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THE JBVENING'PIMESjfrPHUBSDAX,' OCTOBER 8, ,1895; . "
CUOKKDiO, EVEOXIl, AMD SUNDlf.)
OWNED AND ISSUED BI
The Washington Times Compaa;-
SOWnwIST COKKXX TeSKSTLTjUCIA ATISU1 XXB
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WASHINGTON. D. C, OCTOBEIt 3. 189i
Subscriber to "The Tlme" will
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lect duty ou the part of carrier.
Complaints either by mall or In pur
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STAR STIEI.. LOSING.
Times Steudlly Galiilnu Clrculutlon.
Can't Fool tin- l'ubllo.
Notwithstanding the liberal distribution
of sample copies by tlio Star last week it
circulation foil ofr 1,414. Weak before
last Its agirrejrate circulation -was 170,177,
and according to its statement published
Saturday Its circulation rots only lG!t,063.
The bona fide circulation of The Times
.last week was 21G.025. wliich was 16,002
copies in excess of the Star and a gain of
2,eG0 over The Times' circulation of the
liwlnuations and Inucntlos will not change
figures or facts. An examination of TJic
Times' circulation books will show that it
l.js lij scleral thousands the largest dally
and Sunday circulation in the city, and that
every copy goes to bona fide readers and
TlieTimes compelled the Starto withdraw
one of lis misleading statements in regard to
circulation and will in time cauet-lt to cease
publhjiii-; certain others.
Monday, Sopt.Sil :U,nO
A i'diic-,diiy,M'iit.J5 :il,
I KOl'-inuly "wear that the above it a cor
rect kt.Ucmt-nt of the ilailv circulation of
TIIR WASHINGTON TIMES for the week
ending s-eptiraber iiil. 16D5, and that all
the copies, were acluallv Mild or niaih'd
for a tnlu.ihleconx'derntlon and delivered
to bona fide punna-er or subscribers;
aUo. that none or them wire returned r
reninlu in the uirii-r undelivered.
J. MILTON YOUNG, Cashier.
Subscribed and i.worn lo before me this
30th day of September. A. II. 1S03.
TVHAT FIFTV CENTS Vril.L, DO.
Tlie latest in newspapers is the popular
twi editions a day, morning and evening,
wliii ligives readers news before it hasgrown
stale. The Times issues sixteen pages on
week days and twenty pages on Sunday
forTIFTY CUNTS a mouth, or 1 2 3 cents
Eight pages are given to readers with
their breakfast coffee aud eight pages with
their evening meal on eaib. week day, and
twenty pages are left at their homes on
Sunday morning, all for fifty cents a
month. The Times is the only dally in
Washington that furnishes telegraphic news
fresh from the wires and local events as
jboou as they happen, and for that reason
It is the great family newspaper of this
Each edition is a continuation of the
'preceding one, and to keep posted on current
news it is necessary to read both the
Morning and Evening Times. Try them,
aud you will want no other newspaper,
and they only cost 1 2-3 cents a day, orfifty
cents a month.
. STREET RAILWAY THOOHLE.
That little muniiipal pest, the Anacostia,
Street Hallway, seems destined to cause the
palilic more trouble. Its management de
clares that another cut in wages must be
made to meet expenses, and the Hallway
Union threatens to tic up the road should
one be made.
The union is right. To cut wages at this
time of the year, when living expenses are
daily increasing, is simply cruel, and when
it comes to reducing such a princely stipend
as SI. 50 for twelve hours' work the cut
amounts to liltltless than crime.
In a published letter President Gris
wold promises in "the near future" to adopt
a system of rapid transit for the Anacostia
line, and when that is done he will prob
ably give Ills employes toast and terrapin
as a daily diet and allow them unlimited
freedom to check on his bank account.
Meantime, however, they must fit tliem
fcelves to appreciate this royal treatment by
going into starvation training. If they
hold out, a sumptuous future awaits them,
provided, of course, that President Gris
wold's visions materialize.
. Seriously, the Anacostia Hallway under
its present management can never prosper,
and it is doubtful if it will ever be made
profitable, cither witli or without rapid
transit, because of its unfavorable loca
tion. Until itsmotlvepowercanbcchangcd
to compete with the Navy Yard cable,
which occupies practically the same terri
tory, it would be better for the company
to abandon the city end of its line and run
cars to make connection with the cable
road at or near the Navy Yard. Through a
system of transfers to the cable line the
people of Anacostia might have good street
car sen ice and the Anacostia line be made
to iay expenses.
TOO AWFULLY AWFUL.
According to cable dispatches received by
are exceedingly sarcastic at the expense
of the United States, on account of news
sent from Washington asserting that Great
'Britain mast cease bulldozing Venezuela
within niuet7 days or the Government of
the United States will enforce the Monroe
doctrine with naval vessels.
