MAIN EVENTS OF
WAR FOR LIBERTY
Battles That Have Marked the
Greatest Struggle in the
COMPLETE AND FINAL
Four Year of Bitter Warfare Before
the Defeat of Autocratic Attempt! to
Rule the World Could Be Aseurtd
Progress of the Titanic Contest
Practically as It Went On From Day
From Juno 28, 1ÖH when the assas
sination of Archduke Ferdinand of
Austria, and Ids wife, at Sarajevo,
Bosnia, gave Emperor William of Ger
many his excuse for beginning wnr
which he believed would result In his
gaining practical control of the world
through military domination, the main
events of the struggle are told in the
June 28 Archduke Ferdinand and
wife assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia.
July 28 Austria-Hungary declares
war on Serbia.
Aug. 1 Germany declares war on
Russia and general mobilization is un
der way in France and Austria-Huu-fary.
Aug. 2 German troops enter France
at Clrey; Russian troops enter Ger
many at Schwldden ; German army en
ters Luxemburg over protest and Ger
many asks Belgium for free passage
of her troops.
Aug. 3 British fleet mobilizes; Bel
gium appeals to Great Britain for dip
lomatic aid and German ambassador
Aug. 4 France declares war on Ger
many; Germany declares war on Bel
gium; Great Britain sends Belgium
neutrality ultimatum to Germany;
British army mobilizes and state of
war between Great Britain and Ger
many is declared. President Wilson
issues neutrality proclamation.
Aug. 5 Germans begin fighting on
Belgian frontier; Germany asks for
Aug. G Austria declares war on Rus
sia. Aug. 7 Germans defeated by French
Aug. S Germans capture Liege.
Portugal announces it will support
Great Britain; British land troops in
Aug. 10 France declares war on
Austri a-Hu n gary.
Aug. 12 Great Britain declares war
on Austria-Hungary; Montenegro de
clares war on Germany.
Aug. 15 Japan sends ultimatum to
Germany to withdraw from Japanese
and Chinese waters and evacuate Kiao
chow; Russia offers autonomy to Po
land. Aug. 20 German army enters Brus
sels. Aug. 23 Japan declares war on Ger
many; Russia victorious in battles in
Aug. 25 Japanese warships bom
Aug. 25 Japan and Austrln break
ofT diplomatic relations.
Aug. 2S English win naval battle
over German fleet near Helgoland.
Aug. 29 Germans defeat Russians
at Allenstein; occupy Amiens; ad
vance to La Fere, 65 miles from Paris.
Sept. 1 Germans cross Marne;
bombs dropped on Paris ; Turkish army
mobilizes; Zeppelins drop bombs on
Sept. 2 Government of France
transferred to Bordeaux ; Russians cap
Sept. 4 Germans cross the Marne.
Sept. 5 England, France and Rus
sia sign pact to make no separate
Sept. G French win battle of
Marne ; British cruiser Pathfinder
sunk in North sea by a German sub
marine. Sept 7. Germans retreat from the
Sept. 14 Battle of Aisne starts;
German retreat halted.
Sept. 15 First battle of Soissons
Sept. 20 Russians capture Ja
rolsau and begin siege of Przeniysl.
Oct. 9-10 Germans capture -Antwerp.
Oct 12 German take Ghent.
Oct 20 Fighting aloug Xer river
Oct 29 Turkey begins war on Rus
sia. Nov. 7 Tsingtao fails before Jap
Nov. 9 German cruiser Emden de
stroyed. Dec. 11 German advance on War
Dec 14 Belgrade recaptured by
Dec. 1G German cruisers bombard
Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby,
on English coast, killing 50 or more
persons; Austrians said to have lost
upward of 100,000 men in Serbian de
feat. Dec. 25 Italy occupies Avlona, Alba
Jan. 1 British battleship Fsmnlda
Jan. 8 Roumanlt mobilizes 750,000
mn ; violent nghtlAf In the Argonne.
