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IRON COUNTY REGISTER. IEONTON. MISSOURI.
.,rl T(2 Et5 FAMOUS PEACE TREATIES . By H. IRVING KING - (Copyright, IS 13, by th McClure New paper Syndicate.) (lr iti ill i r TREATY OF BUCHAREST, 1913. A Peace Treaty Signed Just Before the World War Broke. i i' ii r I If ' & . .r "JM J L W V4 1 -a. . . J$ tfe IPlM " t . : - '' ) WORLD WAR-f'-Yiliv JlA J 7 1917-1918 - MfWgMliH V 11 I IU3AIIRC am eh ican forestry association Wlmmm I MR&lwK : T WA5H1N6T0N.D.C. , !iMlv 3 "By JOHN DICKINSON SHERMAN. -EXT to well-equipped and thoroughly up-to- date railways, transportation means good solid wagon roads. Even In normal times the economic value of such roads is well nigh'. Incalculable, taut in a nerlod of armed con- Sliet victory or defeat may depend upon the condition f the common highways.' All this is well known. .JAnd yet, though far-seeing men have for some years 'Seen, urging the good roads movement upon the people -ni some progress has been achieved, our highways sStt gwnerat still remain among the worst in the world. . . Altxtrt J. Beveridge. t think that I shall never see A poem as lovely as a, tree -A tree wnose hungry mouth is prest -Against the world's sweet flowing breast; !; -A tree that looks at God til day -And lifts her leafy arms to pray; .;. A tree that may te summer wear -A nest of raWns in her hair; "Poems are made ay fools like me, ' But only God can make a tree. Joyce Kilmer. ' H you want to bun a road, let the people plant "toe mortal trees along that road and your project Is a success. Charles Lathrop Pack. Tfcna come closer to the Great Tree-Maker. Plant memorial trees In honor of the men who gave their fSea to their country to honor of the men who offered : er Uvea. Be v. Dr. Francis E. Clark. Roads end trees for remembrance! yirtarx highways In honor of America's fight fWtaS men In the great war! ; Eoadsld plsiBdng ot trees In memory of their 'OtKSvldual deeds! It is truism that the economic and moral r3flbr f any community Is Bhown by the condition -af its mshw-ays. Give the community the right Vktad of roads. sAools, churches, factories and f&aaks and the other signs of advancement will soon be i& evidence. Memorial roads! What more fitting monument an we bnild In honor of our heroes? Permanent troods dedicated to them ! How can a community ibetter commemorate their achievements? Ami all these memorial roaas planned and built va parts ef a great system of victory highways nrktory highways that food may move from farm 4o. city and manufactures back to the farm ! that l"ttte ussj flf the cbOdreQ to the schoolhouse may be (made easy; that the defense of America against aarmed force may be certain. p VUaSwy highways that not only serve the na- ion's needs but delight the people's eye vic- (Bory tsighwjiys beautified by roadside planting of 1 isVimeriran trees and shrubs and flowers. No walls nd sates and arches with their suggestion of (something closed and set apart, but memorial . torees and groves rfnd little parks and wayside .rtamps for the American traveler and food trees ?or fhn tlrds. t To Abraham Ltncola bave probably more me xnxir.UI been erected than to any other man. tWhlch of all these memorials Is most Impressive 4 most fitting? Consider now the Lincoln high xay as (t Is and as it Is soon to be. v Thti Lincoln highway Is an object lesson of -what Is d what Is to be in a memorial road. JUore than 3,000 miles In length, It runs east and cest through the heart of America, with giant (soorth and south feeder highways, Joining the At 'ifcmrjC and the Pacific. It traverses 11 states. "f&TTtetun millions have been expended on It in the tf!oit ve years. Already there are nearly 400 tanHes of concrete and brick and paving and more fcbon 1.000 miles of macadam. It is in operation .iiom end to end. It carries an endless procession lias? Americans In . their own automobiles. The ISar round it te dotted with freight trucks, s At this wry moment the federal government fnas under way on the Lincoln way across tho fcontwient n exhibition train. It started from t!Wahlngott, and from Gettysburg, Ea., the route s wff the Lincoln way to Pittsburgh, Camden n1 Bncyrus, O. Fort Wayne, Ind.; Chicago ";CcihK I1L; Olnton, Cedar Baplds and Marshall 'fepwn, In.; Omaha, Neb.; Cheyenne, Wyo. ; Snlt jtpike Qty, Utah; Carson City and Ely, Nev., flnally dropping down the Sierra Nevada to Sac ramento, Cal., and then to San Francisco. This train consists of 00 motor-vehicles of the -types employed by the motor transport corps In the conduct of the winning of the war. In addition, accompanying this train are several other branches of the United States army service, in cluding representatives of the engineer corps, with antiaircraft defense trucks and searchlights, and certain specially detailed observers who will make an intensive study and report to the war department on road conditions. The trip is being made for both military and educational purposes, Including: An extended performance test of the several standardized types of motorized army equipment used for transportation of troops and cargo and for other special military purposes; the