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The broad ax. [volume] (Salt Lake City, Utah) 1895-19??, February 03, 1917, Image 4

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I '
Illiteracy Article Number Two.
By John W. Felton.
There have been many theories ad--ranced
as to the reason that Negroes
in the "United States are discriminated
against. In my opinion, there is no one
reason, but it is safe to say that illit
eracy plays an important part.
In viewing the Negro, not from the
heights that he has attained but from
the depths from which he sprang, the
reduction of his illiteracy has been a
marvelous feat.
In 1880 the illiteracy of the Negro
was 70 per cent; in 1890 it was 57.1 per
cent; in 1900 44.5, and 1910 it had been
reduced to 30.4 per cent. When it is
realized that within thirty years the il
literacy of the Negro has been reduced
from 70 to 30.4 per cent, no one can
truthfully say that his Record in erad
icating illiteracy has not been phenom
enal. This has been accomplished in spite
of the fact that for every nine dollars
spent in the State of Mississippi on in
vestment in school property, only one
dollar is spent for Negroes." It is also
to be noticed that in Louisiana for
'every fifty-one dollars spent for the
same purpose, only forty-nine dollars of
it is spent for the ""Whites." i'Oh, In
consistency, thou art a jewel."
These conditions do not exist in these
two states alone, but throughout the
benighted South. Facing such condi
tions as these, not to speak of the das
tardly crimes committed against the
Negro, we should not marvel because
nearly a quarter of a million of them
have left recently.
There are fifty cities that have a to
tal population of 100,000. Of these, the
highest percentage of illiteracy-ef the
Negro in 1910 were as follows: Bir
mingham, Ala., 22.1; Nashville, Tenn.,
22; and Atlanta, Ga., 20.9. Of the
nineteen cities of this class having a
population of at least 10,000 Negroes,
the lowest percentages of illiteracy
were: In Boston, 3.5 per cent; New
York, 3.6; and Chicago, 4 per cent. The
lowest per cent recorded in any of these
cities was 1.4 per cent in Bochester,
New York.
In Georgia in 1829 the following law
was enacted: If any slave, Negro or
free person of" color, or any white per
son shall teach any other slave, Negro,
or free person of color to read or write,
either written or printed characters,
the said free person or slave shall be
punished with a fine and whipping, or
fine or whipping, at the discretion of
the court; and if a white person so
offend, he, she, or they shall be pun
ished with a fine not exceeding $500
and imprisonment in the common jail,
at the discretion of the court.
Similar laws were enacted in Louisi
ana, Mississippi, Missouri, South Caro
lina and Virginia. Such southern
writers as "W. B. Smith and Thomas
Nelson Page with their pseudo-scientific
books on the Negro have yet much to
learn about him.
"W. B. Smith in his disgusting volume,
"Along the Color Line," heaps unhal
lowed obloquy upon the Negro. He
says that he is illiterate, criminal, etc.,
without stopping to consider the causes
of these things if they are so. "With
such obstacles as the Blease "AYalls"
to scale, the Vardaman "Seas" to
cross, the Tillman "Mountains" to
climb, the Smith "Air" to breathe and
the Pago ""Water" to drink, it would
be well not to boast of scholarship and
accomplishment, but rather marvel that
the Negro is able to read the first
The school attendance of the Negro
G to 20 years of age is 47.3. Now, in
order to eradicate the menace of illit
eracy, the remaining 52.7 per cent
should be made to attend school by law,
if not by the parents of the children.
If this was dono immediately, in 1920
when the next census is taken, the il
literacy of the Negro would be so small
that it would hardly be worth while
to count.
The Alpha Suffrage Club in its elec
tion of officers last meeting elected the
following: Dr. Fannie Emanuel, pres
ident; Mrs. S. L. Adams, vice-president;
Mrs. J. E. Hughes, secretary;
Miss Laura Beasley, treasurer; Mrs.
Tda "Wells-Barnett, chairman of the ex
ecutive board. A strong letter of pro
test was sent to Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen,
president of the Juvenile Protective
Association, in relation to coarse, lan
guage used about and in the presence
of Qolored women, officers of the Juve
nile Court. Said language was by one,
Mr. Guile, who was a juvenile protec
tive officer in charge of the work in the
Colored district. A request was made
that he be taken off the Colored cases,
and if it was possible to do so, a rep
resentative of the Negro race be put in
the work.
