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The northern galaxy. [volume] (Middlebury, Vt.) 1844-1848, May 29, 1844, Image 2

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boili tha duty and tho profit and commissions
ca the capital rcquired to beadvanced forthe
payment of tha duty. But experieuce is to
tbe contrary, and you cau scarcely cite an
instnncc in the history of any country, whose
industry 13 iinshackled and unrcstricted by
Goverument, where a protectivo duty has not
been gpeedily followed by an lmprovement m
thc quantity, and a reduc.tion in the price, of
the articles protected; and ot this you iiave
numcrons illustrationsin ths course of this dc-
bate. The immediarc e:Ttct of llie manufac
tured article at the place of production, the
furcisn manufaclurersubmitting to a diminu-
tion of his profits, fortlie sake of rctaining the
market. At ths same moment, domestic es
tab idimenls arc growinz up, aud by thc
donble competition of tliese with cach otlicr
and the foreign produccr. .1 furtherreduction
of prices, accompauicd by an improrcmcnt
in quality, soon follows. Various causescou-
cur to produce thisimprovemcut in qualily of
Amcncau manufactures, besides ttic compe
tition to which I have just allndcd. The
scrutinizing habits of the consunicr, great
mechanical iugemuty in the artisan, his bet
ter kuonledgcof thc tastesaud wants of his
countrymen, aad abure all thereadiuess with
which he seizcs upou and appropriates every
improveraent in his art. In Europe, all chan
ge3 are slow. New machines or mechanical
combinntions arcfora long tinie used only in
new establishinents, and the fixed habits of
the people, wbcther la'oorcrs or employers,
rcnlf rthe introdnction of new proccsses difli
cult and tardy. The Ainerican loves change
for its oivn sake, and is kecn in theapprecia
tion of iniprovements; and a new machine is
no saoncr patented and tcsted, than the old
process isabandoned, throirn asidc, and sup
planted by the new. The conscquencc istbat
cvcry manuf.ictory is, at all timcs, near the
highcst attninable point of exccllence, & thcre
is an incessantstruggle for prccedcucciu the
mirch of improvcineut.
It is cxtrcmely hazardous to argue from
European prccedents, and pcrhaps therc is
no country from vho3e coudition it is more
uimfc to draw conclnsions than from that
one which is, unhappily. almost the only one
ever refcrred toin ourdebates, forthcob'vious
rsason that coinmunity of Imjuage, frcatien-
cy and facility of intcrconrse, and the exteut
of our commercial rclations nith England
make us morc familiHr uiththat country thau
uith oihcis, frem vb;ch we mightdraw'qnite
a3 valuable lessons of practica! wisdom. The
app-irent analogiesbstwceu our uational char
acter anj iustitutions and those of England
nreso numerousnnd striking, nsquite to cr.u
cea! from ths view of the supcrficial observ
er those less obvious but morc dceply rooted
and most important features in which they
diffsr. Sir, in genius, habits, and condition,
tha Amcrican peoplc, and 1 tbank Heavcn for
it, are r.t divc.se from the p;ople of England
as from any Christian uation. Our mostcher
ish;d and vahtcd institutions. are based on
principles fundanreiitr.lly oppositc to those of
ths civil and political systems of England;
aa J apart from comiuunity of spcech and his
torictl rccollections, and those habits of
ihoujht which a siir.ilarity in the forms of Isn
gui;c ncces'.arily nnplies, wc are a radicallv
distinct pecple. Wc, sir, arc the gcnuine
repreentativcs of thatglorious race whoover
threw the Stuart dynasty in the middlcof ths
sersnteenth ccntury, and the principlcs of
Crjmwell and Milton have now bccome ex
tinct in theirnativcsoil. anj 110 longer mark
the Euglish character, flonrish Ijcre in their
full vigor. Forthesercasons.arcumeiits from
En-lish practice are as inapplicablo 3 if
dracn from the policy oftho Cclestial Em
pir3. Thcre i. thercfore, noforce in that ar
gument which would dissuadc us from pro
tecting onr own iiulustrv, because Encland.
which protcct? hers, cxhibits so fearful an
nmannt of iguorance, pauperism, and crime.
There is no parallel hetween the cases. You
ImJ the sama abandoncd vicc, thc same un
enV;ghtcned iguoraace, and the same abject
povDi-ty, in every European conntry cursed
witti a licreclitary aristocracy, a law of prim
ogeui'.urc, an eitablished church, and to croivn
all, a national debt of stich mngnitude as to
weigh likea millstoue about the ucck of the
peoplc.
.So vast is thc public debt ofEngland, that,
for the pjymcnt of its inlcrest alone, a popu
lation but once and a half as Iarge asourown
is taxed annually a Etim cqtial to the total
nimuot ofthe debt of all the Amcrican Statcs;
and "n ordcrthat the bttrden may uot f,ill too
iieavilyon the lich, thc cutiro body oflands,
Inwhich the poor have nodirect intcrcst, is
tax -d bat fivc millious of dollars, nhile the
ot'ier taxes, nhich jtress most heavily on the
paor, atnount to no less thm fifty tirnes that
sani, 01 two Imtidred and Gfty mi'llions ofdol
lars per annum. This is independent of tiihes
and church ralcs, parish chargcs, and the
th lU'-and oiher Govcrnm-m cxactions, which
cra-h the operativc to thc vcry dust. The
Brih laborer is follo'.vcd by the tax-gathcr-erfrom
the cradle to the grave. Ilis food,
hi3 phys'c, his fnel, his rlothing, the imtilc-
r.ien's of his trade, the humble furuiture of
htscottagc, hisniudoirs, his cliimucys, the
very airandlisht. and eten his shroud, all
thess are snbject to dircct taxation. His
brca 1 hc divides with his teniporal and spir
iuia! la-Is.anJ the ruler takcs thelion'ssharc.
His chdd.-en are pinrhd andstarved, and the
youngersous ofthe aristocracy may ba pcn
sioned.and he toils and shivers, aud sufTers,
that the self-styledEucccssors oftho Apostlcs
tmy roll in gildcd chiricts, and divell in
sumplnons palaces.