war department's contribution to good roads movement; demonstra tion of the practicability of long-distance motor" post and commercial transportation and the need for Judicious expenditure of federal governmental appropriations in providing the necessary high ways. ' So much for the Lincoln highway as a means of transportation a transcontinental road link ing the United States by states. Consider now the Lincoln way as a beauty spot and a me morial, not only to the Great Emancipator, but to the heroes who followed his example and won the freedom of the world in the great war. The roadside planting of the Lincoln way is in charge of the General Federation of Women's Clubs, This organization has a membership of 2,500,000 members. It has a state federation In every state In the Union. Mary K. Sherman, chairman of the conservation department of the general federation, has secured a comprehensive planting plan for the way. This plan has been worked out by Jens Jensen, a noted landscape engineer of Chicago. In, general it provides for the planting of trees, shrubs and flowers indige nous to the locality. For example, blue prints have been made for the planting of the way through the 180 miles of Illinois. These prints give all necessary details kinds of trees, shrubs and flowers for each locality; suggestions for. grouping each. The clubs of the several states through which the way passes will see to it that the planting is done. Many clubs In other states will plant memorial miles on the way and In addition carry out the same plan In application to Lincoln way feeders in their own states. Features of this roadside planting of the Lin coln war by the general federation are memorial trees in nonor of individual heroes ; groves, foun tains, camping places along the road; fruit and nut trees for the birds and a bird sanctuary from ocean to ocean. . : ' .. por ten years America has been spending from $200,000,000 to J300.000.000 a year for highway construction and maintenance without national ': plan without relation to the broad needs of the ' country as a whole and with little co-ordination of effort between states. After spending over $2,000,000,000 in a decade, we are, broadly speak ing, a's ar from 0 PrPer connecting system of radiating highways in the United Sthtes as ever.'; The latest government figures show a total highway mileage In the United States of 2,457, 334 and of this total, even after the tremendous expenditures noted, but 12 per cent, or some 290, 000 miles, have received any attention whatever and these improvements are scattered in 48 states. In a loose and utterly Ineffective way, over va rious sections of our entire 2,000,000 miles. ' Now the time for national action has arrived. Thus the time Is ripe for roads and trees for remembrance. The- United States Is going to ex pend $500,000,000 in the next few years on a na tional highway system of Interstate arterial routes. It only remains to be seen what agency of the federal government is to have charge of the construction. If the department of IJgrTcuT ture and the state highway commissions do the work, the government and the states will share the expense, half and half. If a highway com mission is established by congress to have charge of the work the share of the states will bo apportioned in order that states like Nevada Wyoming and Arizona shall not be too heavily burdened. As to the feature of memorial trees, this Is also the chosen time. Public sentiment turns toward the Idea. Events all over the country forecast a general memorial planting. The American Forestry association, of which Charles Lathrop Pack Is president, has issued a call for memorial tree planting. It Is registering all memorial trees and giving certificates of reg istration; also instructions for planting. Rev. Dr. Francis E. Clark has called upon the Christian Endeavor societies to plant memorial trees. ; Georgetown university remembered Its war heroes at Its one hundred and' thirtieth com mencement by planting 54 memorial trees In honor of Its heroic dead. To each tree was af fixed a bronze marker, of which a sample Is given herewith. To the next of kin goes a duplicate of the marker. , . "My boys made a wonderful reputation for this country on the battlefields of France," says Dan iel Carter Beard. "I say my boys because I be lieve that there were boy scouts' in every Ameri can division that participated In the war. The boy scouts' slogan is, 'Once a scout always a scout' A plan that we are taking up Is the planting of trees as memorials for our heroes. This, Is being done In some parts of Long Island and should be done In all sections. After the tree, has been planted a small tablet should be placed on It bearing the name of the man who made the supreme sacrifice, and when and where and how . he was killed and his branch of the service." . Many victory highways to be planted with me morial trees are under way throughout the coun try.'" The National Defense highway, between Blandensburg and Annapolis, Is Maryland's corsr trlbutlon. New York Is planning a Roosevelt Memorial highway from Montauk Point to Buf falo. In Ohio Col. Webb C. Hays has