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H. BELL,....Editor and Proprictor. MIDDLEBURY, VT. JULY 20, 1841. VOLUME VI, NUMBER 11. 2 f The PcnrLt's Press is prinled in Ihe Brick Building JVorlh endof theBridge, by EPHRAIM MAXHA.M, By lehom all orders for prinling Books, Pamphlcls, Bills. Cards, $-c, of every desariplion,xcill be neally and fashionMy exceuled, at shorl nolice. TERMS OF THE SIXTH VOLUME. Villape rubscribers, . . ... Mail subscribers, Individuals nnd Cnmpanica who lake at tbe ofiice, or 1,50 ccnu if paid in six montlu. ompnnies on slase rouliv; .... or 1 50 if paid in eix ninntlis. Th'is2 who lake of I'n-urid -ra, CompaniPS and individuals nT thc route . or 1.50. if naid iu six mnnllu. $2.no 5.00 $1,75, 51,75 Si.ni) 1,75 ro p-ijters discnutiuurd unlilnnearagr'a arc paid, pxeeDt at Ihc o;tim of llip prnprielor. No payments tu Carrlers allon ed ex ctfptordercd liy the pioprieior. AII comiuuuications inustbc HiMrcsscd to tbe cdttor I'ost I'aid. Gung at the Sabbalh Scliool Celebralion, on the Cth inst. PRAISE THE BEST RETURN. On this auspicious, happy day What incenso shall we bring ? "What gralcful, humblc homage pay To our Almighty King 7 Bc his drcatl name on carth confess'd As 'tis by them above ; What 13 tli' cniployment of the blest But songs of praise and lovo ? Thatbrcaih which wc frcm heav'n rcceive We thus in hynins restorc ; And, white we on his bounty livo Vrc wonccr and adoro. Itlay heart, and voicc. and lifc combino His goodncss to errprcss : May ail that hear us with us join, And our Redecmcr blcis. COME LET OUR VOICES JOIN. tSuaj br ihe ChilJici: and Co'.ijrrjailon CIIILDKEN-. Comc lct our voiccs join, In onc glad song of praiso ; To God, the God of love, Our grateful hcarts wc rais.c : coxr.nr.aATio?:. To Gcd alone your praise belongs ; His love deruands your carliest songs. CHILDIc. Now wc are taught to rcad The book of life divine ; "Whcrc our Redecincr's love, And brightest glories shiuo : COJfGEEGATIOX. To God alone the praise is due, Who sends his word to iis and you. Within thcsc hallcw'd walls Our wand'ring fcet arc brought ; Where pray'r and praise asccnd, And hcavenly truths are taught : COJTCREGATIOX. To God alone your off'rings bring ; Herc in his church his praiscs sing. C15ILDKC?.. Forblcssings such as thesc, Our gratitudo rcceive ; Lord herc accept our hcarts, !Tis all that ve can givo : CONGEEGATIOX. Great God, accept their infant songs ; To thec alone their praiso belongs. UOTH. Lord, bid this work of lovo Bc crown'd with mcct succcss ; May thousands yct unborn, This institulion blcss : Thus shall the praise resound to thce, Now, and thrcugh all cternity. THE LORD'S PRAYER. Our Father, full of grace Divine, To thy great name be praiscs paid, Thy kingdon come, thy glory shine, And be thy will on earth obey'd. Givc us our bread frotn day to day, And all cur wanls do thou supply ; With Gcspcl truths fccd us we pray, That we may nevcr faint or dic. Extcnd thy grace, our hcarts renew, Our each ofTcncc in love forgivo ; Teach us Divine forgivenesa too, And lct us free from evilHvc. For thine's the kingdom, and the powor, And all the glory waits thy name ; Lct cvery land thy grace adorc, And sound a long, and loud Amen. AGRICULTURAL. BUTTER. The summer is ihe best lime for ihe pakers or tlie nurchasers of butter lo Uv in their slock for the year. Il is the best time. because it is usually t!ie cheapesi, because it is i!ie sweetest aa nchest, nnd Uecause, it put down sweel anu in good condition, it will remain good through the season. It h useless to deny that tliere is a vast deal of wretched bntter consumed in this country, whcu it wonld be qui:e as easj', and roore lur the profit of the mafccrs, to produce a superior nrticle. AVc have good pastures, good Cl,ws, and there can be no jjood reason giren why Cood buiter shculd not be the resuU. In the first place, every tluiigroanected with the uaak iej of butter ehould be pcrfecdy srreetandclean. Ni smoke, dust, or diagreeable stnell sliould ever exist in the milk-liouse or dairy. Every tlii 'g f lhiskind lias its eff-ct on thecream, aod leaves its laint on the buiier. The milk sliouU be sk'tmmsd.iinil tiie creara cliumed, at tlie prop er time and the proper teniperature. The butter milk should lie promptly repaialij ; and in salt inar. nonebul salt of the Cnest. pu est kind N ad mi.sible. Nesi ti leavinu milk in the butter 10 pu re y, the use of bad salt lis the most influ ence in tnakinj this artxle wortldess. Many reromnuiid Wiishin;; butltr in clcar c dd wnlerto free ii from the milk, and this mode is practiced iu some of the best buittr districls of Europe or tlie United Sttes. If the milk is thorouglily separ.