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BEN ED. DOANE PubHher. JASPEH. NEWS OFTHE WEEK THE LATEST NEWS OF THE WORlD BRIEFLY TOLD. NORTH, EAST, WEST, SOUTH Foreign Lands Throughout the Na tlon and Particularly From the . Great Southwest. CONGRESSIONAL. A bill to secoro proper roprosenta tlon of tho United States at intarnn tional conferences and for Üe prop er employment of former presents of the United State, was introduced bv Senator McCleary of Kentucky. It provides that former presidents of the Vmted States shall be ex-offlelo rep resentatives for life at Pan-American and international conferences In which the United States may participate. Four other members of this commis sion are also provided for, all to re ceive $10.000 annually and expenses. They are to take up all questions look ing to International peace. Senator Flint introduced a bill to reimburse the Southern Pacific rail road to the extent of 51.CC3.13C for expenses Incurred In controlling the break in the Colorado river and there by saving the overflow and destruc tion of the Imturial Valley In Cali fornia. Unrestrained opportunity to ex press views on the immigration ques tion was afforded members of the house bv the decision to take up and consider a bill appropriating $250.001 for an immigration station In Phila delphia, and so many took advantage of it that the code of laws bill, which the managers of the house had planned to take up. was sidetracked for the day. The discussion of the immigra tion nation bill opened up the whole subject of immigration and excited the interest of the whole house. The dr-bate was notable In that It was in duced in largely by members serving their first terms and who found in the bill a chance to make their maiden efforts at speech-making on the floor of the house. The entire session was devoted to a consideration of the bill which was passed, and at 4:53 p. m. the house adjourned. Believing that the religious part o the proceedings of the house of rep resentatives should be preserved in of ficial form. Mr. Houston of Tonnessee offered a resolution directing that the prayer with which the chaplain opens each day's session bo printed In the Congressional Record. It was decided that the senate com mittee on finance would hold no more meetings for the consideration of the Aldrlch financial bill until after the arrival of the mass of financial data which has been requested from the treasury department Except in a few places, the bill Is thought to be in the shape In which It will be report ' ed The treasury department, ho-r ever, may be the means of settling certain contentions In the mind of some of the members, and the data -will therefore be awaited. The senate passed a resolution de c ring that no communication from h'-ads of departments, chiefs of bu reaus or other executive officers will be received by that body unless thay nre sent In compliance with law or are transmitted by the president The r solu'ion was the result of objection trade by Senator Heyburn and Senator Ha to the reception by the senate of li 11 sent by Secretary Garfield In con rrrtlon with a communication. MISCELLANEOUS. Cheaper Pullman fares and bettor Pullman errice Is what George S. Loft us. chairman of the National Hay Association, has started to get for the public. Loftus is In Washington, getting his caso before the Interstate commerce commission. Japonose spieß have been dogging the movements of Lieut James H. Walker all the way from Japan to America. They took the trail the mo ment the officer stepped outside his hotel and never flagged In their watch fulness until he departed for Wash ington. Bureau of insular affairs reports its recommendation for a reduction of the tariff on Imports from the Philippines. Judge Greenebaum. In a lecture in New York, declares that bad cooking drives many husbands to drink. Consumers of natural gas piped from wells in Oklahoma to factories In Southern Kansas have appealed to the federal authorities for relief from the new law being enforced in Oklaho ma cutting off the Bupply. The law prohibits the piping of natural gas out of the state. The pardon attorney has reported to the president that conditions do not warrant the pardoning of Thomas Bar rett, federal prisoner. In the Missouri penitentiary, serving a flv years' sen tence for complicity In naturalization frauds which were unearthed In St Louis nearly five years ago. Secret preparations are being made to elevate Mrs. Augustus Stetson of New York city to the supreme leader ship of the Christian Science church. The prime movers in the scheme are convinced that the vonerable Mrs fnrv Baker