The curious thing is that any oue would
: (oppose for a moment that the AdminUtra
.tionat Washington could entertalnatliought
'of Inflicting upon Ambassador Bayard the
j-alnfnl duty of communicating such an ulti
ma turn to the British Government. Snchan
act Is simply out of the question. .
One of tuc London Jo una Is asks " wliat the
blessed Monroe doctrine Is." Frankly, it
must be confessed, it is a conundrum, In J
so far as this Administration Is concerned.
President Cleveland has had many oppor
tunities for presenting a diagram of It, but
In Ills phlegmatic and pit-catorial way he
refuses to even attempt a colutlon of the
But let not our British cousins indulge in
sucli confident cackling. We are unavoid
ably getting our fingers Into the pie of
international disputes, with Cuba as the
upper crust, and one of these days we will
pull out a rat plum even if we have to fight
a good while for it.
At a nuetlng Inst evening of the Disirift
of Columbia Federation or Women's
Clubs (a title, by the way, which must
carry terror to the heart of the timid fin
de siecle man), speakers charged that there
is gross discrimination against the ap
pointment or women to the government
service upon recommendation of the Civil
This is vastly Important, If it be true,
bjt possibly there is a mistake some
where. Such an assertion is an allegation
or dishonesty against the commissioners,
and, more than that, a blow at their tradi
tional gallautry." The commissioners are
bound by oath to obey the law. They
must recommend applicants according to
standing In the examinations, and In the
order In which tlcy have passed through
a successful examination. Unsuccess
ful applicants will naturally be inclined to
sick an explanation not uncomplimentary
But If sincere deference to law be doubted
In tin: commissioners, their innate appre
ciation of gallantry, the fine sense of
what is due the sex that is only a littl
lower than the angels, the feeling of heav
enlyrcst which comes of doing the handsome
thing toward the dominant half or man
kind, must be so strong In these very hu
man officials as to afrord absolute argu
ment that the critical ladies of the District
of Columbia Federation or Women's
Clubs are in error, doubtless for the first
and only time In their joung Ines.
FUTURE OF 1'HIZE FIGHTING.
Undoubtedly there are some who will re
gret most iKiignantlytheactloii or thcTcxas
legislature, which yesterday imssed a bill
prohibiting prize righting within the bound
aries or the State. Doubtless there are
some viho will ihed tearshot rrom the heart
onaccount of tliisdeadlyattackupona thing
In fact, however, the bill docs not prohibit
prize righting in Texas. It merely imposes
a penalty of from two to five years' im
prisoiiiniM.i for each offense. If any pro
ressor ot the manly art or scir-defensc de
sires to pull off a mill upon these terms
he is at perfect liberty to do so. lint it may
be assumed tliatror the present thedevoti-es
or this calling will prefer to go elsewhere in
search of an atmosphere congenial.
One is lesi lo wonder where this Delsa rtean
culture will end. While Boston offers an
asjlum for pugs or diminutive size and
repute under a (piasl Puritanical police su
ncrvbiion; while Long Island permits a
bout or two occasionally for the delectation
or amateurs, and while the only and sweet
scented Alexander Island, under the pro
tection of a so-called Governor of Virginia,
proiiagaves and harvests fisticuffs of an
Inferior sort, and other things yet more in
ferior, theru is really not a safe place for
star actors like Corbett and Fitzsimmons
on the stage or the United States.
Looked at rrom every standpoint it must
appear that IT Alexander Island be not
made the Mecca of the rightera, the prize
ring must cither be Mexlcanlzed or Angli
rrom England, but Mexico, with her arenas
Tor the toreador, the banderillo, seems
to be the paradise for the Corbettses and
Fitzsimmonses or the present and ruture.
The hypribtic Influence of that .clt)0 rmo
fee still seems to hang over the Hon. John
W. Foster, and he has goi.e to Minneapolis
to advise the Episcopal bishops how to
The editor ot the London Truth Is re
spectfully informed that America Is al
ready manufacturing a title. It is spelled
m-a-n, and is good enough for sensible
An English Valentine tried a go at Long
Island last night and was knocked out by
an Americau male. There is no use talking,
even in prize fighting England Is not in it.
Generally speaking, all Cramps make
tilings hustle, but the ship builders of Phila
delphia beat the world Tor turning out fast
The daily newspaper drove the weekly
out of existance in all thriving communi
ties, and it now looks as ir the newspaper
that publishes two editions, morning and
evening, would supplant Its less progres
the litnior question as long as there Is any
It seems that the old bicycle is to be re
tired In ravor of onepropclled by an electric
Texas Is about as quick to fire a prize
right as she is to shoot a horse thief.
The Florida Athletic Club should not for
get Alexandria County when looking for
a favorable place to pull off Its champion
prize tight. Culberson is not Governor of
Now that the Dallas fight is ofr, Corbett's
eagerness to reach Texas wlllmake railroad
travel slow aud wearUome wort.
