded. In the month of Juno last there were some grounds to expect the mariliue powers, which at the beginning of our domestic difficulties, so unwisely aud unnecessarily as we think, recognised the insurgents as a bclligerant, would soon recede from the position, which has proved only less inju rious to themselves than to our own coun try. But tho tern pory reverses which af terwards befel the national arms, and which were exaggerated by our own dis loyal citizens abroad, have hitherto delay ed that act of simple justice. The civil war which has so radically changed for the moment tho occupations and habits of the American people, has necessarily dis turbed the social condition, and affected very deeply the prosperity of the nations with which we have carried on a com merce, that has been steadily increasing throughout a period of half a century. It has, at the same time, excited political ambitions and apprehensions, which have produced a profound agitation through out the civilized world. In this unusual agitation, we have forborne from taking part in any controversy between foreign states, and between parties of factions in such states. We have attempted uo prop agandism, and acknowledged uo revolu tion. Bui wc have left to every nation the exclusive conduct and management of their uwu affairs. Our strujn'lo has of ourse been contemplated by foreign na tions, with reference less to its own merits than to its supposed and often exaggerated effects, and the consequences resulting to those nations themselves ; nevertheless, complaint on the part of this government even if it were just, would certaiuly be unwise. The treaty with Great Britain for the suppression of the African slave trade, has been put into operation, with a good prospect of complete Buccess. It is an oc casion of special pleasure to acknowledge, that the execution of it, on the part of her raagcsty'g government, has been marked with a jealous respect for the authority of the Uuitcd States, and the rights of their moral aud loyal citizens. The convention with Hanover for the abolition of the state dues, has been carried into full effect, un der the act of Congress for that purpose. A blockade of 3000 moles of sea coast could not be established and vigorously enforced in a season of great commercial activity like tho present, without commit ting occasional mistakes and inflicting un intentional injuries upon foreign nations and their subjects. A civil war oocuring in a country where foreigners reside, and carry m trade under treaty stipulations, is necessarily fruitful of complaints of the violation of neutral rights. All such col- lisions tend to excite misapprehensions! and frequently to produce mutual reclam-! -t:, tL; ;.,. t..... . ! mon interest in preserving peace nnd friendship. In clear cases of these kinds j t t, - ;v.i ...i eed complaints which have been presented j d,rcct',n wou,d havo, tof lm: v ..!. ii n i. : V ..'prove the revenue of the government an hv fritntlv nnwers. I'horf. is. however, i . i j - .. , . . i -j ... .j , -- ting o IUI bUKO UL7VU KUIbll uic uuvliijujcu io upon which the government i,nntl .m, witk fhA Mammon, whose protection is demanded by tho claimants. There are. moreover, many cases in which tho United States, or their i citizens, suffer wrongs from the naval or military authorities of foreign nations, whioh the governments of these states aro not at once prepared to redress. I have proposed to some of the foreign states thus interested, mutual conventions to ex- n ihi ilo aim auciucuuiii; uuiuuer oi uuuut-1 . .. . j f. i ? .k X- , .lis worthy of your serious consideration amino and adjust such complaints. This J"' moHt diligcut consideration, lbe proposition has been made especially to st expenditures incident to tho military Great Britian, to France, to Spain and to ' naval operations required for tho sup Prussia. In each case it has been kindly Piession of the rebellion, have hitherto received, but has not yet been formally becu met with a promptitude and certain adopted. 1 deem it my duty to icoora- y unusual in similar circumstances, and ruend an appropriation in behalf of the public credit has been fully main, owners of the Norwegian tark Admiral taiucd. The continuance of the war, Pardons Riola, which vessel was, in May, however, and the increased disbursments 18G2, prevented by the commaudcr of the mde necessary by the augmented forces blockading force off Charleston from lcav- now in tu flclJ- demand your best rcflce ing that port with a cargo, notwithstand- t'on M t0 the DC8t modc of Povding ing a similar privilege had shortly before the necessary revenue, without injury to been granted to an English vessel; I bujincss, and with the least possible bur bave directed the socrctary of the state to na upon labor. The suspension of spe cause tho papers in the case to be com- c