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C e&zXi& ' ZiC--i"i -g-c THE MORNIJSra TIMES, SU3Srai.gV JANUARY 3, 1897. ii -if '-ijjjet ?. SOME SHIPS THAT CAN FIGHT Vessels of the American and Spanish.. Navies Compared The D:ns Are in Pretty GoodShape to Make .Trouble. moit All Americans just now are Interested j In Spain ana her navy- In 153S Spain pre pared for hallle tlie largest Mia fleet ever heard or. It consisted of 130 vessels of a total of 57.S6S ions, mounting 2,431 guns and carrying 30,000 men. Wind, weather, bad seamanship and the English fleet ef fectively destroyed this famous Spa.iish armada. What little prestige was 'eft -was Kivcn a death blow at Trafalgar in 1805. A few years ago a dispute concerning the ownership of the Caroline Islands brought out, among other tilings, the Tact that Spain really possessed no force afloat -worth speaking of, and it was equally ap parent that bhe was in need of one if she hoped longer to preserve her autonomy. Accordingly a naval policy was inaugu rated, the essential features being, first, the protection of the home coast, and, sec ond, the protection of her colonial pos sessions. The home coast is 1,320 miles long, bald, mountainous and difficult of attack- The principal ports are Ferrol, Carta gena, Cadiz and Barcelona, all naval depots iind all more or less protected by fortifi cations, but not powerfully. The colonics are the Canary Islandsand Fernando 1'oin the Eastern Atlantic Ocean; the Talawan, Philippine, Ladrone and Caroline Islands in the Pacific Ocean, and Cuba and Porto Kico in the Webt Indies. Ships She Needed. I n order to protect the Dag and to demon strate to the world her ability to do so, Spalii publlsheda few years back thcfollowingde cree or t hi 1 orce she considered necessary to be kept on duty at home and abroad: For the peninsula and the adjacent islands, 11 -.hips, 20 giinltoatsnnd GO torpedo boats i f various sizes. To man this hoineflcetitwas estimated that 7.7C0 sailors were needed and 2,1500 marines. For the Pouth American station one cruiser was thought to be sufficient, with 116 men and 23 marines. For the west coast or Africa 1 cruiser, 2 gunboats and Bbout200 men, and rorthc protectionist the Caroline and the adjacent islands 8 cruisers, 12 gunboats, 7 torpedo boats and 3.000 sailors and marines. For Cuba and Porto Kico ten years ago it was suspected by Spain that to safeguard her interests 4 cruisers, 14 gunboats and 4 torpedo boats, with a total c omplement of 1,400 men and 200 marines, would be ample. Itcftnnot be denied that in rehabilitating her navy along the line piorosed Spain has succeeded in securing k me ships that are nsg otl as are to be found afloat any vliere else in the woi-ld. The one battleship she p(ts-.eases is the well fci own ivlayo, of 10, 000 tons, built ten years a; o in Prance. The ship is formidable loth inattack and In defense. For the former she has a ikiw errul ram and a battery consisting of two I2.n-inch modern high power rifles, mount ed in barlK-ttes one fprward the othoraft of nineteen Indies of steel: two 11-imh rifles in armored sponsons;one 6-inch rifle In her bows, and twelve -1.7 -inch rapid-rire puns in broadside. Besides these guns of the main battery there are a dozen smaller, constituting her secondary battery, and there are six torpedo tubes. The Pelayo. The defensive powers or the Pelayo are also excellent. She is provided with a Eteel water-line belt, varying in thickness from eighteen inches in Hie wake of the machinery and boilers tapering in thick ness to twelve incliesa? the bow and stern. Her speed today is about sixteen knots. During the past year this battleship has had her boilers generally repaired and re tubed at the Ferrol navy yard, and is ready for active service. The condition of the vessel is excellent, the only defects being due to fault y design in certain particulars viz., insufficient protection for the four 7 incli guns, lack of subdivision of the space over the protective deck, and t lie small coal eupply, only COO tons. Battleships are built with the object in view of fighting hostile battleships on the high seas, and, therefore, the highest tal ents of constructors and designers are called into requisition to make the type as nearly impregnable as possible- But, ;ib the many different classes of battleships