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The Middlebury galaxy. [volume] (Middlebury, Vt.) 1848-1850, February 29, 1848, Image 1

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kditoii axd rnoritiETOR. "
Village subscribers, ....... $2,00
Jlail subscribcrf, within the Stnto, - - - S1.50
lf not paid -within thc vcar, ----- Sl,'
Mail subscribers ont of the Statc, - - - S2.00
Jndividuals and Companies who take at thc officc,
01,50. or 51,75 lt not nam witnm tnc year.
Those who lake of rostriders, - - - - S2,00
lf not paid at thc cnd of th ycar, - - - $2,25
No papers discontinued until arrcarngcs arc
paid, cxccpt at thc option of thc proprictor. No
contrsct with, or paymcnt raadc to Carriers, cash,
kecping, or otlienvisc, nllowcd, cxccpt assentcd to
bv the propnctor.
All commnnications must be addrcssed to thc
editor'PosT I'aid.
Bcturning homc at closc of day,
"VIio gcntly chidcs my long deiay,
And hy my sidc delhjlits to stay T
Whosits for tnc thc casy chair,
Sits out the room with ncatcst carc,
And lays my slipjicrs rcady thcrc 1
Who regulates the cliccrful firc.
And piles tlic blozing fuel highcr,
And bids nie draw my chair still highcr?
Whcn plunged in dirc and dccp distrcss,
And anxious carcs mylicart opprcss,
"Who whispers hopcs of happiness?
When anxious thonghts within me rise,
In sorc dismay mv spirit dics, t
Who soothcs me Lt hcrkind rcplies ?
Wlien sickncss rsrks my fccblc frame,
And gricf dNtracts my fevcr'd fnimc,
Who synipathiscs witli my pain
Tlicn I'il roolvc, so liclp me Fatc,
To cliange at otice tiiis sinle statc,
And will to Ilyincn's altar takc
Ki-tur.img homc all worn with carc,
Wlm nicots uiejvith a sullcn air,
ln slip-ihod shocs, and uncombM hair ?
Who tclls mc I mnt wait an hour,
Vntil shc Imkcs some immixcil flour.
Who pours the tca with facc so sour !
WIio t'arow it sha'.Tl tiponhcr head,
And b'ds me clear away tc bcd.
While shs i$ ont. the Xuws isjiroad?
Whcn frionds Torsakc my f.illinr sialc,
AVho kecp inc at ni;Iit l.ite,
Limentin; her un'iappy fatc ?
AVlicn far of ill my soul opprcs,
Who mni'h cnlnnrcs my distrcs,
lly tsiinj for a new silk. dre? 1
Whcn sickn"'! rack'! my l.umin frams,
Who soolds ftir what Ini not lo l.lamc,
And Icarcs as Xursc, so:n!- wrinkled Damc ?
Who spowli wlicnVcr I ask a fiii-nd,
A day with mi. at home to pid ?
Who ncver thinks my coat to mend ?
Who makes mc scrnli hcr dirty floor ?
Who liiiU me slnit thc ojicn door ?
Who tells me I must smoke no mnre
Then I wonld tow if 'twa'nt too latc
To chanc at once, this wretihed statc,
And to sclcct for my ncxt matc,
Wc cannot rcfrain from recordin an arcidcnt
which we rcccntly heard depicted liy a fricnd, a
1'rcnrli pentleman, who!c nnotent.itioti5 bnt
irinec!y liospitality adds (what onc rould hardly
dccin possiblc) cvcnancw rharm and pracc to
thc lovcly banks of the St. Lawrcnre. alonj thc
mo delihtful rcaeh of that rcsplcndent strcam.
' It ce? twanty year." said hc, "fince 2at I vas
in Xew York : and I go u one niht in z'nppcr
part dc cite, ftwas 'most iii de contrcs,') to sce a
"Ah! out! "Ven I com' by de door yard, I
oc som' sing I know not what he ccs but I
c'ought he was a leetle rabbcet; hut hc was vcry
tante. I go np sofily to hccm. Ah. ha ! I say to
myself, I 'av gots you ! So I strike hccm bij
stroke tis my ombreel onhees neck. Ah, ha!
Fappose w'at he do ? li-a-a-h ! He strikc me
back in my facc wis hces D n ! I can
not telll "lt was axrfulU! di:eadfi.-ls ! Ho
fi-m-e-I-l fo you caim'ot touch hccm and I dc
eame ! I s'row myself in dc pond uy to my neeks;
but it makcs no usc. I smell stex irtx-cl: ! I do
not likc to go in zc room wis my frande. I di
Inghole to pu my clo'cs in c'.e cronndc : it not
cures zem ! 1 dig zcm up ; bali ! it ccs ilc imc !
I put zcm back and dey smell onc ycar; till zey
rot 5n dc ground. It crs'faactP
And so it :oas a fact : for no man born of wo
man could-cvcr countcrfcit the ferTor of dissust
which distinjpii'ihed the graphic delineation of
that mishap. Atuckeruxl.Tr.
Profits of English Farmhtg. An European cor
respondcnt of thc Gcnnesce I'anner statcs that al
thongh the farmers in England havc to pay largc
rents, he thinks tlieir nctt profits arc greater than
those of Amcrican farmers, who oint the lands
they occupy. Hc thinks the principal rcason is,
that thcre isa good home markct for nearly all
kinds of agricultural productions; and that thc
samc advantagcs can bc rcapcd in Amcrica only
by an cxtcnsivc cncouragcment of manufacturcs ;
and that a distant forcign markct for grain, with
hcavy drawhacks for frcight, cannot bc dcpcndcd
on ; and mach less so for the sniallcr and lcss sub
Btantial products.
A Good rnnASE. Thc Knickerbockcr tells
n good story of a witncss, who madc a vcry nice
distinction in the shades of Iginr;. Being qucstion
ed by a lawyer as to the gencral rcputation of an
othcr witncss for trnth, the witncss was asked
whcthcr the indiridual was not a notorious liar.
"AVhy," said hc rolling an immcnse quid of to
"acco in his month,"not cxactly so, but Iic is what
I raU Ba inlcnnitleni 7ar." - -
Mr. Collamer, of Vermontj
But it has bccn fully asccrtaincd bv the nartT
sustaing the Exccutive, that it is citherno longcr
practicablc or Uesirablc to disguise the true intent
and purpose of all tliis procceding. Thcv consid-
er that sneh progrcss has becn madc, and thc in
tcrcst of so many has bccn cnlistcd, and so inudi
reliancc may be placcd on thc bad passions which
may bc addrcssed, and the dclusions nhich mav
bc succcssfully practiccd upon thc pcoplc, that thc
political masiiucrade necd bc sustaincd no longcr.