offered to . give memorial tablets on memorial highways in Sandusky county, and William G. Sharpe, former ambassador to France, will do the same for Lo rain county. The poem by Joyce Kilmer, who gave his life for his country In France, Is most touching. What is more fitting than a tree for a memorial? We mv attain the most magnificent effects In stone and- bronze. Compare them with a permanent road enduring as the Appian way, built 22 cen turies ago 'and shaded by the Maryland tulln poplar or the Engelmann spruce or any other of our magnificent American trees. The glimpse of an Estes Park road In the Rocky Mountain Na tlonnl park shows nature's way of beautifying n highway. Consider how the trees on guard add the crowning touch to the Washington mow meat. --v. . - . " - ' The boundaries which those chronic disturbers of the peace, the Balkan states, had before the recent world war were established to them by the treaty of Bucharest signed at the Roumanian capital on August C 1913, by representatives of the said states and Greece. That treaty closed two wars, practically, one in which the Bal kan states were united in fighting Tur key and one In which they were fight ing among themselves. By 1010 the Bulgar and Greek bands In Macedonia, which had been quite as likely to mas sacre each other as to massacre the Turks, had got together for the pur pose of devoting all their efforts against the common enemy. Then trouble broke out in Albania and the Serbians sent their Irregulars to help the Albanians against the Turks. It was the same old story of the Bal kans being "aflame" again. In March Df 1912 Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Serbia came to an understanding, agreeing to bury their mutual animosi ties temporarily and combine against the Turk. Roumanla stood aloof. The Porte, alarmed, promised reforms In Al bania and Macedonia. Turkey also an nounced that she would hold army ma neuvers near Adrianople. Began to "Diplomatize." The great powers began to "diplo matize," to prevent a war. Germany and Austria declared that the status quo In the Balkans must be main tained, and Austria mobilized her army. But the wild nations of the Balkans had got out of hand, and little Montenegro, on October 8, 1912, declared war against Turkey. On Oc tober 17 Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia Issued a Joint declaration to the same effect. A Bulgarian army of 300,000 men occupied Mustapha Pasha on Oc tober 19, Kirk-Kilisseh on the 24th and Invested Adrianople on the 27th. Two days later was fought the sanguinary battle of Lule Burgas, the chief battle of the war, with a front of 22 miles. In this battle the Turks lost 35,000 killed and wounded and 3,000 prison ers, while the Bulgarians lost 15,000 killed and wounded. The Turks now fell back upon the Tchatalja forts, the last line of defense for Constantinople. Meantime the Serbians had swept Into Macedonia and were driving the Turks before them with heavy losses, while one part of their army was sent to Join the Greeks at Saloniki and an other detachment to help the Montene grins. The Greeks, coming up from the south, routed the Turks in several engagements and finally captured Salo niki. Turkey asked the powers to me- diate and be quick about it They did . so and an armistice was signed be tween Bulgaria, Serbia and Montene gro on one side and Turkey on the other on December 3. Greece refused to sign any armistice while Janlna, the Albanian capital, re mained In Turkish hands, and contin ued to attack that city. The powers hurriedly got together In a peace con ference In London. There was no coming to terms with the Turk, and on February 3, 1913, hostilities were re sumed. The Greeks captured Janlna, and the' Bulgarians drove In the Tcha talja line. A Bulgarian and Serbian army took Adrianople . with the Turk ish commander and 30,000 prisoners. Scutari In Albania was besieged by a Montenegrin and Serbian army, and Greek men-of-war in the Adriatic were , co-operating with the troops. Powers Could Not Agree, he powers were frantic and eould not agree among themselves. But on April 19, 1913, another armistice was signed, and on May 30 the belligerents signed at London a treaty of peace with Turkey. By this treaty Turkey surrendered to the Balkan allies the island of Crete and all territory on the European mainland west of the Enos-Mldia line, and left the adjust ment of the Albanian frontiers and the disposal of the Aegean Islands to the powers, which meant that Turkey gave up all her European possessions ex cept Constantinople and the country immediately back of It r i But the Ink on the treaty was not dry when the Balkan states began to quarrel with each other over the spoils. ' , " ":' ' "' ' Thirty days after the treaty of Lon don had been signed they were all at it again, with Roumanla now playing a part. The Bulgarians attacked the Greeks in the Panghaion district and fought a three days' battle with the Serbians, ending on July 30. , Bulgaria Declares War. . Three days later Bulgaria declared war against Greece and Serbia, and Montenegro declared war upon Bulga ria. Roumanla declared war. against Bulgaria on July 