Newspaper Page Text
f -. p 4 vrr j
BY T. A. GOODWIN.
BROOKVILLE, FRANKLIN COUNTY, INDIANA, FRIDAY -NOVEMBER" 18, 1853.
VOL. XXI. -NO. 4$.
- AN ADDRESS
Delivered Uort the Franklin Co. Agri
cultural Society, mi Metamorm Saturday
Nov. M, 1853, J. R.Uoodwiii, M.I).
M. PrIMDIHT, AID GCSTLKKKX OF
Ms Aokici'LTUxal Society In elec
ting th subject of the fertility of soils,
and the means for maintaining that fer
tility, for the regular address, I have
bees influenced by the fact that there
was no committee appointed to report
on the subject for this dsy'js discussion,
which la manures 'their production and
A paper on the fertility of soils, and
the means of malntalng that fertility,
taust of necessity answer the two-fold
purpoae of a regular address, and a report
on the subject of manures.
There Ii t very wide difference be
tween the ages of the Art of Agriculture,
and the Science of Agriculture- The
former has existed ever since man began
to catch and tame wild plants. The latter
only since the natural science genera lly,
nd chemistry the especially, came in to
xplaln and to teach.
The Art taught the fertility of the
oil, and found out tho advantages of
follow, and the rotation of crops, and the
necessity of manuring. The science
.'arches out the cause ofthat fertility
teaches the theory of fallow iimructs
in the rotation of crops, and directs, with
an unfailing certainty, in the application
of manures. The Art considered the
soil itself aa the twntial, in the produc
tion of crops. Here the science differs
widely, and considers the mass of the or
dinary soil as coi'trbuting nothing to
nutrition of plants, more than docs the
lamp Itself which merely holds the oil,
contribute to the production of light.
Following the directions cf practical
farming, or tho Art of Agriculture, the
moat contradictory results are orten ob
tained, and many a farmer has sadly ex
perienced the fact It la frequently only
after tie lapse of a long time, .and after
series of successful and unsuccessful
trials, thst it is at last found! out which
toil will suit this parti:ular plant and
which will not. A celebrated writer on
agricultural chemistry has aaid with ref
erence to aimllar (acts: "All this may
be obviated and the question determined
at once, by burning the plsnt, examining
its ashes, and carefully analysing tho
soil; this will enable u to determine
w hether a given field will repay tho cul
tivation or not."
The fertility of the soil then, aa taught
by scientific sgriculture, la in direct ratio
to the amount and varle'.y of the ele
ments necessary to the production of
plants it contains; and though; it may
fail on the production of one species of
grain, It is no conclusive evidence yet
gainst Its fertility. It Is very evident
that in the aoil snast be contained all the
elements that go to constitute tho pro
. doced plant, except that furnished by the
atmosphere; and it is equally as evident
that the soil is Impoverished, just to the
mount of the material furnished to any
given crop. II we then assume that all
jsolls are equally fertile, and puseeesod of
tVha lime dementi, (which is in errone
ous assumption,) then a very limited
class of experiments would teach us all
that was necessary in tnsintuiniug that
fertility against the exhaustion ot crop,
and hues practical agriculture would
become scientific agriculture. This
difTsrsace In soils however, exists; and
tjpon tail (lilfcrenco must be based ill,
or principally all that ever will be known
The fertility of soil is , an expression
that hae reference to its power of pro
ducing vegetation. The term Is a rela
tive, and not a positive one, for some
eolla may be fertile with reference to
aome crops, and not at all so with others,
or, it msy be espsble of producing one
crop of a certain kind of grain, and the
elements of that crop be so Ur exhaus
ted that there could not be another crop
of the eaine grain produced without
again aupplylngto the soil, the necessary
constituents. A perfectly fertile ajil,
If such there Is, must be one that pos
sesses, an illimitable amount of the uec
esiary mineral constituents to produce,
and on, successive crops of the same
cereals continually and forever, without
any necessity or arunclai am. As we
have no auch soils, it becomes of ereat
practical Importance to inqulro how !
tends are impoverished and by what stant drain upon t"ie soil under cultiva
means their fertility may be restored. I tion suggested the necessity of a fertil
The treasures of the earth are exhaus- Uer and common manure were found
ted just aa the treasures of a capitalist by lo answer the purpose. Recently how
giving more than receiving. The farm-! efc' science has defined the way In
er that plows, produces, carries off and
Iis, without restoring any thing to hia
land, is aa certainly selling out, aa if he
aold ace by arce; and in a longer or
shorter time, in proportion to the origii
nal wealth of hia land, he will find him
self without a farm, aa certainly as the
monied man, constantly outlaying, and
a a a . a a .
not receiving, would find himself out of
a fortune having only the purse that con
tained it. Against this ultimate ten
deney both practical and scientific agri
culture contend, either by fallow, rota
lion of crops, or by manureing. The
latter mode however ia the only means
ot fully compensating, for the gifta of
the field, and it is here that the science
agriculture promisee to aid the tiller of
tho soil more than in any other way.
The term "fallow" is, I believe, gen
erally considered synonomous with rrsf ;
and when practiced by the farmer
amounts to but little more than the rest
of the field, during the time that it might
have produced one crop. This is a
widely different meaning from that giv
en to the word in early ages.
Thaer, in hia "Principles of Agricul
ture" Ulla us that lands, in "fallow,"
were worked harder than any other lande
by the Romana. But they were not re
quired to produce. The faUowingot a field
required, upon the authority of Roman
w uar a, six SluercHl piuwiua. inc uu iu aturo. i uuucisbanu irom tne IUI uicr
ject waa, which U the true object of Mfal- treatment of the subject by them that
lOW, to entirely pulverize the soil and ' humus Is the product of decay that has
ofteo bring lu particles to th. surfaco (rone on since the first moss was pro-
wber they saay h sxpoaed to tba ao- duced upon tho naked rocks of a newly
tioa Oi th. atmospere,and tot ouly eo, created earth, until the aoil is taken Hy
bat frequent stirrings, and perfect pulvcr- man and liie production thereof carried
Ising haatens the aatural procea of deg off. This then I repeat is the element
raid ion, that is, the desolvlngof the so- of a! I fertility. It lathe greet natural
luble mineral, contained la tho toil, by manure provided to fertilize the soil for
which alkaline aalte and soluble silica our possession. It is upon this sub
art formed, and these are the most im- stance that we begin to operate In our
portant ingredients for the growth of agricultural labors, and as we produce
plants. I from this and carry away we begin to
It caa easily be seen what good we ex- impoverish tho soil which ultimately
(iect to derive from fallow in reclaiming ' requires the application of artiflcal man
ands, but the mode practiced by ns gee-, urea.