Whcn wc considcr all thc clcmcnts which enter
iuto thc causcs to continuc this war, and to pros-
. 1 .r .1 , r l . 1
:lulu imu iuiiuiiuu uiu un:a ui iiumniicu con
Hiiest, it is indecd alarming. It is said to thc
commnnity, it is casicr to go on than to go back.
Bcforc the military ofticcr, or those who-honc to
lc such, dancc vice-royalitics for them in Mcxico,
in thc govomorships and tcrritorial offires thcrc,
by us, to bc cstanlwicu, or in civil promotion, at
home; to the Itxccutive, thc unlimitcd cxtension
of its patronagc, powcr, and futurc renoini; to thc
speculator,richgovcmnicnt contracts, to the mou-
cy man and stockjobbcr the unlimitcd cxtension,
saie, and shavmg of public stocks and pubhc sc
curitics: to thc ship owncrs, wcalth and cinnlor
mcnt in the tranaportation of troops and muiii-
tions ot war, uy wincii tncy liave alrcadv tattcncd;
to thc restlcss, adventurc; and to the maiicious and
contcmptiblc.,thc constant gratification of thcir in
f olcncc by abusing mcn and calling thcm sooun
drcls and traitors to thcir country; mcannhilc
the quict honcst citizcn is to bc kcpt satisficd anil
gratiiied with thc iltlusinit of indeumity, clatcd with
the splcndor of military victorics, and iutoxicated
with the glitter, cclat, and shout of military glory.
Gcntlcmen liolding jiositions in that augiist bodv
in the othcr cnd of tiiis capital, addrcss largcpop
iilar asscmblics in spirit-stirring eloquencc, goad
ing thcm on to thc carecr of unlimitcd ncouisi-
tion, by mib'tary conuucsts. Indecd thc mask of
disguie has bccomc too transparcnt to be rctain
cd; and the bhairman of the Committee ofFor
eign Itclations in the Scnatc. holding that posi
tiou of intimacy and confidcncc with tlie Excrn
tivc, has in thc most unqualified tcrnn, avowcd it
in this place in thc Scnatc. as the wcll-scttlcd nrin-
cijde of Amcrican republicanism, t lalceb'i fbrccof
, .i. t .zJ. '.t... '
notobtainbg neijotiatiuns. This dcclaration. start
lingas it is, is but drojiping thc mask, and open
ly avowing the principle wliich has, in fact, dircc
tcd thc wholc all'air with Jlcxico.
It can hanlly bc cxpcctcd that I should en
ter mtoa iluliberate arumcnt tort-fute a doe
trinc so monstrous, and unworthy evcn of the
most Lra-barous age; and yct I liae. lieard no
rcjirohation ol it. 1 call on all who Iiavc any
respect for tlic charactcr ofourfathcrs, who in
their Dcclaration of Indepcndcncc.paitl "re
spect to thc opinionsof mankind"in the dccla
ration of tlieir mirpojes, and callcd on God to
proper tlic rijriit I call upon tlie Exccutive,
and thoe who havc tlms far sustaincd it, (who
liavc thus far hown sonic respect tothe onin-
ion of mankind by disguising so lohg thc pur
pose of confiue?t) to utlerlv disavow sueh a
sentiment, and to nbandon their project of
conqucst, so rnmous anu il;sgracelul. J call
on all honest men, of all sects. snd ivho havc
within thcm any respect for iruth and justice,
orthe love or fear of God, its sourcc and cm-
lioilimeiit, to wipc the foul stain ol sucli a scn
timent from thc charactcr .of this country, and
.-ave us from pollution.
I would spcak with coolness on cvcry topic
of discii.-sion in this IIoujc; but whcn I havc
sccn n train of evcnts.all tcnding to one rcsult
!oiig pursticd, and havc sccn, stcp by step, thc
pnblit; inind lcd on and preparcd for it, and
then at last have vitBcsscd thc announcemcnt
ofso thocking and monstrous a principle, I
cannot disguise my abhorrcncc and indigna
tion. (llerc Mr. McKay proposed to crplain,
aml said tlic niembcrof the Scnatc, alludcd to
hid sincc explaincd himself, and held only
that forciblc posses-ion couhl be taien of thc
lcrrilory to do whirh was a claim of ri"ht.1
I have not scen that cxplanation; I spcik of
1- .1.. 1 r. . 1
u;u iqijivarcu iu me oinciai ocnatc rcport,
but I do not now pcrccivc that, if the cxpla
nation is what hegcntlenian states, itamounts
to mueh; as wc havc but to pretend sornc
claim to any country, and proceed to conquer
it. 1'ut, really, what claim have wc toMcxi
co, or any part of it, which we arc procccding
to conquerV
I wjll iiovr proceed to state, in as suramary
aml distiuct a nianner as the rcmainder of my
honr will ullow, niy vicwsamlobjoctions toc
quisilion by comjuest. Lct mc bc herc undcr
tood, that in thc remarks Inow make I am in
iio way sjieaking of.or objccting to, the cxten
sion of tenitories byjmt," fair and honorable
means. 'Whcn thc o)porlunity of apcaccable
purchasc jircscnts, it then bccomcs a mcrc
ipicstion of cxpediency. AYhen, from an ad
miration of our charactcr and institutions. and
an honest dcsirc to participate in their bhss
ings, a ncigliboringcouuiry, of its own aciord,
shoiild solicit a union with our national fainily,
it inight present a strong claim on our magnii
nimity to admit it. My present purjiose is to
statc my objection to "extcnsion of our coun
try by lbrce of arms, by conquest.
My firat objection is, that it is a gross viola
tion of the fundaincntal principle of our Gov
ernment. "Wehave dcclarcd to the. worid
that evervpeople havc a right to tlie govern
mcnt of tiieir own choice, and we liaie crccted
our Govcrnment on that principle. Whcn wc
proceed by forcc to take any inhabitcd coun
try, and liold it in possession, wc compel those
people tosubmitto a govcrnment which is not
of thcir choice; and we takc into our countrv
and Govcrnment a people unacquaintcd witli
and unfriendly to our institutions, and show to
the world that our condnct is utterby inconsis
tant with our professions.
iIy ncxt objection is, that, by conqucring
Mexico, or taking entiro possession of thc
country, and divcrting the revenuc from, and
destroying, the Governmcnt, we shall bc com
pelled, for avery long time, to sustain that pos
session by alargc standinjr army, atgreat cost:
that such a school of service will prcpare thc
mcn who havc so long excrciscd military rule
over that people to bc, like thc Koman lcgions
ortbeTurkish Janizarics fitand dangerous
instruments to sct up military powcr at home.
Any Governmcnt sct up in Mexico, underthe
protcction of our army, will of course fall,
whenever tlie army is rcmovcd.