When President Cleveland returns to the
White Blouse he will have his hands full of
something other than fish lines.
The most perfect echo in the world issald
to be that at Shipley, in Sussex, England.
It will repeal twenty-one syllables.
The largestspougeeversenl to market was
from the Mcdllcrraneau; it was ten feet in
circumference the three in diameter.
It is said that the largest bar or gold
ever cast wasscul to the Bank of California
in 1882. It weighed 511 1-2 pounds.
It is said that the largest crane in the
world is in the Krupp Iron Works. It lifts
and turns a weight of ISO tons.
The largest bronze statue In the world
Is that of Peter the Great at St. Petersburg.
It weighs 1,100 tons.
The largest slick of timber was cut in
Washington. It was ICO feet long and on
average ot 20 by 21 inches.
The greatest bell js that long famous as
the giant of the Kremlin, in Moscow. Ita
weight Is 443,722 pounds.
MG GE0KGE OF GREECE
Ad Enormously Wealthy Moaarcb flu Is
Growing Feeble and Retiring.
Possible Succession of Prince Con
stantino and Princess Sophia
Recalls a Prophecy.
King George, of Greece, who has hitherto
been regarded as an exceptionally sound
man physically. Is now discovered to be
an Invalid in a very advanced stage. Peo
ple who saw him at AlxleoBalns and at
Paris recently were shocked by Hie altera
tion ot his features, aud by the signs of
suffering ou his race. They declare that
he seems to have aged almost ten years
during the last ten months. While at
Paris he remained unusually quiet, ab
staining rrom the "petlts theaters," and
from the "soupers-fius" In boulevard res
taurants, to which he wasfnrmerly so much
addlited. Indeed, he spent most or his
time with the tame famous specialist who
kept the late Trlnce of Orange nUAe long
after lie had been doomed to death by ull
King George's disappenranco from the
scene will Ik far less lamented by bis
subjects than most people will be willing
to suppose, though It may be regretted by
the foreign iKiwers. For King George lias
had butoueamliltinu since lie ascended the
throne ot Greece ns a mere young English
midshipman he was serving at the time In
navy namely, to make as much money as
possible. lie never for one moment ex
pected that his turbulent and unruly sub
jects would permit him to rule in pence
for the- thirty years that his reign has
lasted, mid lie has always held hlniM-lf
ready to depart at any moment when the
Greeks would show signs of desiring to
get rid of him.
With the exception of King Leopold, of
Belgium, and in a minor degree. King Oscar,
of Sweden, there has been no more persistent
speculator ou the exchanges of Europe than
this King of the Hellenes, the difference
between them being that whereas King
Leopold has been frightfully unlucky and
King 0car far from Tortunate, King
George; "coups de bourse" hae been in
variably crowned wllh success, til fact,
his operations have extended to this coun
try, notably at the time of the Turko
Ituvsiau wur In 1877, when he netted an
enormous fortune by speculation In Amer
ican wheat, which. It may be remcmln'red,
ro-e greatly in value owing to the Inter
ruption of the South Kusslan grain trade
by the v ar.
King George thoroughly understood that
In order to be able to pursue bis stock
jobbing enterprise!! with success it as
indispensable that he should abstain at nil
cost from permitting Greece to become
Involved in any foreign complications. So
accordingly he has'kept a tight rein upon
the pan-Hellenic aspirations of his peoi.Ie,
and lias time and again stopped them from
becoming mixed up in foreign troubles.
The result has been that King George's
presence at Athens has constituted a guar
anty to the powers that Greece would keep
out of mischief. Consequently certain
foreign governments, notably that or Trance,
have not hesitated to promote King George's
speculations to the extent or reconqiensing
with the order or the Legion or Honor those
Parisian rinantiers who have been In the
habit of giving him valuable tips.
A case in. point was the late Baron de
Soubeymn, wte, although a monarchist,
and an opponeiitof the government in ravor.
was dec-orated by the republicans ror help
ing King George In his operations on the
To-day King George i oneor the wealth
iest princes in Christendom. He has erect
ed quietly and without attracting muili at
tintlou a superb palate fur himself aboui
firteeu miles out rrom Copenhagen, and it
is thitln r that ror some time past he
has been quietly transferrring all his
treasures anil favorite belongings rrom
Alliens. It is ready for occupancy, and now
that King George knows that he is a doomed
mannfflictcd with an incurable disease and
unable even under the most favorable of
circumstances to live very much longer his
a bdl cation may be at anytime expected.
His son, the duke of Sparta, Is far more
Iopiilar with the Greeks. He belongs to
national orthodox church. Instead of being
a Lutheran, like King George. He does not
care for money, is full of military aspira
tions, ns fond or action ns his rather Is the
reverse, and his head Is full of the national
dreams of the revival of all the former
grandeur and glory ot Greece.