paymouts by the banks soon after the municated to the proper committees. j commencement of your last sea: ion made African coLomaATion. ' largo issues of United Spates notos uua- Applieations have been made to tot by I voidable. In no other way could the to receive and protect such emigrants in' all their rights of freemen, and 1 have at the same time offered to the several states situated in the tropics, or having colonies there, to negotiate with them, subject to the advice and consent of the Senate, to favor the voluntary emigration of persons of that class to their respective territories, upon conditions which shall be equal, just and humane. Liberia and Hayti arc as yet the only countries to which colonists of African descent from hero could go with certainty of being received and adopted as citizens. I egret to say that such persons contemplating colonization do not seem so willing to emigrate to those countries as to some others, nor so willing as I think their interest demands. I be lieve, however, the opinion among them in this respect, is improving, and that ere long there will be an augmented and -considerable emigration to both these count ries from tho United States. TREATIES MADS. . The new commercial treaty between the Uuitcd States and the sultan of Turkey, has been carried into execution. A com mercial and consular taeaty has been ne gotiated, subject to the Senate's consent, with Liberia, and a similar negotiation is now pending with the republic of Hayti. A considerable improvement of tho na tional commerce is expected to result from these measures. Our relatious with Great Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, Russia. Prussia, Denmark, Sweden, and Austria, the Netherlands, Italy, Rome and the oth er European states remain unbisturbed. Very favorable relations also continue to be maintained with Turkey, Morocco, Chi na and Japan. During the last year there has not only been no change of our previous relations with the independent states of our own continent, but more friendly scntiracntj than have heretofore existed are believed to be entertained by those neighbors whose safety and progress are so intimately connected with our arms. This statement especially applies to Mex ico, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Peau and Chili. The commission under the convention with the republic of New Grenada, closed it session without hav ing audited and passed upon all the claims which were submitted to it. A proppo sition is pending to revive tho convention that it may be able to do more complete justice. The comraision between the United States and tho republio of Costa Rica, has completed its labors aud sub mitted its report. I have favored the project for connecting the United States with Europe, by an Atlantic telegraph, and a similar project to extend the tele graph from San Francisco, to conuect by a PaciGc telegraph, with the wire which is being extended across the Russian em pire CONDITION OF THE TERRITORIES. The territories of the United States, with unimportant exceptions, have remain ed undisturbed by the civil war, and they arc exhibiting such evidence of prosperi ty as justifies an expectation that some of inera 7" T, w ' iT S"11 " B4tatc an ,be WMWutionallj admitted into the ledcral I uion. ihe them will soon be in condition to be or jmraense mineral resources of some of territories, ought to be developed as rapidly as possiblo. Every step m that V. . government and unuimnu me uurueus oi lue iicuuiu. i jr t.-i .1 .1 l. t I . , wucww HOiue hu uo, uiuury u w , w promote that end cannot bo adopted 1 ho means which suggests itselt as most likely ? lo c.ffoct,.vc' 18.a 8c,f ?C Plora. 10 the mineral regions of these territories, with a view to tho publication of its re sults at home and in foreign countries, results which caunot fail to be auspicious. TUB FINANCIAL PROBLEM. ' Tho condition of the finances will claim : payment of the troops and the satisfac tion of other just demands, be as econ omically or as well provided for. The judicious legislation of Congress, securing the receiv ability of these notes for loans I and internal duties, and make them a " legal tender" for other debts, has made I them universal currency, and has satis- I ficd. partially, at last, and for the time, the long felt want of an uniform circulat ing medium, saving thereby to the peo plo immense sums, in discount and ex changes. A return to specie payments, however at tho earliest period compatible with due regard to all interests, should ever be kept in view. Fluctuations in the valuo of currency are always injuri ous, and to reduce these fluctuations to the lowest possible point will always be a leading purpose in wise legislation. Con vertibility, prompt and certain converti bility into coin, is generally acknowledged to bo the best and surest