It i3 not, thca, the protcctive sys'em of
r.agianu ma; opprcssf-s nerpeople; no, tir,
on the contrary, i: is that systcni alonorhich
cn iblcs hcr laboriii;; rlsssrs to bear up stag
gerinj undcr such :: !oad as was never elsc-wh-ralaid
upoti the shoul.Iers of humanity.
Her prolec'.ive sysioni is iiot ths burdcn, but
it is the clastic spriag uliic'i alone renders
th it burden siipporublc. Lct England aban
don the system, an J a lopt the insane doctriuc
of fr-e trade, wouid the hamMe classes gain
by ihe exchaugej Admit that thcir bread
BtuHs might cost tbtiu Icss, nould theirtaxcs
ha lightcned by thu loss ofahundredmillions
indutics? Would thi-ir wages be raised, or
their opporttinitiesuf employinent bc multi
plied, by the dcstrn-.tjon of h'er industrial es
tablUhments ? Would other nations supply
them with manufjc:ured goods at chcaper
rates than they otit-in tlicm noiv ? Sir, it
Keeds no CEdipus to ausuer such questions
p.slhcse: and the maii must be mad who
traces the wictchsdness of Enslaud's en
sl'.vcd laborcrsto the protectianol" herindus
f,'y. or supposes that their miseries would be
rrfitrcd by its sacriiice.
Again, sir. the ISKth statesman may con
fidsntly calcuUtc. wh;re the Ainerican can
hazard a guess. Tha extcnt and rclatix-e ca
pacitics of thc agriciltural and manufdctur
ing intercsts are knocn with great cxactness
of detail, and ths saddsii cxtcntinn, or es
scntial modiflcatian ofcitheris difiicult. ifnot
impracticabl:. Chaugcs are slow; new
minufacturies will not spring up like Jonah'a
gourd in a single night; and capital is so
abund.iut. that thoe alrcady established will
uot be ruiued orsuspended on account of a
trifliug fluctuation in ihedemand for goods,
prin the east ofthe raur materinl. Itisquite
safe to assume, that my Iord will uot give up
to cultivation so mnch of hisforest as is re
quircd to breeJ a coavoy of partridges, hare
ly to save from starvaiion some half a dozcn
fimilies who pine for the bread which those
frw acrcswonld jield. This would both cur
tail hii hwfnl and laudable spnrls.and more
nver injure the gi ain-crowing intercststy ic
rreasing the snpj.lr. Such destructire policv
is not to be apprehended from the prudent
and patriotic landholdcr, and thccxtension or
modincation 01 rural nusbacdry 13 vcry slow
ly and cautiously pcrmittcu.
Coneluded next trcet.
The Annual Ilcport oftho Commiss
ioner of'Palcnis, (thu llon. Henry L
Eilsworth.) was a few davs sincc laid on
thc dcsks of the Housp of Hcprcscntativcs
,Ur r.Hswoilli cslimnlcs Ihe a;ricullurial
pro'ducls of our, counlry fof!843 as fol
lows :
Whcat. bushels
Corn "
Oals, "
Ryp,
I5arh--,
Buckwiie.it, "
I'olatoes, "
Hay, tons
'I'ohacco, Ib?.
Cotton, "
Rtcc, "
Si!k,
Suar, "
Wincgallons "
100,410,850
404,018,309
145,929,960
21,2S0,271
3,220,721
7 959.410
105 750,133
15,419 807
165,731,554
747,600,090
89.879.145
310,905
06,400.310
139,240
Estimatcd prcscnt populalion. U S 19,-
133,533.
Thcro was nranlcd durinc 1842 no Icss
than dJI palcnls, wlnic 440 expired uu
ring I t)o snmo pcnod. Ihere were 819
applicalions Tho uholc nutnbcrof pa
tents tssued hv Ihe Oovcrnment is 13..
3. Tho rcceipis of the Patcnt Office
during 1643 weie S35.315 : expenditures
24,750 ; rcturncd lo clnimants whose
claims to patrnls wcro denicd. 85.020
For restoring the 'modcls, &c, destrovcd
by tho hurning ofl Ihe I'alent Olfice, S 1,
oaa.
AN'NEXATION A LOCO MEAS
URE.
riio W higs havo now at stnke all tho
principlcs nnd nieasiires for whi li they
so noblv contcndod in 1840 and more.
riiuch morc. flie e.xlpnsion and pernctu
ation ofslavery, und the adoplion of u
new pnncttile, of nduing terntory to bal
ance tho political lcvcr, which must con-
stantlv cmbroil thc Natton in astruggle
for tlie prepondcrancy of one-ection over
another, and at last dcslroy tho Union hy
cxpansinn is addtd to the issucs before
Ihe pcople, nnd is now to be tricd. Mr
Van Burcn warns tho pcoplc that this
clcction is a teit will bo rcgarded hv
Ihcm usa tcst 0 far as this that if tho
ncxt Congress goes for anncxation, ho
will go for it. To this we have added the
opinion of Bcnton, who hopes to be the
ncxt 1'rcsident aller Ulay L.et usnow
say tiiat Commudore Slewart is in the
field for nomination as I'residcnt bv tho
Loco nnd in uuticipation of that ercnt
co.'ncs out for immediate annexation ! In
nlcttcrto Alr J. Thompson, (M. C and
deleate to tho Locnfoco Convenlion,)
pjl.l:shcd in thc Olobe of thc 4th tnst. hc
tays :
"I nssume there cxists no conslitutional
objections to Tcxas hctng incorporatcd
with our Union. 'Ihe qucslion appears
tobeSFjtnt rest sinco our acquisilion of
L,outsiuna and rlonca, and tho abundanl,
and, as I havo suppnscd, satisfactory dis
cuion il, to which all havo access. i
will at Icast vcnturo to say, that they have
sattsticu my mtnu.