-ited, ho'vever, the particular melhnd is of vrry little consequeiice ; and perliaps a macliine for w.-rkii g the buitrrmilk out, such as Iias benn figured in tlie Cuhivitor, or -ome similar con irivance, will be fouad as fffectual as any tbing. But liuiti-r, if jnade evtr so perl'ectly, will nl keep wtll unless it is also pncke J well. Tota! esciuiion from ihe airseems necessary, and wben ibis is coinbined with a low temperature, buiter can be kent an iudeiniie period uf time. It is the adventitious circumsiances onlv that make poor butter, foras it n a pure animal oil, if frced frnm those thinsrs liavingy tendencv tospoil it il would keep as lon? and with a little trouble ns tallow ct lard. It is tbe ilifficulty of freeing butter frnm tbe substances connected wiih it, that have a coostant lendcncy to puirefaction. that rcnde the packin;; of bu.ter of so niuch consequrnce to its prcservation. Stone jars are foutid superior to any lbin e'se for packing but ttr. Thcy are sweet, cnol, itnpervious tu air. and frcrn tbcir t-hape leave bui a mall surface ti be exposed, orcovered with brine. Tlie but ter. whether packed in jars or firktnsj must be beat solid, and the ve sel. whntever 11 may be, should be filled at once. The difficully att'enil ing firkin?, ia, that all wnod cmitains more or L'ss :icid, an'I th:s, tlecornj osing tbe salt, imparts an unpk-asai.t taste anJ jlavor tu the butier in tbe east. This is partly remedied by fi!!ing the fir kins with stnmg brine, and allowitig them tu stnn-l a leiv days tefn.-e u.'inc:, but tlie caue is nevcr cntirely rtmoved. Experiuients made in Scctland provedthat tbe wood of the linden or bisswno.l ronteineit tlie least acid, and tliis is snpported by the facl that in tbe Tyrulese salt-u-nrk-', wliere WHter is hrougbt to tte point of ia uralion by pcrc'la:ing through bundles of tv:gs, or ltjuots. tbose of the basswood are ahvays preftrtred to any oiber. In this country, firkins of l.eart-ash are preferred, and perhaps are as good as any that can be uscd. e liave known a firkin of butter pioperly headed, tbriiwn into a Wfll where the water was of ihc temper atun: of about 50 to 55, and wbeu taken out, afler a stibniersiim of a year, wasns sueet as when put in. Perhaps, where circumsiances adrnit. butter niiuht be advantagecusly kept in this way in vats filled with runuinij sprmg water ofibe proper temperature. Jjrs or Crkms uhen t.l'ed witli buiter, should have some pure strong brine pcured on ihe top of the butier, and kept there !br ibe purpose of cscluding the 3ir uniil the tirticle is tvantcd for use. Instead of the brine some use salt. and oiliers prcfer a linen cloth satumed in brine, for this purpose. But wbat ever is used, tbe top of thej r or firkin should be carefully cnvered with a board, or what U mucb beltcra c'ean (lat stnne. Tliey should stand on flat stoness in a cool placein .he cell.ir, and may be oceasionally looked to. sce that the surface is propeily secured, and the air txcluded. MISCELLANEOUS. From Slcphens' Incidenls oj Travel. A VOLCANIC ERUPTION. I wokc with the pilot'a lcgs resiiog on my -hnuldcr. It was raiheran undignified position but no one saw it. Before me wjs the Volc.ino of Cosagulna, with its fkdd of lara and its deso late thore, and not a living bein: was in sight except my sleepin; boatmen. Five ycars before on the shorcs of the Mediterranean, and at the foot of Mount Etna, I read in a newspaper an account of the eruptton of the volcano. Little liid 1 then evei eXiecl to see it ; the most awful in the l.istory of volcamc eruptions, ihe noise of which started the people of Guateinaia four bun Jred miles off; and at Kingston, Jamaica, eight hundred mi!es4distant, was supposed to be signal cuns of disttess from some vessel at sea. The face ol'n-tnre was cbanged ; the cone of the volcano wasgone; a mnuntatn and field oflava rantot esca; a forest oldas creation bad en tirelv diappeared.andlwo islands wcre fiirmpil in the sea; si.o.ils were discovered, in one of wiiich a large tree was fix-d up-it.le down ; one river was complctely chokcd up, and nnothcr formed, running in an oposite directinn ; seven men in thecmpioy of my bunsjo proprietor ran down to ihe water, push'ed off in a bungo, and were neverhcard ol'more; wild beasts howlinn, left thrir caves in tlie mountnins, and ounces, leopards, and snakes fled for bhelter to the abodes