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ANP MIDDLEBURY PEOPIiE'S PRESS.
H. BELL, Eilitor and Proprietor. MIDDLEBURY, VERMONT. WEDNESDAY MOItNING, JANUARY 31, 1844. VOL. VIII.-NO. S9. THE NORTHERN GALAXY, ;BUSnEI EVKT WEDSESDAT SI0HX13O :s 6TEWAkt's BUH.DIKC!, BY J. COBB JR. j aii ordebj ron rnixxisa i ijooks, pamphlets, H1U.S, CARDS, &c. of jrcry dcscriptiou will be neatly cnd felioudjlj cxecutcd, at short notice. TEUM: OF EIGHTII VOLUME. T -i,.tfolfcrii)cri S?2 oo vu -oiicribcrs 2 00 ' ,3J -"J Conipanie. l.o uke at thc officc 1 'in tAc of I'ostridcr 1 aI c . . ! ,aid at ilieenJ ofthc year 2. 25 iliacoatinueJ imtil arrearaifes are paid jjjpiattlieoptionofllieproprlctor. Kopaymeit CtfriraI!oucdfxceptordercd bj the proprie-. ustbe addrnwd te thced-! All contnwnications mus rPosT Paid From tl.e Wcicheitcr (Pa.) Record. A NEW WHIG SONG. Somctimc sincc the Richmond En-'passcd undcr the canopy, the obsequious rjUirer, m commenting on a publishcd let- attendants streivcd the ground with cotton tcrwntlcn by llenry Clay to some of his ; tapestry, that his imperial feet niight not p Imcal fricnds stylcd it in derision "a'bc contaminated by tlic rude soil. Ilis h!i?t frc m the Burrlc," and afibcted to con-' subiccts of liizli and low dcirree. who lincd :JJer i' a sumnions u hich thc Whigs of ik Union would not vcnturc to disobey. ' Thcercmarksinduccdthefollowiiigsong i,v thc Hon. Francis Jamcs, which was aa" bv thc requcEt of the Westchcster Clay C.ub. nr ;T FROM TIIF I5ITGLE " BLAST rUOM UiU bLUL Tane 'Star srAXCLDD Bax.ner.' t "X lUit fiom tlie Ctilc sav, hcartl c ihc eound, J it rollM from the West, over rauuntainaniKal- L7T Iira a signal fur Pairiotx the counlry around, To ci5ke fur llic cimtcf t a glorious rally. Itfgan!, tlicn, il9 cill, jc whigs one andallt Pif parc fur the conflcrt, to conqucr or fall. 'ALa' f.-ora tlrc buglc" uh! I'ftto it ttrain, Jli it rchucd in iliuiidera fiou Georgia tc Iaiuc. L'V ttictru.tip of a chirf hlown to jathcr his clan, TiH arousc cry frtt-'iaan, tlio Iicaiy his sljm- ; Ini cre him to dectls wcll IxrGttiiig thc roan Who ilesercs tobe rankcil in our army of nutn Ler; For ue want but llie trac, nlio 'll dare nnd tviit ilot Wliatever to honor and right ehal! be duc; Wtea,a''liijt froa the Boglc," fhall tir tip our train. U Lwiand and liistiland, from Georgia to Slaino. Ro crartn, c vih to rcrpond to iti call ; Anl iili! isay itnloud notcs.no TRAiTonsawakcn; Ea: lecp bc bis lccp, as the drpths of bif fall, tet him kreatue on, neglcctcd, dcgradcd, for facn; Let his namc f.ide away, frora'the liglit of the day AuJ the honors which once encircled his ra : TTbiii a "bbst from the Bi'glc" cc'cr isrucd in T :inf l.j'il inspirit cach frceman, from Georgia to Jlaine. Lst! "a blast fioai the Buglo" haikl hark! how it reaU! T.- tV r.-.-cne,j3 galbnts! f.ill fall in fur Ilarry! Tlt m ! of ihc V.'cri him whosc caador rccaU All, -!1 that hc is then I pray yoa don't tarty, Uut enmc to his aidf lo bas neicrbetrajed A f.icml.or proicd falsc to tbepromisc lie mad it rolb. o'crthe liil' "a blast from llic ivh' pl:iint laJ tunles anerlio from Gcor'ia to Mainc. Tnc Peojct i.v the U'jvs anii mkas Ufpi: vltiii: Takikf. Thc Ktchnio:id fnqmrcr in rcplying to our article, thut Mr. Van Ihircn by mcans of thc Cotnmit lee pf Vavs timl Jlcans, would push a iiepcal of'thc Tarifi' Uill through thc H iuc, with thc ccrtainty of having it l...cd in thc Scnatc, says : W'c will makc a fair bargain with thc Xcw York Express. .Managc your whig nfnibcrs, and wc will managc our Van Iturc-i mcn. Get vour whigs to votc for it, antl ve will undcrlakc to answcr for the Vf.., mmu-t Tho iv.r.t tnll iiir., . otit to !.c. that wc will do our duty, and i tttcmpt to relicvc a sufTcrin- peoplo and a siarvir," Trcasurv from thc opprcssion of mr I'rnirrtivc anti-UoventiG law its truo rimractcr) but the whio-s in thc Scnate i -ri!l tlnr-irt th- ir-rnil,lir-,n; If tlin rc. i :,-,f Iu'l be lost. it is vour whi"s in the l l'ien 'lung round Montezuma's ncck a ilton, shcctings,ind shirtings at ncarly all, Anate who wiii do it miich morc prob- sparkling chain of colored crystal, accora-! with drillings, printing cloths, ic. at sev--ble than the Van Burcn mcn in ihc Pnying this with a movemcntas ifto cm-jcral. H nisc of Ucnrcscntativcs. brace him, when he was restraincd by thc Thc avcragc wagcs paid to fcmales, You maunrr'o vour Vin Burcn mcn ! t,vo Aztec lords, shocked at the menaccd ' young and old, cxpcricnccd and incxperi- i.v riitln t vour mana"c them, when the 'irilT Biil was paf.scd? Whv didn't you P'tnagc Mr. Van Burcn's right hand man n ihc Srurite? Why didn't you managc Mr. Beardslcy, Mr. DuiTcan, Mr. Hamlin, sitlolhersin tho ahohtion businces just now ? You managa thcm indced ! You -"d yours hrw wood and draw wafer