sltow, there is a wide divergence of opin ion as to the best way to insure this su periority. Size of gun, emplacement , armor distribution, speed and coal supply are some of the points in controversy, and until battleship meetb battleship to fight to the death the questions at issue will doubtless never be satisfactorily answered. Our Own Battleships. In the United States nuvy we have a type Af battlehip in the Indiana class, of about 11,000 tons displacement, analogous to the Pelayo. Notably heavy are the batteries emplaeed on these new first-class battleships of ours. Tlie Oregon, the Indiana and the Massachusetts carry each the" tremendous armament of four 13-inch, eight 8-inch and fourC-incli guns- In the way of protection the thickest side armor is to be found In a partial belt pro tecting only tlie vitals of the ships. This armor, of Horvcyizcd nickel steel, is 18 inches thick. The big guns, more than a foot in diameter of bore, are mounted in bide of 17-inch steel turrets, and the G itich battery Is protected by 5 inches of the same metal The speed of our vessels is about 1 5 1-2 knots, and the normal coal supply only about 400 tons. This coal supply, though small, is sufficient for per forming work in our onshore waters. It would by no means, however, enable our battleships tosteamnerossthc Atlantic. But 3.000 miles can be steamed over by battleships byfillingthem up with an extra supply of coal, and this contingency is pro vided Torln the interior arrangements of the Tessels. Another splendid ship in t he Spanish navy is the armored cruiser Emperador Carlos V. Inextemal appearance slie resembles closely ourarmored ship the Jsow York.of the same type, though the Spaniard is a trifle larger, being 9,100 tons to the New York's S.D00. The Carlos V. carries two 11-inch gunsin bar bettos ten Inches thick; eight 5 1-2-lueh rapid Tire guns, and Tour 4-inch rapid rirers, together with a powerful secondary battery or rapid fire C and 3-pounder guns. Ber protective deck is six inches thick, and her sides are partially plated with two-inch eteel. The coal supply of this ship nenrly 1,800 tons is worth noticing. It should enable her to make easily 10,000 milesat a ten-knot gait. The Carlos V. is not yet entirely ready for sea, but can be made so In short order. The Brooklyn. ' Armored cruisers are designed to fight ene another at sea, but they are to act as the heavy detachments of a. fleet rather than be the main body. We have in our navy two armored cruisers quite like the Carlos V the New York, of 8,500 tons, and the Brooklyn, of 0,500. The latter is the better ship In neatly every way. She carries eight 8-inch and twelve 5-lnch gunstothcNew York's six 8-inch and twelve 4-inch. The armor of the New York 1 lnch on the sides and 10-lnch on the tur retsis thicker than the corresponding 3 and 3 inch of the Brooklyn, but the latter's protection is the more modern. Still another fine type of the armored cruiser class iB that represented in themod crn Spanish navy by the belted ship Infanta Harla Teresa. Four of these armored ships are now In the water, and thrccof them are well along in hand. Their principal char acteristics are as rollows: Armament, two 9. 45 guns in baTbettes and ten 5.5-iiich rapid tirers. Protection, abelt atthc water line, 12 inches thick along the central body of the ship. The barbette armor is also 12 Inche.sthick. The coal capacity oU ,200 tons should give a steaming radius of 10,000 miles, at 10 knots. In our service there Is no class of vessel corresponding to these efficient cruisers, which were designed especially to protect the Spanish colonies, and are in every way suited for this purpose. In our service the only approach to them is, in the point of size, to be found in our second-class battle ships, theMaineand the Texas,or7,000and 6,500 tons, respectively. The former has four 10-lnch guns In turrets ten inches thick, and the latter has two 12-inch guns in 10-inch thick turrets. Both have six 6 inch guns in their main battery. Some Peculiar Types. Besides these types or second-class battle ships we have in our navy some other types peculiar to ourselves. We possess", for in stance, one armored ram. tlie Katahdin, of 2,200 tons neither Spain nor any other power owns a ship like our ram and we have five double-turreted monitors, the most