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BV C.'& C. ZARLEY.
JGIJET ILLTNOIS, AUGUST 181840. VOLUME 4,' NUMBER 10. err- i ' 4 V I X W ". ' THE '- JOLIET SIGNAL.: V Is published eve ry Tuesday, morning cn Chicago-street, Joliet, 111. Terms. Two Dollars per annum pay able in advance, or $2,50 if payment is .S-1.....J .1 j .f.ir v.Liiij-cu unui iue ?uu n ine year. BATES OP ADVERTISING. One Square, 1 insertion,' 7 u EaclT additional 81,00 0 25 3 50 ;5 00 insertion, .6 months, 14 It it 12 months. Ordinary business cards per ann. 3 00 No advertisements, will be inserted in this paper unless accompanied by the cash or some person personally , known to the editorsbecoming responsible for the same. . 07"AI1 letters addressed to the editors tnuit be Post-paid, or they, will not re ceive attention. '." BUSINESS DIRECTOaY. j ob pr in r in g ; oF ALL KINPS, ; Executed tcvh Neatness and Despatch, AT THE OFFICE OF , THR: S:G.V L. JOHN COA1STOCK, t Dealer in Dry Goods, Groceries, Hardware, Crockery, Ready-made CloLkvng If., Opposite the Exchange' Hotnl, Joliel, Illinois. BOARDMAN & BLODGETT. . ATTCaSErs AND COUNIELLMtS AT LAW, AMD SOl.ICITOHS IN CIIANCF.BT, ; LUtlrfort Lake County, III ) r .: . t Will nttend to ny profesaisnal busiujs which my be nttrusted-to their charge in the Seventh Julicial circuit, Illiooir. " ; , . . W. A. BOARD.MAN. ' ' ; - H V. BLOtKJETT- v - GEO. SMITH CR AWF- RD8 M. D.r WilminglonWill Cuanty, 111. , Office atW. Baker s." . 7 V R. F. BROWER, M. D. - Office at Woodruff's Drug Store National Hotel Building. fVett Juliet DR. M. K. BROWNSON, : (Joliet, III.) . . Ajent for Sapj)ihgtoa" Anti-Fever' Pilli. . . . , Bock on Fevern, - ; " American Anii-Ftbri- '" " Tugii PilU. ' V '; J- ' Pric.of the Kbove $!,0( ench. '23 J. BARNETT, Attorney axu Counsellor at Law, Wilmington, 111. - Will act also as general agent in paying taxes. i purchasing and selling lands, &.c. All collec t'mns confided to him will be at. ended ta . wi:' promptness and fidelity. t S. W-BOWEN. - "V ' ATTORNET AND COUNSELLOR AT LAW ; Agent for the pavment of Taxes, redemption f lands, A-i., in Will, Diipge, La Salle, Krn dall, and the adjoinirg counties'';-"' Oy?Iee oppotit- the tlxehange Hotel, JolieU Hi ELISHAC. FELLOWS, ' ATTOBTJEY Ac COUNSELLOR AT, LAW, And Solicitor in Chancery, yill regularly attend the courts in the counties of Will, Du Page, Kendall, McHenry, Grundy and Iroquois. ;;Office and residence on - East side the river, Joliet, 111. ' r JAMES F, WIGHT, ' GlMERAL ACKNT, CoNVETAXCrB, AND JU6TIC or tiii PhACE.Naperville, Dj Page v - ' County, Illinois. . July 13.1844. : ,. TURNEY & RANDALL, V; ' ". ; Attotneye at Law, .W attend the Count in the Counties of Witt, DtiPage, Mc'Henry, Grundy &. Iroquois, J. Tunet, I SVV. Randall, , . Lockport. .. . I Juliet.. , . - - ny appoiuttaent nf the Governor of Penitjyl Tadla,S. V'. Randall it authorited lo take, the acknowle IgimnnS and proof, within the State cf IlJiwoit, of all dreds and instiuments under sial to be usad or recorded in the State of Pennsylvn- JACOB A. WIHTEMAN, ,, ' ATf 6RNET AND COEX8F.Ll.OR AT LAW, ' And Counsellor in Chancery. - JJiddlepnrt, Iroquois county.': IlL . v -fjy Arrangemen-.s have been made with Gen. James Turney and S.. VV. Itandall Esqs., by which the subscriber wilt uhtnin their assistance whenever desired by his clients. - ' - ; ' J.A-WIIITEMAN,' . . , C. C. .VANUORN . ;. Attorney and Counsellor at Law, and Solicito. in Chancery, Chelsea, Will Co. 111. I OS:OObSi LITTLE, o Affmey and t'ouusellore a Law and Solicit-, crs in Chancery Jo'iet, 11! Office '.on Chicago (treet, one door no:th of ths Ejtchanga Hotel.. ; ' CaiOGOOD. . . .,: W. E. LtTTL , ; O. J. CORBtN. M. D. Plainfirld, Will Co Til. II. N. MARSH. v J.Ianu'act'irer of every variety of Cabinet furni ture and Chair, Rluff Street. Juliet Hi. - DAN!EL -CURTISS. ; . ; Ju i'.uc f the Peace. OSce on Chicago street., ci.s oJr r.f.rth of II. Lowe's store, Juliet 111. e. ii. littTe, , ; ; Attorney at Law, and Po!i:it!!r !n Chancery, wil .?,vl the C?u-jrt9 rezv'xr'y in th Canntiea o V.'n. w !tll, Grun'ly, atid Iroquois- 'Offiec,n (.'