The Ideal Woman's Club which held
its Reciprocity Day meeting on Friday,
appointed & committee to trait upon
Mrs. Bowen is regard to too same mat
tor. The ""clubs reported were: The
Ideal Woman's Club, East Side Club,
The American Rose Art Club, The
North Side "Woman's Club and the Ida
B. "Wells "Woman's Crab. This commit
tee waited on Mrs. Bowen on "Wednes
day morning of this week and had a
most satisfactory interview with her.
Mrs. Bowen is well known and is a
staunch friend of the Colored people.
It is time now to talk about the win
ter fly.
But there are no flies in winter time,
the average person would say.
The Department of Health, however,
says that there are winter time flies.
And these winter time flies are respon
sible for the countless millions of these
pestiferous little insects that we have
with us in the summer months. As a
matter of fact, there is scarcely an
office building or hotel in the loop dis
trict, and especially th'e latter, that has
not harbored live flies all winter long
and in which they might be found right
now. Bakeries and bakery oven rooms
are places for the flies to survive the
cold season, and as already stated, the
flies that survive during the winter are
responsible for those that we have dur
ing the summer months.
Flies do not hibernate; they are not
long lived. "When the chilling frosts of
the autumn months come they disap
pear by the millions. It is only the
few that manage to secure quarters
comfortable enough to enable them to
live and breed through the winter.
Therefore, it is important that right
now we should get after the winter fly.
If every hotel and restaurant keeper
in the City of Chicago and every
bakery and delicatessen store should
get busy now to exterminate the flies
that they may find on their premises, it
would be a most effective measure to
wards the prevention of fly plague next
It is possible, too, that in a few
places and comparatively few through
out the city, manure, in which flies'
eggs have been deposited, has been
stored in quantities so large as to re
tain heat sufficient to keep the eggs
from freezing; and these, when warm
weather comes and the manure is re
moved, will no doubt emerge as flies.
The most prolific sources of supply,
however, are found in the places
named, where a summer temperature
has been maintained during the cold
weather and where the flies have had
plenty to eat and managed to get along
without discomfort or starvation.
Every housewife should also go care
fully over her house to see that there is
not a fly now living in it. It is not an
uncommon sight in midwinter to see a
fly buzzing on one of your window
panes. The important thing is, how
ever, to catch that winter fly. The De
partment of Health believes that this
is an important matter, for the reason
that the flies now living are laying
eggs in favorable places for incubation
in early spring, and some of these eggs
are hatched out during the winter
months in places where the tempera
ture is warm and even.
It is hardly necessary at this time
to repeat what so often has. been said,
that flies carry the germs of disease;
that they are a menace to the health
of any community in which they are
allowed to exist. They carry the germs
of such diseases as typhoid, dysentery
and tuberculosis, and many medical
men suspect them of playing a part in
the spread of infantile paralysis. In
view of the fact that Chicago may have
an outbreak of this dread disease next
summer, this appeal to start the fly
killing campaign now should not go un
heeded. Let every one get busy and
swat the winter fly.
To overcome diphtheria and wipe it
gradually off the map, let all parents
follow this advice:
nave your child's tonsils and ade
noids properly removed by those
who know how. These glands are
favorite points for diphtheria to at
tack. In case of even slight sore
throat, keep close watch, especially
in the cold, indoor season, and get a
doctor early. Insist that the child be
given a prompt dose of antitoxin in
case of the slightest question of the
disease. Antitoxin will do no harm, tho
poison of diphtheria will.
The chairman of the speakers' com
mittee of the Young People's Lyceum,
Grace Presbyterian church, has secured
Miss Katheryn Johnson, Wilberforce
University, a platform lecturer, to
speak Sunday, February 4, at Grace
church, at 5 o'clock. Miss Johnson has
a thirty minute lecture that is a liter
ary gem, brimful of wholesome instruc
tions and advice. Until recently, she
has traveled extensively for the Na
tional Association for the Advancement
of Colored People. Clarence Lee, tho
"wizard of tho violin," will play, Miss
Eloise Cook, a talented soprano, will
sing; also a noted tenor singer is on
the program. Miss Maude J. Roberta
will preside. Miss Bertha Moseley,
president, C&ry B. Lewis, chairman of
the speakers' committee. Best seats
are secured at 5 o'clock! The public is
invited. No admission.