.rally, amounting only to a seaaon of Artificial Manures may be divided in
rri, cannot compare, In utility, to tha generst classes vegetable, mineral and
eld method of frequent stirrings, from animal.
(he fact that while lying in a state of - By far tho mott Important to ua la the
rest, the procesa of decomposition ia very
tardy, when compared to what it would
be under the old method. But science
when applied to agriculture has taught
that fallowing may bo measurably dis
pensed with. There are aubstancea
now known which, beiog'spplied to the
soil, act chemically upon the aoluble
bases, and thus produce at once the very
elements of vegetation which are so dif
ficult of production by the most careful
fallowing. Aa an instance: chemistry
teachea that lime possesses the property
of decomposing the silicates of the soil,
and thua hastens the production of the
soluble saline constituents which are in
dispensable t vegetable life, and which
may have been previously extracted by
Tho second method of restoring im
poverished lands is by tho rotation of
This however is in fact not a restora
tion, but a relief to lands from i constant
drain of tho s'etnents of fertility by a
constant production of the same plant.
Thcro was once a hypothesis, somewhat
popular, that all plants, in growing, se
creted, or threw ofT from the roots, and
deposited in the aoil, certain matters
which wss injurious in the production of
any succoeuinn crop of the same xuid of
plant; but tha'.the same matter might bo
Venwficlal to i crop of a different plant.
Hence vaa at gued the necessity of the
rotation of crois. This theory arose. I
imagine, from 'the practical farmer who
knew the utility of the rotation of crops,
without being acquainted with the acta
Bearing in mind that every crop re
moves from the toil certain ingredients,
and auo that difTerent grain requires vo
ry different Ingredients for their produc
tions, the benefit of rotation is at once
very manife4t. . If, forexarople,we take
t piece of ground that possesses tne sa
lino materials for the production of a
single crop of wheat, it would be ao ex
hausted by the production of one crop
that another would not grow upon it, and
yet this soil msy still contain abmdant
mineral constituents for the production
of a good crop of clover. A piece of
ground might be entirely exhausted of
its sileca by the production of any of the
cereal, and yet it would produce a (rood
crop of potatoes, without silica if it
possessed the salts of potash, soda, lime
Tho benefit of the rotation ofcrooa is
thereforo evident, when it la the object to
put the soil upon the greatest possible
system of yielding, without (riving any
thing back. In rotation, the object of
Tallow is In a incisure obtained, for in
stance, if the ground that had been de
prived of its sileca in the production of
wheat, was put to the production of
clover, which requires no silica or pota
toes which according to Lie beg reqnires
more, It would follow of course that si
lica would be formed by degradation the
samo as when In fallow, until a sufficient
supply would be formed to produce
again a crop of wheat.
Hyitcma of rotation havo been adopt
ed, and rules given, but it Is very evi
dent that no gmoral rule can bo given.
K very kind of land requlrcrs a different
kind or system or rotation according as
It differs In Its elementary constituent;
therefore every farmer must arrange his
own system according to hla especial
knowledge ofthi nature and composi
tion of the soil he cultivates.
The third means of maintaining the
fertility of anils Is bv manures. This
too Is the more Important moans as It
accomplices fully the ends proposed by
both fallow nd rotation. In fact auch
U the demand, In our climate, for contln
ual harveala, and those harvest so con
stantly withdrawn from tho aoil no great
an amount of Its mineral constituents,
that a want of them will ere long be sen
sibly felt, and as fallowing 1 defective
and tardy and rotation uncertain, It will
soon become as it Is already In New
England and elsewhere the principal ob
ject of the ftrmer to supply artltlc laity
those aubstancea that have been takon
away by the crop.
The application of mtnures was not
adopted originally from any theory. It
has been.practlced since the history of eg
rlmlturo began. . Holy writ has many
references to the practice. Tho practi
cal experience of thousands of yesrs has
established tho benefit of employing an
imal excrements, decayed vesetat on.
straw,'tfcc. for manuring land.
. ' e
which each variety of manure produces
its peculiar effect, and under what cir
cumstances it acta in one way rather
Upon the rich woodlands and plains
of the great West, which is renowned
throughout tho world for its original fer-
al'. .1 I a. I a a
tility, the husbandman finds a rich sup
1 .mm .
ply of manure; provided ond spread by
nature In anticipation of hia possession.
Tho soil for ages has been producing,
and that production again mouldering
away to am in giving vigor for a new
production: tho soluble particles of the
aoil have been giving way to contribute
to the great end of fertility untill after
the succession of ages the work has
been completed. The result of this pro
cess is tho element of the fertility ef our
soil, and tho name of vegetable tnou!d'mh
been given to it, or in scientific language
that of umu. Thaer, in his lectures
says, -The fertility of the soil depends
entirely on the presence ol humus, for,
if we except water, it is to this substance
alone in the soil that plants owe their
The same author defines humus as
being "the residue of annual and vegeta
Liebeg saya it is "woody fibre in a
atate of decay." Thus whilo these two
great lights differ in words they do not
c!ass of animal manures, The limits of
this address will not permit me to go into
' J -. ' I .L f I 1 . t . t ft
ueiau wiui an euosiances mat nave ueen
and must be again uaed to fertilixe the
soil. Our principle reliance has been
and is yet the stable manure, which nec-
ess arily contains most if not all, in a de-
gree.of the ingredients carried awsy from
! the soil by the crop.
I The excrement of the horse has been
subjected to chemical tests by eminent
even and found to contain the salts of
jlime, soda, potash, and magnesia, also
J abundance of silicic aciJ. All of our or
( dinary products require these ingredients
'except turutps, . beets and potatoea,
I and theae require all, except the si
It required however no analyals, either
of this kind of manure or the grains pro
duced by its application to convince ua
of its utility.. This has been lonir well
established, and tho only question is aa
to the proper modo of collecting and ap
plying it. .
I havo no doubt that most fsrmers
In this country where we complain eo
bitterly of high taxation, pay a larger tax,
in the article of barn-yard washings to
the "great waters,'' than they do to car
ry on the. functiona of government. I
do not mean that the article lost woald
Immediately, if sold, produce so much,
but if husbanded, properly treated and
applied, the additional produce thereby
would pay any man's taxcs,above the ex
penses of applying It.
