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The broad ax. (Salt Lake City, Utah) 1895-19??, January 18, 1913, Image 2

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84024055/1913-01-18/ed-1/seq-2/

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Tnskegee, Ala., Jan-12, 1913. "Ag
ricultural Credit" and "Finances of
the Negro Publie School" Trill be the
two principal topics of discussion at the
twenty-second annual Negro Fanners '
Conference, to be held at the Tnskegee
Institute, Tnskegee, Alabama, on Wed
nesday and Thursday, January 22nd
and 23rd.
The first day's conference will be
given over to the Negro fanners. As
stated in the program, the subject for
discussion is "How to Secure Cheaper
Money for Eunning the Farm." This
puts the problem of argricultural cred
it in terms that the Negro fanner un
derstands and is interested in. Bepre
sentative Negro farmers from Georgia,
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and
Arkansas will describe the present con
dition of the Negro farmer in the
states from which they come and the
present methods of obtaining loans,
rates of interest and so forth. Indi
vidual farmers will tell how they have
succeeded in reducing the principal and
rates of interest upon their yearly
B. L. Smith, of "Waco, Texas, who is
the head of a Negro Farmers' Co-Operative
Association in that state which
has established a bank, will discuss
the subject of Co-operative Credit and
the success of the Texas farmers in cut
ting down the item of interests in the
farmers' annual budget.
Charles Banks, cashier of the Bank
of Mound Bayou, Mississippi, which
supplies a large share of the funds nec-
- essaryto conduct the agricultural op
erations of the farming community of
which the little Negro town of Mound
Bayou is the center, will discuss the
question from the point of view of the
man -who makes the loans.
One of the features of the days' pro
ceedings will be the exhibits showing
some of the results of the Demonstra
tion Saxming Work being done in the
several counties adjoining Tnskegee In-
woM'Twerc the demonstration meth
od of-teaching farmers has been in op
eration. The reports of the demonstra
tion jftgents will be followed by1 a dis
tribution oT prizes to the corn clubs
organized and. conducted in these
counties. '
The second days Bession of the Con
ference is the meeting of teachers,
principals, school trustee and others
actively interested in school work. The
subject for discussion, as stated by the
program" committee, is "How to Secure
More Money for the Public 'School."
Teachers and principals of schools in
Mississippi, Tennessee, Alabama ana
Georgia' will describe the present condi
tion of the schools in tneir home com
munities and the various means em
ployed by the -county school teachers
4o secure the interest of White'plant
rs, county school superintendents and
others in meeting the seeds of 'the Ne
gro schools. They will also Teport upon
the extent to which the Negro farmers
are taxing themselves in order to im
prove the school buildings and length
en the- school terms in different local
It ' is expected that representatives
of the Anna T. Jeanes Fund, fothe
improvement of' Negro rural schools,
and also" the' new- State Supervisor of
Negro public schools in Alabama will
speak at this conference session.
were emancipated in 1S6L Fifty years
after it was found that 14,000,000 of
them had accumulated about $500,000,
000 worth of property or about $36 per
capita, an average of $200 per family.
Fifty years after their emancipation
only about 30 per cent of the Bussian
peasants were able to read and write.
After fty years of freedom the ten
million Negroes in the United States
have accumulated over $700,000,000
worth of property, or about $70 per"
capita, which is an average of $350
per family. After -fif ty years of free
dom 70 per cent of them have some ed
ucation in books. Southern Workman.
Annual Convention at Springfield, TJL,
February 4th to 6th, 1913.
Farmers and live stock breeders of
Illinois are anticipating a happy and
instructive time at the ISth annual
meeting of the Illinois Live Stock
Breeders' Association to be held in
Springfield, February 4th, to 6th.
Among the great attractions, will be
the great stock judging contest, in
which many farmers and farmers' sons
will compete for certificates as expert
judges and for the many prizes that
will be given away.
Prominent among the speakers who
will address this convention is Dr. Wal
ter Williams, Dean of the School of
Journalism of the University of Mis
souri, whose subject will be "On the
Sky-line of the State." Dr. Williams
is recognized as America's foremost
man in his line. He has been president
of the Missouri Press Association, pres
ident of tbto National Editorial Asso
ciation, president for N6rth America
at the International Press Congress
held at Berne, Switzerland. He was
organizer and secretary of the World's
Press Parliament at St. Louis in 1904,
and commissioner to the foreign press
for the St. Louis Exposition in 1904,
and travelled in Africa, Asia and Eu
rope in the interest of the exposition.