"l'assing, thcn, to the general qunstion,
tho reasons arcso nuiiieroris, cngcnt, now
rrful, aud urgcnt, both on (hescorc ofpoK
icyand humanity, for making lexas part
ofthe Union, and have so slrong a bearing
upon our national industry, rcvenucs,
prosperity nnd powcr, that I have not
bccn able to rcfuso the assent ofmy judgC'
ment to thcm."
In another placc heintimatcs that hcis
for imincdialc annexation, cven at thc
hazzard of war !
Tho Washington Globe presenla this
ifstie tlircctly VAN I5UREN FOR AN-
MiXA I IOi, nnd CLAY I' OUliVEIl
AGAI.NSTIT. Bihold:
"The counlry will have to choose be
tween the proposilion of Mr Van Buren
nhirh cnablcs n hnrc majority ofthe Con
grcss of the Unitcd Statcs lo opcn wide
the doors of tho Union, inviting Tcxas
into its family of statcs ; or that of Mcssr.
Tvlcr nnd Calhoun. which enables nnc
tliird of the Scnatc to shut thc door in hcr
fhce ; and also that of Mr Clay, which
bars it forcvcr against hcr admissioa."
And nga'n :
"Wc ardcntly dcsire-to seo Texas ad
iiiiltcd into the Union ; and "wc cmbrace
the p!an of .Mr Van Ruren as Ihe most
practicablc man to accompHsh it. Ifr
V:in llurcn shail be rc-clcctcd lo thc Prcsi
dency. Iiis tcrms will not rxpire withoul
secing the nnnexntion of Texas to the
Union ! :' If ho is dtfcated, no matter
hy what influencc, it is probably lost for
evcr. Wosincercly bclieve, that bcfore
tho canvass for the Presidency is over
every truo fricnd of the rc-annexation of
Texas those who go for il for its own
sako nnd the sake of (ho country, and
not for ultimatc politihal ainis will go
bodv and soul for the clection of Jlr Van
Duren."
Tho Globe in anolhcr place intimatcs
that the conditinns on which Mr Van Bu.
ren gocs for annexation, will happen
'within tho lirails of onc ycar!,, which
wondcifully agrecs with the following
passage from licnlon's Iettcr :
"Immediate annexation is tho word !
nnd"wc cannot wnitevcn one brief year"
for tho ripencd pair to fall of itselfinto
our liands."
So. t!cn, according to the Globe, it is
'Ihe plan oftho Van Burcn Brancli of the
Locofocn party to arimit Texas WITHIN
ONE YEAR"
But to thc Calhoun and Tyler branch
ofthe Locofoco party : "they," tno, are
for annexation, and diflfer only from Van
Buren aud Benton by demanding it imme
diately and unconditionnlly. Their or
gan, tho Washington Spectator saya :
"Texas shall be ottrs." "To the South
it is a qucslion oflifo and dealh" Lct
her speak with a voice, which every cor
nT ofthe Union shall hoar, nnd let that
voice proclaim, Texas suall be oors.
Leavc tho ignoble strifo of who shall bo
her maater in a Prcsidcnt leavo tho gen.
eral afiairs of a Confcdcracy, which are
administcrcd for Northcrn aggrandizemcnt
and po.wer and bend all hcr high ener
gics to tho great duty of seif-protection
nnd sclf-preservation. Thcre is salvation
for hcr in now powor under heaven but
her own, self.poiscd and self-administcred
By sueh a coursc she will be rcspeclcd,
fcarcd' nnd lovcd. Texas may bso nnd
await hcr nmvemenls.'and ncither traitors
in tho South, nor ahofilinnists in Ihe
North, nor British interfercnce or hostility
shall prcvnil ngainst Trxas 'nnnexntinn.
Tcxaa or ruin are tho. allernativcs they
preent (n the Sonlh ;' shall ihe not meet
hcr destinv." '- J )
VAN
BUREN1SM IN CONNECTI-
CUT.
Van's stock in this State is as tow as
I'enn. U S Bank stock. The Aliddle
town Sentincl itWitncss has hauld
dowu the hlack ilagofVan Buren and
recommends Lewis Cass as the Locofoco,
alas 'Democratic," candidatc for the
Presidency. We understand that the Lo
co membcrs ofthe Legislnture and others
met at New Haven laat night, to rcscind
the instructions (to vote for Van Buren)
to tbe mcmbers of their National Conven
tion from this State. So thcy go
"Van, Van is a used up tnan !"
"Tnu Radical of tiie Radicai.s"
"The Reformek of tiie Refobjiees."
John B ellcr, of Ohio, is one ofthe
nciscst of the Loco Foco members of
Congrcss, nnd bawls himself hoarso about
retrenchmcnt nnd radical economy. The
Davton Mndisonian says:
"Our mail during one day tho wcek
last past, brought to tho Dayton Post Offi
co"oight hundred and eighty documcnts
beating tho frank ofthe llon J B IKeller.
Alb. Dailv Adv.
CONGIIESS.
CoTrcspcndenK of the Tribunc.
WAsniSGTo, Tuesday, May 21
Iu Scuate. Messrs. Huutincton and Wood-
bridge reported from the Committee on Com-
merce, witbout amendmeut, the i-astern aud
Wcstern harbor bills, recommcnding their
passage.
Mr. uayard, from the Naval Committee,
reported a bill to provide for the cstabhsb
ment of a naval School.
The usual quantum of Aunexation and
Anti-Annexatiou petitions were presentcd
and other unimportant business was transac-
tcd during the morniug hour.
The remainder of the day was consumcd
in Executive session, on the Texas Treaty
mr. v aiKer uavins inc uoor.
In the Ilouse of Keprcscntatives, Mr. El-
mer, Uhainnan ot tlie Uommittee on Llec
tious, made a majority report upon thc cou
tcsted election of Mr. Joucs of Va. (SpeaKcr)
by Mr. Botts, in favor of course ofthe claim
ofthe former to his scat, as havin bcen clec-
ted by a majonty ot 15a votes (about 100
more than thcy l.iid any claim to at the time
ot tlie electton !)