Upon the proper manner of applying
it, however I prefer to be allent, aa that
feature of the subject will bo discussed
at the regular time by your body, and I
consider but few questions of more prac
In conclusion, gentlemen, having has
tily referred to tho fertility of soils, and
the three common methods of maintain
ing that fertility I would add the remark
that this Is to be the great subject of in
terest to the agricultural community and
the aubject oi study to the agricultural
student in the future.
There is in this respect a new era
opening to tho world, and especially Is
this the casein our own country.
The virgin fertility, of the soil on the
new continent wss such as to bear rath
er to waste than to economy.
That waste would ultimately bring on
a fearful crisis if It were persisted in;
but as poverty begins to appear there is
the important inquiry suggested, how
may that fertility be maintained and pov
Upon this inquiry Is to be chiefly foun
ded the science of Agriculture; for how
to cultivate a plant ia but a minor con
sideration compared to showing how
tomikssny variety of aoil produce
any variety of vegetables.
Agriculture has hitherto In a certain
sense, called for no intellectual labor.
The action of the body, with a very
limited amount of thought is required to
cultivat) a aoil that is ocrDctualiv able to
produce abundantly every kind of a crop,
llut as poverty In tho soil sppoars, the
nufDsnuinan must cither study tore-
claim the soil or make a sacrifice, and
aeek for some other location that will
endure a whilo his thoughtless system
of robbery. As this necessity for sys
tematic thought arrlsca there will bo
found men more willing to abandon what
has been called the "learned Drofoas ons"
and delight tl.o.n.elves in the study of L, fw,VrK ," lk ,mP
clentiflc agriculture than formerly, i! nip i iÄ.tta Ä1 n ar
think thst uime has been wronirlv .Continued thfooli the winter. Unae;
itntiutsJtuthd crowd l mkii Jh
,1 , . , y -(,
ought the "learned prolession" a
the field lor their action durlnir life
Tho proper solution of this matter Is
that there is a natural desire for Intel
lectual labor Implanted in the human
breast. As the young man looka for
ward In life lor a IhouWo upon which to
play his part, the agricultural pursuit has
hitherto presented no Inducement to the
one who has a burning thirst for Intel-
lectuat latior. The Intellectually indo
lent youth has been content to fall back
pon his plow and find fellowship with
Is horse until crop alter croo Is succes
sive v Produced and conaiimnJ. and
soil Is Impoverished. Rut, as I said a
- - - .
new era isopcniug. Neoessity, in con- I
nectioii with intellectual action bad es-1
tabllshed Agricultural ScUnci. Here
now it a broad invitation given to the
youth who would unite physical with
mental labor. And the Invitation will
be beedod. I base that prophesy upon
my faith In the seductive beauties of the
occupation of tho scientific agricultur
ist. The Art of A griculturs has reached
its xenith, and now it throws in the lap
of science the knowledge it has accu
mulated for ages, and the united ener
gies of these two sisters will ere long
introduce anew member into the family
of the Learned Vrofeiiions. :
CjairoaituGoLD Gbease. A Yan
kee down East baa invented this specific
for the use of gold hunters. The oper
ator ia to grease himself well, lie down
on the top of a hill, and then roll to the
bottom. The gold, and "nothing else,"
will stick to him. Price ninety-four
dollars per box.
0C7"A lawyer received the following
note accompanying a boquct some where
"i send u bi the boy a bucket of flow
ers. They is lik mi luv fur u. The nite
shaid meens kepe dark. The dog fenil
meens I am ure slave.''
OCT Thsckery saya a woman's heart
is just like a lithographer's stone what
is once written upon it can't be rubbed
out. This is so. Let an heiress once
fix her affections on a stable boy, all the
preaching in the world will not get her
thoughts above oat-boxes and curry
combs. OTLcahy, alias the Monk of La
Trappe, applied to the Supreme Court
, of the State of Wiaconein for a new
i trial, on tho charge of murder, of which
I he waa convicted. The application was
; heard recently, but refused. So the
murderer ii tobe hung.
CirThe Mutical World is informed
that at an exhibition given by the Choc
taw Indians the other night,lhey "kindly
offered to give a specimen of tomahawk-
j Ing and acalping, If any lady or gentle
man in the audience would step for
j Qvxan Victoria, and tub Poob.
The sum of fivo thousand pounds was
' recently placod in the hands of the
; Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, by Queen
I Victoria fur distribuli on among the Pub
1 lin charities.
03""Ma, that nice young man, Mr.
Sauftung, ia very fond of kissing."
"Mind your seam, Julia, who told you
such nonsense!" ' ': i .
"I have it from his own lips."
(ET" Woman's Right's." Lucy Stone
gives six objections to the marriage of
women one of which is, that they lose
the control of their children. ' It is a
very ambiguou idea for a young lady to
hold. . . . .-.: ,
"Won't yon sing me a song, air!" said
a lady to her lover, aa they were alone
one evening. The lover soon commen
ced the popular air "I won't go homo
till morning," and euro enough he did
not. ....... , .
An old lady in Iowa, whilo recently
in the woods, wss bitten on the end of
her nose by a rattle snake. The old
lady recovered, but the' snake died!
Coroner's verdict Poisoned by snuff.
What will Russia iol To this ab
orbl ig question among students of for
eign affairs we can literally snswer In
the words most irreverently used often:
" Old Mck only knows,-'
. Mrs. Catharine Cosner, of Hardy
county, Va., it is said, caught two large
bears this summer in a trap. Mrs. C,
it Is also said, is very expert with a ri
fle. The Mayor of Toronto la charged with
an unlawful use of tho municipal funds,
and hia trial is now going on. The
amount Invohed is Xlü.Oüü.
Boston, Oct. 13 A letter from Uor
ham, N. II., says snow has fallen thero
to the depth of two feet, and in some
placea there are drifts eight feet deep.
DcraiviTT. Why is a legislator a
most blasphomous man)
. Uecause he cau't toko bis scat without
Two partys of 30 men each left Am
hcrst, Mass., one day last week, on a
squirrel hunt; one party killed 1,456: the
other b'J8, before night.
"I have often used," said Gretry, "a
singular stratagem to alacken or quick
en the pace of walking companion.