. I". Gru:tdy Co. lil. , a , :r.i I':-:-et Hi'-:-"$ CS..1 ' -V - "'. For the Signal.' I ; .51 Y MOTHER it Bias . norms. Linked with the living,' still I tread r On -TimeV revolving wheel; '" '- Yet, oft rny thoughts arc with the dead, ; " Whose hearts have ceased to feel. ' . Mother, when in the narrow bed . '.Thy pale, cold form was laid; -And o'er thy lone,' imprisoned head, The last brief prayer was said: I mourned, to know thy loving heart ; . " Must moulder b)ck to dust, : ; And thou hadst ceased to act thy part, ; And rendered up tby trust. ; " -I. thought 'of all thy tireless care, By love and mercy moved ' . How thou didst suffer and forbear, When wayward children roved; ' . And smiles that beamed upon thy face, Wheu duty's task was done; And felt that none could fill thy place, . Beneath the circling sun. - - I mourned to see my honored sire, c ". With none to cheer his lot; . ; ; Sit musing by the lonely fire, - Where thou didst meet him not My infant brother sobbed with grief, ; My infant sister wept ' , Oh! n'er before the gloomy Chief Had o'er our threshold step'd! And neighbors saw thy breathless sleep, 'And anguish bow'd them down;'. And want's sad children came to weep '-- r The poor man's friend was gone. :: ' - '. '-. " ' V. . And then in bitterness I said:' . Why is this fearful change? -"Why hath this bolt of wrath been sped? Thy ways, O, God, are strange! ,-';'' . But months rolled on -and day by day, . My father grew less sad; The children shouted in their play, . And was gay and glad. For Time doth heal the human heart, Which grief hath deeply wrung; ' And pluck away the poisoned dart, : Which hath too keenly stung.' And well 'tis thus for.who could live, ; - And bear the weight of woe .1 . That bows us down,vhen first we give Our friends to dut below? ' - Forever rest, thou weary one! - , I would not wake thee now, , . - Again to hear tby voice's tone, -; Nor see thy placid brow; ; , ? Again to hear thee sweetly teach, That "Sin is Slavery" - ; ; ; But, thankfulness, loo deep for speech, -1 render back to thee! , : Bombardment of San Jain dc Ulloa: The following is from a communication in the N. Y. E. Post, in relation tojhe dif ficulties in the way of taking the castle before "Vera . Cruz. The attack upon this castlo will bn the greatest military operation ever undertaken by the U. S. It is worthy of our arms, and we hope to see it carried through without any nice mercantile calculation, of the number of tons of old iron which will have to-be thrown away. J"' ; "One gun in a well constructed fortifi cation is as efficient as ten guns fired from a ship. The chances are that a ship vith one hundred guns, attacking a land batte ry with ten guns, would be destroyed. This must.be the result 'so long as on the one side batteries arc formed of earth or stone, and, on the othrr, ships are formed of wood, and libable to bo' swallowed up by the elements on which they float, or to bo deprived of the means . by which they move; so long as they Can be penetrated by solid shot, set on fire, or blown up by hot shot, or torn piecemeal by shellc. A Paixhan shot or shell, which would be de structive to a vessel,' would, be '.powerless against the stone rampart of a fort. ,r If I tvere behind the waH of fort Hamilton or fort Schuyler, in our own harbor it would be n matter of indifTerencc to me whether an enemy should throw against those walls Paixhan shot and shells or s eggs. The only difference would be that the former, in crushing againstthe, surface, would make more noise than the latter.' - ; v t'But, it.will be asked, if it is impossi ble now to take San Juan,' how did it hap pen this t he French took it in 1 8381 It happened for the same reason that a'house which, without a roof, would bo very wet in a rainy day, would be perfectly dry with a good nof on . it. . "The magazines were then exposed and exploded, and that was the cause of the surrender. The cas tle was entirely cut of repair, and; had been so for many years. iMoreovetj the guns were few, and cf small caliber, the garrison hardly deserving the name and but few of the guns in condition to be us ed at all. Now, however, the magazines are mad 3 bomb and shell proof, guns of Jivy enabsr arc mounted, the furnaces tara supplied, the- walls in :z CT-- tnd a f.11 end well drilled garrison, with French and English artif-T lerists, are' within its walls.'