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THE MQRSTIffQv TIMES, SXJKDA AggfXi J g, ISsty.
, . i -.j
WE CAN HAVE A
NAVY IN THE AIR
Offered Prize of $100,000 Has Brought Out a Won
derful New Man-of-Wai That Sails the Sky.
INVENTIONS SHORTLY TO BE
This Combats Maxim's Theory That a Ship Will Never Fly
on Wings Until an Engine Walks on Legs.
RISES BY-- BALLOON OTCHiei
Owner a Carpet-Bag Inventor, But Those Who Went to Laugh Re
mained to Wonder at His Genius.
"Since the Introduction into the Senate
bt a bill by Henry Cabot Lodge, offering
prizes for machines that will fly. the
activity in aerial navigation lias been
unprecedented. Never since the Marquise
dc Barque, in 1742, tried to fly and fell
upon his barge, breaking his leg, "in au
unsightly and unbrainly attempt to pene
trate into the regions inhabited by God
bimI the angeK" has so much been going
on to reach into the domains of space.
Leonardo da Vinci, m the middle ages,
tried repeated f!yiug-ma chines, owning
up to what we would now call a fad"
for them, but never with great success.
Tlie argument presenting itself to the
minds of all who are trying to fly is this-
Overhead is a great body of wind pos
sessing force enough to remove houses
uod Imitcde the progress of hteam loco
motives. Why is it not lOssible for me
to utilize this force to Minif extent? W-'iy
can I not rise by means of it. and rami in
aloft a-, long as I please? Why can I not
move along with it and through it? Why
am I not able to turn this great power to
my own uses?"
And this same problem is the one that
lms been puzzling minds longer than the
telegraph puzzled them: and it Is for the
speed v solution or it that Senator Cabot
Lodge offered his bill giving prizes to
the firt inventor who would solve the
secrets that govern flying machine-,.
UP LIKE A ROCKET.
There have been many flying machines
built. And successful ones. too. They
would mount into the air and soar as high
as desired. But that was the eud of their
accomplishments. When the fljer wanted
to descend he could not do so at will.
He was borne along as far as the wind
wanted to play -with him. just a3 a kite
would Ijc. In vaty he tried and wrestled
with the wings of the machine. The more
he tried the further he flew.
Suddenly the wings would turn, in
obedience to his repeated tugs upon them,
and dowu he would come like a stick from
the sky. His own weight and the weight
of the machine would drop him to the
earth with a force considerable enough to
crush him, and when rescued from an ig
nominious heap upon the ground there
would be an assorted mass of broken up
man and flying machine. Broken wings,
broken legs, dislocated shoulders and de
moralized ribs were all there was to sbow
for the aerial triurorili.
The drop had been too much for the ex
Tho G tumors Fleeing
Q V "I
SPRUNG UPON THE PUBLIC
FHOV VESSEL IS HID -OCEAN
perimenter and his mucbine. The result
was much as if he had tied a stone around
"his neck aad Jumped out of a fifth story
window. That "practically is the history
of flying machines, with a few exceptions
in the cases of ingenious persons who have
been skillful enough to keep their balance
aiid.ivnll for the wind before trying to" get
to the ground. But the practice and the
skill necessary to accomplish this result
utterly unfitted the machine for general
The late activity among those who have
partly learned to fly is bringing to light
some very odd contrivances designed to
sail the air and triumphantly capture the
$100,000 prize. Jf the money were lying
upon the ground like a sheep off guard,
and the flying machine were an eagle
soaring the air above, the money could not
seem caster to grasp than it now does to
Hie inventors Each and all are sure of 1 1
One of the latest of the inventors is a
man who stole into a certain large city a
few days ago with a carpet satchel in one
hand and a sliawl strap in the other. He
wore a suit of plain gray, and though iiis
tile was not the latest spring creation, he
was well enough drcsod to show that lie
had money and tiiat his machine had not
been built on brain alone.