To aay you walk too fast or too alow is
impolite, sae to a friend; but to aing
softly an air to the time of the walk of
your companion, and thou, by degreos,
either to quicken tbo time or make it
slower, Is a stratagem as innocent aa it
A correspondent of the Rushvilla Re
publican writing from bhelbyville, aays:
Tho Rummies of our town have been
carrying on their legal traffic without
molestation until they have aroused the
indignation of all sober men against
their unhallowed course, by the way of
numerous prosecutions. Several actione
have been brought against them on their
bonds, rhlch have been sustained, and
will bo followed by others.
Ottting Monty under Falt Vrttcnces,
Purchasing Chesnuts in Ohio, and ob
taining a premium of an Indiana Fair. .
Bcirare.' Haid tho potter to his clay.
OCrThero have boon about alxty-threo
millions of dollars nominally subscribed
to tho Pacific Railway, at Nsw York.
Mr. (Jrsy, the Engineer, is organizing
his surveying party and will soon set
out for tho Rio (JranJo. -
..TT . .. . .
ew jn ' esse or wages, it win
cost much more than half a million of
dollars, the original computation.
03" Gov. iJoe Lane, of Oregon, and
Lieut. Allen, of the army, were both
wounded in an engagement with tho
Rogu River Indlsn.
(O-The intelligent editors of tho
Homo Journal, Geo. P. Morris and N.
P. Willis, In their notlco or Horace
Greeley's address at the Indiana fcJIoto
That lfnrfta flrlw I a man alt
tsvKAaiA mi klsi fnnittrw'ai ttim and
Truth's Is an opinion which fire cannot
melt out of us. We could die In It at tho
Don't taks bills ou ths following Buki.
Some of them have temporarily suspended
and others broken, outright I -
Tstchia Hank, BaflTalsi
Kris Sl halamsxoo lt. II, Dunki ' ,
Farmers' Jolut Stuck Hanking Co; Ca-
Dank of Owego.New York;
Pratt's Dank.Uunelo.N. Y
Chastaqus Coanty Hank .N. Y j
Lewis Coaaty Hank, N Y
A RiaoLUTio has bean introduced into tha
Kentucky Legislature, which provides " that
the keeper of the I enlleu tlary ahill procure a
soluble chemh-hal dye, auch as will stain tha
. .. 1 1 -1 - - . - - - r . .1,1.
cuticle or outer surface of the skin perfectly
black, so thai It canuot be waahed oiT, or In
any way effaced, antil time shall wear it away
and nature furniah a nsw cuticla or surface,
and that with thla dye ha ahall black tha noaa
of each mala convict painted thoroughly black
and renew the application as often as It msy
bs neccessary to keep it ao, until within one
month oQlhe eiptration of his aentence, when
it shall be discontinued, for the purpose of
permitting nature to restore the feature to its
original hua.preparatory to the second adveat
of into the world
Prem Yiirittnn A wlul Itarnrea of
tlie Cliolern. at Mrridu Ilirte
Hundred Dcnthaa iny,
A private letter received by a mercan
tile house in this city, dated Mcrida, Oc
tober 11, 1853, states, for the past fifteen
days, the cholera had been prevailing in
that city with some virulence. On the
10th there were 153 deaths, and there
had been as high as 300 a day. Mcrida
is a city containing twenty thousand in
habitants. OCT Somebody asks, "Is it lawful to
hang clothes on Mason and Dixon's
Just as lawful as planting beam about
the North Pole. Pittin Wer.
And just as proper, too, as for a tem
perance manjto 'loublöjlho Horn."
The Approaching Hena(erlal Klec
Reliable information received In Wash
ington from Ohio, aatiafiee ua that Wm.
Allen, Esq., .cannot possibly secure
a nomination for that position by his
ISo said the Washington Star, and the
(lairtte of vesterday.
"Reliable information," from a much
better source, assured us long ago that
Win. A LLF.it Las not for the last year
had any intention or desire of becoming
a candidate for the U. li. tionaio this
winter. Cm: Uno.
Overtrading; Import ana Fvports
In ihn Future.
Nothing can better illustrate' the pe
culiar nature of a money panic, than the
present condition of affairs. We have
all the elements of a solid, and healthy
prosperity. Pesce, health, good crops,
sound credit, sound currency, profitable
trade, and rapidly accumulating capital,
all conspire to give growth, strength, and
elasticity to tho country. ' Rut, with all
this, there is a temporary want of money;
and one, or two great branchea of trade
are seriously affected, by over trading.
Let the effects of that be what it rniy,'
however, they must bo mostly confined
to the dealers In foreign goodVJ'A .
The overtrading of which we apeak, ia
confined almost exclusively to the exces
sive importation of foreign goods, which
will soon cure Itself; but msy In the
meantime occasion much "commercial
disaatcr. ? T -
Exccsiive importation, or in other
words, overtrading, le as universal a
symptom of a disturbed money market,
and reaction In the mercantile system,
as black-vomit Is of yellow-fever, and as
destructive' of a healthy tone. Laws
cannot ?revent It, though a discrimina
ting tariff would havo alleviated the evil.
Overtrading depends on human will, and
that, too, often on the will of ill-formed
and unreasoning Indivlduala. . -. .
Overtrading brings a prensure on the
banks. The banks get frightened, and
curtail at tho moment they should en
Isrge their disccunts they run upon'ono
another create confualon and want of
confidence is the financial ty pe cf tho day.
airy 01 mousy.
ay exist, and pro-4
erchants, and yet
Now, overtrading m
duce failures among mar
thero may bo no ground irAfl&irr for the
want of confidence in present safety,
or futuro prosperity; and tuch h precinrly
the case now. We shall, therefore, pro
ceed to show that there ts overtrading;
but that it does not affoct tho great mass
of people, who should have confidence In
one another and if they do, very little
of this financial pressure would be felt
among the people. -.
We repeat what we have previously
said -a more solid pr oepcr it y never existed
in any country, than esint in ouri. But,
that there has been overtrading, and con
sequently, ovrrdt lting Is an obvious fact,
for which tho remedy Is simply, less pri
vate consumption, and less importing
foreign goods. . .