powerful being the Puritan, of 6,000 tons. She carries 14-lnch armor on her sides and turrets and carries an armament of four 12-inch guns and six 4-Inch rapid- fire guns. The Terror, the Ampliitritc, the Monad nock and the.Miantonomoh are of about hair the Puritan's size. Their armor is eleven inches thick and their guns arc 10 inch pieces. These monitors are essen tially coast defenders. In smooth water and Tor harbor work they have proved themselves to be the best or types. Spain has nothing like them, and, excepting ttus sia, Tew naval powers nowadays approve or the building or maintaining or monitors. It should be said here that only ships launched and Id a lit condition ror being Immediately put Into active service are taken into consideration in describing the more prominent features of the vessels or Spain and the United States. It is well, no, to remember that Spain has been much hampered by internul dissensions and debt and revolutions while developing her navy. Shipbuilding in the navy jards or Spain progresses very slowly. It took trnm ten to twelve yenrsto build 3,000 -ton protected cruisers, and one of them, whose keel was laid in October, lt-EJt, is still on the ways, progressing at the rate of 0.S ton per day. The cost of building in the navy yards is from three to four times as great as the cost in private yards. Of three protected cruisers of the same class, two built in England cost $223,590, while tlie one built in Spain cost $1,440,- 000, which, even allowing 25 per cent ror exchange, still makes the Spanish built ship cost rive times as much as her sis ter ships. Spanish Navy "Yard. It is thought that this state of affairs is Improving. Certainly during the last year the greatest activity has been manifested in the Spanish navy yards in lilting out ships Tor service in Cuban waters. Orficers were sent into Scotland to inspect mer chant vessels suitable for conversion into cruisers for sucli service, but none seems to have been secured, and six steamers of the Compania Transatlantic!!, a mer chant marine organisation, under sub sidy to the Spanish government, have been supplied with their regular armaments as vessels ot the naval reserve and taken into service at a monthly rental or Si 15,800. The Spanish people in all parts or tlie world have tills year taken a lively in terest in their navy, and in some cases have contributed money toward its enlarge ment. An organization or Spanish sub jects in Mexico is reported to have contrib uted $225,000 toward purchasing a torpedo vessel, and other colonies in Caracas and Lima have been equally patriotic- it must be remembered that these con tributions had nothing to do with the governmental appropriations. For 1896 the naval estimates amounted to $4,439, 000, a sufficient sum to carry on the work in hand. Among the items appropriated for were an 11,000-ton battleship, two 7,000 ton cruisers, two torpedo vessels and some tugs. Tlie vessels building nowin Spain, but not yet far enough along to be launched or to be commissioned toractive service rora year or two longer, are three 7,000-ton armored cruisers, or tlie type above described, three torpedo vessels or 830 tons each, two 400 ton high speed torpedo boats, and some launches. Tlie vessels recently acquired, which can be put into service ir required, arc Tour torpedo boats or the largest type and twenty-five gunboats. Tiiese last range in size from forty tons to three hun dred tons. They are intended for service in Cuban waters, and several or them are there now. It may be or interest to know that up to July or this year Spain had purchased nine vessels in the United States and converted them into gunboats. Most or them were small yachts, their American names being Sparkle, John E. Thropp.Naveslnk, Shrews bury, Leon Abbett, Petrel, Aztec, Bart and Edith. In most cases they carry 1-inrli Nordenfelt machine guns. Their displace ments vary from 22 to 85 tons. The speed is alwutteu knotsand complement fifteen men. They are in service in Cuban waters. Spain has also purchased, for use as a transport, the Intnan line steamer City of Richmond. The Navies Compared. A resume of all the information to be ol taincd concerning Spain's navy leads to the belief that at this writing her armored fleet that can be made ready for sea con sists or rive excellent, thoroughly