Jan. H Germain cross the Rawka,
30 miles from Warsaw.
Jan. 24 British win naval battle in
Jan. 20 Russian army invades Hun
gary ; German efforts to cross Aisne re
pulsed. Feb. 1 British repel strong German
attack near La Bassuc.
Fob. -2 Turks are defeated in at
tack on Suez canal.
Feb. 4 Russians capture Tarnow
Feb. 8 Turks along Suez canal in
full Ntrcnt; Turkish land defenses at
the Dardanelles shelled by British tor
Feb. 11 Germans evacuate Lodz.
Feb. 12 Germans drive Russians
from positions In Eust Prussia, taking
Feb. 14 Russians report capturt of
fortifications at Smolnlk.
Fob. 10 Germans capture Plock
and Blolsk in Poland; French capture
two miles of Gorman trenches In Cham
Feb. 17 Germans report they havo
taken 50,000 Russian prisoners In Ma
zurlan lake district.
Feb. 18 German blockade of English
and French coasts put Into effect
Feb. 19-20 British and French fleets
bombard Dardanelles forts.
Feb. 21 American steamer Evelyn
sunk by mine In North sea.
Feb. 22 German was office announ
ces capture of 100,000 Russian prison
ers In engagements In Mazurlan lake
region ; American steamer Carlb sunk
by mine in North sea.
Feb. 2S Dardanelles entrance forts
capitulate to English and French.
March 4 Landing of allied troops on
both sides of Dardanelles straits re
ported; German U-4 sunk by French
March 10 Battle of Nouve Chapelle
March 14 German cruiser Dresden
sunk in Pacific by English.
March 18 British battleships Irre
sistible and Ocean and French battle
ship Bouvet sunk in Dardanelles strait.
March 22 Fort of Przemysl sur
renders to Russians.
March 23 Allies land troops on Gal
f lipoll peninsula.
March 25 Russians victorious over
Austrians in Carpathians.
April S German auxiliary cruiser,
Prins Eitel Friedrich, interned at New
port News, Va.
April 1G Italy has 1,200,000 men
mobilized under arms; Austrians re
port complete defeat of Russians in
Carpathian campaign. '
April 23 German force way across
Ypres canal and take 1,000 prisoners.
April 25 Allies stop German drire
on Ypres line in Belgium.
April 29 British report regaining of
two-thirds of lost ground in Ypres bat
tle. May 7 Liner Lusitania torpedoed
and sunk by German submarine off
the coast of Ireland with the loss of
moro than 1,000 lives, 102 Americans.
May 9 French advance two and
one-half miles against German forces
north of Arras, taking 2,000 prisoners.
May 23 -Italy declares war on Aus
tria. June 3 Germans recapture Przem
ysl with Austrian help.
June IS British suffer defeat north
of La Bassee Canal.
June 28 Italians enter Austrian ter
ritory south of Riva on western shore
of Lake Garda.
July 3 Tolmino falls into Italian
July 9 British make gains north of
Ypres and French retake trenches in
July 13 Germans defeated in the
July 29 Warsaw evacuated; Lub
lin captured by Austrians.
Aug. 4. Germans occupy Warsaw.
Aug. 14 Austrians and Germans
concentrate 400,000 soldiers on Ser
Aug. 21 Italy declares war on Tur
key. Sept. 1 Ambassador Bernstorfl! an
nounces Germans will sink no more
liners without warning.
Sept 4 German submarine torpe
does liner Hesperian.
Sept 9 Germans make air raid on
London, killing 20 persons and
wounding 100 others; United States
asks Austria to recall Ambassador
Sept 20 Germans begin drive on
Serbia to open route to Turkey.