G. Eddv In close tn death. fVni&im Woden, consul for Belgium la San Francisco and Oaklaad, may cause some diplomatic complications beoniMe of his imprisonment in tho Oakland jail. A policeman food him la company with a itraagw In 0?k land's tenderloin and took hlna to a police station for his own protection. Woden did not have the money lor ball and was held until a frietwl came to his rescue. Elbert Palmer, tho last out of tho jurors tn the trial of John lt. Walsh to affix his signature to a verdict of guilty, signed affldavlti at Ms home on his farm near Harvard. III., which tend to show ho w coerced and lu Umldated by the other Jurors. Papers were served on Arthur Her bert Osborne, the husband of Helen Maloney. the holrees who recently eloped to London with Samuel Clark son, a young Englishman. In a suit brought by Miss Maloney to annul their marriage. Application was made in the Unit ed States supremo court for a review ' of tho Judgment of the lower court fin ing tho Chicago & Alton railroad and Us officers $16.000 for granting re bates to Schwarzschlld & Sulzberger on meat shipments. 1 Judge Smith MePberson of the United States district court delivered a blow to the advocates of state rights by declaring unconstitutional the law passed by the Missouri legislature of 1907. which prohibits foreign corpora tions from transferring suits against them from the state courts to the fed eral courts. Japanese bellboys havo beeu intro duced in Boston hotels with a success that indicates that many negroes and white boys now employed in this ca pacity will bo dismissed. Japan promises to check emigration of its subjects to Canada, and Canada Is said to have been empowered to ex pel Nipponese who enter the Domin ion by way of the United States. Michigan railroads decide to abol ish passenger association, and organ izations in other sections of the coun try are regarded as needless. Judge Dana, in the Shawnee county district court at Topeka. Has., as sessed a fine of J12.GO0 against the In ternational Harvester Co.. which the court found guilty on forty-three counts of violating the Kansas anti trust law. The maximum fine is $1, 000 a count and the minimum $100. Rush of emigrants to Europe for January shows big increase. After March 1, when the niae-hour any for railway telegraphers goes Into effect tho roads will use phones la many stations, giving employment to wotnn and displacing telegraph op erators: and uie of block signals will cause the ceasing of many small sta tions. Expectation is that a state primary law will be passed In Kansas, la which event it is said Senator Long will fail of election for another term and old political machine will he wrecked. The attorney general announced that pending a decision or the su preme court as to the provision of the Hepburn law. which requires railroads to dispose of their coal mine holdings by May 1 of this year, the government will not prosecute the roads for fail ure to obey the law. Augustus Harije has at last decided to abandon his litigation to obtain a divorce from his wife, Mrs. Mary Scott Hartje. More than 1 00,000.000 ties were used In railroad construction and renewals during the year 190C. according to a circular issued under the Joint auspices of the Forest Service and Census Bureau of the government, 'i ne figures show that approximately three- fourths of the ties were hewed and the others sawed, while the average price paid per tie was 4S cents. Cbarfted with having operated upon and wilfully caused the death of a woman hospital patient while be was under the Influence of drugs. Dr. P. H. Dahl, one of the wealthiest and most prominent surgeons la Northwestern Iowa. Is under arrest at Fort Dodge. Mrs. Herbert M. Sears of the well known and wealthy family of that name of "Boston, committed suicide by plunging from a window of her apart ment on the thirteenth floor of the Hotel St. Regis, to the Fifth avenue pavement. In New York. As a result of a declsTon handed down by Justice Hough In the United States circuit court E. H. Harriman will bo compelled to appear before the interstate commerce commission and answer all questions put to him save those relating to the purchases of Union Pacific and Southern Pacific stock In connection with the dividend of August, 190C. In the same order. JuBtlce Hough directed that Otto H. Kuhn of Kuhn, Loeb & Co., do like wise. England is alarmed for Japan's fu ture. British statesmen think the combined political and fluancial crisis there about the most serious any na tlon could possibly face. It needed only a Rlanee at the country's balance sheet to tell some time ago Just what was