Inside a few weeks this worthy gentle
man has had more visitors calling at his
little hall room than had ever peuetrated
that peaceful residential neighborhood in
so short a time before The visitors were
not inventors by any means, but gentlemen
of note, whose opinion and influence would
be powerful factors for the young machine
to own The visitors came by invitation,
and promised to keep the profes-or's ad
dress a secret, but one who visited him
thus describes hit invention
'The plan of Pror. Blank is to sail the
air with a combination of flying machine
and air-ship. The iuvention can be called
either. As it goes by steam and carries
men and guns, it can be called a ship.
The wings, however, give it the birdlike
appearance of the flying machine. '
"This machine is a bold one because it
combats the theories of that great war
Inventor, Hiram Maxim. Maxim says
that a flying machine will neer navi
gate the air by wings. He holds that it
is ridiculous to suppose it will. Malm
says an air-ship will never fly on wings
any more than a loccmotivc will walk
on four legs like a horse.
"He, however, holds differently. And
Prom the Shell;
his machine is planned to actually com
bat Maxim's Idea. He considers that u
locomotive, might be made to walk, on
legs like a horse, if no more speed than
a horse's speed were expected of It. He
asks for -mier speed than that of
a bird ui. .rore, wings will propel'
the machine as fast as ho expects it
TAKING A FORT.
"The object of the professor's air-ship
is utility in the war. This, really, is the,
object of the introduction of the Lodge,
bill in the Senate. With so much smoke
rising from the countries of the world
there may be a spark coming to the sur
face at any lime. In the conflagration
the United States would be sure to take
part cither directly or on the defensive.
"Whatever her warlike policy might be,
or her policy for peace. It would be im
portant thaC she should be thoroughly
posted upon the operations of the rest
or the world, and what more useful than
a flying ship that could rise in the air,
sight troubles, telegraph them to land by
wires, or by use of signals, and stay aloft
until the globe was pretty well looked
over. Tills is what this air-ship could do.
"litit this particular air-ship has another
use, and that is part of tho secret of its
"In the middlo of the ship, which is
shaped like a high whale, thero lies a large
light cavern. This is weighted heavily with
all kinds or ammunition. In the botttom
and sides of tho cavern are port holes
through which great guns can be fired upon
"The actual plan of the machine is to
rise from a ship in mid ocean, if a fortress
is to be attacked, nnd to sail toward It.
"When near enough to fire tho guns could
be levelled at the fortress with design either
to shatter or terrify the soldiers uway.
Once abandoned, the signal could be giyen
for our warships to approach. Their work
of beating back the enemy and effecting a
landing would be much simplified.
"This plan of taking a fortress, theo
retically, is much more approved by soldiers
than the one or taking it with warships.
And for this reason:
"Suppose the fortress' stands upon the
most prominent point of a rocky or uneven
coast occupied entirely by another country.
Let us for argument suppose It were de
ulred to capture Quebec. Our warships
could of course approach it and fire up"bn
the nearest fort. But suppose they cap
tured it, would they not then be badly orr?
Thejwallsot the fort would have been shat
tered by the firing, and the first acts of tho
soldiers would have to be to throw up
fortifications to protect themselves from
attack in a hostile country.
"With the air-ship t he fort could be taken
without shattering a wall. The warship
hovering overhead and sending down au oc
casional volley would terrify the men. They
would see the folly of firing up in the.
air, and would abandon the fort, and the
man-of-war could approach and land her
regiment. There would be less destruc
tion, and less loss of life, a thousand fold,
than by a forcible lauding, with the ships
being beaten back and fired upon at every
RISE FROM A LEVEL.
"This is a very fine theory, and the
professor with the big air-ship model says
he has made it practicable. His machine
has overcome three of the greatest diffi
culties of the air-ship.
"First, it mounts from a level surface.
This is a feat hitherto almost unaccom
plished. One of the greatest aeronnutic.il
societies of America limits its prizes to
such machines as can start not over 100
feet higher than tiie place of alighting.