There is un ancient proverb In Greece to
the crrect that during the reign of a Con
rtantiin; and or a Sophia, the ancient
Greek empire shall be called into life
again and the croes restored to the dome of
St. Sophia at Constantinople, in lieu of
the Mohammedan crescent by which that
venerable fane is now surmounted. Now,
etraugely enough, the crown prince's name
is Constantino and his consort's name is
Sophia. By marriage he has become a
grandson of Queen Viciorra, a brother-in-law
of the Emperor of Germany, while not
only is his mother one ot the most patri
otic daughters ot the Imperial house ot Ro
manoff, but he himself is, through his
father, a brother of the widowed Czarina,
a first cousin of young Emperor Nicholas
II of Kucsia,
It is not therefore so very improbable that
when the time comes for the Turk to be
bundled bag and baggage out ot Europe
the powers should pitch upon Constantino
of Greece aa the most suitable person in
every respect to Biicceed the Sultan at Con
stantinople, which International jealousies
would prevent any of thegreat powers from
retaining In their own bands
Thereare many peopleatWashington who
may .remember young Nicholas O'Conor,
for several years secretary of legislation to
Sir Edward Thornton, and who has just
liecn promoted from Hie rank of minister
at Pckin to that of a full fledged amliassa
dor to llussia an astonishingly rapid pro
motion for so young a man. II Is only
a few monthsago tliathe was accorded the
privilege of prefixing the predicate of
"sir" to his Christian name, along with
the star of a knlghl-commnnder of the
order of St. Michael and St. George.
His salary at St. Petersburg amounts to
$50,000 a year, besides large allowances
and a handsomely-furnished mansion, or,
rather, palace. Moreover, It is a tradition
that the ambassadors of her Britannic maj
esty should hold the rank of privy coun
selors, so that bis promotion to that honor
cannot be long delayed.
On account of the candlncss of his whis
kers and mustache he has been dubbed
"Fergus" by his colleagues of the diplo
matic profession, and it is by that name
that he Is popularly known. Much ot his
good fortune hascoiue to him since bis mar
riage with a very near and dear relative
of the Duke of Norfolk, but It would be
wrong to attribute his wonderful success
solely to family Influence. He is excep
tlonally discreet, knowing how to bold. his
tongue without doing so in that aggressive
manner which seems to imply that one is
possessed of state secrets, and that you
are unworthy ot any degree of confidence.
CHDRCfllOT ill POLITICS
(ContlEuVd from First Page.)
ladles to stLdy' diligently in order to be
ready for tOe'nolden opportunity."
THE CAKDts'AL'S PERSONALITY.
Cardinal Hlbions Is remarkabl gentle
him he cxundstiie same dignified, cordial
welcome, aiioV at all times, and under the
most trying circumstances, he is accessible,
patient and aa'tlstactury.
Another member or the Indian bureau.
Archbishop Ryan, or Philadelphia, said
that Mgr. Stephni would undoubtedly re
main in cliargo or lu affairs as long as he
desired to hold the position. He sjuke very
warmly of the monsignor's work in this
field, and said that his mistakes. If such his
lato utterances could be termed, were only
the mistakes of overzeal. He had devoted
his lire to these missions, his only thought,
blsonly hope, were bound up In theirsuccess,
consequently he attached undue Importance
to all that concerned them. Thu iKjIltlc.il
part of Mgr. Stephan's report had not been
discussed at tlielt, jneettng, and there was
no reason that itsnouldhuvebecnnieutioried.
The attitude of the Catholic Church hag
always been strongly defined. Politics
never enters Into their religious meetings
or discussions. The Indian bureau will
conduct no political wur.
THEIR WORK AT AN KNI.
Archbishop Kaln, or St. Louis, ex
pressed some lively opinions on the sub
ject. He said that Catholics would scarcely
care to imitate certain oilier quasi-religious
organizations that band together
lor so-called self -protection. Catholics
need no such "associations. In the national
hlRtory their work is written. As legisla
tors, organizers, and statesmen their quota
has been equal to II not in excess or other
denominations; thererore they were able
to take care of'themselves without, so to
speak, calling down the thunderbolts of
heaven against their enemies.
With the adjourning ot the meeting last
night the official work of the archbishops
of the United Suites Is at an end.. Sev
eral of them leave for their homes Imme
diately, others remain to witness the clos
ing exercises of the Euchnristic Congress.
The cardinal will leave for Baltimore to
morrow morning. Archbishop Corrigan
will remain in Washington a few days
longer as the guest of Mr. E. Francis Rlggs,
The next annual meeting of the board
A archbishops will occur in the Divinity
building. Catholic University, October 2,
The publication that the Roman Catho
lics of America arc about to form Into a
political protective organization, pub
lished jestenlay exclusively In The Times,
has already created national comment.