equipped armored cruisers and one equally efficient battleship, a total tonnage of about 47,000 tons' displacement. In speed the five arm ored cruisers average nearly twenty knots and the Pelayo sixteen. But this sixteen is ample- Speed will never win tlie day nmong battleships if the maneuvering pow ers of tlie slower ships are good. This armored fleet is a very powerful one. The printed data concerning the arma ments of these ships, the total number of guns they carry and their calibers arc as follows: Inch. Inch. Inch. Inch. Inch. Inch, Inch. Cal., 12.5 11.0 &5 CO R.5 4.7 4 0 No., 2 10 2 1 48 VZ i In the armored fleet of our own country there are thirteen vessels. These thirteen are all in commission, counting the Mian tonomah, and are dolngduty. In speed they range fiom twelve to twenty-two knots. Their aggregate displacement Is about 84, 500 tons; the guns they mount can be ar ranged also in a table thus: Inch. Inch. Inch. Inch. Inch. Inch. Caliber. 1-5.0 P.'.Q 8.0 CO 5.0 4.0 Number, 12 S 3S 21 12 21 Unaruiored Ships of Spain. Omitting the gunboats, Spain has about thirty-seven tinarmored vessels. Eighteen of these are cruisers, vnrylnglnslzcfrom 1,100 tons to 5,000 tons. She -will have to depend on these to act-as the "eyes or her armored fleet." They are the scouts, the Uhlans, the flying eavalry,,tbe express messengers, the information gatherers. Theirs is the duty, also, if they can be spared, to harrass com merce, and to swoop down upon the unde fended merchantman, like the "hawk in search of quarry." The speed orthese cruis ers varies from eleven knots to twenty knots. As able assistants to the crnlsers.todothe i lighter part of the work, Spain hns a dozen torpedo boats or large size; perhaps they should be more correctly called torpedo ves sels, since they range in displacement from 458 to 850 tons. Their speed Is from 13 knots to 28 knots, and in every re spect they are a thoroughly efficient lot or craft. Therenialnderof the unaruiored fleet is made up of dispatch vcsselsandsloops-of-war, none of them of much importance ex-' cept as subsidiaries" to the Taster cruisers.. The number and caliber or the guns carried by the above unaruiored rieet are as fol lows: ' ,. Inch. Inch. Inch. Inch. Inch. Caliber, 7.8 C2 0.0 4.7 .5.3 Number. 8 2U .13 fcO 8 We in the United States have virtually' stopped constructing the uunnhored cruiser type of war vessel, considering that our more pressing needs He in other directions. There are now In our navy sixteen unar uiored steel cruisers built, and no others are building. These ships vary gieatly in nearly every particular in size, from 2,000 tons displacement in the Marblehead to nearly 7,500 tons In the Minneapolis; In speed, from seventeen knots to twenty three knots; in battery, from 4-inch guns,' etc. Although all these ships arc not at this moment in commission, yet a week ought to be sufficient time for commission ing them, omitting, perhaps, the Chicago, which ship is being re-englned. Smaller Crafts of Both Navies. In our navy there are also what we tech nically call gunbouts. In reality these ships are only smaller cruisers. There are six teen of them.varylngln slzefrom the York- town, of 1,720 tons, to the Annapolis, Just launched, of 1,000 tons. Six ofthe.se-the newest ones, however, cannot be ready for service within half a year, und therefore in estimating our unarmored cruiser effi ciency only twenty-seven vessels are count ed, for it is the fleet of today, not the one of tomorrow, that we are telling about. Our armamentarioat on unaruiored vessels is composed or the following number and caliber of guns: Caliber, S inch. G-inch. 5-inch. 4-inoU. Number, 20 00 5'J 2 Spain's gunboat flotilla is a large force, so far as numbers go. There are about 100 of these boats, ranging in size from 40 tons displacement up to 300 tons. Their armament varies greatly, as do all their other particulars. Tlie largest boats have two 3-inch rapid rire guns and a few small machine pieces, the smallest mount in some instances, but a single one pounder machine gun. None of these boats is fast, but they all serve their purpose well. They were built ror use in Cuban waters, where the sea is smooth, the dis tances rrom port to port short and a base always within touch. They can and do hold the sea power or the island, and