for fce dirty politicians of New Y'ork. Tlic Richmond Enquircr cvidcntly fenks that thc South will be complctcly jhped, if thc Van Buren men repcal this Tariff iti thc House, and tho Whigs in the Scnate dcfeat thc repcal. These New York tactics are to complelely " baraboo tle" (we quoto tho Enquircr's East Room "rrusponQcni, ioi. ucnton) lue Ualhoun fiien of tho South ! Tho South is to for. I gctair. Van Buren's shcep speech, tho -j.uuav; iuuciiiiuii ic&uiuitun, anu ine 1 cuipurur iu iijunu iuv wjitwt .,.. r'ay Scmtor Wright voted on tho prcsent dence. They were built of a red porous TariC-.rKovinEDlhebusinessof humbug, 'stone drawn from quarrics in tho neigh w'nich on the Tariff Mr. Van Burcn has borhood, and, though they rarcly rose to I" carricd on for tho last fiftccn ycars 1 a eccond story, oftea covercd a largo m kcpt up by passing a bill in ono IIousc ' space of ground. Tho flat roofs, axoteas, nn. ihe lritcnt that it shall bo killcd in 'ce othcr! The Libcrator statcs that the debt of W9 American Anti-Slavcry Society has iaereed 4,000 dollars within tho last 7 Conlht, MISCELLANEOUS. JJstott';j,,Gronqtiwt of Hrjrt'eo. FIRST INTEUVIEW WITH MOKTEZUMA. VOt. II. j In the midst of these unpleasant refiec tions, they beheld the glitteting rctinuc of 'the Empcror emerging from the great cfrfPt whir.il lpfl thltn n If lnnc througi, ti,e heart of thg cJt Amidst a yd of Ind;an nobleSi preceded by threc omccrs ot state, beanng golden wands, they saw theroyal palanquin blazing with buruished gold. It was borne on thc snouiacrs oi nobies, and over it a canopy of gaudy feather-work, powdcrcd with jew- eJSj ad frjllged w;t, SIver was supportcd . f nllnnilnnl. nf rnnl- : They were barefooted and walkcd with a slow measured pace, and with thcir CVCS bent 011 the ground. When come within a Convenient di: the train had istance, it hal- .ed and Montczuma, descending from his nuer, came iorwaru jcaning on mc arms of the lords of Tezcuco and Iztapnlapan. i. - i i ., ... r- t ",s "cpnew anu Drotner, uotn oi wnom, as known to thc Snaniards. As tlm mnnnrrli the sidcs of the causcway, bent forward with their cvcs fastened on the nround as ' he passcd, and some ofthc hnmblcr class ' prostratcd thcmselves before him. Such ' was the homage paid to thc Indian dcspot, t ; showing that the slavish forms of Oricntal ladulation wcrc to bc found among the !ru(p inhabitanLs ofthc AVctcrn 1,1 i At0ntezuma worc thc "irdle and amole great cloak, tihnallL of his nation. It was madc of the fincst cotton, with" the : embroidcrcd cnds gathercd in a knot rountl his ncck. Ilis fcet wcrc defcntled by sandals haviiig solcs of gold, and thc leathcrn thongs which hound them to his anklcs wcrc cmbossed with the samcmct al. Bolh the cloak and sandals wcrcsprin kled with pcarls and precious stcncs, among which the cmcrald and thc chalchi vill a green stone of highcr cstimation than any othcr among the Aztccs wcrc couspicuotis. On his hcad hc worc no othcr ornamcnt than a imnaclie of plumes of the royal green which floated down his hack, thc badgc of military, rather than of rciral, rank, IIc was at this time about forty ycars of , agc. Ihs person was tall and thm, but nt ill-niade. His hair, which was black and straight, was not vcry long, to wcar it short was unbecoming pcrsons of rank. Ilis bcard was thin ; his complexion some whatpalcr than is oficn found in his dus ky, or rather copper colorctl racc. Ilis featurcs, though serious in thcir exprcss ion, did not wear the look of melancholy, indccd of dejection, which characterizcs his porlrait, and which may wcll havc sct tlcd on thcm at a latcr period. IIc movcd v.ilh dignity, and his whole dcmeanor, teinpercd by an cxprcssion of bcnignity not to havc bccn anticipatcd from thc rc ports circulatcd of his charactcr, waswor thy of a gret princc. Such is thc por trait lcft to us of thc cclcbratcd Indian cm peror, in this his first intcrviciv with the white mcn. The army halted as hc drew ncar. Cor- dismounting, thrcw his rcins toapagc , ittiii, -,upiiuriL uy u juh ui uiu -jrintiai , cavalicrs, advanccd to mcct him. TJie t intcrview must havc bccn one of uncom- j mon mtcrcst to both. In Montczuma, Cortcs beheld thc lord of the broad rcalms hc had travcrfccd, whose magnificcncc and dCS( prodt:cing 1,425,900 yards of cloth powcr had bccn the burden of evcry per wcek. or 74,141,000 within tho ycar tonguc. In the Spamard, on the othcr j i843. The cotton fabricatcd by thcm du hand, thc Aztcc princc saw thc strangc ring tho ycar was 22,880,000 lbs. " (A bcing whosc history scemcd to bc so mys-, pound Df cottnn will average 3 1.5 yards teriously connected with his own; thc j 0f cloth; 100 pounds of cotton will makc predictcd onc of his oracles; whose go ib3. 