Sept. 22 Russian army, retreating
from Yilna, escapes encircling move
ment. Sept. 25-30 Battle of Champagne,
resulting in great advance for allied
armies and causing Kaiser Wilhelm to
rush to the west front; German
Oct. 5 Russia and Bulgaria sever
diplomatic relations; Russian, French,
British. Italian and Serbian diplomat
ic representatives ask for passports in
Oct. 10 General Mackensens forces
Oct. 12 Edith Cavell executed by
Oct 13 Bulgaria declares war on
Oct. 15 Great Britain declares war
Oct IG France declares war on Bul
garia. Oct 19 Russia and Italy declare
war on Bulgaria.
Oct 27 Germans join Bulgarians In
northeastern Serbia and open way
Oct. 30 Germans defeated at MItau.
Nov. 9 Italian liner Ancona torpe
doed. Dec. 1 British retreat from near
Dec. 4 Ford "peace party" sails for
Dec. S-9 Allies defeated in Mace
donia. Dec. 15 Sir John Douglas Haig suo.
ceeds Sir John French as chief of
English armies on west- front -
Jan. 8 British . troops at Kut-el-
Jan. 9 British evacuate Galllpoll
Jan. 13 Austrians capture Cctlnje,
capital of Montenegro.
Jan. 23 Scutari, capital of Albania,
captured by Austrians.
Feb. 22 Crown prince's army begins
attack on Verdun.
1 March S Germany declares war on
March 15 Austria-Hungary declares
war on Portugal.
March 24 Steamer Sussex torpedoed
April 18 President Wilson sends
note to Germany.
April 19 President Wilson speaks to
congross, explaining diplomatic situa
tion. April 24 Insurrection In Dublin.
April 29 British troops at Kut-cl-Amara
surrender to Turks.
April 80 Irish revolution sup
pressed. May 3 Irish leaders of Insurrection
May 4 Germany makes promise to
change methods of submarino-warfaro.
May 13 Austrians begin great offen
sive against Italians In Trentlno.
May 31 Great naval battle off Dan
June 5 Lord Kitchener lost with
June 11 Russians capture Dubno.
June 29 Sir Roger Casement sen
tenced to be hanged for treason.
July 1 British and French begin
great offensive on the Somme.
July G David Lloyd George appoint
ed secretary of war.
July 9 German merchant submarine
Deutschland arrives at Baltimore.
July 23 General Kuropatkin's army
wins battle near Riga.
July 27 English take Delville wood ;
Serbian forces begin attack on Bul
gars in Macedonia.
Aug. 2 French take Fleury.
Aug. 3 Sir Roger Casement execut
ed for treason.
Aug. 4 French recapture Thiau
mont for fourth time; British repulse
Turkish attack on Suez canal.
Aug. 7 Italians on Isonzo front cap
ture Monte Sabotlno and Monte San
Aug. 8 Turks force Russian evacu
ation of Bitlis and Mush.
Aug. 9 Italians cross Isonzo river
, and occupy Austrian city of Goeritz.
" Aug. 10 Austrians evacuate Stanis
lau; allies take Doiran, near Saloniki,
Aug. 19 German submarines sink
British light cruisers Nottingham and
Aug. 24 French occupy Maurepas,
north of the Somme; Russians recap
ture Mush in Armenia.
Aug. 27 Italy declares war on Ger
many; Roumanla enters war on side
Aug. 29. Field Marshal von Hin den
burg made chief :f staff of German
armies, succeeding Gen. von Falken
hayn. Aug. 30 Russian armies seize all
five passes in Carpathians into Hun
gary. Sept 3 Allies renew offensive north
of Somme; Bulgarian and German
troops invade Dobrudja, in Roumania.
Sept. 7 Germans and Bulgarians
capture Roumanian fortress of Tutra
kan; Roumaniaus take Orsova, Bul
Sept 10 German-Bulgarian army
captures Roumanian fortress of Sili
tria. Sept. 14 British for first time use
Sept 15 Italians begin new offen
sive on Carso.
Oct 2 Roumanian army of inva
sion in Bulgaria defeated by Germans
and Bulgarians under Von Mackensen.