This is to prevent the starting from a ''
tower and gradually descendlni' ,e
ground, asso many machines can no v do.
"The way this difficulty Is overcome
. r X - '
is by means of a large air cell in the top
of the body of the whale-like structure.
This great hollow compartment lightens
the upper part and prevents the ship
from turning over, and it also is fitted
in such a way that it catches the whole
force of the wind. The sides open toward
whichever way the wind is blowing, and
an immense current can be put on from the
"Ju addition to this the professor has
a -very ingenious arrangement, some
thing on the balloon piinciplc, by means
of which he manages to rise from the
ground anywhere. When in tl(e air this
is cut loose and allowed to sail away.
With each flight one of these balloon
affairs must be sacrificed, but the cost
is small compared to final savings.
'The second difficulty overcome is
that of steering. This is done by 'p'intin'
her nose to the wind,' as an old sailor re
marked who saw the little model floating
around a room. There arc ways of shutting
off the air on one side of her nose and let
ting it in on the other side, for there is agreat
hollow for the pilot to occupy. And
this, with a similar manipulation of the
'tail,' causes the air-ship to revolve or
partly revolve or move in any desired
"The great spreading wings are to keep
the ship up In the air. Their resistance
is something mighty. When fully spread
they He over hundreds of feet of atmos
phere; and, if found necessary, more sails
can be ruu up and spread outupou thegreat
i network of wire until the sky will lie
full or flat white sails resting apparently
against the heavens. Considering Jthe
weight which a large kite will lif tf rom the
ground, the sails will be more than ampte
to hold up the thousand .pounds which the
air-3hlp wjll weigh, with Its pilot, gunner,
operate the -.airship. And, allowing, the
inventor's calculation of 160 pounds each,
there will be over 500 pounds left for
the air-ship and-tita ammunition. Of this,
100 pounds oft'glifoo be ample-f or ammuni
tion, as few vblleys; will be needed upd the
remaining wejglit? is in machine. With Us
many air cqmpaijtmeuts this is amplq
Should the ammunition give out, whut
easier than to descend for more!
"And thntbringHtustothe third hare diffi
culty mastered by the inventor, the work
or coming dort'ti td the ground In the right
way without oterturning or dropping
with force enough o hurt muchlue or. man.
This he accomplishes by pumping the air
out or ins air-cells.
"It is on the same principle as tho tor
pedo boat. In the torpedo boat you
rise to the surface by pumping water out
of the water chambeis, thus lightening tho
torpedo enough to rise to the surface.
You fall by letting water in to make the
torpedo boat heavy enough to go down.
"In the air-ship you are dealing with an
other element, that of air. And jou fall
by pumping air out of the air-ship. It Js
like a balloon when you let the air out of
it. It rails to the ground. The great
extra sails, lying fiat against the sky, are
hauled in, and only the smaller ones left
for the descent. The plan is to navigate
the air-ship to a point directly over where
jou want to descend, and then to let the
alroul, take In the top sails, and gradually
come down. The position of the side
wings must not be changed. It Is in shift
ing this position of the side wings that
inventors get their great falls,
GETTING DOWN AGAIN.
"As soon as those, wings are turned so
they cut the air like a bird's wing the
ship drops like a stone. Unlike a bird the
ship cannot change the position of its
wings in a single second, and before they
can he righted again there has been nn
awful drop. This point mastered and the
inventor feels he has the happy solution
"There is a steam plant uboard the air
ship. This can produce an onward pro
pelling motion. H can also heat the air
for the operators, should the air above bo
full of spow or Icy sleet. This steam will
give a warm atmosphere to the flying
ship, and enable it to diRcharge its duties -
no matter what the weather above may be.
It need not be used unless desired. It Is
only a smallsteani plant, and cannotmar the
machine, oven If it. does no good-
"It must be confessed that the machine
as It stands, though complete, Is open t
sonic questions or doubts. But what new
Inventlo'n was not? Ever body remembers
when trolleys, and cables were thought of
with doubts and feais; and nearly every
growii-up person recalls the doubis with
whieli u,e telephone and its live wires were
thought or hi connection with family use"
in one's home. This air-ship, while wonder
ful. Is no more remarkable than those."