10, and Turkey at the same time sent an army forth and captured Adrianople-without trouble. The " Bulgarians stubbornly resisted the advance of the Greek army north, but King Constantine pressed on toward Sofia. The Montenegrins and Serbs hurled back the Bulgarians In the west, and King Ferdinand sued for peace. And now a new arrangement of the belligerent Balkans 'is In progress: TREATY OF LONDON 1831. Pact Wherein the Neutrality of Belgium Was Defined. The treaty by which the present fclngdom of Belgium was created and Its neutrality guaranteed was signed at London on November" 15, 1831, by the representatives of Austria, Prus sia, France, England and Russia. It was, In fact, hot merely one "scrap of paper" which the Germans tore up when they invaded Belgium In 1914, but two for this neutrality guaran teed by the treaty of, 1831 was re affirmed by Germany at the beginning of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 at the demand of England. The congress of Vienna, after Napoleonic wars, had instituted Belgium and Holland one country under the House of Orange. But the Belgians were never content to be under the crown of Holland and when the French revolution of 1830 ivhirh nlaced Louis Phlllipe on the throne took place the Belgians were inspired to a successful revolt wnicn was directly impelled by the events xt .Tniv In Paris. The laws of Holland were generally unfavorable to the Bel gians; the Belgians were not propor tionately represented in the legislature md there was, besides, the difference !n language and religion of the two lections. Although the Belgians spoke French, Dutch was made for them the jfflclal language of the courts and only Dutch was taught in the schools. Long oefnre the revolution In Paris an agi tation had been going on for a separate administration for the Belgians. Began to Shout for France, On Aueust 5. 1830. while the people of Holland were supposed to be cele brating the king's birthday, a revolu rtnnnrv niece was performed In the opera house In Brussels.: Stirred by the dramatic representation the audi ence beznn to shout for France and against Holland. The cries were heard In the streets and repeated and a riot ensued. Then some one hoisted over the city hall the old standard of Brabant and the riot turnea into a revolution. In a few hours Brussels was in the hands of the revolution aries. The revolution spread to the country like wildfire. The revolution ists .mftde a proposal to the king that he should submit to the states-general 0. proposition for sepnrate governments for Belgium" and Holland under the House of Orange. The king promised and fulfilled his promise. A provisional government was estab lished in Brussels which declared Bel gian Independence and called upon all Belgians serving in the Dutch army to return home. Tho provinces were now - . . - " . -- all In revolt. ' The Czar, alarmed at what he considered the spread of a revolutionary spirit, called upon the . other powers to Interfere and prom ised a contingent of 60,000 troops. Prussia massed her troops on her west ern frontier and France announced that any movement of Prussian troops ' into Belgium would be met by a sim ilar ! movement on the part of the French. A conference of the five great powers was then sitting in London to settle the question of Greece. France proposed that the Belgian question be . submitted to the conference. The Polish Insurrection, which now broke' out, gave the Czar all he could attend to at home, Austria was harassed by the Italian question and Prussia was fully occupied in guarding her eastern frontiers. So England and France were allowed to have their way, which was the way of Belgian Independence. Failed to Settle Trouble. The congress of London Issued sev eral protocols Intended to settle mat- ters but failed to do so. One stum bling block was Luxemburg, which Hol land refused to give up and Belgium claimed ; deputies from that duchy sit ting lij the new national assembly. Prince Leopold of Coburg was offered the Belgian crown but refused to ac cept it until matters were settled more to the liking of the Belgians. The ' Dutch refused to evacuate Belgium and a French army marched in, the ' Dutch retiring before It On November 15, 1831, the represen- , tatlves of the great powers and Bel gium signed the treaty of London. By this Instrument a part of Luxemburg was given to Holland and the rest left in the Belgian hands "provisionally." ; Belgium, It may be remarked, con tinued to hold the duchy until 1839. The province of Llraburg was given to . Holland and the boundaries of Belgium established practically1 as they are to-, day. The king of the Belgians was . recognized and the neutrality of the kingdom solemnly guaranteed. The i, Czar would not ratify ths treaty, although his envoys had signed It, until the next May, when he did so. But now King William of Holland balked. , He refused to evacuate Ant werp, which was besieged and taken . by the French thereupon. It was not until 1839 that King William decided1, to accept fate. Having done so he abdlcnted and the Belgian question was settled 'to reappear in a more, tragic form 83 years later. -