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One of the most popular and honorable
'as one of the judges of the
Stock of "The Birth of a Race" Being
Sold by Brokers and is Going Like
Hot Cakes.
If you want to see two busy places
visit the offices of the Birth of a Race
Photoplay Corporation, and then visit
the offices of the brokers, Giles P. Cory
& Company.
After these visits there will bo no
doubt in the mind of any one as to the
assured success of that big photoplay,
"The Birth of a Race," now in course
of preparation.
The stock is being sold in amounts
ranging from $10 to $10,000. The list
of Chicago stockholders is as long as
your armr and a very long arm at that.
Every mail brings applications for
stock from one end of the country to
the other.
In talking with Mr. Barker, president
of the Birth of a Race Corporation, he
said: "I am a little surprised that
most of the stock is being sold to White
folks; but this is true. There is plenty
of interest among the Colored folks,
but they seem to be a little slow. They
have been waiting for something. I
don't know just what that something
is; out my auvice is ior tnem not iu
wait much longer. If they do, they will
find that they have waited too long.
A number of sales have been made to
the Colored people of Chicago, and all
over the country as well. And every
one of these stockholders is a good,
substantial man or woman."
A little change has been made in the
officers of the Corporation. L. C. Con
ner, formerly vice-president, is no
longer associated with the company.
The new treasurer is John Gulliksen,
assistant cashier of the Union Bank of
Chicago. The board of directors has
been strengthened. Everything that
could possibly bo done has been done
to safeguard investors, so that every
share of stock will share equally with
every other share of stock in every dol
lar of profit to be made from this big
Geo. Frederic Wheeler, who is
writing the story of "The Birth of a
Race," is now in the South. While
away he will visit Nashville, Chatta
nooga, Atlanta, Birmingham, Montgom-crj-,
Mobile, New Orleans, Tuskegee,
Hampton, Piney Woods and many other
He will look up locations for various
scenes for tho photoplay, discuss de
tails with Emmett J. Scott, and make
arrangements for the taking of much of
the picture.
Mr. Wheeler has been asked to speak
at the Negro Board of Trade of Nash
ville and to address audiences in other
"The Birth of a Race" is broadening
in theme and growing in interest. The
story will carry a message to all races
and nationalities. And why shouldn't
itf The United States is a melting pot
Into it go all races, and out of it is
born a now race the American. The
problem of having the different races in
this country live and work in harmony
is a national problem. Racial prejudice
strikes at the very heart of democracy.
The government at Washington is
thinking of this problem, and Mr.
Barker is soon to have a conference to
explaia in detail the good that "The
Birth of a Race" will do in bringing
jurists in Chicago, who will be re-elected
Superior Court this coming fall.
about a better understanding between
the races.
"The Birth of a Race" is ai big
work, but it is being pushed very hard.
The men in charge know their business.
Beauregard F. Moseley Appointed
Chairman of the Civic and Public
Affairs Committee. Big "Symposi
um" at Club Parlors, February 4th,
on "Negro Migration." All Ly
ceums and Literary Clubs of the City
Invited to Have Representatives
Present. President CoL J. H. John
son Requests Presence of All Mem
bers, Wives and Friends.
The Appomattox Club seems to have
at last struck the real note of the pur
pose of its organization, Race Uplift,
and will commence it's 1917 program
on Sunday, February 4th, 1917, at 4
P. M., at the Club Parlors, in a big
"Symposium '1 upon the livest ques
tion now before the American people,
"Negro Migration."
The program is in charge of one of
Chicago's most active and public spir
ited citizens, Beauregard F. Moseley, a
lawyer of repute and great practice,
who will be remembered as having put
the Club on record last year in a big
speech at Wendell Phillips High School,
on the occasion of the Lincoln and
Douglass anniversaries. He is sur
rounding himself as Chairman of the
Civic & Public Affairs Committee, with
some of the best talent in the Club,
and purposes, with the co-operation of
Col. J. H. Johnson, President, and the
Board of Directors, to mako things
On the occasion of February 4th,
next, the program will indeed be in
teresting, as not only tho representa
tives of the Grace Lyceum, the St.
Mark's Literary and that of Bethel,
Olivet, Quinn Chapel, Wayraan Chapel,
St. Paul's M. E., Mt. Zion of Evanston,
and other leading churches of the city
will speak or read papers upon this
subject, but each member of the Civic
Committee will bo heard, thus giving
an opportunity to all who may attend
to hear the best discussions possible
upon this subject.