Mr. Schenck obtaincd lcarc to prcscnt.
ulicii preparcd, a miuority report. Some
discussiou arosc as to priutiu; thc testiinouy;
thc qucstiou was postpoued until Monday.
Fiom iudications, to-day, I presumc no de
cision ofthe case is intendcd by tbe dominant
party during thc session.
Mr. Uivcu made an elauol'ate sneech iu fa
vor of Annexation, commcnting upon Jlr.
oiay s lettcr dcnying its concluston that to
anuex would bc to assuiue the war with Mex
ico, adopting Gen. Jacksou's opinion that
now was the golden opportunity for Annexa
tion, &c.
Mr. J. R. Iuicrsoll in an cxplanation du
ring Mr. D's speech dcclared his uuqualificd
hostility to Annexation at present under any
circumstances, that we cotild in 110 manner
nslify ourselvcs in it m our own csteem or
before thc world.
Mr. Morse, of Mc. cxpressed his amaze-
mcnt at the indiflerence mauifcsted by the
Ilouse at the reccut usurpation ofthe L,xec-
utive; arued tlie lallacy ot Mr. Calboun's
arguincnt to Jlr. Pakenham, bascd on errors
of thc ccnsus, and opposed gcnerally thc
treaty.
Jlr. lielser warml v detenued thc project of
Aunexation contcndiug that if Annexation
was thc only attcmative to prcvcnt the aboli
tiou of Slavery in Texai, this Govcrnmenl
was bound by the Constitution to cfTect it.
Mr. Oiduings opposed thc treaty for rea
sons conncctcd with slavery.
Altcr mrtbcr debate a rcsolution haviug
bcen adopted to tcrraianto dcbate to-morrow
at 3 o'clock on tbis bill the Ilouse adjourn
cd. Argus.
CALUMXIES AGAINST MR. CLAY.
Thc Loco Foco presscs are tccming with
calumr.ics against Mr. Clay. Vilc slanders
longsince cxploded and revived; pretendcd
passages from hisspeeches,couversations,and
letters, are torn from thcir connection, mis-
rcprcscnted, perveitcd.aud twisted into fulsc-
hoous: and not content with tbis, even for-
geries arc unscrupulously rcsurted to, in order
to givc some shotv of plausibility to the foul
chargcs thcy are hcaping up agaiust the man,
whose steady, firni, patriotic aud illustrious
carecr. in spite ofo'bloquy. has won him the !
confidence and admiration ofthe great major
ity ol tlie Amcrican people.
Among the most disgrateiul of tuesc cal-
ulmuies, is the short card of General Jack
son wliicn we noticcd tne otner uay, and
the falsehood of which, wcdemonstrated from
his own former statcmcnts on the same sub-
ject.
Another ofthe calulmnies referred to, is an
alleged passage in some remarks said to have
becu made by Mr. Clay, a long time ago, in
the U. S. Senate. Tbe passage as circula
ted by the Loco Foco papers is as follows :
For the Senator from Alabatna, fMr.
King, to undertake to put me on an eqality
with iilair, constrains me to say, that it was
falsc, untrucacd cowardly It was un
der tbis imprcssiou that I nddessed to the
chair, some remarks which 1 intended as a
dclibcrate qffencetothal Senator.' I was
rcady at all times promptly to repair an in-
jury, as I hope I evcr shall be to repel an in-
disnity.
Now, this pretended extract has been pro
nounced by an eye-wituess to be, in its mate
rial part, a gross falsehood. Tbe Detroit
Advertiser has published a communiration
from a gentleman who was present attbe time
lien the occurrence reterred to took place,
and who makestliefollowinprstatement:
"The writer of this was present in the sen
ate chamber, and an ittcntive obserrer of all
tbat passed on that occasion. As to that part
f the extract in whicu Mr. Olay is made to
say that 'it was under this impression that he
had addressed to the chairsome remarks wbich
e intends as a deliberate offence to that Sen
ator,' I pronouncc it a gross andflagrant false
hood. Mr. Clay made no sueh remark, nor
any remark analagous or lanlamount to it."
The Albany Argus, inassisting to cive cur-
reiicy to the above l'also extract, makes a
comment, in which the calumny is still fur
ther extended by a suppression of half the
case. There was a controversy hetween Mr.
Clayand Mr. Kinjrof Alabama, butitw?st-
gan by the latter; and they wereootA.incon-
scquence, put under bonds to keepthe peace.
The comment of the Argus is as follows:
" It is well understood that this conpulso-
ry procceijing against Mr. Clay, was especal-
ly designed lo jjrofecliUr-Ain-.iowaru wnoiu
Mr. Clay had used insulting and defamatory
lauguage in;his place in tue ocnaic, caicuia
ted, i(not designed. to protoJce'a. challenge to
iigut a duel."
The absurditv of this comment is worthy
of thesniritof falsehood in whicli it ongina
lcd. If tbe peacc was in danger, it was from
Mr. Km". the nerson wlio, 11 tue siory nas
Irue. had received an insult which, accordin:
to the "code of honor," could not pass t by
without challenging the insultcr. To put
Mr. Clay only, under hond3, was, thererore,
reversing the true order of proceeding. But
thc Argus supposed the cmergency required
tbe concealment of half the truth, iu order to
calumniate Mr. Clay, andVover the real of
fender; and hencethe absnrdity of the com
ment. The whole truth ofthe case is stated by
the N. Y. Courier and Enquirer, and while it
relieves Mr. Clay from the Jmputation east
ou him. it shows that Mr. Ki'nz was the real
aggrcssor. The C. & E. gives the case as
follows :
The discussion arose on the proposition to
make F. P. Blair, ofthe Globe, Printer to
the Senate. Mr. Clay opposed it, aud re
marked that he had little coufidence in Mr.