of men. ThU emption took place on the 20th of Janua ry, 1835. llr. Savage was on ihat day on tlie Mde of the Volrano of San Miguel, disiant one hundred and twenty niiles, looking for rattle, At eigln o'clock be saw a dense clnud rising jn the south in a pywmidal form and heard a noise wh.ch sounded like the roaring of the sea. Very soon tl e thick clouds wcre lihted up by vivid flishes, rose co'ored and forked, shootihg and disappeiirin. whirh he supposed lo be some electrical phenomenon. Tliese appearances in creased so fast tliat his men brcame friglilened, and said ii wasa rniria, and that the end "of ihe world was nigh. Very s.ion he biraself Tvas satis fied that it was the emption of h volcano; and as Cosaguina was at that time a quiet mountain not tuspecfed to contain snbieiranean fircs be suppised it to proceed from the Volcano of T grts. He returneu to the town of San Miguel andinridingihreeblocksfelt threeseme shocks of earthquake. The inhabitants Wt re dislracteJ with ttrror. Birds fiew- wildly through tbe streets, aud, blimled by tlie dust, felldead on the ground. At four o'cl ck it was so dark that, as Mr. S. says, he held up his hand before hiseyes and cou'd not ste it. Nobody moved without a candle, which ave a dim and mkty light, ex tenditig only a few feet. At ihis time the church was iull, and could nbt contain hall wlio wisbed to enter. The fi-ureof the Viwin was brought otit tnto tbe p'azriand horne through the streets followed by ihe inbabhant, wiih candles and torches, m pennen ml procession, ciying upon the Lord to pardon their sins. Bells t.dleil and during the procession, there was anothcr e'anb quake, so violent and lopg tha: it threw to the gmuiid many people walking ia the procession. The darkness continued 'till eleven o'clock the nexl dv when the sun waspartiallv visible,-but dim and liazy, and withowtany'brightness. The dust on the grounn was tour incne tnics; me branches of thetrees broc tvitn Hi weignt, and people were so disGgured by ii that they; coulJ not be recosnized. At this time Mr. S. set out lor his hacienda at Zonzonate. He slept at ttie first village, and at two or three o'clock in the mornins was roused by a report like the brtaking of most tetrific tliunder or the firing of thousands of cannon. This was the report which started the people of Gautcmala, nhen the commandant eallied out, suppo-ing that the qurfrlcl wa attacked, aiid which was lieard at Kiugstcn in Jamaica. Itwas accompjnied by an caril quake so violent that it almosi ihrew Mr. S. out of his hamraock. This may at first appear no jreat frat for an earlliquake, lut no Btrong'-r pioof cau beciledofthc iolence witli u'hich Uie ihock t'Sccu Uic ri-gion ln which it occurs. Deliricm Tnr.MR.vs. This is a most frtghtful malady consequent upon the abuse of vinous and spirituous drinks. It has recently been carefully traced and mintitely delineated by sonie of the most cminent medical men ofthis day, and is said to hrar with it a t.ain of symp oms more m:lanc!.ol, than evcn hydrophobia. Some time previcusly to tbe dee lopement of ihe worst featnrrs ot this disorder, there n e obscrved wt akness langnor nnd emaciation. There is no appetitc for either hreakQut or diuner ; there is a peculiarslowness of ttie pulfo, coldnc?s of the liandj and feet ; n cold moistuie over the wbols tu-fice ol the body ; cramps in the mm eles of thetxircmit'es; gidiiiness, nauea, vomi ling. To thee signs succefd a nerrous tremor of the hcad and likewise of the tocgue ; the f-pi it bcconies dtjccttd, a mrla- clioly feel-ng pervades the tnind, the sleep is t-hort and inter ruptcd ; tiiis may ccnstitutc the first fl-ige. After thisa sccond co.nes on, attetnled with the highest degtee of nervous irritalions ; mcntal aliei'ation is its marked fealute. Tliere is great rcstltss-i!es-, a constant cxcitenient, objectj of the m .sl frighlful nature are present to the imagination, tht eye acquires a most striking wildness, the indiitlual cannot lie down, he fears tuffocation. be talks incoheiently, be fancies he sces faces of eztreme bidtousness before him, leinu about to enter intoconspiracy agaii.st him. One meiliral wiiter who bas verv-ah!v discusscd the subjec:, witnessed a ver; Histressing incident of a patient uho, for a ronsi teratde tirac before hti dealh, imagined he snv the dfcvd .u tiie ceding above his l ed, and as the ditrase, wh:ch terminated latally, incrcased. he fancied the cvil spirit ap proacbed him with a knife to cut his throat, and Ijo actually exptred makhig violent