My next objection to procecding in this ca
reer of eonquering Mexico is, that tho cfTort
has alrcady incurrcd a dcbt of sixty millions,
which will cxcced a linndreh millions in a year
and go on accumulatingtnnd this debt is a licn
and mortgage on this country. and on evcry
farm, and'on thcindustn and fruitsof indus-trj-,
of evcn- man in this country, which,
though now" deferrcd, must be felt and cn
dured for a succession of pcnerations.
My next objection to thc conquest of Mex
ico is this: Ifwe conquer .Mexico, we arc, by
thc law of nations, bound to pay the debts of
Mexico. Kothing is more clear than the law
of nations on that point I refer you to onc of
thc most common and approvcd" writcrs on
that subject, Vattcl, (book 2, sec. 203.) Aftcr
treatiDg much on thc subiect he savsi "For a
i saya
conqucror to rcfusc to pay the debts ofthe
country he has subdued, would bc roUbing the
creauors witn wnorn ne lsnot at war.
Thc debts of Mexico are of very great a
mount, chieflv due to the pconle of Ensland,
Thesc debts arc thcproperty of crcditors who
are not iMexicans, anu we have no more pow'
cr or right to takc or destroy such nronertv.
than wc have to takc other propcrtj- of a peo
ple with whom we arc at peace. low sir I do
not say "what lawlessncss und rcpudiation may
bccomc in this country, but this I do know.
that if we arc to prcscrve any respec for our
national charactcr, and the opinion of man
kind, and to hold a position with civilizcd na
tions, just sosure as we conquer Mexico, just
so surc we shall have tho uncountcd millions
of her pubhcdebt to pav. 2Cor am I sure that
evcn' taking thc disgraceful position of rermdi-
ahon would prcvcnt it hen Frcdenck thc
Great ofl'russia conquercd the Kingdom of
bilesia. thc ucbts wlucU bilcsia owed to Eng-
lishmcn wcrc demaudcd of him by the Ivinu
ofEngland, and, after some shuffiing and
much ncgociation, he was constrained to pay
My next objection is, that wc havc dcclar
cd to the world that man is competcnt to self
govcrnmcnt, and wc are now, in this country,
prescnting to the world a successful expcn
mcnt, ofthe principle. 2ow by thc conquest
of Alexico, we show, the world that, in Mexi
co, it is shown man is not competcnt to sclf
govcrnmcnt, or evcn sufficient toprescrvc
themselves from forcicrn conquest. That evcn
in this country wc cannot control our spirit of
aggrcssion anu aggranuizcmcnt, out procccu
to "swallow" or "absorb" a ncighboring rc
public, wcaker than ourselvcs, not competcnt
to s.olf-protcction, and so ignorapt and dcgra
dcd as to be incapable of intenial free govern
mcnt, but yct desirable citizcns of our i'rce re
public. Ourconduct and our professcd prin
ciples will, in this way, soon bccomc a' laugh
ing stock, a by- woixh, and a reproach in thc
world. Thc propagation of rcpublicanism by
the sword is as gross an inconsistencv as thc
propagation of roligion in that way. Xcither
can exist but as matter of choice and opinion
ot tnc pcopie, witn wnom it prcvails.
Much is said of destroying the nationality of
Alftxirn. sir. to niv nimil Ihr tifiifin.Y ilnvifn
to this country, with its mixcd popuiation of
scvcn or cight millions, ot bpanish, Indian and
negro admixture, is to tlestroy our own nation
alit'j. "We ccaso to be the nation wc havc
bccn and now are: the nation which achieved
indcpcndence and cstablishcd civil libcrtv.
The nation over wliich AVashington preside'd.
A trcaty of pcaec is thc rcsult of war. It is
thc product, the creaturc, the child of thc war
md must cver bc considercu as madc bv thc
prcssure of thc wan thercforc, whatcvcr terri-
ton- is ceded in a trcaty of peace, and espcciat
Iy if it bcterritory of which military jiossession
was taken and held during the war, is and
must be cver rcgardcd as acquisition by con
fjucst. It is altogcther vain and idle to attcmpt
to disguise the true charactcr of tho transac
tion by callling it purclase, or giving to it that
fonn. The salc is cocrcal and let m not at
tcmpt to debauch our moral scnsc by forcing
our cpemy, whcn prostratcd, to enter, while in
that condition, into a matter of buaiucss and
barrjainlng, as thc condition to peace.
I will now proceed to inquire into some of
thc objcctions which havc bccn made to put
ting an cnd to this wrctched war. The first
is, that we cannot make peace. That I re
gard as uttcrlyunfounded and untruc. Thcrc
fs not a man of ordinary intclligcnce in Amc
rica who can, for one momcnt, bclieve bnt that
a peace may be made with Mexico on any day
if we will but abandon the project of eonquer
ing & dismcmbering that country. From thc
vcry tcnns oITercd by thc Mcxican commis
sioners toMr. Trist.asstatcdinthcPresidcnt's
message, this is perfectly ccrtain.
liut it is said peace should not bc madc un
til we rcceive, in thc trcaty. indcmnity, not on
ly for debts due by Mexico to our citizcns ,bnt
for the cxpenscs of this-war. That Mexico
should pay what is due by hcr to our citizcns,
is uudoubtedly true, and no trcaty should bc
made without provisions tlierefor, bccausc,rf a
trcaty wcrc made without such provisions they
wonld bc discharged. But that indemnily can
bc obtained by land, for the cxpenscs ofthis
waris an cntire delusion. "What is undcrstood
by this pcopie as indtmnity! Undoubtedly it
is understood that land is to bo had, by the
salcs of wliich nioncy is to be obtained, to re
place in the Treasury, thc millions wc are cx
pending in this war. It will bc remcmbercd
that Mr. Trist informcd thc Mcxican commis
sioncrs that, cven if the busincssand boundary
of Texas werc ndjustcd, his instructions from
the l'residcnt werc such that no pcaco could
lic madc without the wholc of California and
Xew Mexico wcrc ccded to us, and that we
would, thcrcupon, make conipcnsation tlierefor
in money, what it is worth bcyond our claim for
thc Mcxican debts to our citizcns, and our gi
ving up all claim for the expen;cs of thc war.
From this it is ccrtain, that indcmnity for
thc expenccs of the war was not alonc what
the President insistcd on; for it was madc a
s'mc tjua von that we mnst havc thc wholc of
2Cew Mexico, and pay thc differencc. llow,
then, can it be said that thc war is prosecntcd
only for indemnily? The Mcxican commis
sioners then asked Mr. Trist, if, when the orig
inal causc of thc war was adjusted, to wit, the
Tcxas busincss, we could justify a continuancc
of. thc war to compel them to stll tlieir counlrv.