0f clolh. A Ioom will avcragc on achicvcmcnls proclaimed him somcthing i Xo. 14 yarn 44 yards of cloth pcr day ; morc than human. But, whatever may or pj0. 30, 30. Of printcd cloths, 273, havc bcen the monarchs feclings, hc so far 000 yards pcr wcck are made by tho 3Ier suppresscd them that he received his cucst riniac and Hamilton comnanics. Thc witn pnnceiy courtcsy, anu 10 express 111s satisfaction at personaliy sccing him in his caPltoL CortC3 . rcspondcd by the most - profound cxpressions of respect, while hc , made ample acknowlcdgments for the sub-; stantial proofs which thc cmperor had giv- : 150 of rugs per wcck, besido 85,000 of cn thc Spaniards of his munificcncc Ilejcottons. Flanncls arc madc at the Ham- lJIU,a"a"u" ul ",u --" .....t ( mastex, Aiier tne iniercnanse 01 iuese civiltics, Montezuma appointcd his broth-' er to conduct the Spaniards to thcir resi-1 their board. Ine payments arc all made dencc in the capitol, and again entering ' in cash, amounting to 8150,000 per his litter was borne oft" amidst prostrate ' tnonth. Wo challcngs tho wide world to crowds in thc same statc in which he had j producc, out of thc manufacturing dis come. The Spaniards quickly followcd, ' tricts of our own country. n rcgion where cad with colors flying and music playing ; in femalc labor is so bounteously cmploy soon made their cntranceinto the southern, quarter of Tenochtilan. Hcre, again, they found fresh cause for ndmiration in the grandeur of the city.and the supcrior stylc of its architecturc. Ths dwcllings of the poorcr class wcrc, indeed, chicfly of rceds and tnud. But thc great ' avcnuc throusn wnicn iney were uow marching was lined with tho houses of 'hc noblcs, who were cncouraged by the were protcctcd by stone parapcts, so that evcry house was a fortress. Somctimes thcsc roofs rcscmblcd parterrcs of flowcrs, so thickly wcrc they covered with thcm. but morc frcquently theso were cultivated in broad terraccd gardens.laid out bctwcen the pdiiccs, Occasionally a great square or markct-placc inlcrvened.surroundcd by its porticos of stone and stucco ; or a pyr nmidal tcmplc rcarcd its colossal bulk, crowncd with its tapering.sancluarics, and altars blazing with incxlinguishablo fircs. The great street facing tlio southcrn causc way, unlike most othcrs in the place, was wide, and extcndcd somo miles in ncarly a stiaight linc, as before noticcd, through thc ccnlrc of the city. A spectator stand ing at one cnd of it, as his cyc ranged along tho decp vista of tcniples, lcrraccs, and gardcns, tnight clcarly disccrn thc othcr, with thc bluc mountains in thc dis lance. which. in the transparcnt atnioa phcrc of thc InMe-land, sccmed almost in contact with thc buildings. Uut what most imprcssed thc Spnniards was thc throngs of the peoplo whoswarm cd through the strccts and on Iho canals. filling evcry door-way and window, and clustcring on thc roofs of thc buildings. " I wcll remembcr thc spcctacle,"c.claims LScrnal Diaz ; " it seonis now,aftcr so many ycars, as prcscnt to my tnind, as'if it were but yestcrday." But what must havo bcen thc scnsations of thc Azctcs thcm sclvcs, as they lookcd on thc portcntous pagcant ! as they hcard, now for thc first tiinc, thc wcll ccmcritcd pavemcnt ring under thc iron tramp of thc horscs thc strangc animals which fear had clothcd in such supcrnatural tcrrors; ua they gazed on thc childrcn of thc East, rcvaling thcir cclcstial origin in their complcxions ; saw thc bright fulchions nnd bonncts of s,cc'' a ,,,ela' of unknown, glancing ,A0 melcors in thc sun, whilc sounds of "ncarttily inuic at least, sucli as thcir ruiIc instrumeuts had nevnr wakcned floaled ,n ,l,e alr ! But evcr-v 0,,lcr cnl- t,on was '&t, ,haf f deadljr Iatrcd, "hcn they bchcld their detcsted cncmy. tho Hascnlan, stalking, in deiiancc, as it wcrc, lhrou"h thcir strccts, and staring a- round with looks of fcrocity and wondcr, lilic some wild animal of tlic forcst, who had straycd by chancc from his nativc fastnesscs iuto thc haunts of civilization. LOWELL FACTORIES. Thc Tribunc has bccn at some pains in collccling statemcnts ofthc Lowell racto rics, nnd givcs thc following facts : Therc arc c'cvcn rcgular manufacturing cotnpanics in Lo'.vclI,includiiig thc ' Locks and Canals,' or watcr-privilcgo company, which was mcorporatcd in 1792, but did not commcnce opcrations till 1822, which may bo rcgardcd ns the ycar of thc foun dation of Lowell. Bcforc that timc, it was a ruggcd' rocky, barrcn spot, inliabil cd bv two or Ihrcc fatnilics of boatmcn nnd fishcrmcn, nnd not worth tcn dollars pcr acrc, including evcry thing upon it. Thc Mcrrimac company commcnccd busi ncss tho nc.xt ycar, and no othcr until the tariff of 1824 was passcd. In 1825, thc Hamilton company startcd ; in 1828, tho Appleion and Lowell; in IS'.iO, thc Mid dlesex; in 1632, tho Sufiblk and Trc mont ; in 833, tho Lawrcncc ; in 1836, thc Bnott ; and in 1S10 thc Alassachu sctts, bcing thc last. Thcsc 11 compa nics cmploy an aggrcgato capital of 810,. 