coming, brt no one seemed to ap preciate the Imminence of the danger. Mrs. Lydia. Bradley, millionaire philanthropist founder of the Bradley Jolytcchnlc Institute, died In Peoria. III., aged 93. Amalgamated Association of Street Car Men is enforcing a boycott at Muncie. Ind.. that is paralyzing the 1 business of the town Daniel O Reilly. counsel for Harry Thaw, announces in New York that Evelyn Neablt Thaw will tell her story tn public for a second Unto. American National Red Cross is tc Inaugurate genoral campaign for In create of mombership BLOW TOM. FARE PENNSYLVANIA SUPREME COURT INVALIDATES STATE LAW. TWO OF THE JUSTICES DISSENT Majority Opinion Sustains the Lower Court Old Rate Will Be Restored. Philadelphia, Pa. By a divided court the Pennsylvania two-ceut rail road rate law was declared unconstitu tional Monday in the state supreme court As a result of the decision, the Pennsylvania railroad has already an nounced that It will put Into effect the old scale of passenger fares, operative before the two-cent law went Into ef fect, as soon as practicable. Four members of the court united In sustaininfg the decree of the lower court, which declared the law uncon stitutional. Chief Justice Mitchell. In handing down the decree, said: "The court below availed them selves of all the best evidence obtain able and considered it with exemplary patience and care. Their conclusions that the enforcement of the law of 1907 against the complainants would be an injustice to tho corporations is. beyond doubt. Just criticism." Justices Nlspersoat and Stewart filed dissenting openions. while Justice Potter only gave qualified assent to the majority decision. Juror Claims Coercion. Chicago, III. Elbert Palmer, the last one of tho Jurors In the trial of John R. Walsh to affix his signature to a verdict of guilty. Monday signed affidavits at his home on his farm near Harvard. 111., which tend to show he was coerced and Intimidated by the other Jurors. These affidavits, secured by Florence Sullivan and Fred D. Kel logg of counsel for Mr. Walsh, will be used as the mainstay of defense In the fight to secure a reversal of verdict when the case Is carried to the United States court of appeals. Syndicate to Take Life Society. New York Announcement was made Monday by Et1 ward Lauterbach that a syndicate of New York men has been formed to take control of the Provident Savings Life Assur ance Society. The new syndicate. It was stated, will take over the shares fn irhlph t? T? nnrf A V Tluimos nnU 5550. at less than SS00 a share. Com missioner Rittenbouse declared he found the company's assets 4 il.601 less than Its liabilities. Thin Ice Costs Six Lives. New York Six boys lost tboir lives In New Jersey Monday as the result of venturing on thin and treacherous Ice. At Newark, Gustav HarUnaa. 10 years old. his brother Louts. 9 years old. and Lee Smith, 10 years old. were drowned In a pond. Arthur and Harry Morgan, twins, 15 years old, and Horace Weeks. 12 years old, were drowned at Tenafly after breaking through the ice of a small pond there. Slayer Seeks Death. Jollet 111- Frank J. Constantine, convicted slayer of Mrs. Louise Huse Gentry of Chicago, captured after a world chase and sen tenced to prison for life, is near death, the result of a leap from a gallery of the penitentiary in an attempt to end his life. He made his spectacular at tempt at suicide while under extra guard, plunging 30 feet and crashing on the stone flagging of the rotunda. Family Poisoned; Five Dead. Austin. Tex. The whole family of C. Sauer, a German farmer, living 30 miles northeast of here, was poisoned while eating supper Sunday evening. Mr. and Mrs. Saner and three of the children have died. Two other children are seriously HI. It Is reported that the poison was placed In the food by a cook who went suddenly Insane. Three Trainmen Killed. Cory den Junction. Ind. A South ern railway locomotive plunged from a high trestle, turned completely over and killed Clarence Dunham, en gineer; V. H. Scott fireman, and Frank Carter, a brakeman, Sunday. James Prltchett conductor, and Clyde St-vvarl. a brakeman. were badly In jured. Syrian Finds Stolen Girls. Omaha, Neb. Marlanna and Di ana Yuana, 12 and 15 years, re spectively, who, their father, Molan Yuana. declares wore kidnaped In St Louis lost June by John Mltchel. king of a band of gypsies, were found at a gypsy camp near here Sunday night 'Care Collide in Fog. Paris In an impenetrable fog, which enshrouded Paris and It3 suburbs Sunday, rendering all trans Inflation most dangerous, two electric cars collided at Vltry. Forty persons were injured, sovoral of thorn seri