This qucstion has nevcr bccn answcred; but
the war proceeds. But tho great delusion
which prcvails in rclation to this subject of in
dcmnity, by taking land, is this. Mexico has
no laniHo ccde to us, or to any body clsc.
Whcn any tcrritory is ccded by one nation
toanothcr, or is conquercd byanothcr, the new
sovereign, or govcrnment, succeeds to all the
rights ofthe formcr one, and has jurisdiction
over it, and owns so much of thc land as lic
longed to the former yovernment, but does not
acquirc any titlc to any land, owned by indi
vidual proprietors. Spain always made hcr
grants of land, to individuals, in Tery large
tracts. New Mexico is an old country. and
thcrc is not anacre of land in it, capablc of
cultivation, that lias not bcen grautod to indi
vidualj a liundred ycars ago. Tho Jjgtion,
then, that we can, by possibility, obtain any
moncy from land that can be gottcn, cithcr by
conquest or by trcaty, of Mexico, is an utterly
unfounded delusion. Somcthing has bcen said
among the people as to mines, but I bclieve
this Governmcnt has not attempted to practicc
any delusion on our people, by pretcndingthat
anything can bc obtained that way, except thc
small pcr cent. which is paid by way of t.ix on
gold and silvcr produced. The truth is, nii
ning isa kind of lcttery. Therc arc nomines so
valuable as the mines of agricultural wealtli in
in the soil of our own countty. The Mcxican
mines are not in thc owncrship of thc, Govern
mcnt, but are not in the hands of foreign cap
italists, from whom they cannot be taken. 5f
It is obvions, too, that whenever the resolu
tion is taken that vrar shall proceed, and con
quest bc madc, rjntil the amoant taken, and to
bokcpt, shall'pay thc expcnse of "the opera-
tion, therc is no limil tothc claim. lt is forcv
cr adcancing; and Mexico docsnot hoic Lnorc
and nevcr can hioxc, from one day to anothcr,
the extcnt ofour claim; nor can our people or
army evcr know lor wuat we arc contcnuing,
becausc our demand is on a constantly slid'mg
scate or uncertainty.
But itis said onr nconle triZ harr Innd. nnd
tliat it will not do to make peace without some
acquisition. fair, whenever the pcoplc arc
truly informcd of the condition of things, as 1
have alrcady statcd, then they can be easily
satisfied. The President has but to tcll thcm
the whole truth. Besidcs, I do not belicve in
this uncontrollablc aviditj- ofour people tosteal
land. Other gentlemen bcst know their own
constituents, but I have no hcsitation in say-
mg, my constituents want no lanu but what
they own, orfairly and peaccably purchasc and
pay for.
It is, howcver, urged,that wc cannot make
a trcaty of peace aud'comc away without dis
honor, unless wc obtain acession of some tcrri
tory. I havc alrcady shown that a treaty of
peace may, any day, oc madc, it wc uo not in
sist on taking land. Now, sir, it is true that
we may not make a peace and conie home, or
evcn come home wijhout a trcaty, without
thcrcby incurrin" national dishonor, unlcss we
obtain soiuc land? If by the term 7io;ior is un
dcrstood somcthing distinguished from honesly;
if referencc is had to what is callcd the code of
honor, then I am not a good casuist, for I do
not profcss to be lcarncd in that codc. It has
bccn said that when a man apncals to his hon
or, it is bccause his honcsty has all bcen uscd
up. l nope it may not be so witli my coun
try. Now, I profess to know somcthins about
common honcsty, and I think a nation may do
with honor what it can do with honcsty, provi
dcd it does not funiish cvidcnce of pusillauim
ity and national cowardiee. Can it be possi
ble, after all thc battlcs which our army has
so bravcly and succcssfully fought against such
fcarful odds; after destroying their army and
capturing their capitol; when in f'ull posicssion
of their strong holds, and their officers captives
or fugitives; when Slexico is- prostratc at our
fcet, can it be possiblc, we may not sav, wc
havc whipped j-ou enough and aregoingtomc?
Thcrc can ncithcr bc national honor or glory
in bcating a prostratc foc. Is it possiblc wc
must kcep our feet npon hcr neck, and pick
hcr pockcts, and strip hcr, bcforc wc can hon
orably leave hcr? lias it come to this, that af
ter all thc harvcst of laurels which has becn
gathcred, our "lon- and national honor will bc
sacrificcd, unless wc gct landi Aniid shouts
of victorv and halos of glory which riseover
the battlefields, wc hcar, at last, the whole sct
tle down into thc mcrcinar3- and base cr- of
land, land, land! No, to my mind thc tooncr
wc lcavc tliat prostratc nation, and the less we
demand other, the greater is our magnamm-
Jt is said we ouglit to continuc tho war, and
conquer Mexico, for thc good ofthe people of
inai couniry. n is a new iiung in iiiu uisiory
ot man, that a pcoplc should auopt thc notion
tlieir relitnon, governmcnt, and institutions,
and evcn their racc, arc so much supcrior to
all othcrs as to make it a holy uuty to cx-
tcnd them, evcn by forcc, as blessmgs to otliers.
It cannot be denicd that thcre is much dangcr
that this may be the wcak point in our nation
al charactcr. So superior is tho nature ofour
Governmcnt to all othcrs, a3 suitcd to our.-cl-
vcs; so much have we prospered and improvcd
undcr it; so warm is our attachment to our
country and its institutions, that we arc nat-
urally lnchncd to considcr lt an act of humau
itv, cencrosity, and magnanimity to cxtcnd
thcse blcssings to othcrs, evcn by force, and to
forget that these institutions ot surs niay not
be adaptcd to cvcry people. Our ciul insti
tutions are cood for us becausc made by our-
sclvcs andjorourselvcs, and we havc grown
ud undcr. anu arc adaptcU to them. liut wc
should rcflcct that our institutions, likc our
srarmcnts, cannot suit the taste and condition
of all men, and cannot consistcntly bc coerccd
upon othcrs. liibertyor rcligion lorced upon
a people, ccases to uo cnucr nocriy or ruiig-
lon. lt is saiu tnc pcopie oi jicxico aru jg
norant, supcrttitious, and dcgradcd. and inca
pable of sclf-govcrnmgnt, and in a constant
state of intcrnal revolution and anarchy. "We
have not caused that conditioni then lct thcm
clonc, and do not introduce scvcn or cight
millions of such a people, nor any part of
thcm. to participate in, and bring anarchy and
confusion into, our own affairs. Lct thcm a-
lonc. and they will, ncccssanly, soon settlo
down into as good a govcrnment as they arc
fit for. and amend itwhcn ihevimprove Tiiis
piinciplc of a nation cxtending the blcssings of
ltS own UlSlUUllUIlS u juiit; um Llfjryc(Cd(, XitU
always, and in all agcs, becn the bane of na
dons. It has becn thc truthful origin and a
pology for nearly all the wars that have scour
"cd thc world. Tho Greeks and Ilomans al-
wavs rcgardcd all othcr nations as Ixirltarour.
and thcrefore conquercd thcm to chilizc thcm.