Oct. 4 German submarines sink
French cruiser Gallia and Cunard liner
Oct 8 German submarines sink six
merchant steamships off Nantucket,"
Oct 11-Greek seacoast forts dis
mantled and turned over to allies on
demand of England and France.
Oct 23. Gennan-Bulgar armies cap
ture Constanza, Roumania.
Jan. 1 Submarine sinks British
Jan. 9 Russian premier, Trepoff, re
signs. Golitzln succeeds him.
Jan. 31 Germany announces unre
stricted submarine warfare.
Feb. 3 Presidenc Wilson reviews
submarine controversy before con
gress; United States severs diplomatic
relatfons with Germany; American
steamer Housatonic sunk without
Feb. 7 Senate indorses president's
act of breaking off diplomatic rela
tions. Feb. 12 "United States refuses Ger
man request to discuss matters of dif
ference unless Germany withdraws un
restricted submarine warfare order.
Feb. 14 Von Bernstorfl! sails for
Feb. 25 British under General
Maude capture Kut-el-Amara ; subma
rine sinks liner Laconia without warn
ing; many lost, including two Ameri
cans. Feb. 26 President Wilson asks con
gress for authority to arm American
Feb. 2S Secretary Lansing makes
public Zimmermann note to Mexico,
March 9 President Wilson calls ex
tra session of congress for April 1G.
March 11 British under General
Maude capture Bagdad; revolution
starts in Petrograd.
March 15 Czar Nicholas of Russia
March 17 French and British cap
March IS Now French ministry
formed by Alexander Ribot
March 21 Russian forces cross
Persian border Into Turkish territory;
American oil steamer Healdton torpe
doed without warning.
March 22 United States recognizes
new government of Russia.
March 27 General Murray's British
expedition into the Holy Land defeats
Turkish army near Gaza.
April 2 President Wilson asks con
gross to declare that acts of Germany
constitute a state of war; submarine
sinks American steamer Aztec without
April 4 United States senate passes
resolution declaring a stato of war ex
ists with Germany,
April G House passes war resolution
and President Wilson signs joint reso
lution of congress.
April 8 Austria declares severanco
of diplomatic relations with United
April 9 British defeat Germans at
Vlmy Rldgo and take G,000 prisoners;
United Statesf .seizes 14 Austrian in
Oct. 24 French win back Douau
mont, Thlaumont field work, Huudro
mont quarries, and Chillette wood near
Verdun, in smash of two miles.
Nov. 1 Italians, In new offensive on
the Carso plateau, capture 5,000 Aus
trians. Nov. 2 Germans evacuate Fort
Vaux at Verdun.
Nov. 5 Germans and Austrians pro
claim new kingdom of Poland of ter
ritory captured from Russia.
Nov. G Submarilne sinks British
passenger steamer Arabia.
Nov. 7 Cardinal Mercler protests
against German deportation, of Bel
gians; submarine sinks American
Nov. S Russian army Invades
Nov. 9 Austro-German .armies de
feat Russians in Volhynia and take
Nov. 13 British launch new offen
sive in Somme region on both sides of
A n ere.
Nov. 14 British capture fortified vil
lage of Beaucourt, near the Ancre.
Nov. 19 Serbian, French and Rus
sian troops recapture Monastir; Ger
mans cross Transylvania Alps and en
ter western Roumania.
Nov. 21-r-BrItish hospital ship Brit
annic sunk by mine in Aegean sea.
Nov. 23 Roumanian army retreats
90 miles from Bucharest.
Nov. 24 German-Bulgarian armies
take Orsova and Turnu-Severin from
Nov. 25 Greek provisional govern
ment declares war on Germany and
Nov. 2S Roumanian government
abandons Bucharest and moves capital
Dec. o Premier Herbert Asquith of
Dec. 7 David Lloyd George- accepts
Dec. 8 Gen. von Mackensen cap
tures big Roumanian army in Prohova
Dec. 12 Chancellor von Bethmann
Hollweg announces in reichstag that
Germany will propose peace ; new cab
inet in France under Aristide Briand
as premier, and Gen. Robert Georges
Nlvelle given chief of command of
Dec. 15 French at Verdun win two
miles of front and capture 11,000.