There are ninny other air-ships now
being built. hfcJnventors will tell uoth
ing about Ui&vd'lwct mechanical arrange
ments, as eachmipes for the leward of
$100000. ItutUfj friends who dq,not in
vent they gije'lrttle private exhibitions.
So there is no doubt whatever that by Jan
uary 1. 1901 the time limit appointed
there will be successful flying machines.
Nothing angers an inventor like being
f.ound out, and that js the reason of the
stillness in flying-machine circles.
Maxim is so conscientious that he will
not allow hostile nations to approach him
for inventions to fight his own country; and
when 'the United States rewards one of its
jsons for producing so powerful an miple
"nient as this will be in warfare.it will take
pains to patent itself against foreign en
croachments. JAMES BARTON.
- EA11LY MINES'G OX TOE COAST.
Biirlweper'M Pay Guuged by the Size
of HIh Fliifrer and Thumb.
JJutte po.) Inter-Mountain.
Gathered in and around Butte are men
who have mined In almost every country
under the sun. but although charming con
versationnllsts in thesbcietyprtheir friends,
for some unaccountable reason they he
come suddenly dumb when approached by
a newspaper man. It was a reporter's
luck yesterday to run against one who
talked in an interesting way. He was
large, rather fine-looking, apparently about
seventy years of age. and a man who had
watched with close interest the progress
of mining on the Pacific coast since the
historic days of '-10.
"Yes, I was out in Callforny in the old
days," he replied to a question, and then
added with a pleasant smile, "I was thar
from 19 to '80 and took all the courses,
from pan tolittlegiantandfroinhand-made
black powder cartridges to dinnymite.
"When gold was discovered by Marshallin
tha ttail race Sutter wasdigging for hissaw
mill at Coloma, not a man in that country
knew a thing about mining. Never heard
how they knew it was gold, hey? Well,
there has been a great many stories told
about it, but here is the right one, It was
a little nugget Marshall picked up, worth
threeor four dollars. Each one of the gang
looked at It, bit it. tasted it, rubbed it,
smelled it, butnone of them had a clear idea
what it was. Several thought it might be
gold, but none was sure of it.. A happy
thoughtstruek Marshall. Mrs. Weber board
ed the hands. She was making soft soap
from pine ashes lye. Marshall pro
the lady should boil the nugget in lye a
day or two, and iT it didn't change color
or lose its substance in the test it was
sure-enough gold. Well, it stood the test.
The world knows the Test.
"Among the first on the ground was a
lot of greasers, a cross between Mexicans
and a lower class of humans. God knows
they were all low enough, but the cross
was no improvement on the general run
of the cattle. The greaser brought his
willow-made pan and knife as his mining
tools. He cut and scraped among the
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I crevices of rocks at the water's edge for
V'chispas,' or, as we call them, nuggets.'
u enterprising white man made a 'rocker.'
ItUlr Ilt43 A 4 Mil ILUMti ,iilCUl V Wit,
willow pan and knife, In the fall of '-10
picks, shovels, iron pans, and sheet iron
for rocker screens had been shipped in
from the outside. Rockers sold for three
ounces, Bhovels, half an ounce apiece; picks,
the same; pans for a quarter of an ounce;
gum boots an ounce a pair, and wiiisky
a pinch a drinks That was what a bar
keeper could take between his forefinger
nnd thumb. They had big fingers and
thumbs in those days, and a barkeeper's
salary was measured by their size. Wages
was an ounce a day.
"The Georgia bumper' displaced the
rocker. It was something like a rocker,
but much larger, and had several 'riffles'
to catch the gold. The ends of the rockers
bump against blocks of wood to jar the
gravel in the screen, and between riffles.