Dr. M. Dorset, of Washington, D.
C, will address the session of the Hog
Breeders' Association on February 5th
on "Legislation with Beference to Hog
Dr. Dorset is chief of the Bio-chemic
division of the Bureau of Animal In
dustry, and is the originator of the
method of obtaining hog cholera serum
now employed so extensively.
The first Bession of the convention
will meet at nine o'cloek a. m, Feb
ruary 4th and will be in charge of the
Dlinois Cattle Breeders' Association;
the afternoon program of the same
day will be in charge of the Illinois I
Logical and Eloquent '
Address Delivered by
Attorney Walter M
i i
The following address was delivered
by Attorney Walter M. Farmer last
Sunday afternoon before the Literary
Society at Bethel Church:
Wo have reached the age of stern
realities of stubborn facts. Men have
ceased to spin beautiful theories
through which and by "which to shape
ultimate action. Their actions today
are directed by altogether different in
fluences. Man's inordinate commercial
greed and race prejudice have changed
the perspective through which he views
his relation to his fellows. There was
a time when the American people sub
scribed to the doctrine that govern
ments are instituted among men de
riving their just powers from the con
sent of the governed. But today they
believe that Governments are institut
ed among men deriving their powers
from the will of the powerful. There
was a time when they believed that all
men are created equal, but that was
when his views of his relation to his
fellows was decidedly simple and just
and the Negro had not entered into
the equation. The Negro had not at
that time become a freemen, aspired to
manhood's estate nor had he demon
strated his ability to assimilate Cau
casian civilization and to keep abreass
with American progress.
, Strange as it may seem this remark
able feat alone was sufficient to arouse
the bitter antagonism of the leading
statesmen of America, such as Tillman,
Vardaman, et aL I owe no apology
for calling these men the leading
statesmen of the country. For no one
will deny that these men have more
influence in forcing their views of the
Negro on the American people and
on the world for that matter, than all
the other statesmen North, West and
East combined. The pendulum seems
Horse Breeders' Association, and in the to have 8Wlulg back an ' looks as if
evening, Dr. Williams will speak.
On Wednesday morning, February
5th, the Illinois Sheep Breeders' Associ
ation and the Illinois Cattle Breeders'
During the past fifty years there has
beenra apid increase in. the wealth of
the Negroes of the South. This in
crease has been especially marked in
the past, ten years, during which time
the valno of the damesfia n;.i.
Association will give the program, and
on the afternoon of that day, the Illi
nois Swine Breeders' Association will
be in charge of the session.
On Wednesday evening, February
5th will be held the annual banquet,
which is the great social feature and
good fellowship meeting of the conven
tion. Thursday, February 6th, is set aside
for the annual stock judging contest
for expert judges' certificates. Hun
dreds of dollars' worth of valuable
prizes will be given away to Illinois
farmers and stockmen who show pro
ficiency in judging one kind of live
stock, viz: horses, sheep, beef cattle,
dairy cattle, or swine.
Copies of the proceedings of the last
annual meeting may be had upon ap
plication to Sidney B. Smith, Secretary,
8pringfield, M.
liberty was about to suffer defeat. But
liberty knows no defeat. Victory is
the only motto inscribed on her ban
ners. The defeat of the British at the bat
tle of Beuvines in 1214 gave to the
English people tho great charter.
Though the Continental forces suffered
defeat at Bunker Hill still American
independence dates from that battle.
plores, "Declare to me O'Muse the
cause by which the Diety being offend
ed, by what the Queen of Heaven be
ing provoked, to drive a man of dis
tinguished piety to strugglo with so
many calamities, to encounter so many
hardships f" And yet Aeneas reached
Italy and founded Borne that sat on
her seven hills and from her throne
of beauty ruled the world.
the salvation of the world was dearly!
purchased. The ascent of Calvary's
brow is stained with blood and tears.