safeguard against these fluctuations, aud it is extremely doubtful whether a circulation of United States notes, payable in coin and suffi ciently large for the wants of the people, can be permanently, usefully, and safely maintained. Is there, then, any other mode in which the uneasy provisions for the public wants can be made, and the great advantages of a safe and uniform currency secured ? I know of none which promises so certain results, and at the same time so unobject ouablc, as the organization of banking associations under a general act of Con gress, well guarded in its provisions. To snch associations the government might furnish circulating notes on the security of United States bouds deposited in the treasury. These notes, prepared under the supervision of proppcr officers, being uniform in appearance and security, and convertible always into coin, would at onco protect labor against the evils of a vicious currency, and facilitate com merce by cheap and safe exchanges. A moderate reservation from the interest on the bonds would compensate the United States for the pieparation and destribu tion of the notes and a general supervis ion of the system, and would lighten the burden of that part of the public debt employed as securities. The public cred it moreover would be greatly improved and the negotiations of new loans be greatly facilitated by the steady market demand for government bonds, which the adoption of tho proposed system would create. It is an uditioual recomendation of the measure, of considerable weight in my judgmeut, that it would reconcile as far as possible all existing interests by the opportunity afforded to existing insti tutions to re-organize under the act, sub stituting only the secure, uniform nation al circulation for the local and various circulation, secured and unsecured, now issued by them. STATE OF THE TREPCRY. The receipts into the treasury from all lources including loans and balance from the preceding year, tor the (kcitl year ending on the auth ol June 1862, were .j3,885,84T,o, of which sura 4U.U50 auT.tSO were derived from cutttoins ; $1, IitO.331.T3 from direct tax; from the public bonds $15J,203.Tf i from niUcclliineouH (sources $'.3L, T8f. 64 ; fiom loans in all forma $.Wl),C'J2,4tM).50. Ihe retnuinoer, 2, 25T,Ui3 80, wax the balance from last year. The diaburtiinent during the same period were : for congret-uional, executive and judicial purposes $5, IKlU.UUy.Ky ; for foreign intercourse $l,83y,y 10.35 ; for uiirccllanoon ex pensefi, including the nilutu, loans, postollice de ticieuces, collecting of revenue, and other like charges $14, 129,171. 60 ; for expenses nuder the interior depaitment, 13, 102,9-. 02 i under the war department, $3li4,Jlii8,40T.3(i ; nnder the navy department, $42 6T4, Stilt. UU ; for Interest on the public debt, $L3,lU0,32t.45 ; and for the payment of the public debt, including reimburse ments of the temporary loan and redemptions, $!tti.O(J6,92J.OD makinganagregatco!$.-j70,841,. TOO. 23, and leaving a balance in the treasury on the 1st of July I8U2, of 13.043,546.81. It should be observed that the sum of $U.0W, 922.09, ex pendedor reimbursements aud redemption of the public debt, being Included also in tho loans made, may be properly deducted both from the receipts and expenditures, leaving ine actual re ceiptH for tho year 48T, 888,324.97, and the ex penditures $474,744,788.16, Other information on the subject of the tiuaqces will be found in the report of the secretary of ths treasury, to whose statements and views 1 invite your most candid and considerate attention. TRH ARMY AND NAVY. The reports of the secretaries of the navy and war are herewith transmitted. These reports, though lengthy, are scarcely more than brief ab stracts of the very numerous and extensive trans actions and operations conducted through these departments: nor could I give summary of them here upun any principle which would admit of its being much nhorter than the reports them selves. I th re fore content myself with laying the ro ports before yon, and asking your attention to them. . TflB TOST OFFICE DEPARTMENT. It gives me pleasure to report a decided improve ment in the financial condition of the post office department, as compared with several proceeding yearn, lbs receipts for the fiscal year '01 amount ed to $8,349,296.40, which embraced the revenue from all the states of the Union for tbree-quar. ten of that year, notwithstanding the cessation of revenue from the so-called seceded states during the last fiscal year. The increase of the corres pondence of the loyal state has been sufficiently to produce revenue during the same year of $8,. 299.820.00, being only 90,000 loss than was de rived from all the state of the Union during the nrevlons rear. The expenditure show t still more favorable result. The amount expended in 1801 was lia.ouv.ion.u. rorme last year wis mount bo been reduced to $11. i25. 