The grand high mass at St. Patrick's
and the meeting or the Eucharlstie Congress
were insignificant incidents compansl to
the meeting of the arclibishops of theUnlted
State, who were to decide this momentous
Although 'the meeting was scheduled for 2
o'clock, fnim an early morning hour rep
resentatives' of the local ami out-of-town
papers wen1 waiting in ttie great corridors
of the DJviuityhuikllng, where the meeting
was to be heldi Several bishops arm arcn
bishops on their way to the council room
were asked for their opinions, but they
courteously but llnnlv refused to answer
until after the cardinal had spoken.
The meeting adjourned about f o'clock,
and the cardinal, with his customary cour
tesy and kjndjlnt-ss, consented to see a
Times reporter ntonce. Hesald that nhile
he was pcfrertly willing to express his
opinion In regard to the statements pub
lished about this meeting and the affairs
of the Indian Bureau, that the events of the
last few days had been trying on his
strength, and that he did not feel phjsi-
cally able to discuss the question at any
"The report that we are here to form a
political organization for any purioso
whatever is not true," said Cardinal Gib
bons. "We are here to hold our annual
meeting as archbishops or general directors
or the Church In theUiiited States.
"In regard to the affairs of the Indian
Bureau," Cardinal Gibbons said, "I can
not give any definite reply until I have
consulted my colleagues, the associate com
missioners or the bureau, who are Arch
bishops Corrigan, or New York, arid Ryan,
or Philauelphia, and who were appoiutcd
at the meeting yesterday."
Arclibrsnop Ryan appeared In the cor
ridor a lew moments after the cardinal
had retired, and in reply to the question,
"Should tho Indian Bureau be entirely
reorganized?" answered that almost all
newappointmentsmeant that reorganization
of soma kind was in order. Archbishop
Ryan said rurllier that he and Archbishop
Corrigan had been named yesterday to
act on the board or Indian commissioners.
In concert with Cardinal Gibbons, aud that
the Eastern prelates bad been selected ror
the reason that it was more practical to
call n meeting. New York, Philadelphia,
and Baltimore being so adjacent. Hither
to the commissioners had been rrom the
tar West, Salprlnt, of Arizona, and Marty,
or Dakota, and It was often Impossible for
the bishops to travel such grent dis
tances at a. short notice. Archbishop
Ryan said that no political organization
was discussed at their meeting.
From another high prelate, ho refuses
to allow his name to be published, because,
as he expresses it, "to talk or the affairs of
the Indian Bureau is to attend to someone's
else business," as be is not a member of the
board, further news on the subject was
Tlie Catholic Bureau has been notified
that In five years all its appropriations will
be withdrawn, and that the bureau must
bold itself In readiness to become self
supporting, ns are all the other religious
The bishop said that Mgr. Stephan was
perfectly aware of this state of affairs and
that his attack on the admlntetrntlon was
ill-timed and not in unison with tlie other
heads of the Catholic Church.
Cardinal Gibbons has so often expressed
bis opinion on the relation of the priesthood
to politics that It need not be said that
lie would consistently be in opposition to
such a policy of aggression as that out
lined by Father Stephan. The cardinal's
tact In such matters as are broached by
Father Stephan, affords no hope for an
indorsement Inany shape of the monsignor's
propaganda or political war ineide or out
side ot the domain of the church.
The opinion as gathered from the little
romment that was ventured by churchmen
yesterday is that the new committee of
archbishops will not adopt any ot Father
Stcphun's suggestions. It is conceded that
he has handled the funds of the bureau with
marked executive ability and all or Its
funds judiciously. His service has been
acknowledged and commended by Pope
Leo XIII, who conferred on him the rank
Points About Pilgrims.
, t .
Mrs. L.L-'PrevlIl and Mrs. 'George G.
Lebbs, of Winchester, Ky.; Mr. Lemon
Hart and wife, of Reins, France, and Mrs.
Hardin anil son, of Franklin, Ky., are
Mr. D. 8'. McMulIen and ttlfc.of Chicago:
Mr. William- P. McQuall, of Boston, and
Mr. N. Sweeney, of Portland, Kan., are at.
Among the guests of the National are
Mr. Lowell E. Smith, and wife and Misses
Wade and Clark, or Brockton, Mass.; Mr.
E. S. Dundy, Jr., of Omaha, Ncb.t Mr.
Henry D. Wood, or Cincinnati; Mr. Tim
othy McGratS, of Perry, Okla., and Mr.
H. C. Sanford, ot Milwaukee.
Ai the Metropolitan the list or guests
includes Mr. John Pearl, of Harrlsburg,
Pa.; Mr. William Drew, New Rochclle,
N. Y.; .Mr. Frank A. Daniel, and wife, of
New Orleans; Mr. T. A. Copeland, of Tren
ton, N. J., and Mr. W. H. Peace, o'f Phila
Mr. J. W. Hall, of Cincinnati; Mr. E. M.