ously. Vermont Slayer Gets Life Term. Bennington, Vt A verdict of guilty of murder In tho second degree was brought by the jury In the case of Alfred Mahon. charged with the mur der of bis 4-yenr-old niece, Ethel Ma ban. at North Bennington, last sum mer. The penalty Is life imprison ment Independents to Have Smelter. Helena. Mont That an Independent smelter Is to be erected In Helena bj the mine owners of the state of Mon -ana scorns nsarrrd. KOOSIER HAPPENINGS Latest News of Interest from Various Towns in "PROHIB" CRUSADE IS ON. State Chairman F. W. Lough Makes Strong Fight for Temperance. Indianapolis. Prohibitionist statu headquarters in the Union Trust building have been opened with a flourish, and several hundred visitors welcomed by the new state chairman, F. W. Lough; the assistant chairman. Unus Lough, and tho state secrotury, Edward W. Clark. For several years the headquarters of the Prohibitionists had beon main tained at Franklin. Party leaders be lieved that headquarters should be more centrally located and moved thorn to this city. The Prohibitionists will occupy rooms 2 2and 23 Union Trust building. Tho rooms have been freshly painted and decorated. Por traits of men and women who have given their lives to temporanco adorn the walls. The portrait of Miss Frances Wlllard occupies a promlnont place. Big glass vases of carnations and roses helped brighten the rooms on the opening day. Chairman Lough will spend the most of the time durlug the next three months traveling over the state In the interests of prohibi tion. "We are going to try to elect some Prohibitionists to the next ses sion of the legislature." he said. In the absence of Chairman Lough his wlfo. Mrs. Unus taugh. will be in charge of the office as assistant state chairman. Secretary Clark will spend considerable time in the office. Mrs. Lough will be assisted In her work by Miss Hebecca Hanna. office secretary. Commit Daylight Robbery. Richmond. A bold daylight rob bery was reported here. The vic tim was John Fee, who drives a moving van and who at the time was about four miles north of Connersville. Two negroes did the work and stole $9.50 from Fee. after which they got Into a buggy and drove away. One negro covered Fee with a revolver while the other went through his pockets. The police of Richmond and Conaersville are working on the case. Sunday "Lid" Is On. Hartford City. For tho first time in years there Is a strict observ ance of the Sabbnth In this city. Mayor James Lucas Issued an odlct to this effect and at the same time gave explicit instructions to the police under his command that all tho laws regarding Sunday closing must be ob served to the letter. Cigar stores, bakeries, candy kitchens and all other shops must close and stay closed dur ing the day. Soldier Says Farewell. Fairfield. Over 200 people were at the station when Robert Dun can boarded the train for Colum bus, O.. where he will enlist In the United States army for a term of three years. From Columbus he will go to the Philippines. Josse Randolph, Orin Stllwell. Fern Rakestraw and John Stllwell, four young men of Fairfield, went to Anderson to enlist In the marine corps. Trustees Leads Mob. Rolling Prairie. The weird, spec tacular and sensational was wit nessed here, when a well-organized mob, at the head of which was Town ship Trustee Bement, visited the homes of a man named Appleton and a woman named Lewollyn, and by threats of tarring and feathering them compelled them to mako avowal of their determination to llvo respectable lives. Prepares for Debates. Richmond. At Earlham college preparation Is being made for the debates that are to be held with Butler and Wabash a triangular con tost. Each institution will be repre sented by two teams and will dobate both the affirmative and negative side of the question, which Is: "Resolved, That the United States should subs! dize its merchant marine." Wills Gold to Organist. Crawfordsville. Clarence Clark, a blind boy, who Is a student in the Indianapolis School for the Blind, Is bequeathed $500, according to tho will of the late Mrs. Julia Hoef gen, filed for record. The boy attract ed the attention of Mrs. Hoefgen while be was playing the organ in the North Side Mission Sunday school In this city. Find Baby's Arm In Pond. Oakland City. Small boys, play ing about a pond on the outskirts of Oakland City, found an infant's arm and. although officers have been working on the caso, no new develop ments are reported. The little arm had been cut off at the shoulder. It was lying on a pile of brush In the pond when noticed by the boys. Lawshee's Brother Dies. Wabash. OBcar LawBhee, aged 