804. 13 show ing a decrease of ebont $2,481 ,000 In the expen ditures as compared with the fiscal year i860. The deficiency in the department for the previous year was $4,551, WHI.08. For the last tiroal year U was reduced to $2.113. 8U.07. These favora ble results are in part owing to (he mall servloe in the Insurrectionary atates, and in part to a thorough review of all expenditures In that de-1 partment In the interest of economy. The effici ency of the postal service. It is believed, bos also been much Improved. The postmaster general baa also opened a correspondence, through the de partment of atale. witu foreign governments, frnplej convention of potsl rprcw;ntttvfs. for the purpose of simplifying the rate of for eign postage, and to expedite the foreign mails. This proposition, equally important to our adopV ed citizens and to the commercial interest of this country, has been favorably entertained and agreed to by all the governments from whom re plies have been received. I ask the attention of Congress to the suggestions of the postmaster general In his report respecting the further legis lation required, In his opinion, for the benefit of the postal service. , , THE PUBLIC LANDS. The secretary of the Interior reports as follows in regard to the publio lands : The public lands have ceased to be a sou roe of revenue. From the 1st of July 1861 to the 30th of September 1862, the entire cosh receipts from the sale of lands were $137,476.26, a sum much leu than the ex nense of our land system during tho same period. The homestead law, which will take effect on the 1st of January next, offers such inducements to settlers, that sales for cash cannot oe expected to an extent sufficient to meet the expenses of the general land office, and the cost of surveying and bringing the land into market The discrepancy between the sum here stated, as arising from the sales of the public lands, and the same derived from the same source as reported from the treasu ry department, arises, as I understand, from the fact, that the periods of time, though Apparently, were not really a coincidental the beginning point, the treasury report, including a consider able sum now, which had previously been report ed from the interior, sufficiently large to greatly overreach the sum derived from the three months now reported upon by the interior, and not by the treasury. T1IH INDIANS. The Indian tribes upon our frontiers have, dur ing the past year, manifested a spirit of insubor dination, and at several points have ranged In open hostilities against the white settlers in their vicinity. The tribes occupying the Indian coun try sonth of Kansas renounced their allegiance to the United States and entered Into treaties with the insurgents. Those who remained loyal to the United States were driven from the country. The chief of the Cherokees has visited this city for the purpose of restoring the former relations of the tribe with the United States. He alleges that they were constroined by superior force to enter into treaties with the insurgents, and that the United States neglected to furninsh the protection which their treaty stipulations required. In the month of August last, the Sioux Indians in Minnesota attacked the settlements in their vi cinity with extreme ferocity, killing indiscrimin ately men, women and children. This attack was wholly unexpected, and therefore no means of defense bad been provided. It is estimated that not less (ban 800 persons were killed by the Indi ans, and a large amount of property destroyed. How this outbreak was induced, is not definitely known, and suspicions, which may be unjust, need not be stated. Information was received by the Indian bureau from different sources, about the time hostilities were commenced, that a sim ultaneous attack was to be made upon the white settlement by all the tribes between the Mississip pi river and the ifocky Mountains. The State of Minnesota bos suffered gieat injury from this In dian war. A large portion of her territory bos been depopulated, and a very severe loss has been sustained by the destruction of property. The people of that state manifest much anxiety for the removal of the tribes beyond the limits of the state, as a guarantee against future hostilities. The commissioner of Indian affairs will furnish full details. I submit far your especial consider ation whether our Indian system shall not be re modeled. Many wise and good men have been impressed with the belief that this can be profita bly done. INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT. I submit a statement of the proceedings of the commissioners, which shows the progress that bos been made in the enterprise of constructing a Pacific railroad, and this suggests the earliest completion