- . . b r. v As tbis'subject'of the relatii'e strength of ships and batteries, though of generaL interest and importance, is littlo under stood by jaymen, and as it is a matter of some consequence to us here in NewY"ork to know how far bur own forts may be a ble to serve us in case our friend Bull should attempt an unfriendly visit to us, I will, with your leave, occupy somewhat more of your columns on the subject' In doing so I will state nothing at random, but from official sources. In 1840 a re port was made by the war department to the house of representatives on the sub ject of the defence ofthe Atlantic frontier, Passamaquoddy .to the Sabine, from the pen of Col. Totten, the 'disiinguished head ofour engineer department, in which this subject is very fully considered; Had that gallant, officer no other basis' for his high reputation than this report, he might well, be cqntcnt to occupy the position which it alone 'would, give hirn.v I. will endeavor to condense some of his positions and illustrations oh the point which we are considering. , " :.- ; :, - It is laid down as a reason why ships cannot cope (on any thing "bordering oh equal terms) with fortifications, that the ship is every where equally vulnerable; and, large as is her, hull, the men and the guns are very much concentrated within her. "1, On tne other hand, in the properly constructed battery, -it is only the gun it self, a small part ofthe carriage, and now and then a head or ah arm. raised above the parapet, that can, be hurt the ratio of the exposed surfaces being not Jess than fifteen or twenty to one. Next, there u always more or less motion in the water, so that the ship-gun, although it may have pointed accurately at one moment, at the next will be thrown entirely away from the. object, even when the motion in tlie vessel is too small to be otherwise notic ed; whereas, in the battery, the gun will be fifed just as it is pointed, and the mo tion of the ship will merely , vary to the extent of a few inches, or, at mtst, two or three feet, the spot in which :the shot is to be received. In the ship there are be sides, many points exposed, that may h-; called vital points. By losing her rudder or portions of her rigging, or her spars, she may. become unmanageable and una ble to use her strength; she may be shot under waterand sink; she may receive hot shot and be" set on lire, and these daniigas are in addition to those of haying her fjuus dismounted, and her people killed by the shot which pierce . ner sides and scatter splinters from her timbers; while the risks of the bat'ery are confined to those , ment tioned above namely, i the risk that, the gun, the carriage, or-' the men x may tbe struck; that the magazine should be ex posed, as were those of the castle of San Juan de Ulua, must never be anticipated;' as well might we expect to find a hostile division of infantry in the field without bay onets. : s-;- '-: 'i: -r -"The cas ;s in which sbips have s"ilen ccd land-batteries are few, and each read ily explained (like that of San Juan de Ul ua) by circumstances quito independent ofthe question conside ring. Social Condition of Poland. "Herein is the danger that menaces the whole Scalavonic world, be , it Prussia, Austria, or Russia. It has no' middle class. . . The' peasants stand alone shut out from contact, sympathy information. Their ignorance is such that "any idle sto ry or misrepresentation suffices to excite their zeal, arm their hands with forks and scythes, and imbrue them in blood. All their superiors are enemies, as they have never done their du ty by them. They have been made beasts of the field, and as beasts, when excited they act. ; We see from history, what insurrections of the peasantry have been in ruder ti nes, when there were no middle ' classes, ; arjd the peasants rose -Mercy, humanity,and all motives higher than animal vengeance,dis appear from such wars. All countries have had samples , of it; and the East of Europe seems destined to be'", visited .'by the scourge. . Hitherto we have seen but symptoms, and wo may . see graver; ones. The admitted, spread of communist doc trines is a potent sign; for, after " all, the preachers of such doctrines must be few, secret, and of small resources. Their success must have: proceeded less. from themselves than from the readiness of the people to catch, and communicate such doctrines. Wben the country is furze and that furze dry, a spark is