Dec. 10 Lloyd George declines Ger
man peace proposals.
Dec. 23 Baron Burian succeeded as
minister of foreign affairs in Austria
by Count Czernin.
Dec. 26 Germany proposes to Presi
dent Wilson "an immediate meeting of
delegates of the belligerents."
Dec. 27 Russians defeated in five
day battle in eastern Wallachia, Rou
mania. April 20 Turkey, severs diplomatic
relations with the U. S.
April 28 Congress passes selective
service act for raising of army of 500,-
000; Gautemala severs diplomatic re
lations with Germany.
May 7 War department orders rais
ing of nine volunteer regiments of en
gineers to go to France.
May 14r Espionage act becomes law
by passing senate.
May 18 President Wilson signs se
lective service act. Also directs ex
peditionary force of regulars under
General Pershing to go to France.
May 19 Congress passes war appro
priation bill of $3,000.000,000.
June 5 Nearly 10,000,000 men in
U. S. register for military service.
June 12 King Constantine of Greece
June !3 General Pershing and staff
arrive in Paris.
June 15 First Liberty loan closes
with large oversubscription.
June 26 First contingent American
troops under General Sibert arrives in
June 29 Greece severs diplomatic
relations with Teutonic allies.
July 9 President Wilson drafts
state militia into federal service. Also
places food and fuel under federal con
trol. July 13 War department order
drafts 67S,000 men into military ser
vice. July 14 Aircraft appropriation bill
of $640,000,000 passes house; Chancel
lor von Bethmann-Hollweg's resigna
tion forced by German political crisis.
July lS-United States government
orders censorship of telegrams and
cablegrams crossing frontiers.
July 19 New German Chancellor
Michaelis declares Germany will not
war for conquest; radicals and Catho
lic party ask peace without forced ac
quisitions of territory.
July 22 Slam declares war on Ger
many. July 23 Premier Kerensky given un
limited powers in Russia.
July 2S United States war indus
tries board created to supervise ex
penditures. Aug. 25 Italian Second army breaks
through Austrian line on Isonzo front.
Aug. 28 President Wilson rejects
Pope Benedict's peace plea.
Sept. 10 General Korniloff demands
control of llusslan government.
Sept 11 llusslan deputies vote to
support Kerensky. KornllofFs gener
als ordered arrested.
Sept. 10 Russia proclaims new re
public by order of Premier Kerensky.
Sept. 20 General Hatg advance mile
through German lines at Ypres.
Sept. 21 Gen. Tasker H. Bliss
named chief of staff ü. S. army.
Oct. 10 Germans occupy islands of
Runo and Adro in the Gulf of Riga.
Oct 25 French under General Po
tain advance and take 12,000 prison
ers on Aisne front.
Oct. 27 Formal announcement made
that American troops In France had
fired their first shots In the war.
Oct. 29 Italian Isonzo front col
lapses and Austro-German army
reaches outposts of Udlne.
Nov. 1 Secretary Lansing makes
public the Luxburg "spurlos versenkt"
Nov. 9 Permanent interallied mili
tary commission created.
Nov, 24 Navy department an
nounces capture of first German sub
marine by American destroyer.
Nov. 28 Bolsheviki get absolute
control of Russian assembly in Russian
Dec. G Submarine sinks the Jacob
Jones, first regular warship of Amer
ican navy destroyed.
Dec. 7 Congress declares war on
Dec. 8 Jerusalem surrenders to
Gen. Allenby's forces.
Jan. 5 President Wilson delivers
speech to congress giving "14 points"
necessary to peace.
Jan 20 British monitors win sea
fight with cruisers Goeben and Bres
lau, sinking latter.