The course of civilization and progress
is not strewn with flowers and scented
with the fragrance of the violet and
the rose. No it is marked with fallen
Empires, broken oats, prostrate forms
and seas of blood. Such is the record
of man's struggle upward from the
Garden of Eden. There is no royal
road to success, Any race or peoplo
that expects to attain any enduring
and permanent success without encoun
tering these tests, expects what never
was and never will be. I strongly sus
pect that my race has indulged the de
lusion that some how we are going to
be able to contribute our part to the
world's achievements without encoun
tering the same or similar difficulties
and besetments that have confronted
other races in their march of pro
gress. That if we became the victims
of some dire calamities, all we had to
do was to call on the Lord or the
other fellow and we would be delivered
out of our troubles. We should be
convinced by this time that we have
been merely indulging the "illusions
of hope." For we have called on the
Lord and have been answered out of
the whirlwind, "Stand on thy feet and
girt up thy loins like a man." We
was for Switzerland's liberty. It was
the same spirit that moved Patrick
Henry as he stood up in the Virginia
convention and exclaimed: "Give me
liberty or give me death." It was for
liberty that the Continental forces suf
liberty at Valley Forge and triumphed
at Yorktown. It was for liberty that
Toussaint L 'Ouverture armed the blacks
of Santo Domingo, and by intrepid dar
ing sent the British, the French and the
Spanish from the Queen of the Antilles
in deieat ana disgrace, aw tnese
blacks of Santo Domingo knew as well
as any one should know that "Eternal
vigilance is the price of liberty." They
knew as well as any one should know
that if they sat down and folded their
arms in supino indifference, that the
liberty they had purchased so dearly
would be taken away from them, and
so that Franco might be warned against
the danger of any further attempt to
enslave them, they issued a proclama
tion and among other things said:
"Should wo be obliged to ahed rivers
of blood, should we, to preserve our
freedom, bo compelled to set fire to
seven-eighths of the globe, we shall be
pronounced innocent before the tribu
nal of Providence, who has not created
men to see them groan under a yoke so
oppressive and so ignominious." This
was in 1803. Haiti has never worn the
yoke of any nation nor has the liberty
of her people been assailed.
Fifty years ago 4,000,000 slaves were
declared free by proclamation issued by
Abraham Lincoln. This is one of the
world's greatest documents. At tho
time of its issuance it was considered
so by Illinois, so did New England.
On tho day that the proclamation was
to bo signed a great meeting was held
at Tremont Temple in Boston, Mass.
Wendel Phillips was there, Theodore
Parker was there. Frederick Douglass
was there, the Bev. Grimes was there,
and with them thousands of men and
women eager and anxious to welcome
the dawn of universal liberty. All day
long tho crowd waited patiently for
news from Washington. At last to
ward the close of day word was flashed
from Washington that the immortal
Abraham Lincoln had signed the Pro
clamation. Strong men and gentle wo
men wept. A shout of joy went up
from the assembled throng and sud
denly Bev. Grimes' .voice could ba
heard above the tumult singing in clear
reverberating tones:
"Sound tho loud timbril o'er Egypts
dark sea,
Jehovah has triumphed, his people are
The country was blessed at that time
have called on the other fellow and with so many great men and noble wo
ho has answered us by binding the fet- men. Men and women who loved the
ters.more tightly about our limbs. Be right and were willing to do justice.
not deceived any longer my friends.
Let us find some wholesome suggestion,
some guiding influence in these
thoughtful words of Casius to Brutus:
"Men at some times are masters of
their fates. The fault, dear Brutus
is not in our stars but in ourselves,
that we are undhngs."
Liberty and progress are insepera-
Dr. Theo. B. Mozee, who has for some
years conducted very modest dental
rooms at 4715 State street; all the time
saving his money in addition to get
ting married to Miss Cecelia Johnson,
last summer and setting up house
keeping in the fifty-second block on
Wabash avenue; has succeeded in be
ing able in a financial way, to' recently
move into his new dental parlors at
4709 8tate street, which will compare
more than favorably with the best ap
pointed dental parlors in any section of
His quarters being entirely new; ups
to-date and modem and absolutely san
itary in every particular. TTi for
nishings are all new-cad are the very
latest designs used in- dental, parlors;
including his tools and- other instnrr
meats, which aror aH highly sterilized,
and fumagated- sight and day.