Tlie swarins troni the north ot r.nropc and j
sia, sprcad south on the same principle. Evcn
Attila was callcd 'The Scourge of God!' doing
thc holy duty of visiting the wrath of God on
the degcneratc nations. Such was thc cxcusc
for the cxtension of Mohammcdenism by the
sword; such the tanaticism ot thccrusaucsjsucli
thc causc of pcrsecutions. And the samc ex
cuses orreasons wcrc givcn for thc invasion &
conquest of Mexico by Cortcz, to thc cternal
disTncc of the Christian name.
It is not uncommon, in thc Iustori'of popu-
lar "overnmcnts, that an unmcanintt phrase i
taken up as a catch-word, and bcconies, for a
time, more potent than argumcnt. Some in
itanccs of that kind might bo remcmbercd in
our own history. Much industry i3 now put
forth topromulgatc anothcr suct ottr destwy.
I well recollect when thc phrase was first ad
vanccd in this Ilall. It was in tho discussion
on Orcgon. Agentleman from Illinois, in in
sisting on holding up to 54 40-, among other
mattcrs, claimcd that wc should so hold, be
causc it was the manifest dcsliny of tiiis Kcpub
lic toincludc this whole contincnt. This was
then laughcd at. and tlic claim was abandoncd.
and all was satisfied. It is now often rcpcatcd,
and thcre is fear the pcopie will be deludcd
with its captivating prctensions.
No man, whatcvcr bc his hopcs and wishes
can arrogateto himself to dcclarc our destiny.
It is profanation. But, cven if any man werc
cndowed with tho supcrnatural andiniraculous
powcr to sce that our destiny is to include this
iicmisphere, or thc wholc world, within this
Governmcnt, that could in no way justify our
now procccding to takc formidablc possession
ofit. Destiny mnst work out its own cnd by
its own destined means. Even if I knew I was
dcstined finally toown my ncighbor horsc, it
would constitutc no rcason why I should stcal
him. It is true, that, bccause wc are dcstined
to own thjs conlinent, we arc also destined to
disTacc oureclves by acquiring it by violence
and blood? The plea of destiny has, among all
bad men, in all past timc,been only the wcak
and disgraceful apology forcrime. It is thc
convicted felon only who apologkcs for crimc,
byinsisting that it was his destiny; and heisj
Entcrtaining thesc vicws, sir, I think this
wretrhcd and ruinous war should be tcnnina-
tcd immcdiatcly and entirely. The project of
conoucst of Mexico, in wholc or in part, should
bc abandoncd, and a peace be madc on tliat
prtncijtie, which may now bc done ou any uay,
and our army should come homc in its glory,
bcforc that glory is tarnishcd and compromised
bv dccds of plundcr and opprcssion.
Lct this Govcrnment return once moro to
tho lesitimate business, for which it was crca-
ted by th Constitution. It was made, not for
conquest by foreign war. but as the Constitu
tion declares, "to establish justice, to insure do
inestic tranqnilily, providc for the common de-
Jcnca, promoto thc qeneral tceljare, anu to sc-
cure the blessmgs ot uoerty to oursetces and our
Mr. fapeakcr, now much might havc bccn
donc for this country and this pcopie, had our
action bcen eonfiucd to thc purposcs declarcd
in tlic Constitution. and had all thc moncy and
cirort cxpended in tiiis war bccn dcvoted to
our own allairs? Time is not allowed mc to
enter upon this great subiect. I can mcrelv
say, we could indecd, by such a course, havc
becn madc a happy, enlightcncd, and glorwus
IiIR. MARSH, of Vermont, "
Mr. Maksu, who was cntitlcd to thc floor
from yestcrday, addrcssed tho committee du
ring his allottcd hourin a spccch af his clabo
ratcly Cnishcd stylc and rapid delivery. The
Ileportcr can only present such a brief and
impcrfect outline of its gencral fuaturcs as he
was ablc to catch.
Mr. M. said that hc proposed to avail him
self ofthis occasion todo what he had never
before atteni)tcd to do in this place, viz. cx-
press his own opinion and that which he be
licvcd to be thc opinion of a large majority of
ius constituents, and, as lic hopcu, thc wholc ot
tho Amencan pcopie, on the causes, motivcs,
objects, and dcpendcncics of thc existing war
witli Jiexico, and wlnch would mducc lnm to
vote ai;ainst thc furthcrprosecution of hostili
tics, which, though avowcdly commcnced for
dcfcnco, wcrc obviously to bc carried on for
the purposcs ot conquest. Ihe advocatcs ot
thc war said thatit was now too latc to stop,and
tnc only question to ue scttlcd was,wnat means
ought to bc adoptcd to bring thc war to as
spcedy a termination as possiblc, and obtairi
such a peaco as should bc honorable to us and
iust to our advcrsarics. It would be, did a
statc ot war absolvc us from all moral rcsnon-
sibilitics to those of thc human fainily who hap-
pcned to bc our enemics Mr. M. was one
who had ncvcr bcen able to sce the distinction
bctwccn public and privatc morality, and who
held that therc was a broad distinction bc
twccn a war for thc defencc and maintecanec
of existing rights and a war for thc successful
cstablishment of new claims.
In judging of the propricty of prosccuting
anv war, it was raateriaf to innuirc into thc
dcsign and purjioses for which tho war had
becn commen?ed; othcrwisc, we could ncvcr
know whether thc war had accompliahcd its
cnd or not. In rcgard to this war, it was un
important to distinguish betwecn its primary
causc and its immediate occasion. It was now
he bclievcd, prctty gcncrally if not unnersally
admittcd that the primary causc of our war
with Mexico was thc anncxation of Tcxas: thc
proximatc causc was ccrtainly the advane of
tho Lnitcd fatatcs army to the banks ot tlic
Itio Grandc; but it did not thcrefore follow
that tnc war was a ncccssary conscqucncc,
This Cabinct miiht bc rcsponsiblo for the ac-
tual cxistcncc of the war, though his prede
cessor might havc produced that statc of thipgs
out of which it had grown. If the Adminis
trationhad bcen guilty of precipitating this
dirc calauuty upon tho country, or it tticv
should now refusc thc tcnns of peace whicn
wcrc gcncrally undcrstood to havc bccn of
fered by Mexico, they wcrc rcsponsible bcforc
(jou and mcn lor all thcir acts or neglccls in
rclation to thc whole subiect.