All clubs or literaries, desiring to
have representatives present, should
forward the name to Chairman Mose
ley not later than Saturday, February
3rd, or sooner.
On Sunday, February 11th, 1917, at
4 P. M., the Club will celebrate the
one hundredth anniversary of Abra
ham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass
with speeches. The day will be known
as the "Douglass Centenary" and ap
propriate speeches will be made by the
Hon. Albert C. Barnes, of the Appel
late Court, upon the subject of "Abra
ham Lincoln," and Dr. Geo. Cleveland
Hall, one of the noted physicians of
the race, upon the subject of "Fred
erick Douglass" at the Club Parlors.
Dr. Dickerson promises a real treat by
first class musical program on each oc
casion. The members of the Civic ft Public
Speakers Committee, as announced by
President Johnson are as follows:
Beauregard. F. Moseley, Chairman,
Ifcoa. L. B. Anderson, Hon. S. B. Tur
ner, CoL John R. Marshall, Hon. S. A.
T. "Watkins, Mr. D. French, Hon. H.
S. Daniels, Hon, Henry S. Anderson,
Hon. E. H. "Wright, Hon. Oscar De-
Priest, Dr. S. C. Dickerson, Hon. B. S.
Abbott, Hon. "W. B. Cowan, Major K.
B. Jackson, Hon. A. Lk Jackson, Hon.
A. A. "Wells. "C. M. F."
. It is hoped that the Hon. Henry S.
Anderson and the many other honor
ables will accomplish wonders in be
half of civie betterment. Editor.
The terms of Judges Albert C.
Barnes, Joseph H. Fitch, Charles M.
Foell, Clarence N. Goodwin, Marcus
Kavanaugh, M. L. McKinley, William
H. McSurely, Hugo Pam and Denis E.
Sullivan, of the Superior Court of Cook
county, all expire during the year 1917.
Mr. Henrv M. Walker, wno was a
candidate for tho nomination for judge
of the Municipal Court at the Septem
ber primaries, is a candidate for one of
these positions for the election in
June, 1917. He has resided in the City
of Chicago for -over fifty years, being
raised on the South Side until the year
of 1876, living on Sixteenth street near
State street. At that time tho territory
south of Twenty-second and State
streets was cow pasture up to Twenty
sixth street, where there were four or
five houses on the west side of the
street that had water pumps sticking
out of the sidewalk, from which they
got their water: He afterwards moved
to the North Side and has resided in
the Twenty-fifth Ward for the last
twenty-eight years. He was admitted
to the bar and licensed to practice law
in 1892, since which time he has had
his offices at 127 North Dearborn street.
Mr. Walker, being a Mason of high
degree, contributes a large share of his
time to charity work, often defending
unfortunate and poor people without
fee. During the last year he spent a
month's time in one of such cases, as
well as handling between twenty-five
and thirty others of a similar nature,
and deserves credit for his work in this
direction, and he will make the right
kind of a judge.
' 'If White and Colored Love, Let them
Marry," He Says.
Salem, Ore. (Special). Representa
tive D. C. Lewis, of the late city of St.
Johns, again is championing the Ne
groes and other Colored residents of the
Lewis was author of the resolution
adopted at the last session submitting
to the voters the proposal to eliminate
from the state constitution an obsolete
section prohibiting Negroes from
voting. The proposal was defeated at
the recent election.
But Lewis came forth with another
bill designed in the interests not only
of the Negroes but of Chinamen and
Kanakas as well. It would repeal pro
visions of existing laws making it ille
gal for Whites and Negroes, Chinese
and Kanakas to intermarry.
"If a White man loves a Colored
woman or a Chinese woman, let him
marry her," he argues.
" Trt T lifii'A rrt nMfinnlnv initnln in
Jy .. 4Kb i. us faitltUl(ll V,UULJlb AU
mind, but some of my Colored constit
uents asked me to introduce the bill."
He will also introduce another bill
making it unlawful for the secretary of
state, state printer or other officer to
print as a part of the state constitution
those provisions making it illegal for
Negroes to vote or to hold property.