700,000 cmploying 0 295 fcmalcs, and 2 345 malcs. Bcsidcs these, thcro arc in Lowell cxtcncivc powdcr mills, a flanncl mill, blankct mill. bolting mill, foundry, papcr mill, blcachcry, cord and whip fac tory, plaining machiiic, rccd machinc.grist and saw mills, cmploying a capital of guOOO.OOO anu sOO workmcn, making tho whoo manuractur;ng cap-ai 0f Lowell 11,2000,000, cmploying over 9,000 men and WOmcn. Tlc ,cn p"rincipai manufactorics already los;;;na(cd havo 33 mills. bcsides print. tt.nrks. rnn n.1 P4 lonms nnd 201.07G stiin. Middlesex makcs 9,000 vards of cassi- meres, 1,800 of broadcloths per wtek, using 1,000,000 pounds of wool and 3,-. 000,000 lbs. of tcascls pcr annum. The Lowell makcs 2,500 vards of carpcts, and uuu, Vi,iu ji.i uliJu..u 01 uoaru ; 10 maics, ci.-u ptfr wcck, or nbout $18 pcr month beyond the cost of cJ and is paid an avcragc of S7.50 per month byond tho cost of board. And we challcnge this or any other country to produco a scction in which womcn who work for their living aro more intellicent, bctter cducated, moro virtuous, religious and independent than those em- ployoi m tho Lowell manulacloncs. JLnero havo been most shamcful slandcrs cir culatcd with regard to them which ought to bc put down, In the infancy of thcsc establishmcnts some femalcs of bad char acter obtaincd cmployment there, through deception : but thcsc were snccdily de- tected and cxpcllcd 'r and, now, if onc of bad charactcr is discovcred there, sho is rcquested to lcavo directly, ns tho others will not enduro thc association of vice. -No wherc is there a morc correct and vig- orous moral senliment than among theso indastrlous and independent woraen As to the alleeed hardship. of factory J labor, we havo no doubt that its cooamous, might be improvcd. We bclieyo tho av crago houra of labor aro 12 per day, which is too much foran cmploymcnt that is pursued thc ycar round. It docs not allow timo cnougli for reading, sludy, at. tending lcctures, and othcr mcan& of mor al and intellcctual improvcmcnt. But, on tho other hand, it must be considcred that the labor is vcry light ; that many pursue it for houra togethcr with an opcn book before thcm, reading half thc timc ; and that all grcatly prcfer it to apy othcr field of Industry. You can hardly induco an American-girl at the Eastvard todo house work cxccpt for hcr own family or tho sick; tho large majority would prcfer working in a factory for 81,50 pcr wcsk to doing hooscwork for 82. And the cs tablishment of manufactories has, to our ccrtain knowlcdgc, morc than doublo the average rccompcnse accordcd to femalc labor tbroughout tho Manufacturing rc gion, while grcatly reducing tho prico of almost cverv thing a woman buys. Bc- sides this, tho treatmcnt of fcmalcs who do housework has grcatlv improved since tho factoncs wcrc startcd. No woman of scnse or spirit will now submit to tho hu miliations which wcrc common thcro 20 ycars ago, (and which arc common hcre now,) bccausc sho knows whcre she may at any timo go (o avoid them. It i common cnough for our frcc trado tradcrs to talk flippantly of our females cngagcd in factoncs as if they wcro of like charactcr anu condition uilh those of England. But this is rery unlike tho truth. Tho Amcrican factory girl isgcn crally tho daughter of a faroer, has had , a common education at thc district school, and has gonc mto tho factory for a fcw scasons to acquirc a little somcthing for a start in lifc. She spends somo wecks or inonlhs of evcry ycar undcr hcr fathcr's roof, nnd gcncrally marricsand setlles in its vicinity. Many attcnd lcctures and cvcning schoob aftcr tho day's work is over, and of the six thousand, moro than half rcgularly occupy and pay for scats in tho numcrou3 Churchcs of Lowoll. Nowhcro is thc Sabbath bctter obscrvcd, or thc proportion of habitual church-gocrs greatcr than in that thnving city, hardly any whcre 13 Tcmperance moro gcncral, or aro violations of thc law lcss trcqucnt. Sixuit of Iho tcn of tho femalcs, and a ftill half of tho malcs, enjoy bctter health in tho Mills than they did beforo coming thcrc. Six of tho mills nre warmed by stcam, only two by hot air, and thrce by stcam and hot air togethcr. Tho annual con- sumption of wood "there is 3,290 cords; or Anthracito Coal, 12,500 tons ; or Oil, 67,850 gallons. 