A bumper cost $200; a wheelbarrow two
ounces, and a China pump, $25. That
made a bumper mining outrit. The bumper
didn't last long, for the 'Long Tom" soon
took its place. That was a stationary
affair with a long screen in which the
'pay dirt' was thrown. Water was con
ducted on the screen, the 'wash' falling
through the perforations, while one of the
hands forked out the rocks or small stones
"A sluice or two were added to the Tom.
These, as well as the Tom, were supplied
with riffles, which generally caught about
all the dust. Long Toms were first used in
Nevada City in 1850. Improvements in
modes of placer mining rapidly followed.
Sets of sluices without the Toms were used;
then ground sluicing came next and hy
draulic mining, where water and fall could
be obtained, displaced the rocker, bumper
and Tom. Hydraulic mining is an old thing
"How about underground mining?" in
quired the reporter.
"Gold-bearing quartz was first discov
ered by some miners in the bed of Deer
Creek, below Nevada City, in the summer
of 1850. It was found In a narrow vein,
but the discovery led to the opening up of
the magnificent gold-bearing quartz mines
of Grass Valley in Nevada county. All the
equipments of the mines were at first crude,
but the mines were rich and paid well.
Black powder was used in blasting where
blasting was necessary. Some years after
nltro-glycerine was introduced in the State,
but an explosion of the stuff in a San
Francisco express office knocked it out,
and giant powder came into use. You
know the rest."
USE OF KITES EN WAR.
nnd Tnking Obnervntlons.
Cleveland Moffett in Marcli McClure,n.
It is obvious that kite photographs might
he of great Tabic in time of war, since a
detailed view of nn enemy's lines and for
tifications might be thus obtained; while at
sea a perfected kite photographing ap
paratus might beof great value in recording
the approach of an enemy's ships. Mr.
Eddy regards It as perfectly possible to
send up a tandem of kites from the deck
of n man-of-war, with a circular camera,
such as has already been devised, attached
to the main line, and nn apparatus for
snapping all the shutters simultaneously;
arid photograph, not only the whole
horizon as seen from the deck of a vessel,
but, because of the greater elevation, many
miles beyond. A. battleship provided with
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this photographing device would enjoy as
great an advautage as if it were abie t
Will to stretch out its mainmast iuto a
tower of observation a mile high.
It is tru' that Fome or the lenses in the
circular camera, the ones lacing the sun,
might give imperfect pictures, but in,
whatever position the suu might be. at least
ISO degrees of the horizon wouldtie clear
ly photographed. And by taking such !
servatiousin the early morniug. and again
in the middle of the afternoon it would be
iwssible to cover the whole circuit, and
thus be aware of the approach of an
enemy's ships long before they would have
been visible to a telescope used on the
deck. In such a circular camera each lens
would be numbered and the position of
eacli would be accurately determined with
regard to the points of the compass by
the use of guy-cords stretching from, the
main line to the framework of the ap
paratus. Thus, on looking at the number
of a lens, the photographer Wonld im
mediately know rrom which direction any
vessel whose image was shown might be
Nor is the ue of the kite in war limited
to the services it would render m photo
graphy: it might 'asdydo more than tli.it.
and become a most efficient and. novel
engine of destruction. As has been shown.
It is merely a question of carpenter work
to send up a tandem of kites that will
swing a heavy load high in the air. Sup
pose that load were dynamite, with an ar
rangement or dropping It in any desired
spot. Mr. Eddy suggests that this might tv
effected by means of a slow match miu?
by soaking a cotton string In saltpeter,
which would be lighted on dispatchiug the
load of dynamite, and would burn at a
regular rate, say one foot in rive
minutes, so that the length of the
match could be tuned to meet the
necessities of the case. On burning
to its end, the match would ignite a cord
holding the dynamite in a pasteboard re
ceptacle, one side or which would fall
down like the front of a wall-pocket as
soon as the restraining cord was burned
through: and immediately the dynamite in
the box would be launched toward Its des
tination. Mr. Eddy has already carried out
an experiment similar to this, in setting
loose rrom high elevations tiny paperaero
planes. With a little practice he found he
could start the slow match with such pre
cision as to cause the aeroplanes to burst
out into flight at any desired altitude. This
interesting and beautiful experiment was
performed for the first time bv Mr. Eddy
on February 22, 1803. when he sent orr
from a height of 1,000 feet forty aero
planes, their rorward edges weighted with
pins for greater stability.
