: ' '".'"
WHAT IS MONEY?
Why do we accept a bit ot paper or
metal at a certain value? We do so
because ot the credit or trust we put la
it, that all others -will take It from
us at the same values. Withdraw this
credit and we would not stoop to pick
It up from underfoot The things we
handle and carelessly call money are
not the real money, but oaly repre
sentatives of It. Now the representa
tive is never the same as the thing it
represents, and we knew that if there
was not a bit of gold, silver or paper J
on earth we would still have all the
money we need, and we do also know
that a thingraust be made out of what
ever is so necessary to its existence
that If that necessary thins itself could
not be. What is so necessary to money
that no money can exist without It?
There is but one thing we can imagine
and that is that very credit or con
fidence we spoke of. If there were no
such a thing as human credit there
could be no money.
But mere stagnant credit is not
money it must be in circulation.
Hence money is credit In circulation
by means of popular signs or tokens.
And the very origin of money proves
this. For if all human trades had been
even and no debts were ever made, no
credits given money'had never yet been
thought of. At first on some barter
being uneven the credit was given to
the debtor or the one who offered a
thing of less value than the article he
received in exchange for it Then bits
of metal, pretty shells, beads, vampum,
were used the credit being transferred
to these from the person. Again, no
matter what are our laws about money
tqjlmit its nmoant. -.this, credit comes
in a thousand forms to do the work of
As to that twattle about gold being
of intrinsic value and thus final pay
ment when law so declares, and there
fore superior let us ask can anything
be payment more than payment in fact
and total cancellation of the debt? Very
well. So when the acceptance of a
creditor falls into his debtors hands
that is payment and cancellation ab
solute. A government with revenues
of hundreds of millions delivers Its
acceptances to its servitors, wno in
turn hand them over to the public that
owes and is constantly owing these
revenues. That Is payment and can
cellation above what any mere metal
can ever be. The public credit Is al
ways equal to the power of the public
to raise revenues. As the acceptances
given Tjy the agency of the public to
thn RPnrftors and contractors for-the
public, fall into the hands ot the peopled
who owe the revenues and pass rapidly
back Into the general treasury it would
be necessary to keep out perhaps twice
the amount to serve as currency. No
landlord, dealing exclusively with thou
sands of tenants, would ever need bor
row money of Individuals, as his ac
ceptances woald be eagerly received by
th tenats to pay rent with. Why gov
ernments should neglect the public
credit, that greatest bails for currencyt
Bat we do worse than neglect this
public credit. We have actually de
clared by Jaw that a rare metal which
is ownedoxclBsively by one .great hoase
of London is our sole legal tender.
It was the .policy of that house from
the start to own all the gold stock.
Eighty years ago the Rothschilds
loaned "almost quite one half billion
gold to several nations. As. the gold"
stock of tne.woria is under five billions
that house to-day owns all the gold
and the -older rational bonds secared
by this gold. "Were they to Jose hold
of that goldthey would have ho secar
ity for the principal of their boadav
Had any hoase saggestedto'as to make
its own pecallar property oar oaly
legal tender, we woald -have regarded
its impudence as'aaealllng, and consider
subserveacy in jie4s a beaeath
Bat we have deae that very thing.
So necessary is money to the Me of
man to-day that they who own tha
mosey .are -masters at the world". AH.
otoargrsat Jnnnreerg. and oar richest
people are the tremblinc servants
that one hsaso for they knew
rain the greatest of them by
The ItotetMHsitMS U in
a r an the
xnlt&lMr ila aaar abat " $"
- BBBEJawr5's" I sssPgP" mvjsssV u a. .jpBsSs. - - - ' -1 -j
- WK-. m i ' iNsrBn, sWtar) ' !- " n?K ""fl wJ7
"MBWMIWb Nfc'rj' fcrBlHbrpBpix'' samsmf i -sMmmssfpssaTasT w i
open our eyes to the conspiracy. What
they will do now since new methods
ot separating gold are found Is to be
PRESIDENT M'KINLEY AND THE
When It became Imminent that this
country would engage in warfare with
Spain over the destruction of the bat
tleship Maine, It was naturally exepect
ed, that President McKinley, who has
always delighted in expressing so much
love for his black brothers, would un
hesitatingly favor their enlistment Into
the army, for the purpose of assisting
to maintain the honor ot this nation,
against those who would attempt to
insult her flag.