cfTorts toavoid the fatal isitrumenl. .V. Oilecns Bulhtin. AVestckn Railkoad. On the 1st Decemb?r, 1S11, ihe Westeru Railr.ait will bu opened for pasaencers and for freight all the way by railroad irom Boston to Albany. Bolton will,of c urse be durmg ihe whole of tiext win et the seaport for the most productive portion of the slale of ev York, containing accordinsr to the United States cen us ofl840, l,S73 0nO inhahiianls. Tldsrich tract of country will then natnrally draw from Bosion iis winier supply, as uell as tbe suppiy for its early tpring trrde. It wdl, at once, S'-nd a vast amountof its prmluct-i to Mas-arhusetts, to vnrious parts of New Eugland and to the Uritisli provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and tne Cuba, Hayti, and other West India Islands where new lard, new heel", neto pork.and new floucr,are liighly prized. It will fu'nih a large nmnber of passengcrs. Bolton Transcript. Fiom the Bosion Tiroes. DISSOLUTION OF THE UNION. Thisthreat. uttered by Southern menibers of Congress, on the floor of either House, wbenever the suhject of slavery is incidenlally tneutinncd, bas, to the refl cting portion of the community, become ridiculous. We catnestlv wish that cvcry citizen of thtree States would vicw it in the sanie light. And if he will cxamine the suh ject car fu!ly,hewill prcceie thatanyotlier view of.Micli threai is lmost impossible.To cxecute it ts tbe last step of which the Southern poli ician would think seriously. But, relyinsr upon tbe nttachinent of the free States to tlie Union, nnd aho upon their ccncrosity and magnanimity, thc .Southern politicianj know that a ihreat of sepa ration will caue fraternpl feais, aiid hence their incessant nnd arrog nt resorl to this expedieni. It is a poor device whxh ojght to dcceire no longer; and the ti'iie hns come, ard iieed il came long since, for New Eng'and, at least, to ineet this ihreat in spirit of dtfiance. It is tme for Northem men to say in Congress, when this language is uitered, 'Separate it' you xcill, and lake theconsequences if you darc' This answer hursting wiih unanimity and encrgy from the free States, would efTectually chcck this tbreat, which deserves" no better epithet than dastard- To sliow the abiurdity of this thrcat, let us consider the relative posiiions of the parttes. The free States contain about nine millions of white pupul.ition, and the slave Stntes about five rnillio'is; and tbe former are ratbyr rompactly placed in a defensible country, with numerous lacilities of intercommunication. .'hile the Iatier are spatscly distribuied over an extensive, com paratively vild. and ndefensible country. Here, alone. arc suffi ient elements ot jnquiry to de monstratc the futility of a contest, and to indnce oi:e ol tbe parties lo refrain from cstremities. But this is far from heing the whoVi case. These five millions havearaong themselves about three mil'ions more, bond aod free, who in the case of separation, and of the contest to which it would iueviiably lead, wopld Iook a broa.l for deHverers. Wt know and deriile ihe language of Southern declaimers, upon tbis point. They affect to be lieve that in a conte-t between the two divided serti..nsol the Unioti the slaves and free blacks "would fight (br their masters oga.nst Northern mvaders If they are a-sureJ of this, why a:e they so t-ensi.ive upon tbe suhject of slavery and so npprehensive of dicontent and insunection arrfoug their slaves, frotn thc mscbinntions of aboli'.tonists ? They sav that the direct tenden cy of evety thiug done by abolitionists, is to ex ci'.c the slare to cut the tliroals of their aia-ters. Now if these very slaves are sufficienlly altached to their masters toj-ise upand cut ihe throats of; Noithern invaders, offering tbem freedom, the throats of their mastets are in no great dangcr ol their knives Such declar.itions, taken in con. nicti'in, piove too much. Either the slave would not fight in defenceof their masters, against Northern fnvaders. or they are in no danger of beins excited to insurrcction by thc machinations of siboliti.inists. To cut the throats of their inas tcrs to recovcr their iieedom, and at the same lime to cut the throats of Noithern invaders in defencc of their slaves, is a dereeof supereroga tory desfructivcness with whicb we are unwil lins; to chtirze any human being. We tfike for granted, that like all the rcst of mankind, the Southern sljve3 are. willing ta accept freedom .wbenever it is offered, and would hail as allies of themselves, any invaders .of their