000,000 bushcls of Char coal wcrc uscd in 1843, and 4,000 barrcls of Flour for Starch alonc. The Locks and Canals Company uso 1,225 tons of ron pcr annum : will put up and lumish ,1 factory of 5,000 spindlcs complctt in four raonlhs, and cmploys, when builting, 1,000 to 1,200 workmcn. Such nrc some of tho statistics of(the chief manufacturing town in Amorici. As a spccimcn of rcgulatcd, systcmatzed, wcll dircctcd industry, it is worthf of study. Though doultlcss far cnongh i-om pcrfcction, whcthcr as to efficicncy ordis tribution of procccds, we ask evcry frbnd of thc Human racc to jndge whcthcr it is wiso or humanc to favor a policy nhich would diminish such towns as Lowcll,and cnlargc such as .Manchester, Prcston nnd Glasgow. This is tho principal qucstion. And, whilc thc laborcrs of England Iiavc, undcr all changcs of poficy, bccn yearly sinking into dccper nnd dcepcr abpclncss and dcspair, owing to causcs far bcyond thu rcach of any policy wo may pursuc, wc rcjoicc in heing able to statc thal thc working mcn and women of Lowcll'havc vcry largo and gcncral dcpositcs in the Savings Bank of thal place, and thatthcy arc bccoming largc owncrs of stockm thc Corporation for which they work in one already (o the cxtcnt of S 100,000, in an nother to thc amount of SG 0,000, ic. tc. Ilere is the gcrm of the truo and gcncral rnform which wc hope to seo bc comc universal, and which, when shall havo rcsullcd in making tho wtrkmen large and goneral owncrs of stock in tho cstahlishmcnt in which they are cmjloycd, sharing fairly in thcir profiis, will pit an cficclual stop to thc demagoguc rcscrt of cxciting laborcrs against cmploycrsi to the injury and ruin of both. Onc word on the prnfits of manufactur ing, and wo closc. The ve.y Frcc-Trado journals which moralized with ill-coweal- ed cxultation. over thc rcportcd failurcs of thc Saugcrties Iron Works, ofScnator Spraguc's Calico Works, X:c., as showing the dclusivencss of Protcction anc of tho hopcs to bcnuflt to manufacturo from tho Tariff, sincc have made tho land ring with thcirproclamations that the manufccturcrs, undcr tho Protcctive Tariff, aro making profits of 20 to 40 pcr cont ! Th cxcusc for this falsehood is thc allcged fact that thc Mcrrimac at Lowell and onc cr two othcr companics havo made hcavy divi dends this ycar. Now the Mcrrimac is the oldcst establishmcnt at Lowell, with cxtcnsivc and valuablo conncctions, is cn gagcd in printing calicoes, (the same busi. ness which Senator Sprnguo failcd in this ycar;) having a capital of $2,000,000; and thus able to supply tho market when it is favorablc and withhold its goods when olhcrwiso ; just as thc Harpers make mon. ey by publishing, when youngerandwcak cr houses go down all around them. Cal ico printing is cither a good or veiy bad busincss; tho Merrimac Company havo thisycar and usually makc it a good onc. But tbo averago dividcnds of the LowcU Companics have not bccn 7 per ccnt. this year nor averaged 5 per cent. sinco they were cstablishcd probably not four. Wo havo read over tho list of dividends rc- ccivcd by ono of tho heaviest ownera of . . . - r 1 -.1 manutactunng siocks in uosion, nuwu investmonts have been made wisely'find well ) and his dividcnds do not averege 7 per ccn.t. this year, whilo for tho thrco I This last increasc corrcspoods more near preceding thoy fell bclow fli o. Thcro nrc W w'm tho gcncrally cstimated avcragc in vcry few wfco haao dono bctter, while w 1 thc btisiness on rail roads, -viz. 20 m.n k. r.r.j ik.. i. ft.., I, per ccnt, per annum, for five vcani. In oth- is usclcss to dwell farthcr on th'is branch of the subjcct. COMMUNICATION. Mk. Slade's RArx-RoAD Refobt. Concluded. t will now procecd, Mr. Chairman, to to some gcncral observations on tho sub. ject or rail roads, with slatcmcnts as to the cost of construcfion of, and incomo from, numcrous roads in Great Oritain & irom, numcrous roaus in urcat tiritnin oc thc Unitcd Slates", and a reference to tho agricultural and othcr rcsourccs of Vcr- i. i. .ir..,.j u i-.-j UUCLIVU Uy IIIU CUUlCIflJIiait:U road from Burlington to Boston. Notbing in thc history of internal im- provcment has cxcceded the rapid incrcase of Rail Roads. Twclvo ycars ago, thcro waro, I bclievc, hnt 92 milcs in use in the United Slales, viz. 71 in Maryland, 151 in Ncw-York, and 6 in Massachusetts. Now, thcrc arc in opcration in tho Unitcd o,.,' i , , 1 , . ., Slatcs, probably about 5000 m.lcs. Tho "bb'b""- "'"i, ...imiwiiivujtijtiis rcason of tmsl u aqucsuon not x uiiiua , auu iiua waiiuju-u tltab u or 000 milcs would bc addcd jiflhi ho:ourse' ui iiiu currciu y cttr Tho acgresato of tho 4412 milcs was madc up as follows. In New England C05 milcs Ncw-York 000 New.Jersey 204 "' Pcnnsylvania 700 " Michigan 226 " Ohio 73 " Indiana 23 " Dclawaro 49 " Maryland 331 " Virginia 350 " North Carolina 247 " South Carolina 193 " Georgia 350 " Alabama Cl " Florida 32 " Louisiana 7G Mississippi G0 " Kcntucky C0 " 4412 It is cstimated that tho lcnglh of rail roads in tho Unitcd Statcs cxceeds that of all other countrics. Thcrc nrc morc than 500 Locomotivc cnginc3 in uso in tbo Unitcd States all