After thc fatal wound we had inflicted on
tho national honor and indcpcndence of Mex
ico, by thc absorption of a rcvoltcd provincc,
which shc still claimcd as an lntegrm part ol
her cmpirc, Mr. M. would not say that it had
cver bccn possiblc to avoid a wan but, as had
bcen wcll shown by his friend from Connecti
cut, (undcrstood to refer to Mr. Dixon,) the
Administration nevcr had bona Jida endeavor
ed to avoid it by soofhing the woundcd fcel
ingsof Mexico. or doing any thing to concili
atc, until tiiis was tricd tbcy had no right to
presumc, beforchand, that shc would lelusc oil
conciuation. onc uau ai any raic coramiucu
no hostilc acts; thc cassus belli had not occur
ed whcn the present war was pro-okcd and
commcnced by us. Hc would not say that thc
Administration had wantonly plunged the
country into this contcst, withafullknowlcdgc
beforchand of its charactcr and results;but
this much he wonld sav. that hc had no doubt
thc President had ordcrcd the advancc of our
troop undcr thc hopcs that hc might thcrcby
goad Mexico into some hostilc act, that would
servc as a nlausable rcason for a large
in"r-aie of the army and navyt and
:i nronortionate au-jmcntation of Executie
patronagc; and that hc calculated at thc cost of
a small war to extort irom iicxico ucr jain.-M
provinces, thcrcby placmg President Polk by
the sideof President Tvler, on the bad emi-
ncncc of thoso who undertook to bccomc the
"cnlargcrs ofthe arca of frccdom."
But. besidcs all this, the Executivc rcsolved
on takin-r stcns to get the Californias. Thc
surrcndcr of Orcffon had bccn prcdetcrmincd.
and it becamc neccssarj- to propitiatc the irri-
tatcu icciings vi iiiu nwi, luufibuii
iMfrh-sniritcd ocodIc would certainly be at the
loS of what they all had bccn taught was their
"unquestionablo ngni a war wuu iuira
prescnted itself as tlie readicst and most likely
mcthodto encct-this objcct, by opcr.ing (o
Wcstcrn enterpnc new regions m tnc soutii,
!n nl-icn nPthne which it was decmcd the part
ofdiscrction to surrcnder to thc demand of
Great Britain.
Mr. M. said he could not rcgard this war
but as a national oflfencc. It was against thc
spirit of thc thnes, It was a rctrogradc stcp in
thc ontward progrcss of civilization and hu-
manity. It was a misusc, a total prevcrsion oi
our rich resourccs, a misdircetion of our ainis
Thc cultivation of the artsot peace, ot rcpro-
duction, of multiplication, of creaton, werc
nn-r rnconized on all hands as best suited to
the gcnius and cntcrprizing spirit of oar pco
plc. 10 cultivate war, in preien;uti;:
invcrslon of statcsmanship unworthy of the
ninctcenth centurj, and against tho preccpts
ofChristianity. It callcd a great cmUzed and
Christian nation toturn the ploughsharc into
the sword. Tho policy of this people was. to
increascby natoral growth and by accretion,
not to sprcad byconqncstandaoquisition. Thc
vcry publicity that nccessanly attcndcd the
opcrations of a republican governmcnt was
utterly opposcd to thc policy of an acquisitivc
war, wliich must liave becn planned in Dark
ness. But it was not a thing to bc wondercd
at that an Administration -which was in direct
hostility to the cncouragemont of the useful
arts and the protection of dolnestic industry
should seck to divcrt public attcntion from its
selfish and ambitious policy by holding up thc
tinscl of lnilitan' clorr, and waving before thc
gaze of thc people the false and meretricious
splcndor ol foreign conoucst, and thus finding
out a new and guilty eraployment for hands
wiucn ns own course nau lo&eu irum mo m
dustrial occunations and nursuits of private
Iifc. An cflbrt has becn made to hide the tur-
pitudc ofthis war ofagression by exaggera
ting the -wrongs we had experienced from the
Mcxicans and the glory to be acquircd by vic
tory over them. The South wcro told that the
success of thc contest would providc ample
space for the sprcad and the confirmed cstab-
r .i . . .1 i . Y. . . " i
iisnmeni oi siavery, anu eiicciuuiiy uissqiaiu
the delusive hope with which Mr. AValkcrs
lcttcrhad chcatcd the Democracy ofthe North;
while at the same time the North was cncour-
agcil by thc hope that the "Wilniot proviso
would bo grafted on some of thc war bills, and
would thcrebvpractically prcvcnt the furtber
extcnsion ofslavcrj'. Those who had clothcd
two nations in scarlct and dipped their hands
in thc blood of cach othcr, hopcd to blind the
eyes of tlie pcopie of thU country by dazzling
tnem witn tue prospcctoi aumitung me jast
ludia trade into thc ports of California.
Mr. M. said hc was not thc apologist of Mex
ico ; he cntcrtained no adnuration lor lic
charactcr, nor was hc disposcd to dcny that
she had done us great wrong; ai.d nonc could
hopoless than he did fronia country undcr the
double biirdii ofthe dcspotism of soldiery and
the despotism of priest. The Mexieans wcrc
teclmically, the cucmies of his countrjand ho
wished for thcm no trophies crectcdat our cx
ncnsn: but. nn thc othcr hand. hc had no svm-
pathy with men who would isit tlic sins of ,as-
iinng and cmcl lcaders on ttie poor uegrancd
jcings who werc but thc passivc instruments
of their tyrany and hcll-boni ambition; who
scorned thc civic victones ot pcacc, and liad
cbaplcts to bestowonly on thc bold and rcck
lcss soldicr. Hc had no wish to sec Mcxican
women convcrted into widows, and thcir citics
givcn to thc flarae. He had rather his coun
try would sit down in honcst shamc than cn
joying' thc guilty glory of hawng, by lawlcss
Tiolence, sprcad hcr dominion oicr this entirc
contincnt. Onc ninrdcr madc a villain, a
thousaud made a hero; but the statesman who
satcoolly down in thc scclusion of his cdosct,&
plantcd a war ofparty ambition, and thc hot
licadcd rulcr whose onlers bathcd a land in
blood, were but wholcsale manslayers, whom
no amount of carnagc and dcstruction could
cver convert into hcrocs. Bonaparte, thc
greatcst captain thc world has sccn, turncd
pale, and wcpt, and trcmblcd whcn he disvov
ercd that by an onlcr rasdily givcn to gratify a
woman with thc si"ht of a battle-ficld, l;c had
shortcncd. though but for a fcw davs, the livcs
of many of his iaithful soldiers; but what coni-
punctious Tsiiings, wnai graciousurowoi gcn
erous repcntancc, had this Administration cver
exhibitcdat the swecping slaughter in thc
strects of Montcrey, the cnihing of women
aud cliildren ih tho bomlianlmcnt of Vera
Cruz, nt thc jicstilcncc ofthe camp, swecping
thousands into an untimclv grave, or een at
the tears and mourniug that wcrc tobo wit
ncsscd in thc highways of this melropolis?