Blair.that he distrusted theintegrity of a man
who had nbowuso little regard to principlein
the conduct of a public press, and that he did
not belif ve Mr. Blair could be safely trueted
with printing of the confidenlial documents
oftho Senate, The truth of this every man
who knew Blair will mostreadily admit. But
Mr. Kmg and 'tho man in the corncr,' Mr.
Perry Smith, from Connecticut, thought it
proper and becoming iu them to reply, by
tlie most infamous attacks upon tbe personal
charactct of Mr. Clay. Mr. King said that
some years ago Mr. Clay nas ou terms of in
timacy with Blair, and that he consideredMr.
Clay's character 110 better than that of Blair,
with other cxpressions equally improper and
cqually insulting. Mr. Clay', as was duo to
his own character, pronounced the asscrtions
uuparliamentarv andfalsc, as they uotori-
ousI)were. And Mr. King publiclydeclared
his intention to ehallence Jlr. Clay. Mutual
cxplanatious bowcver were madc ; Mr. Kin
retracted all that was offensivein hisremarks,
saying cxplicitly that he intended, by them
nothiug derocatory to the character of Mr.
Clay; and Mr. Clay of course, withdrew the
Unguage in which hc had rcsented the insult.
But the police ofthe Diatrict bound both of
them over to keepthe peace. Aud the Argus
is base enough to descend to tlie kcnnel with
its meaner allies, and endeavor by tnisrcpre
seutingthis siinplo transactiou, to crcate :
prejudice in the public mind against the per-
sona: characer ol Mr. Ulay.
In conucction with this subjcct wc will re
fer again to the old slander ofa bargain bc
tween Mr. Adams and Mr. Clay, hen the
former was elected Presidcnt and the latter
Secretary of State, in 1825.
That slander. as wcll known, orisinated
with General Jackson ; and is cqually noton
ous that the witness, whom he named to sus
tain his slauder.MrBuchanan, cxplicitly and
nauy contrauicicu inc siaiemcnt.
All this we showed, the other dav, by cx-
tracts from General Jacksou's own letter, of
July, 1827, Mr. Buchanan's lettcr of Au
gust next, and by various other testimony,
Ths Richmond Whig has republished an
other piece of testimony on th'13 subjcct,which
hadslipped from our recollectiou. Itisnshort
lettcr from the latc illustrious Chief Justice
ofthe United States, John Marshall. It was
originally published in the Whig, and was
called lortli by a statcmcnt wlucu uad bcen
madc m tlie Marylander, then pubhshed in
Baltimore, uamely, that Judge Marshall had
said, during tne 1 rcsidential canvass of lc3,
thathe "sbould cuusider the clection of Gen
Jackson as a virtuousdissolution of ihe Un-
on." The lettcr of Judtre Marshall was as
follons:
Marcii 20th. 1828,
Sir I perccivc in your paper of to-day, a
quotation from the Marylander, nfcertniii ex
pressions ascribed to me.rcspecting tbepend-
ing clection for the l'rcsidcncy ofthe Unitcd
Statcs, which I tliink it my duty to disavow.
Holding thc situation I do, under thc Govcrn
of the Unitcd States, I have thought it right
to abstain from any declaration on the clec
tiou; and were it othcnvise, I should abstain,
from a conviction that my opinions would
have no wcight.
I admit haviug said iuprivate that I thought
I had not votcd sincc thc cstablishmcnt of
the Rcneral tickct svstcm, and bclieved that I
nevcr should, during its continuance. I might
probably depart from my rcsolution in this
instance,from the strong stnse lfcltof the fn-
justice oj the cliarge oj comiplwn against tlie
1'resiaenl and Secretary ol Ztalc. 1 never
used the cxpressions ascribed to me.
I rcqucst you to say, that you are author
ized to dcclare that the Marylander has been
1
misimormcu.
Vcry respectfully, your obedicnt scrvant,
JOHN MARSHALL.
J. II. Pi.easa:ts, Esq.
MR. BENTON AND ANNEXATION.
Ths Globe contains a lettcr from Mr.Ben
ton, in rcply to certain rqcmbcrs of thc Tex
as Congress, on the sutiject of Annexation.
Mrenton states that he was atways a friend
to Texas opposed to its abandonment by
the UiiiteJ States iu the Treaty of 1819
and since that time earnestly in favor of re
gaiuingit. Buthe is opposed to the present
hasty and ill-adviscd manceuvre of tbe gasp-
ing Admimstration to manutacture political
capital by forcing it upon thc country. He
says :
"You have judgcd rightly, gentlcmen, in
addressinjr your communication to me, and
proposing to make me the organ of your
wishcs to the Ainerican Uongress, being, as
I am, the first opponent of the treaty which
dismcmbered your tcrritory from our Union;
the first advocate for its recovery; the sup
porter of all prudent measures for tbat pur
posc; the enemy of all movemcnts which
would involve tbe question in sectional or
partizanpolitics; and the firm believer in the
speedy andhanpy recovery of the dismem-
bered territory, and the mutilated rivers, if
the question could be kept free from improp
er connexions, and confiucd to the patriotic
basis of nationality and honor.
Leaving out of view,then,tbe treaty which
is now before the Senate, and only lookin; to
the general question, I can say that I Iaok to
the recovery of Texas, and of our mutilated
rivers and natural boundaries, as inevitable
facts in the natural order of human events;
that they naturally belong to thc valley of the
Mississippi, and to tbe American Union, and
will rcturn to it with ease and honor if wise
aud tcmperate counscls prevail; and tbat this
natural consummation of a coming event cau
only be dclaycd for a time by throwiug the
questions into our elcctions, perverting it
from its national basis, making it sectional
and partisan, prostituting ilto unworthy pur
poses, running the qnestion at men, and ma
king it the means of disturtiag the peace and
harmony of the country."
" SHEEP's PLUCK, ASD SIX AKD A-FOURTn
CENTS A DAY USDER 3IABTIX
VAS BCUE's ADMtSISTBATIOS."
"rWO EOLLARS A DAY AND BOAST BEEF
U.NDEE GEKERAL IIARRISOK's
ADMINKTRATIOK."