But history has most emphatically
proven otherwise. It cannot be dls
puteed, but what the President resorted
to every imagineable scheme to prevent
the negro soldiers from participating
in the Spanish-American war. He and
the members of his cabinet were very
much displeased when Governor J
Hoge Tyler of Virginia, who Is a dyed-in-the-wool
Democrat Insisted upon
selecting negro troops who should be
officered from end to end, by members
of their own race. This act upon the
part of Gov. Tyler was very displeasing
to the mouth-pieces of the administra
tion. Their countenances brightened
up however, when Frank S. Black, the
Republican Governer of the great State
of New York, decided that under no
circumstances would he disgrace his
State, by appointing Negro soldiers to
assist In waging the war against Spain.
We could produce much other proof
to show, that President McKinley was
very 'unfriendly to the Negro troops.
But from necessity, or when he had
thoroughly observed, that the whites
were not breaking their necks in fall
ing over each other to enlist it was
then decided to permit the Negro to
do so. Then they were transported In
unfit cars to the extreme edge ot the
southern states, where they were sub
jected to Insults of every kind, before,
being transfered to the seat of war, and
shortly after their arrival upon Spanish
soil, one of the bloodiest and most
sanguinary battles ever fought In the
history of the world took place, and
who were the most consplclous soldiers
In that terrible battle? Who continued
the march up San Juan Hill amidst
shot and shell? Who saved the rough
riders and their blatant leader or Col.
from being blown Into eternity?
Who continued to hold Old Glory aloft
and wave It over the prostrate forms
of their fallen comrades? Who com
pelled the flower of the Spanish army
to retreat from their block-houses and
strong entrenchments? It was the
Negro soldiers who performed these
grand and heroic acts and deeds, and
After he had performed all these Im
perishable acts, what has been his re
ward? He has not the honor and the
glory been bestowed upon others, who
are entirely unworthy to receive It?
How many monuments and shafts have
been erected to the memory of those
black heroes, who led the famous
charge up San Juan Hill, and where
the bones of those who fell still lie?
Has President McKinley ever Intimated
that it was his desire to have the re
mains of those black heroes who fell
at San Juan and El Carney brought
back to the United States? "No! But
the remains of the rough-riders who
had to be kicked oat of the way so the
Negro troops could lead the charge, and
also the remains of other white officers
and soldiers, have been returned to the
United States, while the Negroes whose
blood has been poared out like water
on every battle-field from the Revolu
tionary war dowa to the present time,
occupies graves unmarked near the
place where they f eU lafetlng for the
gag which aaorde them so protection.
Again it might be permtos&ie to ask.
how pany Nagroes who dtsttegaished
themselves daring the Caban campaign
have been promoted for performlns
M Is traenat some few men of the
Ts4k and several ether. regiments,
were -ssmpsrarfly promote, that is, in
the i mania nr regiments. BetmRaot
a, Jsat-tsmthey have lost their osm
mlSlt. W taVmyrtertag eat sfthstr
r25s? Dm net thi prove that
gjssHsat maHaler tax " steeKJa
Keara seidiets, ana thath Is eadenvor-
CHICAGO, JTJITT 22, 1899.
ing to rid the Republican party ot the
responsibility, of standing as God
father for the Negro? In spite of these
cold facts, the Hon. T. T. Allaln, and
several other supposed leaders of the
Negro race, have assumed the respon
sibility of voicing the sentiments ot the
ten million Negroes respecting the at
titude of the administration. In dealing
with the Filipinos. They have assured
the President that the Negroes are will
ing and eager to enlist to assist In
helping establish a new form ot gov
ernment In those Islands.
Why should any Negro who possesses
any sense be swayed by sentimental
foolishness? Does he not remember
the treatment his brothers received
from the hands ot President McKinley
as soldiers, why should he be willing
to further assist to uphold the hands
of those who delight In humiliating
him? Why should he desire to sustain
an administration which looks upon
him as an Inferior creature In every
respect and only fit to fight Its battles.
Ah, no! My brethren, do not permit
yourselves to be carried away with the
idea that it is your duty to fight against
the Filipinos. Do not permit yourselves
to be further disgraced and humiliated
by sounding the praise of President
McKinley. For he has proven himself an
enemy and a traitor to the Negro race.
COL. WILLIAM J. BRYAN.