60, an undertaker for years, died of pulmonary tuberculosis. He was a brother of A. L. Lawshec, third assistant postmaster general, who ar rived from Washington Just before his brother's death. Clothing Store Suspends. Newcastle. Tho Hub clothing store In tills city was closed to the public and a notice on tho door states that the storo Is closed pending i. settlement with the creditors. Indiana FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION. J. W. McCardle Goes to Washington to Urge Passage of BUI. Indianapolis. John W. McCardle. of the board of stato tux commissioners, wont to Washington to appear bofore a Joint mooting of the comtnlttoea ou ngriculturo of tho two houses of congress, to speak In favor of tho bill which provides for the federal Inspec tion of grain. Mr. McCardlo said ho expected the committees to most with in tho next ten days. Ho does not go officially as a repräsentative of tho Indiana grain dealers. Ho himself be lieves in tho federal inspection of grain and he is now preparing Infor mation which ho will presont before tho committees. "I believo we should have uniform Inspection of grain," said Mr. Mc Cardle, "but we will never havo uni form inspection until wo place the in spection in the charge of federal offi cers." Mr. McCardle belloves the fed eral inspection of grain is necessary to the welfare of tho independent grain dealers and shippers. The bill for the federal Inspection of grain was introduced in the house by Rep resentative Watson, and In the senate by McCumber of North Dakota. Chooses Sister; Divorced. Evansville Choosing blood ties above tho martini bond, Mrs. Sal- lie Woods, a young matron, has re fused to leave her sister, with whom she and her husband havo lived for two years." When told to make a choice betweon living with her sister or coming with her husband to live In a house by themselves Mrs. Woods refused to be a modern Ruth and told her husband to go his way. It resulted in a divorce. Murdered In Arkansas. Clay City. William Sommeriot, a well-known farmer In this neigh borhood, has beon ndvlsed of tho death of his brother, Michael Som meriot, In Cross county, Ark., whore he was murdered and robbed. Till within a few years he lived near Coal City, in this stato. He removed to Arkansas to engage In the lumber business, In which he employed many men and handled considerable monoy. Ensley Gets Chair. Indianapolis. Republicans of this, the seventh district, re-elected Oliver P. Ensley district chairman by acclamation, adopted resolutions strongly Indorsing tho candidacy of Vlco PrcBidont Charles W. Fairbanks for the presidential nomination and Indorsed Representative Overstreot, National Chairman Harry S. Now and William L. Taylor for the gubernato rial nomination. Two Officers to Resign. Torre I lau to. Capt A. C. Dud ley of company B, Indiana- Nation al Guard, will send his resignation to tho governor, as will also Second Lieut E. F. Fisher. Capt Dudley says that since the Dick law went Into effect so much work has been required of him that he cannot attend the lodges to which he belongs and his Sundays are mostly occupied with company affairs. Chester Weekly Caught. Jeffersonvllle. Morris M. Bar nard, assistant superintendent of tho Indiana Reformatory, loft for Los Angeles, Cal., to take charge of Ches ter Weokly, wanted for violation of parole. Tho journey Is tho longest over taken from tho institution to re turn a paroled man and Mr. Barnard was accompanied by his wife and will make a short visit before returning. Acceptance Postponed. Ulooralngton. Tho resignation of Rev. Thomas J. Clark, pastor of tho Kirkwood Avenue Christian church, was presented. It was not ac cepted, but the privilege of the church or of tho pastor terminating their re lations was extended to September 1. In the meantime, tho church will look for another pastor. Negroes Fight Bloody Battle. Marlon. Bob Davis was shot through tho lung, William Gulllford was shot in tho head and Ben Weaver was struck over tho head with a billiard cue, following a quarrel over a game of pool. The parties aro all negroes, and the trouble took place in tho poolroomB conducted by Grant Williams, colored. Mitchell Wishes to Know. Mitchell. Tho city of Mitchell has employed H. D. Orchard of Bloomlngton to audit the books of tho town of Mitchell, as tho present treasurer refuses to accept tho books ns turned over to him by tho town clerk. No direct charges aro mado against the town. Find Body After Long Search. Indianapolis. Four days and four nights, filled with anxiety for tho welfaro of his son who had disappeared, had passed when Ed word Cnrr wont to his homo and found the dead body of tho boy lying on tho floor In n downstairs room. Wil bur Cnrr, 18 years old, tho son, had beon seen last by his father four days boforo. A bottlo that had contained carbolic acid which was found lying near him on the floor, told tho story of suicide. Jesus Cleanses the Temple Saaday School Lesson lor Jan. 26 1908 Specially Prepared or Thli i - LKHSON TKXT. John : ory Vernes IG. 1C. GOLDEN TKXT. "Ilolln.