of Amcrican manufacturo; and so supc rior is that manufacturo that moro than 50 havo bccn purchascd in Europc. Such is Amcrican cntcrprizo and tkill. Cost of Rail Road Cox strtjctiox. Great improvcmcnts havo bccn mado in thc cconomy of construction. At first thc idea prcvailcd that rail roadj must bc con structcd ncarly upon a lcvcl. Thirty fcet to thc milo was considcred as thc maximum clcvation, without stationary powcr. Expcricnco has sinco shown that 80 fcet, and cvcn somcwhat morc, can bc casily ovcrcome. Tho diffcrcnco of cx pcnse in a counlry whorc thcrc are con sidcrablo elcvations is obvious. Varii.ua improvcmcnts in tbo modcof construction havo also contributed (o thc diminution of cost. The diffcrcnco in the cost of the rail roadt which havc bccn constructed in Great Brit ain and in the Unitcd States h vcry striking. In Great Britain the whole length of Rail Roads, as statcd six months ago, was 1,456 milcs, Cost, $201,000,000 equal to 180,- 00!) pcr milc. The following is a'statcmcnt ofthc cost of scveral rail roads iu the Unitcd Statcs All.-n- in.t .CtrnnootflrlT- 15'1.! tniloa rnf permilo $70,903 anJ eucrgy to givc cfTcct to thc whole, is in Western 150 48,505 ,Iie fruitful ininds, and strong arras, and ready Worcester (double track) & 45 61,209 hantb of the sotis ofthc Green Mountains. Lowell do 20 76,033! "oodeu ware! Oce of tho most stnking Providcncc-single track 42 45,057 prcsentcd in a rcport which I havo be Eastcrn in Mass! and N. H. 53 50,535 toto me of ; statistics connected with tho Bos Tho cstimated costof thc Fitchbnrgh n',t0 Fitchburgh railroad.is, that ttnlhou road is, pcr mile, a little Icss than $20,000 ; "ooden warcs of Tariou, descrip anditisbelicvcd that the costof its extcn- annually manufactured upon the sTon to Burlington through Mount Holiey ! ofthatroad whtch; it ts est.mated w,U bo will not cced that ratc. The statcment doubled. by thc opemug oflhe roadl And rm about to makeof thc divhlends on tho ftimate unot founded on mere conject stock of scveral rail roads in the Unitcd but corre.ponds w.th the actual resuUs. States whoSrco t has vcry grcatly cxcceded , regard to numerous productions of the fh. ? cstimated costof cltension of tho "PS "f rail roads in var.ou, parts ofo.tr ritchburgu road, taKen in connexiou w mi uio amount or business whtch wii W .. nn thf ron! thnll EttCDdcd. Will O'C on the road tbus extcnacu. w.i, ,J'k ,dca ortho probable value ofthc sock., a dividends on the stock of tlic Albany , some The and fckcnectadyraurc.au, m ' "(marUctiScheapcUed. Now, thc.-e b a heavy cent. on an outlay of about $ 1,000 p mde. ( deduct;on mad from the amonnt rcccived fe i.Iore recenny ine uiviucuug uu uiu ii . uuj from Albany to Buffalo have bcen from 7 to 12 pcr cent. In 1842 tbe following dividcnds were made. Worcester rail road outlay $61,000 per milc, 6 1-2 per ct. Lowell $76,000 " 71-2 " Providence S45.000 61-2 Eastcrn $50,500 " 4 6-10 " Western $48,500 " 4 The small dividend on the stock oi tne Eastern rail road is presumetl to oe owing to thc compctition betwecn tnai roaa anu uit steam boat lines from IJoston, eastwaru. The 4 per ccnt dividend on the estern, was for thej!t year. The probable increase. in subsequent years may be conjectured from the rollow.ng companson oi tno receipis ou . wou,d-be ; but a poor compliment that road for the two weeks cnding Becem- ;ntciiigencc of our farmers to suppose berOth 1643 with the receipu of tho corres- of apprcc;at;ns ,llch adran- ponding two weeks ml84. ino'tages as these; forit needsno argumcnt to Receipts, two weeks, 1J v-4 , show. that cvery cent of diminution in the ex- " 18i ' ' pcnse of transportation to and from market , . . in ; i so ronch gain to thcm, both on what they Incrcase nearly 54 pcr ccnt. $3,431 . and h , gelL A similar result appears m xne veniriuru. road, Georgia: thns Receipts, 4 months cndmg isar. lrvnioa of the valu'e ofwhichis lost tothe ,. ifuo errmu corresponding 4 months, 1S4-, 67,693 . Increasea little over 63 pcr ccnt 8W.'pnTlo of Verontas ex A'smaller .ncrcase.appcars m the Ccntral Pf1? ePretums of mmhai aCcom RleSforNoi Siai373!panyin5 the censu, of 1840. They are as ..P 1843 "fSSHS- 496.000 Bu.hel Increws Bearry 17 per eent. $2,761 Oora 1,120,000 f!: ?! iMM?U!atCl,,t,-at1-t,, bus!ncs8,.of rail roads will doublc witbin fivo years after iney arc opcueu. Jt is cviuent tliat, with rc gartl to ivrac roads thc donblin; will take place in a shortcr timc than that. The following is a statcmcnt of tho divi I dends for thc last six months upon the stock i of scveral rail roads, with thc amount of cap ital investcd in cach, and thc current ralue of cach $100 of the stock, as IJlnd it in theCos- ton Atlas Koads, Dividends, Capital. Val'. f stk's. Lowell 4 Pr. ct. isi.eoo.ooo r130 Worcester 0 117 