of the road, and also the favorable ac tion of Congress upon the piojects now pending before tbem, for cnlargeing the capacities of the great canals in New York aud Illinois, as being of vuai ana ropioiy increasing importance to t lie whole nation, and especially to the vast interior region hereinafter to be noticed at some greater length. I propose having prepared and laid be fore you, at an early day, some interesting and sta tistical information upon this subject. He mili tary and commercial importance of enlarging the Illinois and Michigan canal, and improving the Il linois river, is oresented in the report of Col Web ster to the secretary of war, and now transmitted to Congress. I respectfully ask attention to it. THE DEPAKTUEKT OF AGRICULTURE. To carry out the provisions of tho act of Con grcsssof tho 15th of May last, I have caused the department of agriculture of the United State to be organized. The commisioner informs me that within the period of a few months, this de- partment has established an extensive sj stem of correspondence ann exenanges, both at home and abroad, which promises to effect highly beneficial results in the development of a correct knowledge of recent Improvements in agt (culture, in the in troduction of new products, and in the collection of the agricultural statistics of the different states; also that it will soon be prepared to destribute largely seeds, ceieals, plants and cuttings, and has already published and liberally diffused much valuable information In antipation of a more elab orate report, which will indue timebd furnish ed, embiacing some valuable tests in chemical sci ence, now in progress in the laboratory. The creation of this department was lor the more im mediate benefit of a large class of onrmost valu able citizens, and I trust that the' liberal basis upon which it has been organized, will not only meet your approbation, but that It will realize at no distant day all the fondest anticipation of its most sanguine friends, and become the fruitful source of advantage to all our people. COMPENSATED EMANCIPATION. On the twenty-sccond day of Septem ber last, a proclamation was issued by the executive, a copy of which is here with submitted. In accordance with the purpose expressed with the second para agroph of that paper, 1 now respectfully recall your attention to what may bo called compensated emancipation." A nation may be said to consist of its territory-, its people, and its laws. The terri tory is the only part which is of certain durability. "One generation pasncth away and another generation comcth, but the earth abideth forever." It is of the first importance to duly consider and esti mate this ever-enduring part That por tion of the earth's surface which is owned and inhabited by the people of the Uni ted States is well adapted to bo the heme of our national family, and is not well adapted for two or more. Its vast extent and its variety of climates and pro ductions are of advantage in this age for one people, whatever they might have been in former ages. Steam and tclnuranh. in promoting intelligence. have brought these to be an advantageous combination for cue united people. In the inaugural address I ' briefly pointed out the total inadequacy of disunion as a remedy for the differences between the pcoplo of the two sections. I did so in language whioh I cannot improve, and which therefore I beg to repeat: , "One section of our country believes slavery is right and oughttobeextcuded, whilo the other believes it is wrong and ought not to be extendeS. This is the only , substantial dispute. ; The fugitive slave clause of tho constitution, and the law for the suppression of the foreign Blave trade, are each as well enforced per haps, as any law can ever bo in a commu nity where the moral sense of the people imnerfectlv surmorts the law itself. The great body of the people abide by the le . . i gal obligations in both cases, and a few break over in each. This I think cannot be perfectly cycd, and it would be worse in both cases after the separation of the sections than before. The foreign slave trade, now imperfectlj suppressed, - would be ultimately revived without restriction in one section; whilo fugitive slaves, now only partially surrendered, would not be surrendered at all by the other. Physically speaking, wo can not separate. ; We cannot remove our re spective sections from each other, nor build an impassable wall between them. A husband and wife may be divorced and go out of the presence and beyond the icach of each other, but the different parts of our country cannot do this. They cannot but remain face to face, and intercourse, either amicable or hostile, must continue between them. Is it pos sible, then, to make that intercourse more advantageous or more satisfactory after seperation than before? Can aliens make