He says that this course will elim
inate the objectionable sections from
the constitution that the fourteenth
amendment to the federal constitution
abrogated them long ago. It was not
necessary even to submit the repeal
amendment to the people at the last
election, he says.
Painting is One of Five Selected to Go
On Record Exhibition of New York
Color Club in that City.
Cheynoy, Pa. One of the paintings
displayed at the recent exhibition of
the New York Color Club was the work
of Miss Daura Wheeler, teacher of art
in tho Cheyney Training School for
Teachers, and former winner of the
Cresson Prize Scholarship from the
Academy of Fine Arts of Philadelphia,
The painting is entitled, "Heir
looms," and was one of the twelve se
lected out of five hundred as a perma
nent illustration for the Water Color
Club -catalogue. Last aprisg Miss
Wheeler had five paintings on exhibi
tion at tho Art Institute of Chicago.
Five hundred Negro voters of the
Second Ward, at a mass meeting he
last night at 3249 South State street
protested against the selection of Louis
Anderson, an assistant corporation
counsel, as an aldermanic candidate by
the Thompson Republican organization.
The gathering indorsed William Ban
dolph Cowan as a candidate and de
nounced city hall dictation in Second
Ward politics. Cowan has already filed
his petition.
"We take the position," said A. L.
Williams, one of those present, "that
the Colored people of this ward should
select their candidate. We are op
posed to having Congressman Madden
and Senator George F. Harding pick a
candidate for us. Anderson was picked
at a meeting of forty precinct eaptains
and he received thirty-three votes.
The Chicago Herald, Feb. 1, 1917.
It was stated a few weeks ao in the
columns of one of the weekly news
papers of this city that just because
Captain James S. Nelson happen to be
real light in complexion that ho ought
not to have been selected as one of the
assistant prosecuting attorneys of Chi
cago. Not one word was said in the article
against his reputation or character, nor
against his qualifications for the posi
tion. Captain Nelson belongs to almost
all the secret societies among the Col
ored people in this city and never at
tempts to get away from or side-step
his race and pass for white. It is the
height of foil' for any one to belittle
him on account of his color.
New York (Special). Vincent Astor.
one of the world's richest men. was one
of the chief mourners at the funeral
of Mitchell Morton, the Negro janitor
in the offices of the Astor estate in
Twenty-sixth street.
Not only were the offices closed dur
ing the services in Mount Olivet Bap
tist church, but Astor, the entire ofliee
force and several prominent persons at
tended the funeral. It was one of the
greatest tributes of wealth to faithful
services performed in a lowly capacity
that the city has seen.
Morton was 46 years old and was
born in Virginia, entering the employ
of the late Col. Astor twenty years ago.
The Negro Fellowship League will
celebrate the one hundredth anivcrsaTV
of Frederick Douglass at the Beading
Room, Sunday, February 4, 1917, at 4
o'clock p. m. Members of the League
will give sketches of Douglass' life,
also quotations from his works. AH
Douglass lovers are requested to be
Last Sunday the League held a
crowded meeting in conjunction with
the aldermanic committee, second ward.
A concensus of opinion as to bow to
remedy vice conditions in the second
ward was to elect F. L. Barnett alder
man of the second ward.
Most people 'have not realized that
slavery existed anywhere under the
British flag to-day, so it is a surprise
to hear that an ordinance declaring
the abolition of the legal status of
slavery in Nigeria (Africa) has been
promulgated. Review of the World.
Sam Langford, the popular champion
middle-weight prize fighter, it is re
ported will become part owner of the
Keystone Hotel, 3032 S. State street.
"Lovie Joe," J. H. WhWon. part
owner of the Elite No. 1, 3030 S. State
street, will pull out for California on a
vacation trip shortly after the iniM
of February.
Arthur F. Codozoc, 5259 s. Wabash
avenue, one of the owners of the KlnV
Cafe No. 1, 3030 S. State street, wa
the first part of this week confined to
his house with illness, but he i no
improving under the medical eare
Dr. George C. Hall.
Dr. Lucas, of Meridian, M-
able secretary of the Epwortu Leajjw
of the M. E. church, spent the greattr
part of last week in tho city " he
honored and distinguished guc.t of r.
Charles B. Travis, the successful
estate broker, and before leaving tw
city Dr. Lucas purchased two Pie4eT
good income property through '
Travis, the property being
locaU -
4221 a Wabash avenue and
Rhode avesae.

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