masters; and thcreforei that ia a conteit betwten Korthand South, the slaves wotild co-onerate with the fiir mer. Then what are the relative posiiions of thu two pariies? Five niioions ol whites. are be- ttveen two fiies; the fire of nine millions of wnues, in tlie fre? States, and tlie nre ot t.'iree millions of ATricans in the slave States, the Iat ier under the 3xasperation which cver did and ever will characterise insurgent slaves. Twelve againsi five are fortntdable odds! In mercantile phrases, the excess iscne hundred and forty pe. centum. And yet Southern politicians threatcn separation .' .' They are not serious. At leat, the most intelligent among tbem fully compre hend 'lu-ir position, tbough the mass, in tho plenititde of that ignotance and arrog ince which slavery al.vays produces in masters, imauine ihems'lvcs a "match lor all the world. And if they arc no'. serious, to sjpposc them so is not very cotnplimentarv to Northern penetMtion. Such bcing the relative position of the free and slave Sialcs as enemies, our next enquiry is a'oout the probability of their assuming that relation. Tliat hcaven may forever dufend them from it, must bo ihe earnest prayer of every patriol and every philanthropist ; j(;t, if ever the position be assumed, the guilt will da volvo up.m the South, and not upon the North. Lct us suppose tho scparalion acccmplis hed, and 'Mason'sand Dixon's linc. nnd thc Oliio, the boundary ; which is rnore than any sepa ration will give the South, for Maryland nnd Wcslern Virginia will never abandon their union with the freo States.' Tbe irritations, thc disputcs thc quarrcls, the mutual irtcur. sions of outragc und violencc which will prc vail alotig the whole boundary, will induce a war belween tho two govermnents, very soon ufter their eitabli5liiiient ; for when menibers of a family sepnrato in discord, we must not e.ipect ihem lo live in friendship under the scparatiun. The South, continually. and more than over. apprehensivc of insurrcction ntnong the dlaves. well cstablishcd along the boundary linc, thc Eurnpcan system ofcustom houscs, and walch housus, and preventivc policc, and passports. Tha North with or without pro lectivo (arifis, wouIJ fecl that its common laws wcro continually in danger from Southern smuoglitig. Should the Noith attempt to crcate u maunfacturing intercst by restraints, the South would endcavor to counteract them by free trnde and smuggling ; and should the South pursue the samc rcstrictive policy, the North would endeavor lo counteract it by the samo modes. Herc. then, is a necessity for custom houscs,and other preventivc machinery along thefrontiir; and the collistons between thu police of either sidc, nnd the &ubjccls of thc other, would infallibly and spcedily terminato in war. When two parts of a ijalion, idcntical in origin and lnnguagc, separate upon any point of disagrecmeiit, their cnmity becomes rancorous to their former friendship. It is a family quarrel, nnd like all such, charnctcrised by vioience. Then at war would be inevita ble, we must nol suppose that when it should come, cillier party would forego any ndvan tage; nnd thercfore we must not suppose that in such war, the North would fail to put weap ons into the hands of tho Southern slaves. Then where is the South 1 As we have al ready said, it is between two fires, and would inevitably bo blastcd. Thcy will probaqly dc claini ogain'st thc alrocily of this suggestion. VVc must lake human nature as we fi tid ii, and thercfore must tcll the South that it cannot have tho pleasurcs of separation without its pains. If they would avoi 1 the attocity of a servile war, they must avoid tho otrocity of a separation and its incvitable conscqucnce, a a civil war. We canr.ot part in cnmity and remain in friendship. Are the South ready for this contingcncy ? 3Iay hcaven arrest it ! May our union last forever! But if the Southern politicians will threatcn or cnforco its dissolution. on their own hcads must be the guilt. The North dc siros no such dissolution. It dcsircs the per pctuity of the Union under tho Fcderal con stitution ; and though it nbhors slavery and wishe' its extinction cvery where, it wtshes to leave any measurc for its rxiinclion in thc States, to their own reserved sovereignty. We have no partizau conncction with abolitionists, and do not spcak in their behulf ; and tho roughly as weoppose slavery, we rcspect, and .shall strivc to maintain constitutional rights. But the constitutional righ's cf tho North are nssacrcd as those of