Assumingsuch an arrangement made for
discharging a load of dynamite, Mr. Eddy
calculates that, with a twentv-mile breeze,
six eighteen-foot kites would lift fifty
pounds or the explosive a quarter of a
mile in the air and suspend it over a Sort
or beleaguered city half a mile distant. It
would thus be .perfectly possible, suppos
ing the wind to be in the right direction,
to bombard Staten Island with dxnamite
dropped rrom kites sent up from the Jersev
shore. It is evident that, ror purposes of
bombardment, a tandem of kites possesses
several advantages over the war balloon.
Kites are much cheaper. Then it would
be far more difficult to disable them than
to disable a balloon, since thev ofrer a
smaller mark to the enemy's guns: ami
even if one or two were destroyed, the
olheis would still suffice to crirrv the dy
namite. Finally, the kites may he sent up
without risk to the lives or those who
directed them, which is'not the case with
Another interesting and important ap
plication of the modern kite has been con
ceived by Prof. J. Woodbridge D.tvis. prin
cipal or the Woodbrldge' Boys' School, in
New York, who is one or the most fanrous
kite flyers in the world, in addition to be
ing a distinguished scientist and mat heir i
tician. It was Prof. Davis who invented
the dirigible kite several years ago. three
strings allowing the operator to steer the
kite rrom right to left at will or to make it
sink to the earth. Having perfected tliiscn
rions kite, which is of hexagon shape, is
covered with oiled silk, is foldable. port
able, and has a tail. Prof. Davis turned
his attention to his more recent and Im
portant discovery or the dirigible buoy,
which bids fair to do much to lessen the
dangers of shipwreck. For months past
Prof. Davis, assisted by Mr. Eddy, has
been experimenting on the Kill von Ktdl
with this buoy, and has obtained most en
couraging results. There arc two fcwds
both being designed to be attached to kite
lines and drawn over the water by the
power or the kite. The simpler variety -.
merely a long wooden tube about three
inches in diameter, and shaped verv much
like a gun projectile, with a cone or tm
dragging behind, to give steadiness. It Is
for use only when the wind is blowing m
exactly the direction in which it is designed
to send a message or carry a rope. It will
be observed that in a large number of cases
when ships are driven on rocks the wind
is blowing toward the shore, and In such
cases a line or kites would realy
carry one or these buoys ashore with the
important words inside or the still more
important rope following artcr.
Not satistied, however, with this uoy.
Prof. Davis sought some means it mak
ing kites draw a load across the water
in any direction desired, regardless ."f the
way the wind might be blowing: and.-after
much thought and calculation, he hit upon
what i now kaown as the Davi by. jmi
object tlwt has become familiar toiiwetfftts
at Bergeu Point and Port Richmond, from
the frequent experiments on the KiR time
have been carried on during the pstyer.
This form of buoy is much larger than the
other, beimr three or four feet in length;
and its essential feature is a deep lrn
keel that project below iuc of the MoelceC
wood forming the-body. It s evident tbnti
this keel will tend to keep the buoy headed
In any given direction; and stability of p
si'ion is further assured by the presence C
guy-ropes attached to the main line of. tku
kite. Each bony is provided wN three
ff these ropes, which, by being lengthened
or shortened, may cause the buoy to form
any desired angle with'the kite cord, aad
to keep it. Prof Davis has entirely suc
ceeded in making the Site- drag the boor
along the water in various directions In
the- very strongest gales ic fact. iler
precisely the conditions that wouM asstss
when the buoys would lie needed for We
savmg service from wrecks. Aad lie is
Iositive that, with further expenraeat. htr
will be able, by moving along the saore
until a tacking angle is reached, not mily
to send lines, food or messages t ; a tfcwMed
vessel from the shore, but to bring back:
by the same kites and the same boy other
lines and messages from jieople in distress.