Bacbman, of Louisville; Mr. F. C. Manreo,
of MIddletown, Pa., and Mr. and Mrs.
W. P. Palmer, ot Boston, are at the Ebbitt.
WAIT AID WAGE PROBLEM
Yexe J Question -PlalBlf Discussed By the
Kinds and Causes of Want and the
Iron Law of Wages Analyzed
In a First Paper.
(Carroll D. Wright.
"What makes the rates of wages" Is a
question which has called for many discus
sions and varied reasons. It tins not been
settled definitely, at least not definitely
enough for all economists and social scien
tists to agree to a common basis. The old
theory was that there was a wage fund out
of which wages were paid, and that no
more could be paid In wages for services
rendered than this fund would allow, and
that the rate .was determined through the
working of come economic law by the num
ber of persons sharing in the fund.
Those who contended that the rate ot
wages was determined by the wage fund
were dealing with the narrower definition
of wages, that they represent the compen
sation for practically manual toll, or the
remuneration of those persons who were
obliged to accept a wage fixed by custom
for the lower forms of employment. Etcn
in this narrow sense the wage fund theory
has been exploded and generally discarded
by most economists. Wages, in the broad
cense, involve the remuneration mtd for
all eervlec, and comprehend ns much what
tlie employer secures for his efforts as
what the employe receives for his service.
In this broad sense the wage-fund idea has
The question, What makes the rates of
wages? lsusedin the narrowersense referred
to, and relates to what makes the rates of
wages paid mechanics, operatives, labor
ers, and thosegencrally receiving compensa
tion who do not have a full voice In the
adj ustment of themtesror which they labor.
The question is answered variously, but
generally it is considered that the standard
ofllvingflxestheratcsof wages. Thosewho
hold this opinion, however, are met squa rely
by others who insist that the standard of
living Is fixed by the compensation received
forservices rendered. Itisoueoftliosequcs-
tionsaround which reasoning can be carried
toa!mo3t any extenUandin which causeand
efrect nlay be used not only In a reciprocal
sense but In a compound sense. Cause is so
that It is dlfricult sometimes, even by close
analysis, to distinguish the direct and le
gitimate influence of each. It ls'rerfectJy
true that In a country where tlie standard
or living Is high, wages are high, and this
gives great rorce to the contention of those
who hold that the standard of living rixes
tlie rates of wages.
What is kiovvn euphemistically as "the
iron law or wages" is bsccd en Iticardo's
doctrine that the "natural price of later
depends on the price of thefood, necessaries
and conveniences required for the scpivort
of the laborer. With a rise in the i rice of
food and ncciesarics the price ofjalor 'will
rise; with a loll in ll.elr price the natural
price of labor will fall." In other word?,
the rate of wages paid to any class or labor
ers depends upon his absolute n cessities,
he being able under the law to secure no
more than Is essential ror his rood, raiment
arid shelter. Under modern conditions
this is, iLdced, an iron law. Formerly it
probably held good ar.d it holds gcod to
day to the extent that all persons, tv nether
laborers or others, are questioning not
only Its righteousness, but Its economic
results. Ethically, every man would lie
glad to tee the iron law supplanted by a
golden law, under which every man, em
ployer or employe Ebould render his Very
best service that is, the employe should
give his very best service ard the employer
should give the very best wage-s possible.
Wages arc divided Into two classes, real
and nominal. Nominal wages arc repre
sentee! by rates, without any other qualifi
cation. It a carpenter receives $4 a day
that is the nominal rate of wage. The real
rate of wage is dctamilncd by the cost of
living or the purchasing power of the $4
which the carpenter receives lor his day's
labor. It will at once be observed that as
prices fluctuate, with the nominal rate
remaining steady, real .wages vary. Real
wages again are affected by continuity of
employment, A carpenter may receive $4
a day while he works, but on account of
short seasons, fluctuations in business or
other causes, may not be able lo secure
labor more than ten months in the year, for
instance. His nominal wage then is re
duced in value when Ihe real wage Is con
sidered. Want Is of two kinds: That which repre
sents a desire for more as the results of
one's labor and that which represents a
state of being without even the necessaries
of life. In this latter sense want may de
termine the rates of wages paid under the
a progressive ilcslre must be considered aa
that comprehensive definition of the labor
question which means the struggle for a
higher standard of living. It is this strug
gle which enters into all the phases of the
labor question of the present day, and
which is constantly changing the luxuries
of one period to the necessities of a subse
quent period. Under this kind of want the
wage-canierfinds himself co nstantlyobligesi
to secure for himself and his family the
c-omforts nnd the conveniences which a gen
eration or two ago would have been con
sidered luxuries, obtainable only by those in
receiptoflargelncomes, either from business
or general wealth. This view indicates the
general soundness of the idea that the
standard of living regulates, to a great ex
tent, the rates, of wages paid in tlie various
callings. The ouly animal which, by Its consti
tution, possi-sses the desire or faculty to
Increase Its number of wants is man. An
Ignorant, undeveloped man, living In
practically a savage state, lias but few
his service Tor that or-s fellow-being he
dtmands hut little in return. Such beings
are more apt to live on a quasi-communistic
basis, under which the question
of compensation for services rendered
does not enter; but when their nature de
velops and they learn the use ot tools and
taste tlie satisfaction or storing the results
of their labor, and their afrectlons are de
veloped so that they grow out or mere ani
mal wants into the realm or affection and
look out for thvir kind, then they abso
lutely feel the necessity or rixlng the prlcu
for what they have to exchange for things
which they do not produce themselves,'
and this leads directly and positively to
the fixing of a price for their services.