To illustrate how completely the
"pressure" in our money, markets has
been dependenton the imports of foreign
goods, we will quote tho commercial sta
tistics of threo different periods, v!x:
1815, imports,.... 8HS.041.000
1816, M 147,803,000
1817, H ' 09,250,000
. 1818, " i 121,750,000
This period Was followed, by one Of
great mercantile depression. The storm
swept overlhe Weatern country, In 18 -
19,'20, 21, 22, prostrating every bank-
making all property unsaicaoie, anu ro -
In the four years which followod, the
bank of the country twir sunprndjdt and
the bankrupt act, swept offs hundred
millions of dvllars in u orthtri MfW
In the ten years, which followed that
pdrlod,lk average Imports of the coun
try were thirty millions per annum lts,
and the couutry again recovered its com
mercial health; but, In tho four last
years, we have this result:"
1830, Imports,,., $178,138.000
Hol, " 3IO,2'J4,000
Here is unquestionably an alarming
symptom; and the inquiry will be imme
diately made- Are we to have auch
times, and such pressures, aa followed
tho expansions of 1810 and 18301 By
no means. It is questionable whotber
we chall have any "pressure" that will
effect the people generally. Why not!
Likocauies will produce like effects.
Unquestionably; but, tho financial con
dition of a country H always modified, by
many causes, and that of which we speak
is only one. In this case, all other con
ditions of tho problem are difiereut from
; what they were in 1810, or 'in 1 830
.... .. . . f . i i ' a'
we Will mention some et inese aineren
ces, and the grounds of confidsnce. '
1. In 1816, and in 1836, the money
of circulation waa mostly paper; which,
if not redeemed in specie, waa compara
tively worthless. In 18 16, t he jkt cir
culation was to the coin, aa 1 1 to 1 (vide
Record, page 7) and in 1836, it was 4j
to 1; but in 1853, it is about 1 to 1. The
diflereece is immense. In 1816, the
coin in the country was only $7,500,000;
in 1836, $23,000,000; but In 1853, the
coin and bullion is, at least $160,000,0001
The coin in the country ia actually $20,
000,000 more than it w'aa a year aince.
The paper and coin circulation of the
United States now equal three hundred
and twenty millions, or about 13 to 1 of
the population. ") In this atate of things,
it Is utterly impossible that the currency
should not continue sound and safe.
This takes out one of the greatest. evils
of 1810. and 1836. .
3. The heavy crops, and high prices
of those crops, enable the farmers to
mako ready payments, and accumulate
surnlu.i means, which did not exist In
former periods of embarrassment."
3. Tho accumulated capital of the
country, in the psst ten years, enables
us to be leas dependent on foreign cap!-
Ual. and to have a lurplua continualu
returning for new works. For example,
the railroad dividends amount now to
about twrntif millions per annum, and
doublo that sum tn their, actual pay
ments. Here is an Itnmcoae income,
most of which is surplus, tobe turned
over to now uses. . ?
4. Ths exports now are rmicb great
er, in proportion to the imports, than
they worein the two former period wo
hav referred to. ' '
Tho following are the deßeitt of ex
ports, under Imports, in each of the
mperimi, iai9,Ma,,i7,'is, eoa.,,,0.0
M psrlod, Ifli, W, 'M, Mr, i ii, riioo
nn rinfT f en veara inr tnft neoo o to recov- l . . . . : ipn.itiimiiivin .i v. a i"wi uiucim aiiat wo
eU f?o2mCtnhr.hock. Tcrr?ear. Titer bf llZ" thTpS whld! i lhe ch'7cl lhe dl" T ,W T? 'Jc' l lhi CXlenl of ,uch
.i L .t f. j.... -r Ti. - I maae oy mo uoaru to me puonc, wniui i innpar-j n(i Äfpn tho wa a becsmo a buBineaa. let us taka aa an .mnia
that nerfod the country recovered Us mfl 10 ,n,nü,aVa"'nc''1 ,alc,onu ' "'"tf ' etil preparation for this purpose snd for &keys.
pr ; p?ri p, anTela.ir.' .hott I .'TXyVdoeW ''the wf -n??!a limc-torVc dissolved In- Thf. enterprising hot,., in th. course
Ime, overtrading was .gain commenced, ' JEff In. Mu phur" ftC,J' ( WÄ:u,pl!,?r.n,,,r .f lu T"UwB.FlM p'J
with these results: . I f00""? CoiiUiis state men ia in ,,Cla or Cp.on salt,) with a portion of rious cls-scs. The author, the printer,
1834, import. 8l26.ß3l,000 nc "of SS Trofe sor.hln woü afor. T!'ThX? f "1' m . . by. . Ul Wlnr the paper-rnakcf, thfl
1835, " 149,803,000 , CJ, iVm , eTod ecK !?!. " . t??,. L". !S ! eÄeJ ' '"r' !
......... inn.u.iu.iiuu '
i. 1 An nan nnn
3.1 period, 1RW, '5J,;2, "53. 80,000.000
In 1817-'18,the deficit was one-fourth
of four years Importations; in 1830-'37,
it waa one-ffPi; but in 1853, it is only
I a l . .
one-ninin. . ine enect of the present de
r .. fit
C. 1 r ,s. f. - , a
,aliforn.a gold to pay it with. On the
whole, while we have obviously overtra-
ded, we sec no ground to doubt the vcr
fect tafety and toundnen ' of the present
monetary condition or tho country; nor
any reason for want of confidence in the
creJif and prosperity of the country.
R. R. Record.
) ,' IndlMna mirrllr.
Dr. Rtors has resigned the Presi
dency of tlio Indiana State . University,
located at Dtoomington,' Monroe county,
" .,,11 J. : 1 V, I,
11 ti rriiiuvi'ii in 11 niiiaiiiTi . aiiiiiasriia. av iiprn
n... . aauv. mm u..u ' UU)IHJ mo
1st Preabytcrian church., lie requests
correspondents to address him according-
We are sorry to learn teat In the man
agement of tho Indiana University, thcro
have been such influences St. work, as to
result in a line of conduct towards Dr.
Ryurs that ho feels is unjust, flut so
worthy a man cannot be injured In1 this
It will He well If the Institution
does not suffer by tte present course of
. .We give the following
followinir R Insertion in tho (Jazctte an
obli , Voure,&.e. '
. : . - At IlT0K,
Blotminqton, Jni., Sept. 1 1, 1853.
John I.MoRaieoa, Esq. Salem, Ind.
Dear Sir: Upon my return yesterday,
after an absence of, several weeks from
home I found on my table copies of a
circular issued by you as President of the
Hoard of Trustees of the Indiana Uni
versity and commencing aa follows, viz:
"Indiana Statk .Uwivehsity." .