Jan. 2S Russia and Roumania sever
Feb. 2 United States troops take
over their first sector, near Toul.
Feb. 6 United States troopship Tus
cania sunk by submarine, 126 lost.
Feb. 11 President Wilson in address
to congress gives four additional peace
principles, Including self-determination
of nations ; bolsheviki declare war
with Germany over, but refuse to sign
Feb. 13 Bolo Pasha sentenced to
death In France for treason.
Feb. 25 Germans take Reval, Rus
sian naval base, and Pskov; Chancel
lor von Hertling agrees "In principle"
with President Wilson's peace princi
ples, in address to reichstag.
March 1 Americans repulse Ger
man attack on Toul sector.
March 2 Treaty of peace with Ger
many signed by bolsheviki at Brest
Litovsk. March 4 Germany and Roumania
sign armistice on German terms.
March 13 German troops occupy
March 14 All Russian congress of
Soviets ratifies peace treaty.
March 21 German spring offensive
starts on 50-mile front
March 22 Germans take 16,000 Brit
ish prisoners and 200 guns.
March 23 German drive gains nine
miles. "Mystery gun" shells Paris.
March 24 Germans reach the
Somme, gaining 15 miles. American
engineers rushed to aid British.
March 25 Germans take Bapaume.
March 27 Germans take Albert.
March 28 British counter-attack
and gain; French take three towns;
Germans advance toward Amiens.
March 29 "Mystery gun" kills 75
churchgoers in Paris on Good Friday.
April 4 Germans start second
phase of their spring drive on the
April 10 Germans take 10,000 Brit
ish prisoners in Flanders.
April 16 Germans capture Messines
ridge, near Ypres; Bolo Pasha exe
cuted. April 23 British and French navies
"bottle up" Zeebrxigge.
April 26 Germans capture Mount
Kemmel, taking 6,500 prisoners.
May 5 Austria starts drive on
May 10 British navy bottles up Os
tend. May 24 British ship Moldavia,
carrying American troops ;torpedoed;
May 27 Germans begin third phase
of drive on west front ; gain five miles.
May 2S Germans take 15,000 pris
oners in drive.
May 29 Germans take Soissons and
menace Reims. American troops cap
May 30 Germans reach the Marne,
5o miles from Paris.
May 31 Germans take 45,000 prison
ers iu drive.
June 1 Germans advance nine
miles: are 40 miles from Paris.
June 3 Five German submarines
attack U. S. coast and sink 11 ships.
June 5 U. S. marines fight on the
Marne near Chateau Thierry.
June 9 Germans start fourth
phase of their drive by advancing-toward
June 10 Germans gain two miles.
U. S. marines capture south end of Bel
June 12 French and Americans
Juno 15 Austrians begin another
diive on Italy and take IG.000 prison
ers. June 17 Italians check Austrians on
June. 19 Austrians cross the Piave.
June 22 Italians defeat Austrian
on the Piave. ....
June 23 Austrians begin great re
treat across the Plare. "
' July IS dencral Foch launches!
llf-d oflensive, with French, American,
British, Italian and Belgian troops.
July 21 Americans and French cap
ture Chateau Thierry.
July 30 German crown prince
flees from the Marne and withdraw!
Aug. 2 Soissons recaptured by Foch.
Aug. 4 Americans take Flsmes.
Aug. 5 American troops landed
Aufe. 7 Americans cross the Vesle.
Aug. 10 Bapaume recaptured.
Aug. 28 French rccross the Somme.
Sept. 1 Foch retakes Peronne.
Sept. 12 Americans launch success
ful attack In St Mlhlel salient
Sept. 2S Allies win on 250 mile. line,
from North Sea to Verdun.
Sept. 29 Allies cross Hlndonbur
Sept. 30 Bulgaria surrenders, after
successful allied campaign In Balkans.
Oct 1 French take St Quentln.