On the other hand, however, men maybe
far on the road to Intellectual and moral
development, and yet be living in a condi
tion in which the price of their service, and
consequently of the things tbey produce. Is
low. This has been well illustrated in the
history of our own country In the early
colonial days, when the wages or men skill
ed In their trades rarely exceeded 2 shil
lings a day. Legislative bodies have tries!
to fix Ihe rale of wages without reference
to economic laws, or, rather, they have
tried to bring economic laws to a status
under which there should bo no fluctua
tion above certain points in the rates or
wages. Through a long period or years
England was constantly making this at
tempt, and the colonists only followed the
example of the mother country when by
i d e a 1 1 y
r c d t rim
1 a r g e
out a very
314 and 316 7th St
a statutory provision they made the pay
ing or wages bejond a ceitam fixtsl rate
for certain definite services an offe-nse
punishable under thelaw; and. again, when
rinding that this did not work satisfac
torily, by making the reception by the em
ploje or wages beyond a certain fixed rate
All such experiments by which economic
laws areattempted to be controlled bystat
utory provisions have worked Injury and
retarded progress. The instances of these
attempts are Interesting simply as a mat
ter of study of the efforts of men to regu
late natural laws that are not amenable
According to a Frenchman who has been
experimenting, a single hair can carry a
weight of more than six ounces.
According to Sir Benjamin Richardson the
normal period or human life Is about 110
years', and seven out of ten average people.
If they took proper care ot themselves,
ought to attain that age.
Dr. Ilcrtillon has discovered a new me-thod
of Identifying liandwnting. The letters are
enlarged by means of photography and the
irregularitiesdue to the be-aUngof the pulse
are then measured. By comiarisona valua
ble clew is obtained.
Army surgeons say that the expression
or the races or soldiers killed in battle re
veals tlie cause or death. Those who have
perished rrom sword -wounds have a look of
repose, while there is an expression or pain
on Uie countenances of tlioseslain by bullets.
A foreign scientist hasanew test fordcath.
With a candle produce a blister on the hand
or foot or the body.. If theblister.upon open
ing with a needle or other Instrument, be
found to contain fluid of any kind there is
still life In tlie body.
Social East India.
No races of Europe show such marked
dlvergenceof type as thoseof the Hindostan.
There is always the caste mark which Is
tainted every day on the forehead of each
devout believer and which may be a dab
of reel paint-, a circle or ellipse, a slender
crescent or a dot ot gold. The foreheads
of certain holy men are decorated wlth-
A certain onlcr of Mussulmans near Bom
bay wear a curiously plaited white turban
wound around a skull cap of delicate tint.
The turban Is another mark which dis
tinguishes caste. Among thcMahrattas the
turban is shaped like a double-ended canoe,
with some resemblance to a cocked hat
adorned by a cockade. This is worn by the
The mark of the Brahmin which elevates
him above all other castes is a white
thread passing over his right shoulder and
whicli is as much a mark of distinction as
the rosette of a European onlcr.
Tlie village barber and his wife hold a
position above that of many castes, owing
to their social prominence aud the various
offices they fill. .Hindoos have many dit
rerent ways of we-aring their hair and keep
the barber busy.
The educated Hindoos laugh at the idea
that Americans and Europeans have no
caste. They say we do and that money
makes the divisions. Among these Bin
doos one may find jounalisls, politicians, ad
vocates, attorneys and judges.
IF YOU WANT ALL THE XEWS
HOT KI1UM THE WI1IES HEAD THE
MOBNINCJ AND EVENING TIMES.
T1IKY COST ONLY FIFTY CENTS
Something1 that all
ladies and children will
be wanting at this time
of the 3'ear.
Ladles' flasvy Ribbed Vens and I Q I .