sufficient to put all in a flame. ; "- , ; Poland rose.in 183D, but it was -from a political cause; and the serf does not un derstand politics. -j What knows he, or cares he, for his country's independence or freedom of the- individual? There is no use in hoisting a political flag for tho serf, You must hang before' him a social one. .He is benumbed, stupid 'and resig. I natedjbut he hath concentrated vengeance in him, and if you but show him who is his oppressor and his foe, he will take you at your word, and stand." The Austrians did this at Tarnow.' -Arid Ave learn thai the Austrian Government itself is frighten ed &t its success; for it discovers an r in; flammable principle,' just as . likely to be turned against the Government as. the ar. gioracy. What is to bd dreaded in Bohemia, Gal. I I. icia Poland," Hungary, arid Russia, is not a political, insurrection,"' but social war not a plot of nobles, :or students,'or young officers; but an uprising -of serfs, and, of peasants'akin : to serfs; Were Sclavonia alone shut out from all Europeancontact, things might go on quietly as in the past. The peasantry might remain contented until a mercantile and citizen class arose then both united would compel aristocracy and -crown to share with the social and political rights', ' V r f 3 ' ' " ; But civilized Europe stands "at" 3cIavo nia's door. And the ambition of despots, in destroying and "partitioning Poland, have effectually destroyed all barriet and frontier. T.he literature, the religion, the principles, and enlightment of Germany, come.to the tfoor of high one-half of the Poles, and of course cannot be kept from the remainder. IVhd school-master will not let serfage bj; and those who vduld pvrpetute it. must perish. ; These same serfsin the first burst of their cboier, the first Useof their free arms, may. strike dowq their own nobles. Buf they will not stoplhere. The armies of the gov ernment, the police, the whole force, are ofthe blood and; families" of serfs! And if communists principles penetrate into the cottage, depend upon it, they would not be kept out of the fortress and the. barrack. If so, the noldes will not be the; only foes anJ victims.- Despotism- and. its agents are no less hateful than aristocracy. And the murderers of Tarnow may be incited by success and reward, to seek higher victims. Examiner. ' Veto of tlia Harbor and Ilirer Bill. To the House of Representatives: ; -. I have considered the bill entitled "An act making appropriations for certain har ,bors or livers" with the care which its im portauco demands, and now return the same to the House of Representatives, in which it originated. . The bill proposes to appropriate one million three hundred and seventy-eight thousand four hundred a.id titty dollars, to be applied to more than forty distinct and separate objects of im provement. - On examining its provisions and the variety ot objects of improvement which it embraces, many of them of a lo ,cul character, it is ditlicutt to : conceive, it it shall be sanctioned and become a law what practical constitutional restraint can hereafter be imposed upon the most exten ded system of internal improvement by the Federal Government in all part3 of the Union. .. The constitution has. not, in my judgment, conferred . upbnMhe Federal Government the power to construct wfii ks of internal improvement within the Slates or to appropriate money from the treasu ry for that purpose! . This-bill' assumes for the "Federal Government the right to exercise this power, cannot, I. think, be doubted.,,,. Tho approved course of the Government, and the deliberately expres sed judgment ofthe people, have denied the existence of such a power under the Constitution., Several of . my predeces sors have denied its existence in the most solemn forms. - - The general proposition that the Fed eral Government does not, possess' this power, is so well - settled, and has for a considerable period been so generally ac quiesced in, that it is not deemed necessa ry to reiterate the arguments by which it is sustained. . Nor do I deem neccessary after the full and elaborate discussion which have taken place before the coun try on this subject, to do. more than state the general considerations which 'have satisfied ine of the unconstitutionality and inexpediency" of the" exercise of-such a power. . :: . ; . .