103 103 107 130 107 120 73 120 Eastera 31 l'ro-vidence 8 2,200,000 1.800,000 1,200,000 400,000 400,000 250,000 too.ooo 1 romeu ros: T as"ua &Jlaiae3 4 ticuioru. V ... Br 5 Charl'n. lir. 3 Concord 5 : Such is Itail Road etock. It nced, thcrc- fore, occaatou no snrp.be that thc halance of iho stock in iIm Viichburgh road ($100,000) has bccn reocutly suddcnly takcn up, and th?t "tock U now above par. ! t It's. notonow that ihcre now no better stockm market than that of rail roads as is manifcst from the foreso!ns B,ateuleD. UllilCUlt tO aUSWCr. Itisa rcinarkable fact that the proCts of 'frail roads havc uuilormly cxcceded pre- viu3 estimates contrasting, strongly. with thc vcry common failuro of calculations of I proQt from othcr mvestrucuts. 1 he rcason is obvious; and if thoroughly uudcrstood by the farmers aud merchants of Vermont, as wcll as by tho capitaliits of Boston, will, at no distant day, draw forth an amount of eap- uai wntcu n ui ensurc tue compieuan oi a rau road. conircutiicatiou bettrecn llojton aud Hiirlm-tnn. TIir ralrulntinn of nrnfit frnm nnlinnnr Tn-nf mprif nw 1init itnnn lli nr - jdinary protluctlons and busincss of the com- mutiity, whtcti tuo-o mvcstincnts do not.ncc - cssarily iucreasc. This may be illttstratcd by a toll bridge, thc stock of which may not oniy oc etaitonury, uut may BinK nciow par by the diminution of business nnd travcl from various uuforcsecn causes. A toUhridgc or- dinarily creatcs no ccw busincss dcvelopcs no new sourccs of weakh, and stimulatci no new cnternrisc. ' Not so with rail roads. By brin'ing dis tant parts of thc country to the vcry door of a market, they give value to many things that had little or no yaluc before ; nhilo tliey adu to tho value orstaple productions. New cn- crgy is put forth in evcry branch of industry. Tha earlh is tasked to an incrcascd power of production; its uowcu aro opened to draw forth their inincral trcasurci; tho foresli cc quire a uew valuo, nnd a new and strongcr impulso is given to the incenuity and enerey aud cnternriM of rrran. Rail roads thns be- come tho instruments of new dcTcIopements of rcsourccs, slnd new crcatious of valucs to euter iuto thc cxchaujcs of thc world. This ricw of llic subjcct is full of intereat to tue pcople or this statc. uivo us a rcady and cheap acccss to a market, and no ftate in thu union of ths same size would he rich- crin thc productions of its flocks, its forcstj and its mincral trcasurcs than Vermont. Westcrn Vermont has, it is true, a bctter ac ccss to market than it had before thc openio of tha Champlain Canal and tho use of steam in tho navigation of tho Lake; but that chau ncl is closcd froin four to fivc months in tho ycar. Tlic contcu:ilated rail road is prescn- tcu to supply thm dciiri.'ucy; and it will morc than supply it, for it will cnablo us to rcach thc Uoitoit market in a siujrlc day, aud cverv (iny ui mc ycar, wiui our lutnncr, nrc SIOCK, I .1 , t . , bcef, pork, buticr, chcese, Iard, wool, iron and iron warc, woodeii warc, marble, lirac. manganese, coppcras, and thc protluctions of manutactunng c&taulislimcuts which such an acccss to market would multiplv upon thc j numcrous watcriaiis. in this part ofthc state, I may nerhnps be askcd, where is tho icoodtn trore which is to bc traasported on your rail road? I answer it is in our forcsts; the strcams to inovc the secessary machinery ar: running from our mountains, aud thc skill . j,,, roails j,, not merciy ;ncrease our projMtim!ilt,i ;ive more steady cmploy- r ..' , S , ment to all brancheo of onr industry; they fa , f hs f J ' j . lrlVOItMioa0 a Boston for our productions, for thc cxpense of thcir transportation, while a corresponding addition is made to the price ofths artidcs receivcd in cxchanc, when they come into the hands of the consumer. Tho freight bc twccn Middlebury and Boston vill probably bo betwccn $-1, and $5, per ton by a rail road. This, compared with a land transportation at $30 per ton, would bring Middlebury within from twcnty nve to lEirry mucs oi uoiioa ; and, compared with the chTuitous transpor- im champlain canal, and the Mas- gachu3etto ra;iroad,-, or the voyage round, by , th cr;ce of transporta- - . ' . . t..;d eaabl n- u. j producU-ons to a. market cvery . . . ,r,. . ,.,:: This is a consideration of ereat importanee in rejrard to our heavy productions, a large producer in the expenso of tbcir trtnsporta- meU bringsme t0 acon. :.iv.r ru MitnM nr? nmnnnt nf tho 231,000 2,222,000 223.000 8,870,000 837,000 ton 384,000 1,632,000 3,700,000 lbs. 204,000 Value of poultry 8132,000 Value of Buttcrt Chcesc$2,009,000 Productions of orchards S214.0GO Su5ar 4,048,000 lhs. On a comparison of the productions of Ver mont with those of the othcr 2o Statcs, it nppcars that we stand first among tho whole in the