But, while discussiiig the nuestions of mor
als involved in thejprosccntion of hn war, it
would bo well tolinquire into tlic origin, the
thc causa caiuaruwfrwhich was to bc fouud in
thc anncxation of Tcxas.
Pcrhaps tho barc act of anncxation itsclf,
apart from thc motivcs which led to it, and thc
means by which it was cfl'ectcd, might not war
rantadeclaration of war on the part of Mexi
co. To dctcrminc this point, it was reqtiisito
that we should know more than would, in all
probability, be cver known to the prcs-cnt
gcncration toitching thc rclations of Mexico to
hcr rcvoltcd proiince. It might bo urged that
Tcxas wasat tho timeactually imlcpendcnt; &
it was possiblc, though thc fact has ncvcr yct
bccn provcd, that hcr revolt frnni undcr the
Mexican authority was justified by her misrulc
and opprcssion; but our groiind of judgcmcnt
mimt have re?nect to the motivcs and tho means
which produced her annexatic-n to this L'nion.
Tlie anncxation was held to bc iieccssary to thc
sccurity ofthe slaveholden it was indiapcnsable
in order to thc sccuring of his rights as giiaran
tccd bv the constitution; and thc rci'crrnco
drawn'from thesc prcmises was, that thcrefore
thc Gencral Govcrnment was bound tosid in
the project. It was true that a timid snggcs
tion had bccn addcd as to the probable loss of a
great markct for Northcrn manufacturcs; and
a humbug was gottcn up about Tcxas lcing
ncccssary to the Union as a niean3 of strcngth-
ing the defencc of an cxpocd frontiei-; and, as
a makc-weight, they had bcen tbrown in an
apprehension of thu powtr of British influencc
whieh would bc excrted thcrc should rot an
ncxation be. cfTectcd; but passcd all thesc con-
sulcratiens, bccause, thougli tncy migm possi
bly bc successful in gulling such pcrsons as
had been simple enough to givo credchcc to
thc Kanc letter, assuring thcm tlu.t Mr. Polk
was a fricnd to protccting domcstic industry,
vct.it was pcnectly notorious Uiai tncy ncver
Jiad availcd to influencc a singlc -oa m Con-
1, r- 1 1
rrosg. uonyress nau naa ociore u inc iiiiM.u
qucstion as a Southern question as the ques
tion of slavery. Thc qucsiion before them had
bccn -whether this Gencral Govcrnment was
or was not callcd npon to Etrcngthcn that in
etitution, by giving it space for a greater ex
tcnsion? Up to that time it had always bcen
contcnded by thc South, and gencrouily ad
mittcd by the North, that tho Gencral Govern
mcnt had no jurisdiction as to slavery; but, as
had bccn wcll said by anothcr, in their ovcr
Iieatcd zcal, thc friends of anncxation conce
dcd a principle which thc abolitionists had not
becn slow to takc advantagc ofviz- that Con
gress had the right of Icgislation'on a subject
which had hitherto bcen confined cxclusivcly
to the lcgislativc powcr of tho Statcs.
nowcver wrong thc motivc ofthe war might
have becn, therc was yct more of crimc in the
mern? uscd in bringing it '.o pass- W'hocver
wished torcad the blackest page in Amcrican
historr should ferrct out thc secret intricnes.
tho liidded unackr.owlcdgcd plans and insidi-
cus dcccptivc cflbrts, to cxcitc thc nation and
gct it up to the war pitch, in order to usc that
r.:i r..ir A..i-r.... . ,
,xwcrful feclingtdcircct ccrtain predominating j
nartv obiects He ought to divc into the re- I
ccs cs ot that Maclnavelian policy which held ,
out diffcrcnt baiU to difTcrent portions ofthc-
country, that, by combiningllicactionoi many
discordant elcmen(s andapph ing it in one di
rection, anncxation might be" accomplishcd in
spite ofthe North. Ho should watch and sco
. . ... - . i . t
how that contcmptiDie lacnon lonij i-uuuuueu
to swing backward'and forwanl bctween tho
rcmonsfrances of conscienceand party intcr-
est, till they werc at last fixcd by means which
proycd irremstablc. He should take pains to
lcara that whcn votcs had bcen dictatcd
craven fear, and what by daxnnable co:
But thc conduct of those who had bcanfth
mpst unscrnpulous in plotting to aflcct anncx
ation was lcss' cnormous in atroeitv than Jh.it
of thcir Northcrn a!lics,wb6 had cxt-used ttiehr ,B;
votesfor annexation lindcr thc IvbTirHfiSMti
limot proviso, or the "JJnnkerytpwWaatJ;
accuruing io oiuers. u luey cnosc to go'torog
gerhcads with cach other about tho name lct
them do so, and keep at it as long as they
likcd. Mr. M. was willing to vote in, support
of that war: "Whether it was the BrinkcrhofT
or tho "Wilinot proviso, it was thcboldcst cxpo
riment that evcr had bcen tricd on the credu
lity of th6 Atnerican people ; but now that that .
humbug had otterly lailed toaccomplisheithcr
ofthe objects far v.hich h was gottcn up, hc
should not bc surprised if those who 1 sd lieen
thc loudest and most clamoious in its favor
should prove to bethc vcry first to listin tothe
voice of teraptation from high placcs.
He knew that thcrc were some Dtmocrats
who had votcd fbr thatmeasure who wcrc men
of honor and intcgrity, and had becn ictuatcd
bv an honcst regard for the good of '.he peo
ple; but othcrs had been temptcd to ncurin
thc measure as a nicans 6f testifying thc rcgtct
they fclt at hav'ng itcd for annexatii n. liut
thc'great mass wcrc of a far ditbjrcnt dcsirip
tion. Some were actuated by a piopelh'ng
force operating at home: othcrs Jbr tlic sakc of
dispoMngof an obnoxious "Wcstcni -:ndidata
for thc Presidcncy, who had comn:it'e6Vlimi
self by a vote in thc Scnatc, white tl cir Nor
thern candidatc lav snuglv pcnlu. am' cstaped '
the respoiisibihtv. lt the same "Wis'ian gcii
-votes, after having bccn preiii
ninc. Thc Ailn;inislinlion .
lotistvi Mricd lir
ncte-i-di ;t m its
dcfcat by uslng onh fie otcs, had n r.re bct n
nccessin-, they rould liae had fll'ty. (A'oii-fe,
"Tliat is a fact,') liut bccause an clcctiflji
was approaching in Xew Hampshife, f.nd an
othcr in C'ontiK-licnt, .nid somcthing i-lsc was
coniingon Msine. a ili-qx-ns-alion, a prni.tid
for this onc time to Xoi thcrn fi icnd n( thc ad
rainistratiMi, and thcv ticu- allowt-il rs sn act
of grace to vote for tfic proio, for this tih:c.