treaties more easily than friends can mako laws? Can treaties be more faithfully enforced between aliens than laws can among friends? Suppose you go to war, you cannot b'ght always, and when, after much loss on both sides and no gain on cither, you cease fighting, the indentical questions as to terms of inter course are again upon you." THE DIFFICULTIES OF DISUNION. There is no line, straight or crooked, suitable for a national boundry, upon which to divide. Trace through from east to west upon the line between the free aud slave country, and wc shall find a little more than one-third of its length are rivers easy to be crossed, and popula ted thickly tn both sides; while nearly all of its remaining length arc uicrly sur veyors' lines, over which pcoplo may walk back and forth without any con ciousness of their presence. No part of this line can be made any more difficult to pass by writing it down on paper or parchment as a national boundry. The fact of separation, if it comes, gives up, on the part of the seceding section, the fugitive slave clause, along with all other constitutional obligations, upon the section seceded from, while I should expect no treaty stipulation would ever be made to take its place. But there is another diffi culty. The great interior region, boun ded east by the Alleghanics, north by the British dominions, west by the Kocky Mountains, and south by the line along which tho culture of corn and cotton meets, and which includes part of Vir ginia, part of Tennessee, and all of Ken tuck, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Wiscon sin, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Jowa, Minnesota, and ohe territories of Daco tub, Nebraska, and part of Colorado, has above 10.000.000 of people, and will have fifty millions within fifty years, if not prevented by ony political folly or mistake. It contains more than one mill ion of square miles. Once half as pop ulous as Massachusetts . already is, it would have more than seventy-fivo mill ions of people. A glance at the map shows that, territorially speaking, it is the great body of the republic. The other parts are but marginal borders to it, tho magnificent region slopiug west from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific being the deepest and also the richest in undeveloped resources, in the production of provisions, grains, grasses and all which proceed from them, This great interior region is naturally one of the most important in the world. Ascertain from the statistics the bmull Donulation of the region which has not yet been brought into cultivation, and al so the large anu increasing buiouuv oi us products, and wo shall be overwhelmed with the magnitude of the prospect pre sented ; and yet this region has ho sea coast, touches no ocean onywhere. As part of one nation, its people now find, and may forever find, their way to Europe bv New York, to south America ana Af-: nca by New Orleans, and to Asia by San Francisco. , 13 ut separato our common country into two nations as designed by the present rebellion, anu every man ot this groat iuterior region is thereby cut off from some one or more of these out lets, not perhaps by a physical barrier, but by embarrassing aud onerous trade regulations. And this is truo wherever a dividing or bonndary lino may lbe fixed. Place it between the tree and slave coun try, or place it south of Kentucky or north of the Ohio, and still the truth remains, that none south of it can trade to any port or placo north of it, and nono north of it can trade to any port or place south of it, except upon terms dictated by a gov crnnicnt foreign to them. These outlets, cast, west and south, aro indispensable to the wellbeing of the people inhabiting and , to inhabit this vast interior region. Which of the three may be the, best, is no' prop- ' er question. ' All are better than either,' and all of right belong to ' those people . and to their successors forever.' True to themselves they will )iot ask where a line " of separrtion shall be, but will vow rath cr that there shall he no such line. . ' V , Nor are the marginal, regions less in terested in these communications to and , through them, to the great outside world. They, too, and each of them ' must have' access to this Egypt of the WeBt, without paying toll at the crossing of any nation al boundary. Our national strife brings, ' not from our permanent past,' not from the land we inhabit, not from our national homestead. There is no possible severing of this ; we would multiply and not miti gate evils among us. All its adaptations , and aptitudes demand union and abhor separation. In fact they would ere long force reunion, however much of blood and " treasure the separation might have cot. Our strife pertains to ourselves, to the ' passing generations of men, and it cannot without convulsion