THETAItlFF.,
Onc of tho most marked acknowledge
tncnts of the tncrits of the Whig Taritf is
afTbrded by the voto of tho preacnt Loco
Foco Ilouse of Representnlives, laying
iMcKnv's bill. ou the toblo. This vote
shows cithcr a rcpenting of thcir prcvious
opposition to the i arin on the part ot a
largc portion of thc I.ocofocos, or a dread
of tho conseqtiences to their political ad
vanceincnt, should they persist in that
opposition .so faras to deslroy tho TarifT.
In either point of view the result is in tho
highcsl degreo gratifying fo to friends of
llotnc Industry. Ihercis nowa tavor
able prospect that the prcscnt TarifT will
bo 'permr.ncnt," providcd caro is takcn
tc elcct fo tho next Congrcss a majority
of membcrs plcdged to continuo it in force.
For although tho Locofoco majority in thc
present Congress have not darcd in the
faco of an important cloclion to destroy
it, yct the tone of their Ieading organs
plainly t indicato that the "intention" to
destroy it "still exists," and awaits on!y a
more favorable opportunity to raanifcst
itsclfwilh its full violence." Thisisev
idcnt from tho following cxtracts from
the New Ycrk Eveninz Post, and New
York Plebetan, tho Ieading Locofoco
papers in that city. Troy Whig.
From the N. YEvening Post.
Tiie Defeat of the Taeiff. Wo
find that we havo been in crror.'all along
during the wintcr, in speaking of tho
"democratic" House of Representp.tives.
11 was parcionabic crror, however, for we
rery naturahy supposed that men ca Iimr
tliemselves democrats, and in general nc
ting with Ihe democratic party. wcro dem-
ocrnls in reahly. But wo havo been
greatly mislakcn. No sooncr does a tesi
measure present itself than tho true stato
ofthe case is rcvealcd, and gentlcmen
who wcnt strutting about aspalternsof
democratic orlhodoxy, aro discovcrcd in
the tront ranks of our cncrnics.
From the N. Y. Pleheian.
"Wo did cxpcct wo had a right to
expect that a House of Rcpresentatives,
wo will not say Democratic, but a largo
majority of which were elected by n Dem
ocratic constituency, would have approvc
cd of Mr McKay's bill, not because it was
the bill that could bo framed, but because
it was thc best that was likely to pass tho
Ilouse.
But wo do not despond we have faith
in tho intclligence ofthe mass oftho peo
ple. We rcgret that thc bill was dcfeated,
yot no rcjoico that we shall bo nble to
lcarn, by this vole, who are not the fiiends
of a revcnue TarifT, and who havo and
who have not tnisrcprcscntcd their consti
tucnts upon this important subjcct. That
thcir is some sccrat cause for tho dcfcat
of Mr McKay's bill, is strongly suspccted ;
but what that causo is, wo nre not prepar
cd to stato dcfinitcly. Much oftho oppo
sition to tho bill, wo lcarn, camc from thc
South, n quartcr from which wc tho leust
cxpcctcd opposition to a modification of
tho bill, Our hopes aro now transfcrrcd
to a now Congress from this we expeclcd
nothing.'"
FitoM a eare Source. David Lee
Child, editor ofthe National Anti-Slavery
Standard says :
'I look upon Clay'a lettcr as satisfnct.
ory. llo :s not afraid, slavcholdcr as hc
is, to namo 'Slavery,' whilo Van Burcn,
cschcws it, as he would a pest-house. Clay
tells (he nation, and thc world, that to an
ncx Tcxas, will bo to cngago in a war
"for the propogation of Slavery." I ad
mit, that whilo I lilto a blatcsman as he
appears in his lettcr, I should havo bccn
ukl havo bcen
glad to have seen 'more
lhropist and rcformcrs;
deny. that upon the whole, tho Iettprap
pcnrs to me satisfactoiy. It is not as
carcfully writtcn as Van Burcn's but it is
in tho hcight of hcavcn above it in honcs-
Fitchburg Railruad stock soldlast wcek
at two and a quartcr pcr ccnt. advancc.
1 wo hundred thousand dollars havo bccn
subscribed to the cxtension of it lo Brat-
tleboro.
MR FRELINGHUYSEN.
We extract the following from an ac
count of the annivcisiry of the Sunday
School Union, in the New York Exprcss,
says :
Ihe Rev. Mr btockton, oftho Mctho-
dist Church in Philadclphia, and formcr-
ly Chaplain to Congress, was the next
Speakcr. Tho nddress was an eloquent !
and well arrangcd one, but haviug little
connection with tho objccts ofthe inecting.
Thc first fiftecn mintitcs of his addrcss
was occupicd witha discussion ofthe rc
lative bearing of practical and contem
plative Christianity, and making a sud
dcn digression to tho influcnco of Chris
rrnnrred (lllR. hllt hnvmrr 1 1 1 1 Fr. '
ianity upon tho State, he said : "Look
sir, at (hcrecent nomination at Baltimore.
Scnsation upon thc platform. I alludo
to the nomination of Iheodoro rrcling
huvsen. Great cheering, with a few
hisses. 1am not here, as a Democrat, or
as a Whig, but asa Christian, and as a
Christian I regard this movpment. As
Jlr Frelinghuj-sen said to a deputation of
h:s Incnds, who waitcd upon him recctitly
to congratulato him upon his nomination,
we aro Uhigs first, Chnstians last.
Chrisfiansalwavs. rAppIause.l If cen'
tlcmen ofthe Democratic party find fault
with us for thus alluding to this subjcct,
wo say to thcm, give us a better man !
continued sensation but until you do,
we shall tcstify that thc ballot-box the
feeling with which we regard the homage
Ihus paid to the Christian rcligion and
thc Christian man. fGrcat cheerin" and
scnsation.