Pants, -worth :3c I 2b
Children's Marino Vests, siia 16, Pn
worth UJ4C 0b
Children's Scarlet AU- col Vests OQ,,
and Fauts, worth SJc. ub
Ladies' Scarl it Vests and Pants CQn
(all wool), $1 grado. Oub
Ladies' and Children's Heavy Pn
Ribbed Uose, worth 1-Hc...... 0b
Our Wc Bone Corset, extra long OQn
806 7th St. N. W.
1924-1926 Penna. Ave.
ou can secure- seats
at the Academy for tha
nnnim.nt r,t tha
Peerless Corinne nnd the Kimball Opera Com
Ique Company. Regular Academy prices will
prefall during this engagement.
EW NATIONAL THEATER,
x.Tr treninc. Wed. and Sat Haw
LAST TLUES OF
A. M. Pa'mer's Famous
GARDEN THEATEX BURLESQUE CO.
Presenting tbe Enormously Successful
Direct from Its run of 282 consecutive nights
UA.1L Palmer's Oardon Theater. New York.
Prices 23, SO, 73c, f LOO and f LM.
And her Opera Company In
or. THE MAGIC KISS.
Seats and boxes now on sals.
ACADEMY Prices 25, 50. 75c and $1.00.
Wed. and SaL -Pops'' 25 and 50c.ReaerreJ
The White Rat.
A Thrilling and Amusing Play of New York life
Next Week PflDIllT "nd the KlmbaE
THE PEERLESS lUftlTulIl Bnrlejqno Co.
In the Big Extraraganza,
HENDRICK HUDSON, Jr.
Seats noir selling. Regular prices.
Bijou Theater . .
Commencing Sept. 30.
Matinees Tuea., Thura. and Sat.
Hie Great Dramatis Snceesj
Always on Time.
Pronounced the Acme ot Stage Realism.
GENERAL ADMISSION (Vlrst Floor), a CENTSL
A LLENV5 GRAND OPERA HOUSE.
Mr. FRANK MAYO'5 Dramatization
bupported by an excellent company.
Next Week-Bel.ascos "I!AUT OF MART
LAND" first prod action ou any staxe.
Seats on sale.
LAFAYETTE SQUARE Z&& UdoT
JOHN W. AUJAUGU MANAGER.
Scats now on sale at Opera House.
100 People Superb Ensemble
Next WeeS-FUEDK. WARDS In "Tbi
Mountebank." "Lion's Mouth," and "Damon
Hi LICU the Peerless Corinne and thn K I ra
ff II Ln Opera I'onilqiie Company pre
sent the bl,j extraraganza, llen
driefc Hudson," at the Academy, next week, th
regular prices will obtain.
EKNAN'S LYCEUM THEATER.
.ILL THIS WEEK.
Russell Brothers' Comedians,
' The Eminent MinstreL
Next Week Tbe Vaudeville Club.
DD FELLOWS' HALL,
" beTentn Street.
MONDAY, OCTOBER 7,
Superb Demonstrations ot Striking Natural
Prices 25, 50 and 75 cents.
Norfolk and Washing
-ton Steamboat Co.
Every tlar ln the year lor Fortress Moa
roe. Norfolk, Portsmouth, and all points
South anil bouthwest by the powerful
nonr iron palace stearaors "Newport
News,1 Norfolk a 1 "Washluston,"
leaving dally on tho lclloviug schedule
Lv.Wasti'ton 7.0() pm I.T.Portsnio'hu.50 pa
LvAletd'ia 7:30 pin i.v.Norrolt . 6:10 pra
ArFLMonr'eBO amli-v.Ft.MoiiroeVO pra
Ar.Norfolk . 7:30 nm t4rAlox'dria 3:0o am
ArJonsm'ti Srtln nrula.r VTasirctonG-30 nra
VISITORS TO THE ATLuNTA EX
POSITION ami Hie rcsorti, n; Portree
Monroe, Virginia BtMtli ami Florida trill
find this a cry attractive route, pi It
breaks the monotony ofnn all-ratl ride.
TkkeU on sale at C13, Clli. 14S1
Pennsylvania :i venue. -13. & O. ticket
office, comer Fifteenth street and New
York avenue, and on board steamers,
where time-table, map, etc., can also
JXU CALLAHVN, GEN. JJANAGEit
No Flies on J ovinia.
Sweet Girl Teacher, to Sunday-seliral
class What little boy can tell me wbo
made the sun nnd the moon stand still?
First Kid Moses.
S. Q. T No, it wasn't Hoses.
Second Kid Adam.
S. G. T. No, nor was it Adam. What's
tbc matter with Joshua?
Class, In unison He's all right: St. Paul
IF YOU WANT Atl THE SEWS
HOT FHOAl THU 1VIHES ltKAUTHB
MOKN1NG AND EVENING TIMES.
TllEV COST OSL.Y FIFTY CENTS
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