-s thlno house, O Lord, r.jr. 93 6. Tians.-TIie sprlriK of A, 1' over wris April 11-17. I'LACK- In tho tompl h ! PLAl'K IN Til 13 HISTOID tho llrst your of J onus" mir ti oml of his tlrat two "ulcni ; , hin work n Itoikomar. Comment and Suggestive T Tho first sign which Jesu tho rovolatlon of his glory Galileo related In the first i ,i chapter In which our lesson At tho close of our last less" Jesus and his five or six d tho way from Bethnlmra t. Tho disciples had as yet I acqualntanco with Jesus, in tor, hla powers and his inlsh believed in him, but they deeper foundation for tholr f.i fuller knowledge of his worlv Everything about this mli have been a strange and woii elation of Jesus to thorn, u from within, or as tho sunl!. lng through dull stnliiod-glnh-, roveals the true nature of ti.. wrought In them, and they a wllh royal colors such as nr. qulslte lamp shndes of Favn that requlro tho electric bu to bring out their lovely hu. was a prince In disguise, and ! off his outward gulso and ap; bis own royal glory. What Did This Miracle H tho Disciples Concerning tin- ! turo of Jesus? (1) It revi miraculous powers residing which would ennblo him to t I ' 1 a a ia r It i ( t 1 I "0 -' s a "f , w 1.4 '0 18 m Ha work the Messiah was to do. (2) It mado known to thorn x was sent from God as his - dlvino credentials worthy of 1. igin and his mission. The Second "Sign." The i' of tho Temple. Not long ;if -"sign" nt tho wedding, a stvr most discordant, note was I' 1 that anthem of love and joy an s That experience did not expri whole of life, nor tho whole of 'Ki Blon of Jesus. The new "sign " w illuminating and marvelous a r . 1 expected as was tho first It was ' act of a hero, n patriot a rpf-fine and n king. (13) "And the Jews' passover." " great annual roligious feast r ' Jews to which all good Jews r pectod to come. Sometimes. to Joscphus, as many as 2" Itor8 wofe presont. "Jesus from Capernaum (v. 12) t lern." Jesus was particular theso great feasts, for howevc thoy wore often perverted at used by some, they were cllvir,' pointed services. Jesus Heroic Act of Patu form. When Jesus entered ft pie, and saw UHb ucsccrulon Father's house which ho La many n time during his y . soul flamed with Indignation ho saw was contrary to all la a ish, Roman and Divine, and did was patriotic toward a:, kingdoms under which he lu' (15) He alone, unaided. :r "made a scourge of small cords mado of rushes llko a Ron IB flu gollum or Bcourgo with several a and "drove them all out of pie," the court, "the sheep . oxen," and thoso who tratll tbem. He did not Btrlko the m probably not oven tho nnin.a Buch a scourgo would not hu- ' Tho owners would naturalis ' their cattle without tho gatrs 1 out tho changers' monoy." ' marble pavemont, thus atoppu traffic. (10) "And said unto them doves." Tho doves, boing i: could not bo driven out "Tako those things hene' Tho boldness of. the act n a havo glvon a hush to tho noi. and tho volco of Jesus ra: "Make not my Father's hous" a of inorchandlse." How Was It PosBlblo for 1 Succeed In This? Why did tin burly crowd of drovers, and r and elders in authority yield glo voice of nn unknown youtv Becauso thoy knew that tin In the wrong. "Conscience cowards of us all." Because th that God was on his side, nnl with God is a majority." Becauflo Jesus embodied In h t as a prophet, tho moral sentln.- tho nation. "All tho trito f rl v I law, who must have been long t ' by this disorder, would dcwl righteousness of his action, !'" derlng resistance Impossible What This "Sign" Revea'1 i tho Nature of Jesus and Hi Iv dorn. Let no mistake be ma-i corning what Is meant by a Vhr spirit Let us not, as Is too oft u tnlio one sltlo of the charafi' ChriBt in forming an oBtimate -f whole. Noto how Jesus acted for the r of tho world. Ho did not spr tlmo in denunciations of tho K or Jewish authorities befo: disciples. Ho sometimes "Woes," but It was to tho face ' doers. When he could reform a ho reformed iL When ho saw neaa, he cured It Wo aro to bo reformers. V a ho courageous and heroic In rcf 1 a 1 cleansing tho world from Bin But our first work is where In our hearts, in our principles, r Illings which we can touch, fui wo can vote or act or teach.