Two Facts for tiie FaFkMeks. "Keep
it beforo the Pcoplc," that undcr tho op.
ralions oftho H'hig Tariirof 1842, tho
ggregate importations of foreign wool
ave 'decrcased in a singlo year from
elcven and a half millions" of pounds to
less thnn fivc millions ; and
"Keep it before the People," that un
der the hcahhful influcnco of this fame
law tbo demand for American wool has
greatly fncreascd, and the price advanccd
ncarlv fifty pf.r cest.
FROM WASHINGTON.
Wei learn bv a privato lollcr from
Washington, that Mr Benton has dcclar.
ed, that in caso 7nn Buren bo not tho
candidato oftho Xoco Foco party hc will
sustnin 'Clay' in preference to eithcr Cass,
Tyler, Buchanan, Slewart, "or others who
havo been hanieil. "There is, however,"
continues the wriler, "no danger that
Benton will be found 'acting with tho
Whigs this time, as I belicvo it ts now re-
duccd to a ccrtainty that Jlr Van Buren
will be nominaled, and that a portion
thc Convenlion will ei'bcr protcst or sc-
ccde, and tho seccders will either raiify
tho nomination of Tyler to be made on
Monday ncxt by his own Convenlion, or
they will hold o scpcrafe Convention and
bring forwnrd a fourth candidatc." Tri
bunc. OCrJoo Smith.John Tyler and Martin
Van Buren, cach holds a Convention of
his followers at Baltimore on Monday
next to nominate him for Presidcnt. Tho
first two will probably succccd without
difiiculty ; but therc are rumors abroad
that Van's Convention will nominate
somebody else I That is n't fair play.
Wc insist that Van shall be nonnnatcu
unanimously on thc first ballot, so as to
give n good look to tho husmcss. 11 a
man cannot bo succcssful m a Convention
got up cxpressly lo nominate him, he
must stand a dull chanco with the unba.
kcdsufTrugcs of thc Ainerican Peoplc.
1 ribune.
THE GALAXF.
MIDDLEBURY:
Wednesday May 29, 1844.
For Presidcnt,
HENRY CLAY.
For Jlce Presidcnt,
TIIE0I10RE FRELINGHUYSEN.
A sound National Currency, regulalcd by
the xcill and authoritv of the nation:
Anadcquale retenue,tcith a fair proleelion to
Amencan tndustry :
Just restraints onthe executire poicer, em
hracing a further restriction on the exercise of
the Velo:
A faitliful administration of the jmblic do-
mam, tnln an cquilablcdtstrwulion oj lliepro-
ceeds oj thesales of it amongall the islalcs:
An honest and cqual administralion of the
General Gozernmtnt, learinz public ofiiccrs
perfcct freedom of thought, and of the right of
sujruge, oui iciut suuaoic rcsirainis against
improper intcrference in eleclions.
An amendmenlof the Constitution, Umiling
the incumbcnl ofthe Presidenlial office lo asin
gle Term HEJSUY CLAY.
LOCO FOCO PRINCIPLES.
To the Viclors belong the Spoils the es
tablhhment of the Suh-trcasury sicannsof
icg-ircasurcrs loic icages a stan aing army
and txlrataganl expenditures of the public
money "Pel lianks" and rag money Re
pvdiation Vorrism tiolation of the laic of
Congress districting the States opposition
loasound and vmform cjirrency opposition
lo all ichig measures andizhig principles.
Ihaxc at no time, nor any where, htsilated
toexpressmy dceidcd disapprobalion of the
'Farijf act at thc last Session, as tcell in' re
spcct lo the principle vponichicli il is founded,
as toits details MART1X FAXIiUREX.
EThe Iettcr ot
omittcd by mistake.
Gen. Cass has bccn
(l?We hope the whics of Middlebury
and adjoining towns, will raliy to tbe meet-
ot the philan- iug of tho Clay Club to be holdeu on Thnrs
still I cannot day eveniii2 at 8 o'clock. I). W. C. Clarkc
Esq. from Brandon, is cxpcctcd to be pres
ent, anu lavor me assemniy with a spcech.
The Glec Cluo will also be on hand. No
mistake !
TYLER'S WAR WITH J1EXICO.
The iujunctiou of sccrccy haviug been rc
moved by the Scnatc, a message from the
President to that body appears among the
documents accompanjing the treaty. The
horrid Accidenl, says that, belicving the trea
ty with Tcxas would be ratificd by the Scn
atc, hc haa dcemed it his duty to seud the
home squadron under the command of Capt.
Connor inlo the Gulf of Mexico, and at the
same time to assemblc at Fort Jessup on the
bordersof Texas a mililary force, to preveut
if possible any hostilc designs of Mexico up
on Texas, and assu rc that government that
any movementof hostility to Texas would be
reSarded as uufricndly to the United States, 1
, ........
and wouid justity tue cmploymcct of any
military means to drive back tbe invasion.
It appears that 1150 men have bccn con
ccntrated at Fort Jessup. Eight or ten ships
and stcamera nrn rri lhls. hnvprlnn. nlintir tl,n
portof Vera Cruz, with orders'to prevent whieh " lcss "SZatcd by swallowing cam
any naval expedition ajainst Texas. . cls' than thc Sna,s at "hh Pl'ent i
So it sccms this mad Hamlet, not content
with stealthily making a treaty for the annex
ation of Texas against the known wishes of
a Iarge portion of the people of this Union,
takes upon himself the responsibility of order
ing steps which might justly be considered
cause ofwarby a nation with whom we are
on the most amicable terms. He seems deter-
mined to exasperate the Jlexicaus into some
act which may bc construed into an oiTcnce
against the nation, and amidst the surginir
elements of popular indignation thus aroused
to bring on a war with Mexico and its inveta
ble rcsult, the annexation of Texas. Did
ever usurper or tyrant act so recklessly as
John Tyler in his phrenzy to accomplish a
project which he foolishly imagines will se
cure him to the presidency. He makes a
treaty with a foreign uation without consult
ing that branch ofthe legislature who alone
can give itvalidity, and before receiving iu
sanction procceds to execute its most obnox
ious and hazardous provisions, even the
threatening to involve us in war which be
has no power to declare, and vhich in rela
tion to a sister republic who has kept her
treaties with us with the most scrupulous
fidelity would be the basest ever waged among
civilized nations. All christendom would
declare the acts of John Tyler towards Jlexi
co asa just cause of ar, asilastardly towanb
a nation to far inferior .to -ns in physicaf
strength, and ic-humanity, morality and jus
tice, as raoking us among the most faithless, :
crucl and barbarou natioss vrhoni history
ius brnnded wi:h infamy.