In the early part of 1895 The Broad
Ax nominated Mr. Bryan for President
of the United States, and it still claims
the honor of being the first newspaper
In this country to mention his name
In that connection. It did not desert
him, but supported him for that office
until he received the nomination, then
it continued, to espouse his candidacy,,
with all the zeal it possessed, and as
the American people will soon be con
fronted with another Presidential cam
paign, and as Mr. Bryan Is what we
term the people's candidate, therefore,
there cannot be any doubt as to his
nomination next year which will be
equivalent to an election.
There Is much Presidential timber
within the ranks of the Democratic
party. But we do not hesitate In de
claring that our first choice for that
exalted position Is the Hon. William
Let the party renominate Mr. Bryan
and reindorse the Chicago platform, or,
one similar in its construction, which
will express the parties disapproval or
opposition to the trusts, combinations,
militarism, and expansion. By persu
ing this course It will march on to vic
tory in 1900.
THREE FALSE LEADERS.
JudBon W. Lyons, H. P. Cheatham and
John P. Green, called upon President
.McKinley the first of this week, and
they assured him of the loyalty of all
the Negroes throughout the country,
and that the course which he has par
sued in the past in relation to the
Philippine Islands and In all other,, re
spects has met with their highest ap
proval What rot and nonsense! Who
has empowered Messrs Lyons, Cheat
ham and Green to speak In behalf of
the ten million Afro-Americans Has
their been any convention or confer
ence held In any section of the country
recently, which passed resolutions in
structing these three political mounte
banks to pledge the support of all the
Negroes to the present administration
or are these three lackles of President
McKinley acting upon the theory, that
they are the three great lams, and
that they carry all the other Negroes
both great and small around in their
Surely these three unknown leaders,
who are receiving their bread and but
ter from the hands of President Mc
Kinley must know, that the larger per
cent of the colored population have be
come utterly disgusted with the Pres
ident and the dissatisfaction if wide
spread and national in its scope.
In passing we must pause to say, that
theleaderahip of Lyons, Cheatham and
Green is on a-parallel with some of the
jack-leg preachers, who thrive 08 the
misfortunes of the race.
Nit! Messrs. Lyons, Cheatham and
-Green. Ton three gentlemen do net,
represent the sentiments of the Negro ;
race respecting its indorsement of Pres
ident McKinley and we will veatare
the assertion that yoa three, who are
growing rich from oflce-heMIng, while
.saiag,-inthe nanshlae.ot thev.Fres
iiaai'a mafiar, caaaet eaatral .these
The Broad Ax made Its advent last
Saturday, and the Hon. C. S. Darrow
was the first citizen of Chicago to walk
up and plank down his money, towards
helping to maintain it Lawyer Fred
erick W. Job of 815 Marsaette building
"was the second gentleman to follow
Buit W. E. Ivens, dealer In groceries
eta, 294 W. Lake street, entered his
-name as number three. John H. Cross,
dealer In wines, liquors and cigars, 222
W. Lake street knoa a good thing
when he sees 'It and he was the fourth
to ad his name to our mailing list in
this city. A number ot ether snbstain
clal citizens have become regular sub
scribers to The Broad Ax.
Gen. R. A -Alger has tendered his
resignation as Secretary of War, and
there Is no regret expressed over his
actions, for he has been the load-stone
of the administration.
During, the month of August the city
will be full ot strangers, who will be
In attendance at the two Afro-American
Conventions, and all who have fur.
nlshed rooms to rent or who can fur
nish board to the visitors should make
It known by advertising In The Broad
Many prominent Democrats from all
parts of the country were attracted
to this city, owing to the meeting of
the Democratic National Committee,
which was a great success. The com
mittee made an excellent selection in
the person ex-Governor W. J. Stone as
James A. Ross ot Buffalo, N.Y., chalr
manoflhe 'Executive "ana "Campaign
Committee of the National Negro Dem
ocratic Association, visited Chicago the
present week, and attended the sessions
of the Democratic National Committee.
Mr. Ross Is favorably Impressed with
this city -and thinks it the paradise for
The Chicago Tribune thinks it is out
rageous, upon the part of CoL William
J. Bryan, to receive any compensation
whllehe is engaged In delivering lec
tures. But we cannot see any Impro
priety In this, and as the Tribune Is
the accepted organ of the administra
tion, Its criticisms of W. J. Bryan carry
but little weight
The Popular Science Monthly for July
contains an -able article on "The De
cline of Negro Suffrage," by Prof. Book
er T. Washington. Prof. W. H. Conuclll
of Alabama has also contributed a very
readlble, article to the July Forum.