In extracting -teeth; oxygen "is ad-
ministered- .which is a-new-feature for The Union forces were ignoxnlniouily
which they, own increased from $85,
21637, to $177,273,785, or 107 .per
cent; poultry from 3,788)792' to 45,
113,756, or,35 percent; implements and
xoschinery from $18586225 .to $367,
831,418, or- 98 percent; land and band
ings from $69,636,420 to $2780165,
or 293 .per cert. From 1900 to 1910the
total value of fans property owned by
the Colored, farmers .of the- Soath in
creased froa $177,404,688 . to. SpyBSS,
In 1863 tia. Jptal. arealth, -of the
Negroea,.af,iai essstry tr about- $
000,000, .Now the total wealth is aver
iWOOOpo, No. other TOTBrfpttc Major F. AvDesiss is in Washing-
peep aave mads so great a progress tea, D. a on ofieial Business. He will
in ao saert a time. The Sassian serfs return home Monday nursing.
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Asia lawyer, writer of considerable note and an upright citizen, who made a
fine impression In delivericg his address on the "Liberty and progress of
the Afro-Americans," before the Bethel Literary Society, last Sunday
all dental .operations; which-are abso
lutely- painlesai
Dr. Mozee makes a specialty .of first
class crown-, and bridge work; the east
gold inlay and. pereelain inlay and it
should be -a source of mack-pleasure
for any one to visit nis richly and ele
gantly appointed dental parlor.
defeated at'Bull's Bun and retreated in
disgrace and dishonor, universal ' lib
erty for the AmwrlfaTt continent dates
from the battle of Bull's Bun.
It is the1 inexorable law of fate that
man shall net attain and enjoy- any
great and-lasting-; blessing without encountering-
many hardships and suffer
ing -mair difficulties. Virgil was s&aei:
with, awe when ne Beleld'in retrospect
nop vjzag' eroeas am seTere lest
through which Aeneas was forced Ho'
pass before He reached Italy" and ira-
seat of reason and man becomes a mis
erable slaveA It was for liberty that
Arnold Winkleried clasped to his
breast a hundred Austrian spears. It
ble. It is impossible" for tn to make
progress without the blessings of lib
erty. As liberty- is the natural right
of every man, so progress is' the nat
ural concomitant of man's struggles.
It is no wonder then that man. in every
age and in ererj clime has been will
iag to sacrifice so much for liberty.
for- without liberty, ambition is dead,
aspiration is limited, remorse takes the
Nor were they afraid to let the world
know where they stood on the question
of human liberty. How different the sit
uation today T The Christian Church
today is silent as to lynching and burn
ing and human injustice. What Wendel
Phillips said years ago about American
Christianity is strikingly applicable to1
day. He said, "If you put a hound in
the presence of a deer it will spring at
its throat, if it is a true blood hound.
Put a Christian in the presence of sin
and he will spring at its throat, if he
is a true Christian. And so into an
acid we throw white matter, if it is
not chalk, it will not produce agita
tion. So if in a world of sinners you
were to put American Christianity it
would be as calm as oil."
The proclamation conferred on the
emancipated people their natural lib
erty. The right to their time and to
go whither they wished. It can easily
be seen that a dog may exercise nat
ural liberty and yet every cur may be
at liberty to bite him and any vicious
man may kick him. And so civil lib
erty is absolutely indespensible to a
full and complete enjoyment of our
natural liberty. To this end the Four
teenth nmendment to the Federal Con
stitution was passed and adopted. Thus
the Negro became a citizen and was
guaranteed protection in the exercise of
his natural liberty. But it was soon
discovered that under a representative
Democracy such as we have that a
citizen was but poorly secured in the
enjoyment of his civil liberty without
the added guaranty of political liberty,
and so the Fifteenth amendment to the
Federal Constitution was adopted. Thus
the newly made citizen was given the
right to vote and in this way protect
nimeeir in the exercise of his civil
rights. It was at this early day when
the Negro had neither wealth nor edu
cation considered absolutely necessary
that he be given the right to vote.
Oliver P. Morton of Indiana, speak
ing before the United States Senate,
on this subject in 1863, said:
"The nation waited long, experi
ence had to come to the rescue of
reason before the thing was done; in
the last resort and ar the last thing
io oe oone, uongress determined to
dig through all the rubbish, dig through
me sou ana smiting sands and eo down
to the eternal rock; and there noon
the Tasia of the' everlasting principle
ox equal, and exact justice to all men,
we planted.' the column- of reeonstrne
on." Congress at first experimented by
withholding political liberty from the
newly made citizen and left bira to the
tender mercies of his former masters
But when protests and complaints caa
in to Congress thick and fast, it wa
determined to send General Carl
Schurtz South to investigate and re
port to Congress on conditions there
General Schurtz reported that slavery
practically existed and that the onk-
solution of the difficulty was eafraa
chisement for the Negro.