-, - It is nott questioned that Jho Federal Government is one of. limited powers.-- Its powers are such arid such only as are expressly granted in the Constitution, or are properly incident to the expressly grari ted powers, and necessary to their execu tion. In deterrhining whether a given fsowcr has been granted a sound rule of construction has been laid down by Mr. Madison. That -rule is, that -whenever a question arises concerning a particvilar power, tho first question is whether the power bis expressed in the Constitution. It it-be, the question' is decided. If it be not exprjssedr the next inquiry u.jst be. whether it is properly an .incident to an expressed power, arid necessary to its ex ecution.;. If it be, it may be exercised, by Congress; . If it be not,: Congress cannot exercise it." It is not pretended that there is any express grant "in the - Constitution conferring on Congress the power in ques tion. It is then -v an -incidental '.power in question. Is it then an incidental power, necessary and proper for the execution of any ofthe granted powers? All the gran ted powers, it is confidently affirmed, may be, effectually executed with the aid of uch" ah incident. 4tA power to ; be inci dental must: not .be -exercised dr, ends whic h mak e i t a p rin ci pal , or substan li ve power, independent of the principal pow er.to which it is incident." It js not c nough that it may be regarded ;by Con gress as convenient, of that its exercise would advance the public weal.' " It, must be necessary and proper to the execution ofthe principal expressed powtjr to which it is an incident, and without , which such principal power cannot be carried inio effect. The whole frame ofthe federal Constiutiton proves triat the Government which it creates was intended to be one of limited and specified powers.": A con- struction of the Constitution' sri broad as that by which the power in question is de fended, tends, imperceptibly to a consoli dation of power in a Government intended by-Us frame rs to be thuf limited in its au. tbority. The obvious tendency and in evitable "result of a consolidation ofthe titatesinto one sovereignty would be to transform the republican system ofthcU.S into a monarchy.' To guard against the assumption of all powerswhich encroach upon the reserved sovereignty ofthe States and which consequently tend to consolida tion, is the duty of all the true friends of our political system! That the power in question is not properly an incident to any ofthe granted powers, I am fully satisfied; but if there were doubts . on this subject, experience has demonstrated tho,wisdom ofthe rule that all the functionaries of the Federal Government should abstain from the exercise of all questionable or doubtful powers. : If an enlargement of the powers of the - Federal Government should . be deemed proper, it is safer and wise'r to ap peal to the States and the people ; in the mode prescribed' by the Constitution for the grant desired, than to assume its ex ercise without an amendment ofthe Con stitution. ,;lf Congress does not possess the general power to" construct ; works' of internal unprovement within the Stales, or' to appropriate money from theTreasu ury for that purpose, what is there toex emot some, at least, of the objects of ap prppriation included in this: bill from the. operation ofthe general rule?- This bill assumes tho existence of the power," and in some of its provisions asserts the prin ciple, that Congress may exereise it as fully as though the appropriations which it proposes ycre npplicab.e to the con ftructiou of roads and canals. If there liea di tinctiori in principle, h i not per-' ceived, and "should be "clearly defined. Some of the objects of appropriation con tained in tis bill are local in their char acter, and lie within the limits of a single State; and though in the language of the bill, they are called harbors they are not connected with . foreign commerce, .nor are they places of refuge or shelter for our navy, or commercial marine, on the ocean or lake shores. To cull the mouth of a creek, or a shallow inlet on our coast, a 1 harbor, cannot confer the" authority to expend the public money in its improve ment. Congress have exercised the pow. er coeval with the constitution