be hushed forever with the passing of one -generation.' CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS PROPOSED. " In this view I recommend the adoption of the following resolutions and articles amendatory to the constitution of the United States. ' - Kesolved.by the Senate and Hoar of Repro. sentatives of the United State of America, ia Congress assembled, two thirds of both bouses concurring, that the following articles be pro. fosed to the legislatures or conventions of the ! nitcd States, all or any of which articles, when ratified by three-fourths of the said legislature or conventions to be valid as part or pait of the ' said constitution, vii Article Every state wherein slavery now exists, which shall abolish the same therein at any time or times before the first day of January . in he year of our I-ord one thomand nine hun dred, shall receive compensation from the Uni ted States a follows, to wit : The president of the United States shall deliver to every such , sttte, bonds of the United States, bearing inter est at the rate of for each slave shown to have been therein by the eighth census of the United States, said bonds to be delivered to such state ' by installments, or in one parcel at the comple tion of the abolishment, accordingly as the same shall have been gradual or at one time within sncb state, and interest shall begin to run on any such bond, only from the proper time of it , delivery, as aforesaid and afterwards. Any . state having received bonds as aforesaid, and af terwards introducing or tolerating slavery there- : In, shall refund to the United States the bonds so received or the value thereof, and all interest paid thereon. ' Article All slaves who shall have enjoyed ac tual freedom by the chances of the war. at any time before the end of the rebellion, shall be for ever free, but all owners of such who shall not . have been disloyal, shall be compensated for them at the same rates as Is provided for atates adopting the abolishment of slavery, but in such a way that no slave shall be twice accounted for. Article Congress may appropriate money and otherwise provide for colonizing free colored per sons, with their own consent, at any place or places without the United States. ( , DISCUSSION OF TUB SLAVERY QUESTlOX. I beg indulgence to discuss these pro posed articles at some length. Without slavery the rebellion would ucver have existed ; without slavery it could not con tinue. Among the friends of the Union, , there is great diversity of sentiment and of poliey in regard to slavery, and the African race among us ; some would abol- . ish it suddenly and without compensation; some would abolish it gradually and with , compensation; somo would remove the freed people from us, and some would re tain them with us, and there are yet oth er minor diversities. Because of these diversities we waste much strength in struggles among ourselves. By mutual concession we should harmonize and act together. This would be a compromise among the friends, and not with the eno raics of the Uuioa. Theso articles are intended to embody a plan of such mutu al concession. If the plan shall be adopted, it is assumed that emancipation will follow, at least in several of the -states. , : , ,, - As to the first article, tho main points are: first the emancipation; second, tho length of time for consummating it, thirty seven years ; and third, the compensation. -The emancipation will be unsatisfactory to the advocates of perpetual slavery, but the length of time should greatly mitigate their dissatisfaction. The time spares both races from tho cvtli of sudden de rangement. In fact, from the necessity of any derangement, while most of those whose habitual courso of thought will be disturbed by the measure, will have pas sed away before its consummation. They will never see it. Another class will hail the prospect of emancipation, but will deprecate tho length of time. , They will feel that it gives too little to the now liv ing slaves. But it really jrivca tLem much. It saves them from the vagrant destitution which must largely attend ira. mediate emancipation in localities where their numbers are very great, and it gives the inspiriting amurance that their pos terity shall be free forever. The plan leaves to each stato choosing to act under it, to abolish slavery now or at the end of the century, or at any intermediate time, or by degrees extending over the whole or any part of the period, and it obliges no twe states to proceed alike. It also pro vides for compensation, and generally ths modo of making it. This, it would seem, must further mitigate tho dissatisfaction of those who favor perpetual slavery, and especially of those who are to rcccivo com pensation. Doubtless somo of those who are to pay and not to receive, will object. i ; V I I t' ! i I r, I : f '') -. r '