Located at Bloomlngton, Monroe coun
ty, Indiana.' v.
Dear Sir You will be gratified to
learn that at the recent meeting of tho
Board of Trustees of Indiana University,
tho Faculty was reconstituted In a man
ner considerate of the leelings and self
respect of all its members and so, as to
secure entire harmony and co'-opemtion,
and to give to each the place most agree
able to hlmaelf and b?t suited to his pe
culiar habits of mind and atudy, and the
Trustees feel great; confidence In pre
senting the following gentlemen aa a
atrong, united and zealous . body of in
structors." The above ts all that the circular con
tains relating -to my transfer from the
I'raal Inn r I th ITnlvnr.ittf In ihm l'ri-
feasor of Mathemitlci.
Vn. u. !.,- t
,,. nlnlm.a Ar lh n,,ar.l earn vrv
L,itle. hut, r as my resignation of the
1 1reilidcn tm, , j lQ m t lho
, weJ 1dCP,looJ n con.
1 fcrcncei wit(,
and d o hereby decline all further
ncxion with the University.
. Respectively Yours,
I. o I nar at hvmi In ouarffea.
"Hlrj bring me a good plain dinner,"
aaid a roalahcholy-luuklng Individual to
a aller atono otour Principal hotels.
.The dinner was brought and devoured,'
andthocatef called the landlord aside, '
m m aa aai
and thus addressed hliii!
"You are the landlord!"
Yea." , .
' "You do a good bi. slness berol"
"Yes!" (In astonishment.)
"You make probtbly ten dollars a day,
clearl" . t . , . .
"Yes.'' ; ,.
"Then I am safe. I cannot pay for
what I have in.t. I have teen out of
. . w - . a a
for several inouins, out
have engaged to go out to work tomor
row, 1 had been without oou lor lour-aiid-twenty
hours when I entered your
m . . . t .a Sä
place. ' I will pay you In a week."
I do not
me something as security.
"I havo nothing." ......
will take your coat"
"If I go into tlie streets without that,
such weather as it U, I may got my
"You should have thought' of that be
fore you came here."
"Are you serious! Well, I do solemn
ly sweat that in one week Irom now I
will pay you."
"1 will take that coat!"
The coat was left, and in a week af-
terwarda redeemed.. Seven years after
that, a weauny man entereu ine yvuu-
i.i . i . l
cal arena, and was presented at a caucus
nnHr.nl fnr nnmrreasional noml-
-it"-- T""' ---a
nation. The principal of the caucus
held his peace, he heard tha history Ol
the applicant, who was a member . of a
Church, and one or thO moet rcspcctaoio
- . ... a a . ma
of citizens. 1 He was chairman: lho
vote was a tie, and he cast a negative,
thereby defeating tho applicant, whom
he met an hour afterwards, and to whom
"Yoi don't remember me!"
"No." " ' ' "
"I once ate a dinner at your hotel , and
although I told you I was famishing,
and pledged you my word and honor to
pay you in a week, you took my coat
and saw me go out into the inclement
air at the risk of my life without it.?, .
"Well, sir, what then!" ,
"Not much. You called yourself a
Christian. To-night you were a candi
date for nomination, and but for me you
would have been elected to Congress."
Three years after, tho Christian hotel
keeper bee a mo bankrupt, and sought a
homo in Dellcvue. The poor dinnerlcss
wretch that was, afterwards became
high lanctlonary In Albany. '
. a wawllraUOd Of llOne
. Oaa of tha priaionera la lilrmaualiam jail I
atated, ,hnn examinrd recently ;by Coiomie -
sloner, that, "nboul three yars sKo I Intra -
ded ta brcoms a ChristUn, and the freund
I ajiT pvptj tsiaii i eaaawa www in a ips its way
... . a- Si.. aa.
croand than th bellews blower.
" r 7
nMT I avalAsa unll Km II J ' m a viii r eaej aiia euanuu ev lis wussr i
. V. i I Ul V TV III lyu 09 III Bill lUin D&reU ai J ta SJ J
With tho. fnrn,er!v ? ,., f ti.-ir fn ! b,r " 80 ' " Ihs Weather ia warm and
, , .'I -"......, "... cough to promote f trmtoalion Is a vaali or ; price
not be very Important, - The great point cellar, tbs beginning is mads In the ground, ! tangi
it, iivwoicr, mat we nave aounasnce OI 1 which la hum dava nr.,.. .ka ia..i,.ni.. .J
!. . rt. ...... Iff. I... I'll 1 I ik. ......... H. ..ll..rl..d .....
us . . rusiccB. .0 give mo knowing -". "vw"; ." -i"-s 1- their demands, and as their voice Is more
from "The North Western (larttte" . which wra led, piouled aiid "-uis .. r-ro,.' fint attended to
f Witrtitrrian of the HVrf Ibickly v ar the grotiud, but a fcw laa 'etogl ir.ee., are first atlCIIUiU to.
'T,Tw,t. H-nVln- iM 1 lu advene, of lUaaarlyplaiiUog. The J:r'p Nor Is It until after society has surrouu
Bloomimto. Hopt. 20, 1853. however waa of earl.'r inalunly. th- ubii ded itself with tho eppliancca of pl.ysi
Mcnr$ Lditors: l'lesso to clve the1-,.. f.,ri.i.,..i ...i. r em..l 1 ! r..mr..rt. il.t rlaima of the mind
mcmOCra Ul UIO lUUrU, t I l,.,- nn,n.lk thm atraur mnA atari I.pii. o.nii..l .1.-. -i n...
i . . i t, I ,
pay my -diiis wun iucn , uuum ir uiiin, tuiurmeu tu eieva v. 0j type, ireuuom front inisprints.and neat-
," blustered tho landlord, "and , ',- ,- MY . 1 neM "J 'Plicity of binding.
v l a ' samu m aaai fltaaaS SäU al aak ä. I SaiM , tf If Mat hill lhstf. 1 9
keep a poor-house. SOU snouia , r.:' "i- 7i..rir. i. .7. ' Thla. h..ver. is but nn , dnartms nt
Ä a ii I h teil I a j I A.aiA I H I Ul V UVU11SV, IMVKUHI SVWV W Se-.-p . w - - V " - - - f "
proper authorities. Leave . 1MIllfc.ll(Ä. AUr. J .M.nl av .lltitfr.ti nf their -lenlve hu.lneaa. The are
From th Farm and Shop. (
- F Pt-niinar for Potatoes.