pret ty effectively blockade the coast, so far as the insurgent forces are concerned. But such an insigniricaiit force as this in reality is could serve no useful purpose in time or war with any respectable naval power. The one element which might make such boats useful, speed, is wholly wanting. In our Navy there are no vessels uiialogous to these little gunboats. Torpedo Boat "Work. Tlie type of small boat that can be of much tactical value to a fleet is the torpedo boat. Speed and invisibility are the prime factors that make these little ones so useful. They can then dart ubout hither and thither, carrying orders, firing their torpedoes, slipping by blockades, and in many ways assisting a fleet of large vessels. Spain hus quite a formidable flotilla of this kind ot craft. At least six of them are of 200 tons or more dis placement, with a speed of twenty-rive kuots. Besides these most desirable ones, she has fourteen smaller boats, rrom 00 to 180 tons displacement, with a speed varying from nineteen to twenty-four knots. Our navy is still weak in this needed element of strength, though we are rapidly growing stronger. Perhaps under pressure we might be able to put iu commission as many as eight torpedo boats from 100 to 200 tons displacement, and from twenty to twenty-five knots speed. Inclosing it might be well to state that Spain, in point of merchant tonnage, ranks seventh among the nations of the world. The largest corporation Is the Compania Transatlantica, with thirty-two steamers o.f a gross tonnage of over 100,000 tons. About twentj of these steamers are so con structed that they can be used as armed cruisers in time or war, and at least six ofthemhavcalready been given theirarma ment. The fastest of them, however, does not come near the St. Paul or the St. Louis in point of speed, size, or seaworthi ness. We have nineteen vessels sailing from Atlantic ports which have been subsidized by our government, ranging from 11,630 to 2,500 tons, but we have guns Tor only a few of them. Spain has little difficulty to overcome In the obtaining ot men. In the mari time provinces service) atloat ror a num ber of years is obligatory. There arc now on board ship or ready Tor the call nearly 1.S00 officers and 15,000 men, besides 1,000 marines. Also it is well to note that the Spanish government maintains a trained, organized naval reserve force of nearly 50,000 men, available for serv ice arioat, to supplement the active navy and on shore to man the coast defenses. The small arm of the naval rorce is the Mauser magazine rifle, caliber .295. "WHY FRANKLIN STILL, LIVES. Typical and "Unapproachable Prod uct of True Americanism. McClure's Mariizine. There are, I conceive, two chief reasons why the name of Franklin is so constantly on our lips and his memory so impressed upon our hearts why, in other words, he really lives for us instead or being a UK-re fossil in the strata of history. One is that as an embodiment of practical learning, bhrcwd mother wit, honesty and patriot ism he is a typical and in many respects un approachable product of true Americanism. The other Is that he is the most complete representative ot this century that aDy nation can point to. With regard to the typical character of his Americanism few cavils will be raised, but with regard to the claim that he best represents the eighteenth century there will probably be not a little dissension. Washington, Br. Johnson, Frederick the Great and Voltaire might each and all be put in competition with the sage who . snatched the lightning from heaven and the scepter from tyrants, and would have many supporters. But in none of these does the age of prose and reason seem to rind such an adequate and complete expression as in Franklin. Washington is beyond Ills own or any century; Dr. Johmon docs not sufficiently represent the age on Its rational side; Frederick is tco extreme a combination of daring and sublime seriousness or purpose and petty affectation; while Voltaire is at once too intense and not radical enough, and is, after all, too entirely a man of letters. Franklin, on the other "hand, thoroughly represents his cge in its prac ticality, in its devotion to science, in its intellectual curiosity, in Its humanita rianism, in its lack of spirituality, in its calm" seir-content in short, in its exulta tion or prose and reason over poetry and faith. Social Ties. . "Have you lived next to Jfche, Snoberlys three years and don'tknow theni yet?'' "Well, they have spoken very kindlyto us several times wfien they borrowed our bicycle pump." Chicago Becord. KEEPING TAB ON WEATHER - Haw Senators ArelLlile'to Study . Climatic YmiatioiiSr- v: HAYBaAGOJIMT& STATION' , u; s,t v m .ffig-r. .?