Mr. M. said he was not vcry wcll uiquniii
tcd with present fce'ings of Soiitl.cni ecntlc
mcn on the s nbjci t of anncxation, I nt v
licvcdthat tlii- I.can to iliscoicr that it w;s
not (iiitr that Eldoradrt they had in nir.cil;
that it had invohcil us in n war, and Lad li.nl
the cll'cct of exciting among our pcopie ,i lu.t
of land that li-nl Icd and was still urTiig 11.1 uit
to tho conunissi'in of all sorts of t-rin.is. In
thc Xorth it had rr.iscd a ti-iiictlK-fori whit li
thc Adniinistratiou lcgau to quail : i.nd cm-ii
some clcar-hcadcd n.cn in the Soulh il-clf bc
gan to doubt the wisdom ofthe stf tTiey lail
taken, and wcrc fain to be contrnt to At-il tho
efiiilgcmc ofthe "lonc star" by acccn plisl.ing !
apia.c withMcito.
The only rcmedy fox the cvils we cndnri il
was a just and honorable pcacc. liut what
was an honorable pcare? 2o pcacc rould t o
honorable to us that that w:w not a ilic kl o
time honoiablc toMexii-o. Thcre s no hon
or for thc strongest iiartv in acontcst in bring
ing it to an cnd, iinlcts he had n''ard tolhu
honor of thc wcaker party a!.-o. lt -was sid
Mexico was Iargcly indeLtcd to aud we
must insist upon full payineut of ihe ili-m;!iid.
Was Mcxiro iiidrbtcd to us for sert rclly fi
mcnting rcbcllion in one ol her prminccs?
Did shc owc us for our taking forciblc po.-'cs-sion
of tcrritory thc claimcila.Hliers,and whith
our own Scnate Iiadsolcmnhiotcd to behciV
Didythe owe ns for slaugbtcring her nnotl'cii
ding citizcns. for thc capture of the Caslle ol"
SanJiian dc UIna;for thc bonibartlmontof V- ,
ra Cruz; for the capture of hcraiicirnt capital,
or fbr thedNgrace and dipersion ofhcrd'oi- J
emincnt? "What, in fact, did thc owc us but "1
the debts duc to onr prhate i-itizciis firilc
rcdations comiuittrd ui tlieir projicrtr? And
who could doubt tlnt thesc she was wiL'iiig j
and anxious to pny ?
But, on the other hand, had it nccr bccn
dcclarcd here that wc owed Jiexico for tho
loss of her prminceol'lVxas? Nay, had no in
tiuiation ben made to Mexico hersvlf to that
cflVet? Who was pn-pared, w ho was aUc ta
strikc the ludance. aud show thu an.ount dno
from ns? Onr cilizcns claimt-il vinie thrro
millions for indrmnilirs; could any one show .
that the conipenjitioii we owed Mcxiro was
not twircor tlirce timcs tliroc niuuonj.'
Gcntlrnicn rciiudiatcd all idi-a of arquisitioii
of tcrrilorj-by cor.ijucst. All tlici afciil wim
that wc should gct California and Xi-w Mexi
co asnn intleimiity totho Unilcd Statcs for the
charges ofthis wir. 51r. M. ia-istcd thrro
was no cxcusf fbr tlic war on thepha of in
dcmnity. Tcxas idone wasindcmnity enough.
That alonc was more than enough. A rom
pulsory treaty to pay us for thc warwonld l-o
dishonorable'to Mexiro, and ilonbly disLonoi
ablc to onrsclvcs. And the President and thu
Administration were now ready to buy what
lieforc was to have bccn obtained by con
quest It ought nevcr to lio forgottcn that the strrngih
ofn nation was not nicasurctl hy thcslrcngth cf
hcr army or n.iw, or Iy the splendur of its Oov
cmmcnt. A cpfcndid "Govcrnment was not ilus
ol'ject in the view of cnr forcfathers whcn they
franied theconstilntion. AVould any ccntlcmaii
maintain that the little rcpublic of Snn JMmino
was lcss happy than thc great Statc of Eutopc. or
that the Dnchv ofTn-scany was lcsf haf pily d
administercd than if it wcrc undcr thc sjilcmlid
sceptre of Mcttcniiih? Did gcntlcmen forget
that the quiet, unprctcnding Xorwny wi s at this
day the frccst country in Enropc 1 lt was not
military strcngth whirh cnahlcd a country lo rc
sist thc invasion of thcir lilicrties. Grtat flecM
and armics, on the contrary, wcrc tlicmsclTes
nicans of Exccutive patronage. They were a cou
centrated cmbodTment of Exccutive powcr, white
thc resistance of that owcr was enfeebleil frcm
its hcing scattercd. In small rcpubh"r the distri
hution of powcr among difiicrent deiartnifnis
tendcd to the prescrvationcof liliert v. But inlarji!
rcpiiblics thc reverse was'lrne."' Thc. States lufl
no flccts, nt rcgular armies; ard thoiigh ilit- mi
litia, evcn of one' Sutc, might diy the armim f
the Fcderal Govcmnu-ntifo arrn, yct thoc ar
mics might necnli.-less cnable nn nmbitioui un-I
unprinciplcd l'rc.idcnt to snbTcrt the lil.erty of
his country- So ithappened in the ee of Komr:
the lcgioiii whirh had bctn raised for the protef
tion of thc frontier had fixcd a Dictator on tl.o
tlirone. And so it secmed not impossiblc ithonM
happen ngain. What had we lately seen ? Tlra
Icionsof I'ennjlrania had votcd in Mrxiro.
Thc lallot-hux was cairitil wi'h throi as n piero
of camp fnmiinre, and a niilhary lomniandcris-
sued hts order for thc howing ol an eleetion ftfr
civil omccrsl
Wlirn a ronntrv- nossMsed a cenial soil cml
climatc, rapahlcTof'snstaining human life by mod
crate industry, ohd of furni.-hing the matrriaU of
a profitahlc commcrcc, and of snpphing its yo n
lation with nmplo means of resisting invrsion
from withour. and whoi'fts position as a nation
was recogniscn and respcrtcd by the famfly of na-
all the coatfitions of national prospcritr. To it I
nothing could be gained by a war ibr territory.
Now, tho Unitcd States had .roaebcd this
tlcmnu sluinld be n candulate, ur losu'st ;t(i- 1
vocatcs wonld fiinl(bnt vlmf it -as thcj I
would fiml the lleporti'r faiU-d 16 1k ar.) In j
Marvh that liroviso had bccn dcrt atcd l.v fite !
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