ihc t'outh, and sliould not be surrcndered, as they sornetimcs have been, to Southern threats of separation, intendcd only to iniiniidatc, but ncver to be cnforccd. We thercfore say that this cry should be stopped, tluil the North should trcat it with due con tcmp:, and that when it is raiscd in Congress, the reprcsentativcs of the frcc States, should rcply. '-Separate ifyou will, ond mect tho in cvitnble consequenccs ifyou dare." THEATY WtTU TIIE MlAMI I.VDIAKS. A trealy has just been ratified by tho Scnate, which vias mtdc at the Forks of the Wobasb, in Indiana, hst November, between, com missioncrs on the part of thc United Siates, and the Chiefs, Warriors aud Headmen of the iMinmi tribe of Indians. By this treaty, the Afiomis cede to thc United States all their remaining lands in Indiana, for which the U. States engage to pay the sum of S550.000. This payment is to bo made as follows : SHOO. 000 as soon as on npproprintion shall bcmade for the purpose by Congress, after the ratifica lion nfthe treaty, to he appiied lo the payment of existing debts of the tribe ; nnd the remain ing 250,000 in tweniy yearly instnlmcnts. The rntification is made ori-the condition that the Indians assent to thc nrrrendment. The MonMos. From what ve hear and. read, we should judse that great excitement pre vailed amunj ihf olher inhabitants of Hancock county and vicinitv, ia relation to this sect. We should eiceedinjy rearet to see the exciiing seenesof Missouri re-enanted in this State, but we consider sucbis not among the impossibli lirs. Whnt appears to excite parlicular aversinn unskilled irTthe mysteriesjpf the eolden pbtes, feartheyjare to b(.drivenout, as weretheHitites Jebusitei, &c.-'fi6m;t'ae land.of Canaan ofold, nnd that omith does not place as much faith in the efficacy of ram's horns, iu tearing dawu the walUofthe Gentiles, as in shootinj irons and ball-cartridges. Our belief ha been, that the Mormou Legion has been organizei furdc!ence, in case of au aitark, a iu Missouri. Quattcr Master General Benuett is one of the sct and who appears to be tbeirjmilitary leader. The State has lnsewtse 'liad a depot of arms at Nauvoo, from Wr.ich their miliiary have been supplied. We now learn, that Gov. Carlin has revoked Bennrtt's commission a Q.naiter Mas ter, and ordered the arms m the depot lo be re-moved. Oiving up Us Dcad. ln consequence of the funeral saluie fired lalely 4t New iork, by the U. S. vessels in port, m honor nf Commodore Claxton, five desd Dodies came to the sur face in the river and bay. One of ihera was that of a woman. supposed to be Sall Jonesr who threw lisrself cfiJames Slip. on Monday cight. One was a male infant, and tne three other were Bodies of men unknow.-i. LOAN BILL. From the last report of the Secretary of the Treasury, it clearly appears that during thc administralion of Miir'.tn Van Buren the cx- penses of tho government absorbcd not only all the ordinary incomc of tho govcrnmctit but a surplus of 31 millions of fjnds on hand at the acccssion of that administralion, and lcaving at its exit a dcbt of 12 millions, chicfly in thc shape of Treasury notes to be provided for bv their successofs. Accordingly tho loan bill has been introduced into the House of repre- scnlatives to paj this public debt. And now, forsooth, a mighiy clamour is raiscd agatust un udministration which is alout to crcate a public debt, rcndercd absolute'y necessary by the enormous ond profligate expenditures of ihcir irnmediatc prcdeccssors. Lct our rcadera hear what Mr. Sargeant of Philadclphia has to say upon this suhject iu tho following cxtract from his spcech, in rcp'y to Mr. Pickcns of South Carolina. For w hat had been thc history of tho past ? The ordinary rcvenue had all been spent, and from six lo ei;ht millions a year besides, a mounting in all to 31 millions. Where did the money come from ? How was th:s state of things hidden from thc People? In thc first place, whatevcr had come into their hands had been uscd for tho purposes of the Government nnd then came a called scssion in Scptcinbcr, 1837, which cndcd in gtving thc powerto is sue Treasury notes. To bc surc, there had hccn onc happy rcsult from ths exercises of this power, and only onc it had brought the Government more in symyalhy wiih thc coun try than any other measurc oflhat Administra tion, for the wholo country had been duluged with promissory notes of every possiUe des cription - and now iho Government was no longer out of ihc fashion, ihey issucd this government paper without dolay ; and