ratio of prodnction of potatoes, hay, sheep, wool, butter and cheese.jecend in tho production of sugar k third in thc No. of n cnt cattlc. It is obvious that wc only nced a rail road acccss to thc mctropolis of New England, to ensurc a Tcrv great r r n . t , .r t incrcase in au ino prnauciiocs i navs cnumcratcd, as well as thc dcvclopcment of Eourccs of wcalth hithcrto but sligh'ly if nt ull productivr. As tlic projcctcd rail road will run thro' thc Counties of Rullnnd cnd Addison, Ict mc comparc these .Countics with tho rcst of the State in respect to some of tho sta tistics relurncd by the Marshals in 1940 premising that thcsc Counties cnntain Ic3 than 20 pcr'ccnt of tho populntirn.and but about 17 pcr cent cf tbo tcriitory, of tho wholo Statc. Wholb State, Rutland & Addison Their pro porlion of ihe wholo j j ! N0. 0f furnaces ' Tons 0f east counties Statc 26 12! 40 rr.ct. ( Tron in. . , "'OOmcneS 0,743 3,405 13 51 1-3' ! ForCCS 14 1 93 ' Tons of barjron 0551 030HU) : rxcat altlo a,j'tii 79.741 23 " 31 3-4 " 25 2-3 - ' Shcep 1,631,819 i 532,737 214,857 Tons of Hay 830,7391! i , ,. J cuch nro tho disproportions in Rutland j nnd Addison Counticr, of some of Iho 1 most important productions of thc Stnlc. vvliilo nt the same timo they havc thcir just proportions in tho , productions of whcat, ryo, and com. Thcro wcro no rcturns of the coppcras and mangancso of Rutland Lotinty, whoso capacity of sup- pi)'g mincrais la aoequaie io uio j consumption of the world ; whilo the mar- blo nnd lime of thcsc counties which wilt not now bcar transportation to market aro absolutely incxhaustible. It is time that Vermont wcro awako to thc fcubjcct of railroads. I: may well in list tho most prudcnt and cautious. Tho timo has passcd when their expcdicncy ia to bo discusscd. it has ccased to bc an opcn queslfon. The policy has bccn o doptcd in tho United Slniee, and rail roxds nrc mulliplying in cvery dircction. Thcir distancc.annihilating powcr bas brought Buflalo ncnrer thnn Middlebury to Boston. Vermont is drivcn to rail roads in self de fence. If we would rctnin our popula. tion wo must open channcls to thc mar kcls that will givo our peoplo ndvantagcs which they can now enjoy only by cmi gration; Thc increasc of that cmigrulion from 1830 to 1840, compared with tho prcccding tcn ycars, s shown by thc di minbhcl increasc of our populalion ia worthy the mot scrintn considerat.on. Thus, frnm 1E20 to 1630 our population advanccd from 235,764, to 230,679, bcing an increasc of 44,915, or a littlo over 10 pcr cent; while wo had advanced. in 1640 to only 291,043 bcing an increaso of but 11,209, or ubout 4 per ccnt ! Vermont has tho clementa of crcntccss. though she is but amnll in opulation and trrritoria! extent. She is capablo of sus (aining double her prcscnt populntion ; and .she will one day havc that amount, if sho is Iruo to hcMelf, and Ihe nntional govcrn ment shall not Jeavo her industry unprg tcctcd. MR. VAN BUREN AND THE SHEEP. From the Etening Pott) If wo nnd thousands of onr rcadcrs support Mr. Van Buren cordially( it is.bo cnusc we regard him as pleJrcd ton com- mercial rcforro nnd to tho layingof dutics simply for the sakc of a rcvcnuc. If wo belicvcd him a fricnd of tho proltcltvo system, wc should no longcr wisii to sqo bim a cnndidate. Thii is a cunous commcnt nn the opin ions of Mr. Van Burcn. "," says tho Post. " tce leliettd him a friend ofihevic- leclixe system tet should no longtr feel any tcish to see him a candidate." Mr. Van Burcn bas bcen in public Iife nearly fortv ycars nnd yet the Post is unccrtain as to his opinions on ine great question oi pro tcction to American inuu.nry. unring this period hc has voted scrcral timcs di rectly for tho Tarifi". and scversl timcs in directlv, as is tho case of tiio New York Lcgislaturo wbcn howas a mcmlcr. He has writton nt Icast tncntv lcttcrs on thc vubjcct, as in rcply to tho Indiana Legislalure of last year. nnd also in tho more rccent lotlcr published in tho Rich mond Enquircr. The Post is ono of his organs and expoundcrs, and yet the Edi tor has to say if if if, on all occasions when any cardinal point of publio policy is under discussion. Wo haro n rcmcdy for all this, and will suggcst it to thc Post as a method of sct. tlting nll doubts both witb that papor and with its rcadcrs : Lct somo Dcmncratic Committee, or the Editor, propound tho following question to Mr. Van Burcn, snl if ho will reply spccifically we will engago that the public will know moro than thny harc known during tbo whole lifo of th-j Ex-President. Arc you in favor of a duty of 30 pcr cect ad valorcm, and thrco centa per pound '' on wool ? (tho prcsent dny.) Now, aye or no, Mr. Van Boren. No dodgingt No long ynrta I Vo Ihtfiina Ryo Oats Buekwhcat Potatoes Hay Neat Cattlo Shecp AVool Swino