.f LrayhowUh to 2'S ;
IWiotspUntL d0,.. .n,umB Hi .n,ou. 1
1 ...rin. ...i. ' .in '....I
V ; - w ...
f ordinary planiiDg tn8. An earlier yiold
ot ihs crop I of course the raaall. This i.
Ihs eoly advautare, thoagh an important
oue, derived Irom Tall planting.
YVa have heird it !, that straw, lot re
or other like subitaoces for protection, tihould
be umkJ ts cover tlie "itU" wilb. Our cs
perleuce laacLes ua Dial ttiU ia rather aa lu
jery, than a benefit.
Folaloea buried in heaps daring winter,
will, If iDBulBoieutly covered, Ireese on Um
oauitle. "II covered Aral with alraw auder tho
dirt, all tlisss outsiders brconis watery and
wilted aud ate of .course worldlae; eat if
covereu ouiy wild tltrl, His ireel will be ex-
1 . ta .
racieu Ifuin 11, ud Iii tubers will be per-
W hnM 1
fanner rtnark. at the ßtata
Fair, that "if auy potato or like root we one
froxvn, its vitality could nuvsr be rtstorrd,"
a liUle experinoe lu potato eullivallon, wilt
conviuce lilm thai hie oplulon la iucorract.
Were it not so, how would It be potalble for
uch vegetables to rruroducs suj perpelutU
tlielr Speeles in llieir ludignoue etute, where
eipoiure sad couequenl Irrctiug I iueviluble.
A ca In point: Lnt aott we had n small
patch sf poialore bear lit gardr. funn
, tWiemUr the erou was z
liier) an. I f raae
"'x1 I ths spring i
sits, by Ihs time the early il4niiuir e lit '
Moaaoin. This evMenlly was tlie re-ult ol 1
1 1. tiuh.ij w-.
r, though autldruul, and teudato
"7iB,."f W'.?kUw1 dw,lroyi. I'S1''
iui i pianiing,
prsvs that ir
Krepliik I'ruit. and the anvil are weapons of more po-
A gentleman residing in tho upper end tency than the pen and the printing
of the county packed a barrel ol apples 1 press. The author, tho publisher, the
last fall in perfectly dry broom-seed, and : book-seller, find no place lor themselves
placed them in a cool dry place over his ' iu such a community. They fit In no
kltchen. Those of the same kind pis- where. Society has no need of them
ced in the cellar have rotted long since, no work as yet lor themto do. Muscles
while those In the barrel were examined 'out-rank braius. The firmeet judgment
a few days since, and found to ho per-1 cannot steady a plough; the closest log
fectly sound, and of very fine flavor. 1 lc cannot yoke oxen; the sharpest wit
Cut atraw, leaves, chaff, or any other ! cannot hew down a tree; nor the most
perfectly dry substance, would answer aa piercing intellect dig a welL
well, aa the result shows that exclusion I From this pioneer period to the high
of the air, dryness and a moderately cool est civilization the ateps are many, and
temperature, were the operating causes
In lhlsw instance. (icrmantomn Tle
Ncatrallalns; Of renal- Od ore.
The North British Agriculturist fur
nishes a statement of Lindsey Blyth, in
relation to a very successful experiment
for destroying a most offensive smell in a
stable, arising Irom the decomposition o
orine and dung. lie tried the 1 mixture
of Epsom salts and plaster or Paris, (gyp-
sum) "the most wonderful effect fol-J
lowed the stable keeper was delight-
ed." Previously, the stable was dsmp
and unwholesome; and if closed for a
few hours, the ammoniacal vapors, were
aa a a. . I a . aL . f
sunocating. Alter sprinaung me sui-
escaping ammonia, also add greotlv by
their own presence to the value of tho
Assist vnum tub rtnimuv Law i
..... ..... ....
Iky was rsrelved by Ouveruor Medill, of this
.Htate.on Krl.lay, and al 4 i'dork a warrsi.t
was great! for iSe arreat of Itob-rt Fe, f
A . l i . I . .. it.. r L'.nl.m. i
Nw Itlchmoud, Clvrmont county, o.char-
gad wlih aiding a number ef alavea toeeeapa
V -fc I - . . - . I t ..... . A a..utt '
Irom thlf liia-tere ia Keataeky. A rentie-
dsy night, Uforms ss that r,e wm proUb y
man, wav mwhi wiin in mm
arreted. Ths proof against Mr. r Is said
to bs eoo lueive. i ' vv,""'a piviurrs oi Aiurricsn so-
Ws glesa ths following vsr.ion of Ihs af. , ctcty Itat characters are life-like portra
fair from lhe Tlmeai The seutlemau who la tures; Its style, vigorous and pithv. its di-
jehargad with tha violation uf tha fugitive law alogue, brisk and lively and ita moral
Is Mr. Robert r'se, of Moaeew, tJhle. It ; purpose of branding with infamy the aln,
app-raiUt two Uvea have lived for a long whii0 pU,l,,g the unhoppy results of III
iMoe ie Maeeow, with ths eoo-nt of their temperance, cannot fa I to render It aa
lui-trew., aad that It was her eipreasml deter- B ' , t! j,,.,"" J i.- I n ,i,.
! miuatiou to mattumit them. (5u l.-r dying PP"r Jhrv tola. Inex ern
,M she was Induced to algu a bill of their l-i . appearanco their i..ue have boon
I while rfarangad perhapa, or at lat without highly creditable to the art of publishing.
knowing the Import of the docaiueut.
Mr. l ue, of Meacew, hearing of tbs turn
to Canuila. Now, If thin Information Mr.
KeeV onenss, it cerlaluly la no viulatlon of
law, and irGov. Medill ItiM hiveatigutfd the
matter, wa doubt thai a warrant lua beau .
sued. . ..
Tlie) I,ouievUle Murder.