what for ? Only to livc upon for d few days ; ihat they would have plcnty of money to-morrow, and then they would all be paid off. How did it usually farc with an individual who pursucd ihe same plan in his private aiuirs ? He got his notc discountcd and thought no more of it forsixty days ; in thc mcan timo the money was all spcnt ; and then when the sixty days were out, he gave a new notc and paid tbe dia count. It happcneJ just so with the Government. At cvery new batch of Treasury notes the samesong was sung in thc ears of Congreao : "We only wnnt it for a short time ; funds will comc in, and all will bc right." And thus mattcrs procccdcd unlill the Government had issucd to thc tune of thirtyono milliotw of dol lars. Ot this amount ii had paid, if payment it might be called, twcnty-two millions, and nine millions rcmained still cutstanding, though five million? had bccn all that was cslted for at first, and that only to mect the irrcgularity of tbe yearly income, which was delicicnt in one part oftho year. but wasto cc rcdundantin the other. What had been thu intcrmediate his tory of thc Treasury 1 Theso issues of Trea sury notes had been rcncwed four timcs until it was now going into a habit of thc Govern ment, and it was high time it should bc chcck cd. Wehad had outstanding at ono time, in 1033, no lcss than ten mil-ions in this Treasu ry paper, and there rcmained nine millions out still. Wns this no public debt? OIi, r.o. There was'no public debt. None at uH. It was this new Administralion whicb, was going toplungo tho country into debt. Somcthing had bccn said ycsterday about " juling ;" and many a inan had juggtVd htmself in this very way But were the People to be jugs'ed into tho belief tha: they -.vcfo not in debt when thcsc notes were out for nine millions of 'ol lars? Was a debt any less a debt because it had but 30 days to run, rather than ten yoirs ? No ; but the difTerence between them might be that in one casu the debt hid itself from view. Under the system of Treasury notes to-kcep up Treasury notes, or.fs set on thc bsck of anothcr, it was unknown to the country how much it vtM in debt at any one time. The debt was kept out of sight, and the People wcro boldly .old that there was no national debt. And then, when a new administrntion camo into power. and looking into thc actual iiatance due, proposed to settle it in an open manner, ad mitting its whole extent, and seeking tncans whereby to meet nnd to diacharge it, then it was at once said ''Oh, this is the new Admin istratior. that is going into debt: under the good old times we wero not in debt ; but no sooner do theso poopl get into power than thjir first act is to plunge the nation into debt !' Now so far, ns the T-reasury r.ote power still survivcd ; a loan only went to change the form of the debt, and Mr. S. thought, to change it for. thc bctlcn The comtIaint io fact, amoun tcd to this : "You do not do as we did," Well what did you do ? pay tho debt, ? No, you did not, If you had, wo should not now have to provide for paying it. You wcnt tu debt and left your debt to us wiih nothing to. pay it. That is what you did. And if the coun try is in debt under this new Administralion whose fault is it ? The fault of those stewnrds who were e'ntrusted with the revonuo hereto-fore- Thcy spciit all thc revo nue, nnd six or eight millions a year bcsides. The vho!e chargc against us comes to this, that finding a debt on hand, wo have not c.hosen to isstto our notes for it, but picfer to give a bond. What coursc can bo more open upright, honcst ifthe creditor is villing 1 Bur in the present case there is a third party to bo consulted, and that is the Pcoplo of the United States. We are doing what is right and justr and doins it in such a way ihat all the Peoplo can undcrstand. Herc is no fog ; No mysti fication ; wo spcak phiin Enghh ihat all can undcrstand ; and thc People wili be ab!e lo judgc, at the end of the pcriod for which tba- bond has to run, which coursc is thu most manhj and tho wiscst. Mr. S. askcd whether it was not time fur Amnricans who lovcd this Union to cling to the Union at d to each other 7 For, at last, their dependence for dcfenco against tho whoU world was upon each other, This Union had bccn so cotisecrated in the aflections of our People that it never could bc touched without incuring distrcss and sufiering heyond descrip tion. Wo nll had n right lo the Union. It never could be dissolved but by forcc and vio Ihiicc ; and when that point was renchcd. tho battle would not