But what else could be cxpected from John
Tyler whose whoto ofiicial life has been one
continued successicii of thc wannest profes
sions of principlcs to-day.whichheviulates to
morrow, of trcachcry to his friends, and thc
exercise ofthe mcst meau and meiitricious
of blandishments to propitiate his cnemies. And
as if to show the nation that there was a still
lowcr abyss of wrongs to which thcir most
prurient imagination had never dccendcd.thU
abusive personage is at last found cndeavor
ing to plunge the nation into forcign wars and
civil dissentions to retain that assendancy to
which notbiug but the mcrcst frcak of prcv
idcnco could evcr have elevated him.
Such are the atrocious circumstances at
tcnding the making of thc treaty by John
Tyler that wc cannot be surpriscd to bear the
cry of impeachmcnt proceedings from tho
most influemial public journals through tho
country. Even mouths not at all accustom
cd tosevere upbraidings now cry out let Joho
Tyler be impeached. Thc time bas come
ivheu the forbearance ofthe people. is no lon
ger avirtue, when the violated sanctity oftho
; constitution, thesafetyof the nation, theper-
jinancncyof the Union, the hbcrties of the
I people, the preservation of our free and hap-
py institutious, honor, morality and violated
faith of the republic dcmand such an expcri
ment. If the country is left to the sway or
John Tyler during the adjournment of Con
gress, Heaven only knowa what ill 'starred
catastropbc might awuit us.
TARIFF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN'
CLAY AND VAN BUREN.
As if conscious that a protective tarill was
a popular measure, the loco press is endeav
orinj to place Mr. Clay upon the same slid
ing grouud occupicd by the "Korthern mau
trilA Soutliem principles." Such au attempt
is a gross insult to the undcrstandings of the
people. There are two stubborn facts which
stand out inbold reliefto cxhibit the difler
ence hetween these meu in relation to pro
tection. Van Buren has dcclared himself op.
posed to thc present tariffin principle anddc
tail. Mr. Clay has rcpeatedly declared him
self in favo of it. Van Burcn secks to des
troy it Mr. Clay and his friends seek to prc
scrve it iuviolate. Every day brings out fresh
proof of Jlr. Clay's fidelity to those great
principles of protcction to domestic industry
which has hitherto conferrcd upon him the
title of fathcr ofthe "American System. Tha
last proof of this may bc found in a lettcr on
our first page, addrcsscd to thc Pciicsylvani
nians, which wc hope every one will caicful
ly pcruse. His remarks iu relatiou to the
persevcrance of his cucmies in inisrepresent
iug him are quite opportuuc. How vaiu the
attempt of the whole kenuel of loco cditors
to throttle tho lion we shall scc.
TIIE CASS LETTER.
Evcr since his flurry in Paris lo defcat the
thc British treaty the eager aspirations oflhis
man to tho Presidency have bccn constatt
ly devcloping. This weak production shows
how willing heis lo make hi.nself a mere nosa
of nas to be moulded into any shape to quab'fy
himself for southern support. It is asserted
that hehasnritten ouc ortwo previot3!eltei
ou the subjcct, one halfway, and one agaiust
it. The last lettcr was to qualify himself for
southcrnsupportaftcrfinding that Mr. Van
Burcn had missed it, by not coming out point
blank in favor of anucxatiou. But to elTect
the object a more impotcnt composition
could not have come bcfore ths public. It
isa vcry iinperfect echo of nhat Gcncnl
Jackson has writtcn upou the saiiie subjcct.
Thcse two potablo Gcnerals have no othor
idea about annexation than occupying Tcxn
as a military position iu caso of war with Eng
l.ind. In lugging iu. to prop his arguincnt,
an article from Frazicr's Jlagazine a British
torypublication, which should have about a
much weight as the negro melodics of tho
Woodstock Age our lettcr writer renders
himself still more ridiculous. The Atlas
says, tha letter 'C ebould be omitted from hi
namc.
SPEECH OF JIR. JIARSH.
This spcech descn-es a Iarge sharc of tho
high encomiums bestowcd upon it. Tha
speaker's descriptiou ofthe climate of Ver
mont will delight the rcadcr, no less than tho
racy style iu which hcclothes his sentiments,
and the bold and causlic manuer in which ha
attacks the southern constitutional cholic
constantly snapping. In the state of exhaus
tion as to details which the long debate had
occasioned this spcech is more on general
principles, which are brought to bear with
great cflecr. oo protcction to domestic indus
try. No mistake. Ourdclegationin Cougress
during thc prcscnt session are cntitled to great
praiscfor their frankncss audefiiciencv.
E Woodbury & Buchanan have both
come out in favor of immediate annexation.
TEMPERANCE CELEBR ATION.
A Boston correspondent says that o
the 30th ofthe present month, (May) thero
will be held on the Boston Common tbe lar
gest Temperance celebration ever held in tho
United States. Delegates from every Stata
are expected. A largo number of Jlilitary
companies will join on the celebration. It is
estimated there will be more than fifly thou
sand persons present.
LOCO CONVENTION.
This body.in all probability asscmbled on
Jlonday the present week. The wildest dis
cord has sprung up in a party whicli at tha
commencemcnt of the present session of
Congrcss boasted an unexampled harmony.
John Tyler's fire-brand of annexation which
was'to blow the whigs sky high, has set tho
whole loco camp in a blaze, and like so tnany
ignited rockets the leaders are flying olT in
every direction. Van Buren does not quita
5omp uptq the point of immediate annaxa-

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