of. estab lishing light-houses, beacons, buoys and pears on our ocean and lake shores, for the purpose of rendering navigation safe and easy, and of affording, protection and shelter for our navy and other shipping. These are 6afe-guards i placed in existing channels of navigation.,; After the long acquiescence of the Government through preceding administrations,! am not dispos ed to: question or. disturb the .authority to make arpropriations i for such purposes. When wo advance a step beyond this point, in addition to the establishment and support, by appropriations from the treas ury, of light-houses. beacons, buoys, piers and other improvements within the bays, inlets and harbors on our ocean and lake coasts immediately connected: with our foreign commerce, and attempts to make improvements in the interior at points unconnected - with foreign commerce, and where they are not needed for the pro- tcctiori and security of our naval and com nlercial marine, the difficulty arises in drawing a line, beyond which appropria atipns cannot be" made" by' the Federal Government. "' . -:""'' v One of my predecessors, who saw the evil-consequences of the system propos ed to be revived by this -bill, attempts to definethis line by declaring that "expen ditures of this character';' should be "con fined below the ports of entry or delivery established by law!" Acting on this re striction, he has withheld .his sanction from a bill which had pissed Congress "to improve the navigation pf the Wahash river.",.- He was at the same time ''sen sible that this restriction was not as satis-' factory as could be desired," arid that much embarrassment may be caused to the Ex ecutive Department in its execution, y appropriations. for remote and not Veil understood objects.'.' This restriction, it was soon found, was subject to be evaded, and rendered corriparatively : useless- in checking tho system of improvement which it was designed to arrest, in conse quence ofthe facility with which ports of entry and delivery may be established by iay upon tue upper . waters, aua in some instances, almost at the head of springs ofsume ofthe most unimportant ofour riv ers, and at points on our coast possessing noncommercial importance, and not used i as places of refuge and safety by our ';Na vy or other shipping. v..Many of the ports ! of entry and delivery now. authorized by law, so far .as foreign commerce is con cerned exist only in the statute books. No entry of. foreign goods is ever made, arid no duties are collected. at them. No exports of American products, bound for foroigri countries, ever clear from them. Toassume their existence -in the statute book as ports of entry or delivery,' warrant expenditures on the water leading to them, which would be" otherwise unauthorized, would be to arrest the proposition, that the law making power may engraft new pro vision on the Constitution. . If the re striction is a sound one, it can only "apply to the bays, inlets, and rivers, connected with or leading to such ports as actually have foreigh commerce, ports, at which foreign importations arriye in bulk, . pay. ' ing the duties chirged by law, and from ' which exports are made to foreign coun tries, It will be found by applying the " restriction thus understood to the bill un. ' der consideration, that it contains appro-" f priations for more than twenty objects of internal improvement called in the bill, harbors, at places which have never been ' declared by law either ports . of entry or... delivery, and at which, as appears from I ; the records ofthe treasury, there has ner : er been an. arrival of foreign : merchan- -; disc, and from which there never has -been a vessel cleared for a foieign coun. t ry. It will be found that many of these ' works are new, and at places for the im- f provement of which appropriations are now for the first time .proposed. : It wills be found, also, that the; bill contains ap. v propiations, for v rivers upon which there only exists no. foreigncommcrce, but up-i on which there has ; not been- established " even a paper port. of entry,; and. for. the 1 mouths of -creeks, denominated harbors, which if improved can benefit the panic -ular neighborhood in which they.are situ- ated only, f- It will be found, too, to con- tain appropriations theV- expenditure -'of which will only havevthe effect of impro . vingone place at the expense of the local,. natural advantages of another in its vicin-j ' ity. Should tho bill, become a law tho same principle which authorizes the p-:r propriations which it proposes to make, ; would also authorize similar appropria--tions for ' the improvement, of all .the : other bays, r inlets and creeks . which -muy with equal propriety be called har bors, one ol all the rivers, important or uo.t important, in every partof the ITniori. To ? sanction the" bill with' such provisions, : would be to concede the principle that the -Federal Government possesses "the pow- er to expend the public money in a gen eral sy stem of internal improvements, lira-. Ued in its extent only by the ever varying : discretion of successive Congresses and . successive Executives. " It would be. to efface And remove the limitations and re- striciions of power which the Constitution, has ; wisely provided - to limit the au thority and action ofthe Federal Govern-' merit to a few well-defined and specified: objects. :Bisides ? t .trese objection s,N the', practical evils which mustfljw from the , exercise, on the part of the Federal Gov ernment, ofthe powers asserted in this : bill, impress my miad with a grave sense of my duty to avert them from the coun- ' try, as far as my constitutional action may enable me to do so.'. ;' ."''- ':" -v " ". "'" It only leads to a consolidation of power; in the Federal Government at the expense, ofthe rightful authority of the States, but -itd inevitable tendency. is, to embrace ob jects ibr the expenditure of the public mon-. ey which are local in their character, ben : elitting Jaut few at the expense of the com. . mem'treasury of the wholi. - It will engen der sectional feelings and prejudices cal-. culaied to disturb tl.e harmony ofthe Un. ion. It would destroy the harmony which. . should prevail in ojr legislative councils It will produce; combmatioas ot local;. and sectional interests, stron enough when united, to carry propoisitions for ap-, . propriations of public money which could not of themselves, and standing alone,' succeed, and cannot fail to lead to . waste ful and extravagant expenditures. - " It must produce a disreputable scramble for the public money, by a conflict which ' is inseparable ' from such a system, be tween local and indvidual interests and . the general interest of tho whole. ;; It is unjust to.those states which have, with their own mearis, constructed their own internal improvements, to make from the common Taeasury appropriations for sim Har' improvements in other.States. r ; ; ; ; In its operation it will be'oppresire and unjust. towards those; states whose repre sentatives and people either deny or doubt the existence of the power, think its exer- , cise inexpedient, 'and who, - while they equally contribute to the treasury, cannot consistently with their opinions engage in thegeneral competition for a share ofthe public money.. Thus a large portion ofthe Union in numbers & in geogrphical extent contributing its equal proportion of taxes ' to the support of the government, -would, under the ope ration i of such a system,' be compelled to see the Nation's treasure- ' the common slock of all uneaqually dis- burs.ed, and ofien improvidently wasted for the advantage ofsmalK sections, instead of being applied to the great National pur poses in which all have a common inter--: est, and for which alone the power to col lect the revenue was given. " Should the system of internal improvements proposed prevail, all these evils will multiply and ' increase with the increase of the number ofthe states, and the extension ofthe ge ographical limits of settled portions of ojr" country. AVith the increase of our num bers and the extention of our seUleraents, the locil objects demanding appropriations of the public money for their improvement will : be proportionably inci eased. Ia each case the expenditure ,of the pupils ; money would confer benefits direct or in direc?, only on a section, while these sec tions would become daily less in corner ison with tho whole. - - t , The wisdom of the framers cf the con stitution in withholding power over such objects from the Federal Goversuns-i tti '.1; 1.5 II -f I : i f ' i ; i I,: 5 ; ' i t : - V-