bo fought with words. Tho man who rose to'usc such weapons would find the dagger at his throat. Il would be a contest worso evcn than a servile war. lnn'ccd, ha did not know but the horror-s of socinl might be nggravntcd by those ofa servile war, and hoth endured nt oucc. Ti e masscs might be comc so excited and infuriated against cr.cli other, that thcy might be temptcd to seizis uponv nny instrument Ihat prcscnted itsclf lo their hands. Lct Southern gcnllctnen rcmcmber what and who would be so pescnted to tho rage of civil strife. And what would it nll bo foi? To dividc the North from ihe South? Where was "the South" r Could any gcntlo man tcll him'' Where did it begtn nnd whcro diditcndT Diditinclude Delaware? Did it lake m Maryland? Did it covcr Virginia, or N. Carolina? Was it confined to tho collon rcgion? There was no cotton in Dolawarn nono in Maryland, and vory little in Virginiiv or N. Carolina; and that little was going rnp idly into extinction. Tho samo might bu said in rtferencc to Tennessee- Thc scparating line could Hiot, then, be assumed tu be the boundary ol the cotton district. What would gciitlemen call tho grent vallcy of Virginia? Was it the North or was it the South?" Did it bclongloone sidc of the linc or to tho other? In feehng, he believed it was much thc same as Pennsylvania. But supposing tho scparating linn could bc accurately drawn to-day, where would it bc to-morrow? Was not the extent of the cotton product continually varving? Whero then, hc ag.iin askcd, was tho South? What was its Southern boundary? Was Louisisna. includcd? llcrswastho Sugar rcginn ; shu wanted hcr sugar protccted; she was no advo cate of free trado, and was not in thccombitia tion which would sustain Birmingliam nnd Manchester against tho compelition of thc U. States. Where thc-n, was tlie identily of tho South? Wcro thero no conflicting intcrcsts no compctition, no rivalries? were not Alaba. ma, .Mississippi, Georgia and South Carolina producers of the samc sinplojaud compc'.itor in tho samc markcts? He would not say thnt this stats of things na'uralfy cngcirlercd cn;r.i. ty, but that it producnd n. conflict of intercit. Thc time had bccn when South Carolina took thc lead in tho Cotton trade, but he believed that for the last year the product of Goorgi.t had bccn groater than hcrs The iiivestmcr.ts of Georgia in thc Hpnks of tho Lfiiited Stutcs proved that she had accumulalcd a vast capital. It had bccn statcd ih;it .Mijsissipni alone could produce more cotten than t;iu united worli could require. Aud no-.v Iook nt olhcr parti ofthe Union. Did genilemcn forgel tho heavv importations of cotton into theu city of lioslo:T Tlie natural consequence of such ccmmeicinl inlcrcourse wa to estnblish the relutions of mutual friendship. The north becamo tho customer of the South, and onc' of hcr best customers. But while the North attd th South wnrc contcndiiis with each ot:icr, did they fjrgct that thero was a growing giaiit who might one day volunlecr to coniu in bo twccn them and to put an cnd to lhelr cntro tersy in a way ihat wouM require all theireiicr gies lo'sustain thoir rights cgaiusl the power of thc medttators. A:;oTiir:2 IIe ad Orr? This crv. with "Guillotino" "keep tha axe going," con tinucs to be rcpcated by the opposition papsra at cvery removnl cf one of their party from officc. Thi3 is nothing les than an open con fe33:on that a Iocofoco without an ofiice, is a creature without a hcad good for nothing at all : that he possesses, iatrinsically, ncithcr cyesnor ears, scnse, pcrcepfion norundcrstan. ding ; bnt owes cvcry ihing to the "appointing power," that hu intent Iies in his fees, and. ho is nevcr suro of thc posscsstoa of brains till he secs his quarter's salary. When thesa pco plo Isara ths nctvs that the public "have no further occasion for their scrvices" they cro chopped ofFfrom all community with the liv ing and breathing world bocorac ucad mea straightway, and stalk the earth. with their heads under their arras. This is no very flat. tering picture of thc Iocofoco party, but as thcy have drawn it themselves, wc do not see how they can complain that we have ''glasscd and fnaned it." Bosion Courier. Wxstwatid Ho ! Suctecn wagon loads of "Latter Day Saints," (or Mormons) nincty sevcn in number, from Oswego county, passe.d through thi3 city on Monday cvcning, on their way to tho uLand of Promisc," on thc Mis sisstppi. Before crossing thc river, the caxa vah haltcd, and favored our cilizens with a fcw regularbuilt JooSmith Umcs.-RochttlerDea.