Considering the important offices of whteh
it has already been proved capable, ami
the possibility which these suggest of nanay
other practical application-, it is el ear
that the kite is no longer Co be regarded
as simply a toy. And this, in turn, swggesn
anew the familiar truth that, after aK.
nothing in tins world is of small eoftse-queuce.
Much interest attaches from a scientifio
point of view to experiments designed, to
test how great an altitude may be readied
by kites; and for a year past Mr. Eddy haa
been working In this direction for tha
Smithsonian Institution, the hope beinir
that he will ultimately succeed in sending
kites two miles above the earth's .surface.
Prof. Langley has been following these ex
periments with great interest, and haa
furnished Mr. Eddy with a special quality
of silk cord, which, It is believed- will give
better results in meteorologicnF observa
tion than the ordinary hempen itwine or
rope. The great difficulty that .Mr- Eddy
finils in the way of making his kites reach
great altitudes, is the pull on the cord,
which increases greatly as the kites rise
It is probable that a tamden of fifteen
or twenty big kites, reaching to a mile
above the earth's surface, would exers a
pull or 100 pounds, while at a height of
two miles they might. Mr- Eddy thinks,
exert a pull of 350 pounds, aad at a height
of three miles, a pull of 700 pounds- How
ever great the pull, it Is essential to suc
cessful flying that the man in control btr
able to let out or reel in the main line
Avith great rapidity, and it is evident that
a dozen men cu!d not by hand alone ae
compltsh this if the kites were sent as
high as miclit be- It Is likely, therefore
that, as the Importance of scientifie kite
flying becomes more widely understood,
some simple dummy engine will be devised
ror rapidly turning the windlass on waih
the main line is wound.
Mr.Eddy has made frequent experi
ments with rain-kites, which he &ed fr
the tirst time in November. 1803- It is
true that Franklin sent up a flyer during a
shower, but in his case the ram was merely
an accident accompanying the cleetrte
storm, which was Ids only concern. Mr.
Eddy, however, has sent up kites la the
rain for the purpose r studytos cfead
altitudes and other mcteorologieal phe
nomena; and by this means he has dis
covered what was not prevkisly believed
tv be true that clouds sometimes sink to
within six hundred feet of the earth's sr
face without actually coming down te it.
In fact, Mr. Eddy has had kites disappear
in a cloud at a height of only five atualred
aud sixty-eight feet. It lms sometimes
happened" that clouds settling towarrt Ihe
eartti Rave obscured the kites grMliiatty.
the top one becoming Invisible fir-t. and
then the others in succession. Mr. KiMy
has found that by such nullcatioas h fa
able to roretell the approach of left roar
or five hours before It rwu-hes the t-aitws
surfaee, so slowly do the ctoi stJ
through the air strata.
One 2f aturaH"t-
A man who lms- roa!e a careful sfoatyr
or the habits or aairoals aart birtte. atHlt
who flrmlv believes- that birds taiafc aaU
are controlled by brain action w a greaft
measure a bout, if not quite as math as
human being, ami aot by the "owrraUMl
instinct" told a fewntgafc. agoot the tali
effect uatiiral history hail on aim.
"Do you know," he said, "that swee
I learned that birds and mammals taiafc. r
have bail a fort or spleen against flesh
When I cat a rurtridge I think or tke bird's
wiles used in its endeavors, to escape tc
hunter's merciless shot. It is the saiae
with the ducks, turkeys, deer, and beeves,
and all other flesh, bnt not fish. I have
the dread, or feeling, that I am eating
a rational beings I think that ir vege
tarianism ever becomes universal It will
be when we understand the thought or
birdsandmammalsandareable to converse,
with them. We are Just now entering
on a wonderful field of research. We have
found the door to real natural history
keyhole. New York Sun.