It was not until yielding to the ,.
mands of justice and necessity that the
former slave was given the right to
vote. Starting out about 45 years ao
with full citizenship rights and none
of the results of progressive enterprise,
the Negro has surpassed in achiee
ment and development the most san
guinary expectations of his most ar
dent admirers. The marvelous achiev -ment
of the Negro in material wealth
and the facility with which he has
adapted himself to the requirement-,
of Anglo-Saxon civilization is enwjrh
to entitle him to justice and fair treat
ment and the favorable consideration
of the American people. As a citizen
he has been frugal, industrious and pa
triotic. As a voter he has exercise l
his franchiso in the way he thought
best subserved the interest of his peo
ple and in harmony with the majority
of the voters of the country. As a
soldier ho has exhibited a courage and
fortitude never surpassed and has nev
er hesitated to offer up his life on the
altar of his country's honor.
In the face of a record unparalle-1 m
the history of race progress, ia spite
of the cheerful heart and spirit of good
will, tho Negro has maintained through
all his struggles against hostile condi
tions and unfair exactions. There has
been and is today a persistent, vieioiw
and insidious attempt on the part of
tne -southern White man to humiliate
him and deprive him of his civil and
political rights. This attack starting
in the. Southland had steadily spread
until every section is affected by the
horrible propaganda of race prejudice.
This unholy work of arousing race an
tipathy has been prosecuted with such
wanton affrontery that today there is
more bitter feeling directed toward the
race than ever before since our eman
cipation. There is not the least valid
excuse for their action. The same mo
tive actuates the leaders in this move
ment today that influenced them in
1865 and 1868. Arouse wide spread
prejudice against a race, deprive them
of their civil and political rights and
you not only expose them to the law
less .element of every communitv, but
you take from them all stimulous for
racial or individed advancement.
This without doubt is the end at
which our enemies aim. And yet the
great mass of our race sit silently by
and do not even protest against such
brazen injustice. There was a time
when the Negro was loud in his protest
against lynching and every attempt to
take from him his vested rights was
persistently resisted. It is barely pos
sible that he has listened to the song
of "patience and submission" until it
has lulled him to sleep. When the
children of Isreal were treated the most
cruel by those who would enslave them,
the Lord commanded Moses to agitate,
then he agitated, and the Lord came to
their rescue. It is I fear that our re
ligious training has tended to make us
too humble and submissive. In these
days of oppression and injustice we
need militant religion.
I admire the fighting courage of
Christian in "Pilgrim's Progress." He
actually dared to fight old Appolyon
himself, and when Appolyon knocked
him down and was dancing with glee.
Christian cried out: "Bejoice not over
me, O, my enemies, for if I fall I shall
rise again."
Our churches seem to have stopped
singing that battle hymn. "Must I
be carried to the skies on flowery beds
of ease, which others fought to win
the prize and sail through bloody seas!
8ut8 I must fight if I would reign, in
crease my courage Lord." It is not
nearly so easy to rob a fellow while
he is awake and alert and ready to
fight and make a noise, as it is to rob
the fellow who is asleep or is afraid to
give alarm.
Wealth alone will not check the as
saults on our rights or restore the lib
erty we have permitted to be taken
away. For what advantage is wealth
without civil and political liberty! He
is a stupid man indeed who does not
realize with 8hylock as he stands be
fore the bar of Christian justice and
craves the law, when they deny him
his rights he says: "Nay take my
life and all you do take my house when
you do take the prop that doth sus
tain my house."
We must do something to arouse the
slumbering millions of our race to the
necessity of vigilance and action. Ten
million people- united for common de
fense and affirmative action, could be
almost invincible. A little band of 700
8partons held at bay Xerses army of
a million souls at Thermopyle Pass.
The greatest benefactors of the race
will be the person or persons who can
mould these- dirersed inharmonious mil
lions into homogeneous courageous
and active people. The times and con
ditions- call for vigilance and action.
Let us awake, from our lethargy and
throw off the incubus of "silence and
submission." Let us be not afraid

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