Oot 4 Austria asks Holland to
mediate with allies for peace.
Oct. fi Germans start abandonment
of Lille and burn Doual.
Oct 6 Germany asks President
Wilson for armistice.
Oct. 7 Americans capture hills
r round Argonne.
Oct S President Wilson refuses
Oct. 9 Allies capture Cambral.
Oct. 10 Allies capture Le Cateau.
Oct. 11 American transport Otranto
torpedoed and sunk ; 500 lost.
Oct. 13 Foch's trocps take Laon
and La Fere.
Oct. 14 British and Belgians take
Roulers; President Wilson demands
surronr'er by Germany.
Oct. 15 British and Belgians crosa
Lys river, take 12,000 prisoners an4
Oct. IG Allies enter Lille outskirts
Oct 17 Allies capture Lille, Bruges,
Zeebrugge, Ostend and Douai.
Oct. IS Czecho-Slovaks Issue dec
larnrion of Independence; Czechs rebel
and seize Prague, capital of Bohemia;
French take Thlelt
Oct 19 President Wilson refuses
Austr'an peace plea and says Czecho
slovak state must be considered.
Oct. 21 Allies cross the Oise and
Oct. 22 Haig's forces cross the
Oct. 23 President Wilson refusal
latest German peace plea.
Oct. 27 German government asks
President Wilson to state terms.
Oct 2S Austria begs for separate
Oct 29 Austria opens direct nego
tiations with Secretary Lansing.
Oct. 30 Italians inflict great defeat
on Austria; capture 33,000; Austrians
evacuating Italian territory.
Oct. 31 Turkey surrenders; Aus
trians utterly routed by Italians; lose
50,000; Austrian envoys, under white
flag, enter Italian lines.
Nov. 1 Italians pursue beaten Aus
trians across Tagliamento river; allied
conference at Versailles fixes peace
terms for Germany.
Nov. 3 Austria signs armistice
amounting virtually to unconditional
Nov. 4 Allied terms are sent to Ger
many. Nov. 7 Germany's envoys enter al
lied lines by arrangement
Nov. 9 Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates
and crown prince renounces throne.
Nov. 10 Former Kaiser 'Wilhelm
and his eldest son Friedrich Wilhelm
flee to Holland to escape widespread
revolution throughout Germany.
Nov. 11 German authorities sign
armistice ending hostilities preceding
arrangement of the peace terms.
SAID TO FEED ON INSECTS
Pitcher Plant Known to Scientists at
One of the Wonders of the Vege
table Kingdom. '
The pitcher plant is one of the
freaks . of plant life. It growls in
swampy lands and is well known in
Canada. The flowers, touched with
beautiful, delicate tints, are prized
for decorative purposes. But the won
der of the pitcher plant is its leaves.
They are green, water-holding pitch
ers, beautifully veined with red and
purple, with considerable variation in
form. During rainfalls they are filled
with water. This largely evaporates,
leaving the receptacle half full. Ex
ternally these cups are smooth, while
Internally they are lined with fine bris
tles pointing downward. There is also
a sticky, sugary sort of semi-fluid sub
stance to be found around the inner
margin of the bowl or pitcher. This
arrangement not only attracts a large
number of tiny insects, but they are
so eager to feed on the sugary sub
stance that not a few tumble into the
water below and die there. They can
not fly out, for the lines of flight would
he practically yertical, while hun
dreds of little briotles confronting
them prevent escape over the surface
by walking out Many believe that
the plant, through its leaves, absorbs
the diestiw parts of these insects,
and that they thus contribute to its
nutrition; in other words, that the
pitcher plant to this extent is one of
the carnivores tof the vegetable king-;
"It's a hard matter to please some of,
these society leaders," said the society
"What's the matter now?" asked the
' "Mrs. Grabcoin says the wrlteup of
her party In this morning's paper
wasn't punctuated to suit" her.' BL
mingham Age-Herald. ;'1
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