The circunutancea of the reoeut murder of
ha recent murder of a School Teacher in
LouUvills by a man named Ward are aum-
moued op aa follows by tha New Alba. Trib-
. ...... . .
i Tha fact as we nnderataad them, ars Sim-
ply these. Mr. Butler waa the Principal f
i . r i
one of the High Schools In Louisville. A
, younger brother er mat. vvsru was s pupi iu
i chool-aad for aome aoppoeed violation
of the police regulations or the Ineiituuon,
wm day Uoat hy the ?rm.
i c,pa) Flna wIUl n(jRnalioa .t ths affrout
hicn the unfortunate teecher had time glren
olhe whole family, cy ine npceaaory correc
I . . ... a a. Ol f tt I ........
lion of the U4. Mr. M. (I. Ward, accompa
nied by hi brother Robert, repaired to the
arhnal room on Wednesday morning, for the
purpose of resenting tha inJlguity, by calling
a e ie)..w. wai . wB w, aa em we - -
Mr. B. to account. Very few words paused intendence of a member of the house,
between the partiea, when Mr. Ward drew a practically familiar with book-biniing.
pistol and ahot the other down. At the same . fa d , , , d
time Mr. Robert Ward drew a bowls knifs ! ucu. " , . . ... . v-Ii:uw
and made at Mr. Slur., another te.ch-r, they make to order, of the best Lngliah
who saved his lifo by escaping through a win- and Ametican papers, the finest quah
iow, I ties of paged Blank Iloor The tools
. . ' ; ; i and materials of the binder, likewise
Lesd mk took Newspamr." This form part of their articles of sle.
request, aays tho Cincinnati Enquirer, U J We have thus endeavored to give our
about aa reasonable as asking the loan readera aome notion of tho extent of bus
of an umbrella upon a rainy day, only Iness carried on by one such house in
that the demand in ihe newspaper-bor-k this city. At present, this firm is com
rower evinces a meaner spirit than In ( pclled to keep up two csHblishmcnte at
tho other caae: for an umbrella coet a aome distance from each other. We
dollar, whereas the newspaper can be
procured for ten wecke forthat amount.
Complaints are daily made to ua of this
i i , . I
a SVllCm Of newspaper borrowing; in nine
- w . a .
esses out of ten, they are never return-
ed; thus conatitutinjf it a aort of potty
larceny 0( the most petty character.
; Pools MAKft
' IAT TBIM uf
w 0t t00t
rxasTs Ann wist mem
Course they do that's
And if the win men
didn't eat them, why then, they would be
fools too! which (as the ntathematiciana
when they have stated a rcductlo ad
absurdum) is impossible.
absurdum) is impossible.
There are many who look for proof of
Tu' f," f7'7 V"
census tables, its reports of n.snufac-
tures. its salea of produce, and its imports
exports generally. The stite of the
current seems to them the sole
ble evidence of a city's wealth
j BJ. Uli luej ISU9M1C9 niiiBawuwu VII
j .cbange" the sole witness of its saccess.
iTo such rude reasoners. to such earelesa
V. a i...!nAaa aat Mate? lAna MnR
observers, we might commend the con
sideration of the adage, "a atraw may
show which way the wind blows," and a
branch of business employing a capital
comparatively trifling, may be a mighty
testimony as to the prosperity of more
Important affairs of mauufactures fab
ricated by thousands of buoy workmen,
and hundreds of untiring machines, or
of commerce Involving countless sums
of money; amounts worthy of the place
"where mammon erst didsuq his treas
ury." And it Is thus wo may regard
the book-publUhing of Cincinnati aa - a
faithful index of our city's growth.
Of ail luxurious tastes that are" fos
tered by increasing wealth, the taste for
literature, as it is one of the moat per
fect, so it lollows tho law of the higher
organizations, and is among the slowest
in its progressive growth, and lateat in
its full development.
In a now community the wants of the
body, as they are tho more imperative In
fur Its nutriment are acknowledged or
i even inoiigrii vi. i ne ouicner, tuo u-.
ij,erlj,e carpenter, and the bluckamith,
4 he great men or a young settlement.
T,,e t,,d 11,8 Pl6hshare,ihe loom
evf n thought of. The butcher, the ba-
the march gradual.
It Is lata in the progress of physical
advancement, and enlarging Intelligence
that publication and authorship begin;
and our own city held within its walls a
hundred thousand busy inhabitant, be
fore publishing as a branch of trsde fair
ly commenced. We have now two hun
dred thousand anule. and It la alreadv an
I - - w--, " - - y -
f important business. How largely it is
csrried on we donbt if many of our read-
'era suspect. There are four or five
houses now extensively engaged In this
( Smith Si Co.; Derby & Co.; J. A. &
U. 1'. James; Applegate & Co.; and
Moore, Anderson & Co.; either wholly
' or partly devote themselves to the work
ii. .1 s .
oi publication, and together employ a
- - iiitciii viie cirraa. dour.
keeper, and salesman, are all tributary
to the management of this one concern.
Their list ol publications Is already large,
and tqey are constantly adding to their
XiUmC. L A ... '..i
PP eHJ "u i 5 wes tern wr.tcrs. alon
wl " Works. They deserve
great credit fur thus extending a liberal
nana to our youthful literature. Of one
vf these works, from a perusal of th.
I I . a. '
afl'orded us of its
oDSUIIIff fieirrta. wy
csn speak la high
MM.- II - 11. .k- M
: " ' - " 'v-
I heir books have been cnaracterited by
excellence of paper, sise and clearneas
a. I ' . a
not only publiaheis, but dealers in books
both wholciale and retail. They aupply
largely the Weatern trade with the pub-
licationa of Esatern honses. Country
Merchants have discovered that they can
rlndwith them a varied and ample stock
from which to choose, and thus be spared
the time, trouble and expense of a jour
ney to New York, 1'hilaJelphia, or llo.
ton. Their supply of School Dooks, and
of the Greek and Latin Classics, of
works on Medicine and Theology, of
llibles in all forms and at all prices, of
Hymn Dooks and Music Uooka and of
volumes in all branches of General Lit
erature, from the Standard Authors,
whom time has stamped excellent, to
the last products of the authorship of our
own day, is full and complete in each
Besides, however, publishing and
bookselling, Moore, Anderson &Co. are
extensive atalionera and Manufacturers
0f Blank Books, under the direct super
understand, however, that a well-known
capitalist Ii aüout to erect I Duiiumgror
; their use, on the south aide of Fourth
1 a. . . .
street, it win give some mea or tns
grand scale of this structure to mention
that it will be aix stories high In front
and seven behind, snd that tho ealeeroom
alone will be thirty-four feci wide by
'two hundred deep. An extensivo and'
, completely organuad elram bindery will
j occupy a rrcot part of this immense
builsmg. Tho front is to be Ol stone, Ot
taateful architecture and coat of the
wholc-building is estimated at twenty
five thousand dollars", tin. t't-r
Ave thousand dollars". Cm. I nt