These two contributions should be read
by everybody who are Interested in
the race problem.
stock continues to climb upward, Mr.
Simon B. Turner, the power behind the
Monitor .iaunched his new boom in a
Jong, editorial and he sets forth in
glowing colors the reason why the Gov
ernor should lead the Grand Old Party
of this State and the reason why he
should receive the united support of the
negro voaers. But we believe the ne
groes remember the treatment which
they have recelvd from the Governor
In the past and In' the future they do
not propose to be caught with such
LETTER OF COMMENDATION.
July 15th, 1899.
To whom It may concern:
Julius F. Taylor, who comes to this
city well recommended, has begun the
publication of "The Broad Ax," which,
I am Informed, will disseminate
Democratic principles and contend for
the higher intellectual development ot
the Afro-American race and mankind
in geaeraL While he Is thus engaged
X bespeak for him the hearty support
of all loyal and true friends of Democ-.
Carter H. Harrison.
One. or two energetic solicitors and
also a good right-up man can .find em
ployment by calling on or addressing
The Broad Ax, 5W0 Armoar aveaae.
D. D. Johnson. Be., of 22 N. Car
pester street, whs Is well and favorably
known, on the west stde is aatherised
te act as agent tor The Broad- Ax.
. Asr-nT Hems. give, to Usa, will
ted their way late Ki
Mr. Charles Winter Woods, instruc
tor in oratory at Tuskegee Institute, is
In the city.
Miss Luetta Price, ot 4831 Dearborn
street has gone to Terra Haute, Ind.,
for a short visit
Miss Lydla Cunningham, af 2967 Ar
mour avenue, will spend the summer
In Pine Point, Ind.
Rev. Lewis Johnston, a faithful
worker In church and school at Pine
Bluff, Ark., Is in the city.
Miss Edith Caldwell, of Nashville,
Tenn., Is the guest of Miss La France
Settle, 4206 Langley avenue.
Miss Cor inn e Wilson, ot 512 56th
street has been seriously HI with a
nervous trouble. She is improving
Mrs. R. C. Ransom returned to the
city last week after an extensive trip,
covering WOberforce, Cleveland and
Mrs. Jennie Crutchfield and Mrs.
Hattle Beard, of 3625 Dearborn street
have gone to Montreal, Canada, for the
Miss Lillian May Arrington, who was
the guest of Mrs. S. B. Turner. 3112
La Salle street returned to her home
In Brooklyn last Tuesday.
A reception will be tendered the
graduates of the various schools at
Grace church next Tuesday. Mrs. Am
erica Cooper Is managing the affair.
Mrs. J. M. Townsend, wife of Rev.
J. M. Townsend, of Cincinnati, is the
guest of her daughter, Mrs. Clarance
Gogglns, on Dearborn street, near 30th
Dr. John G. Mitchell, Dean of Payne
Theological Seminary, Wilberforce, O..
stopped over In town last Sunday. He
was the guest of Rev. Ransom. He
left Monday for Denver.
Mrs. Emma Stewart who was con
fined by Illness to her home, 4012 State
street, has quite recovered her health.
Attorney John G. Jones will leave
In about a week for Cleveland, Ohio,
to attend o Masonic Convention.
Colonel John R. Marshall and his
niece. Miss Essie Arnold, left last Sun
day for Washington, D. C, where Miss
Arnold will spend the summer on a
visit to her parents. Colonel Marshall
will return in about two weeks.
Mr. Richard A. Crolley was tendered
a reception by his many friends last
Monday night at his residence, 5516
Armour avenue. It vns a farewell
party, as Mr. Crolley has now gone to
visit relatives and friends in Tyber,
Mrs. Daisy Robinson Williams, the
pianist was granted a decree of divorce
from her husband by Judge Ball, of
the Circuit Court last Monday. She
resumed her maiden name of Robinson.
Miss Robinson lives at 4609 Vipcennes
The funeral ot Mr. David Henry took
place from the residence of Mrs. Chand
ler, 368 27th Btreet, last Saturday, his
death having occurred there on the
previous Thursday. Mr. Henry was a
well-known stenographer, and held
many positions of honor In his life
time. He was a member of Grace
Last Tuesday evening. Mrs. Theodora
Lee Purnell gave a reception and danc
ing party at her residence, 43 29 th place,
In honor of Miss Johnson, of Detroit
who has been her guest for the past
week. Miss Mabel Wheeler, of 5440
Langley avenue, also entertained last
night at a dancing party, in honor of
Qulnn Chapel has been celebrating
its 52nd anniversary all this week, and
every night has seen the church brllll
aatlly lighted, and the scene of much
entertainment. The lecture room was
ailed with seven booths, presided over
by the prettiest members of Dr. Carey's
flock. Mrs. Carey was the leading spirit
in the enterprise, and whatever success
was achieved, the credit is largely due
to her work and Interest
'X new indastry is springing ep In
northern Mexico sinking wells for
salt water to manufacture salt for
mining and domestic purposes. One
company has secured 1M.99 acres of
salt water territory at Camaroa, 13
miles seath el Laredo, and Juve.strack
water eeaUmls 12 per, cent, salt,
worth from 1 to 3 cents a pea-ad.
TsO. 43. .
There are in the United States 23.000
Paris has nineteen theaters and four
President McKinley has received the
LL. D. degree from seven colleges.
About half an average crop of ap
ples and plums is expected in Iowa this
Philadelphia collected 5102.000 as
taxes on trolley company dividends
To clean asphalt pavements In Utlca
last year cost about two cents a run
Buckingham Palace has a scent
fountain, which on state occasions is
fed with cologne water.
The forest area ot all the British
possessions In America Is estimated at
about 800,000,000 acres.
Don Jaime, the only son of the Span
ish pretender, Don Carlos, has just
won $100,000 In a lottery.
Congressman Ketcham of New York
has served in thirteen congresses and
has never made a speech.
Ex-Congressman Simpson says he
enjoys his editorial duties more than
he did his work as congressman.
Baltimore has the largest negro
population of any city In Chrlstendom.
The census Is expected to show at least
President McKinley at the last
White House reception broke the
band-shaking record by greeting 4.816
persons In an hour and forty-five min
utes. The area of the Pretoria diamond
fields continues to be increased by dis
coveries in almost every direction," and
the yield from the extensive wash Is
reported as highly satisfactory.
The Invitations to President McKIn
Jey and .President Diaz, to attend .the.-
Chicago celebration next October are
inclosed in handsome mahogany boxes
made from the old government build
ing at Chicago and lined with purple
' An International exhibition of postal
cards will be opened in Venice in July.
Yang-Tu, China's delegate to the
peace congress, was educated at Har
vard. Mexican dollars are current all over
China, and when they can not be had
block silver, uncoined, Is used.
Prof. Hadley, who saw the ale
Princcton baseball game, was the first
president of Yale in years to attend
such a contest
Jacob Field, Wall street's greatest
plunger, estimates that he has paid out
$75,000 In revenue stamps since the
beginning- of the war with Spain.
Mr. Sidney Cooper, the English
artist who is now nearing his ninety
sixth birthday, had four paintings on
view this season at Burlington House,
and sold all of them.
The dogs in Barnwell county. South
Carolina, are returned at a valuation
of $12,830, while the assessed value ot
the entire propeny of the county In
sheep and goats is $201.
A toboggan slide in St Moritz.
Switzerland, extends three-quarters of
a mile, and Is raid to be the longest
In the world. The descent has been
made, in seventy-one seconds.
In Switzerland a milkmaid gets bel
ter wages if gifted with a good voice,
because it has been discovered that a
cow will yield one-fifth more milk if
soothed during milking by melody.
The cake at English weddinss Is al
ways' a star feature. Usually at a fash
ionable affair .It. Is fully six feet lgh,
and is a marvelous architectural struc
ture of icing adorned with flowers and
DUNS AND THEIR DOOES.
Visitor "What lovely farnltnre?"
Tommy "Yes; I guess the man we
boaght It from Is sorry now he sold it;
he's always calling to look at If
Daughter "Mamma, If I must write
to Mr. Bray about his extortlonato bill,
should I say, 'Dear Mr. Brayr Mam
ma "Certainly; under the circum
stances," Detroit Journal.
"Is yoar father at homer asked a
caller. "What Is yoar name, please?"
iae.a!red the little glrL "Just tell him
it Is his old friend, BUI." "Thea. I
reckon he ain't at home. I heard him
tell mamma if any bill came h? wasa't
at home." Little .Falls Transcript
' Little Virginia "My mamma say
yea live in a haaated hoase. Little
Wlnale "The Men. We daa't 'lifer.
"Neasdy ever heard of a ghost lasMt'
er hoase.'- Little Virginia -fee,
hat it's always sauted Try a crowd at
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