-,? v- It Is theifost Pbpnlar Resort on the NdYftKeteotho Caplt'ol-XeKiH- Irttors GaeBjTiitererCriicli: Jokes , ftqid BoQQijQib. -jftfiaiuto of?heir Own Hoineri.Cv.lfs ,',, II. , The most ponnjart rajinrt on the Senate side of the Capitol; is yie weather station. It is one of theWo"sPcoipleteintheauntry. . Senators gather in ft the first tiling in the morning, and stniyd aqund In groups studying the conditions for the day. Some startling weather Htor'us are told on such occasions, and, us widclyrsoiwirated.sections or the country are represented, these tales 1'iavc 'no territorial liuii't'.' When it is snow ing in the Northwest 'as B frequently-fb"-" ' the Western en stiind'be'fqro.the map jtnd dlilvcr, just' 6uJ of sympathy with those who are w.earing earuiufrs, buckskin un derclothing, extra heavy arctics and other necessary articles of hp'parei. When the, mercury tries to lift the roof off tlie thermometer down in "the Southwest the man who puts in his 'lime at Yuma, Arizona, makes seersucker, cjotlilng burden some by audibly recalling the days when a man had to wear an overcoat, re-enforced on the shoulders with a several-tlmes-Tolded blanket, to prevent the sun rrom blistering his back, while stories of cyclone and flood pour out without number. "Where tho Maps Hang. The maps hang on tlie wail in a wide recess of the Marble Itooni, Just opposite the entrance to the Republican side.of ,the. Senate chamber. On a window ledge are placed upon a neatly polished table a rull set or heir-recording meteorological in struments. The maps show the weather conditions at 8 a. in. rrom 156 stations or the weather bureau. It is the easiest thing possible to read them. Scattered all over their polished surfaces are a num ber or hooks, located on the sites ot the more Important cities. On these hooks hang little disks, tlie edges or which are perforated, so that tlie disks may be ap propriately hung. " '" Most ot the disks are but the central portions of arrows, thus serving the. double purpose or indicating the character or weather and the direction of the wind. When there is no arrow on the disk that means a calm in that sectjon or tlie United' States. The color of the disk conveys the principal information, red meaning clear weather; blue, cloudy; half "blue and half white, fair; black, ralu. and wlilteand black bars, snow. On a lillle Cardboard tag, which also depends from the hooks, is de scribed the temperature and rainfall; the combination is a perfect and easily-understood record. People whocannot compre hend' 'tlie signals, or who' have no great amount of spare time, are not shut out from the store of knowledge. Mr. J. II. Jones' of the Weather Bureau has charge of the maps, and instruments, and ho can make everything plain to the most obtuse intellect. The" Senators' as a rule do not understand the intricacies of the weather map, but resort to a pumping process from the expert in charge ror the" information they desire. To this class be longs one eminent Republican statesman, who reads the maps by the color of ttie disks "iWe afc having a good deal or red weather," he "will say. To him the weather is cither"rcd,',o'r blue or striped One of the interesting aii'dTnluable nov elties is the use or red tape to show the track of storms and their origin. The storm center each day is Indicated by a large, black arrow, and the tap"e trails atter it to the outer and rear) edge or 'the 'atmos pheric commotion. TlteTirea of the storm. Is shown by a cord which ft twisted around the hooks. On tlie westem'edge or the map are the Hag signals in miniature. These show the local forecasts, and most of the Senators are expert In, figuring out Avhat the flags and combinations of flags, mean. The local forecast Is also printed in large typo and placed upon the map Tor those who do not use the flags.. Crop Bulletins. Then there are other 'charts, showing various conditions of weather. Such, for instance, as the Climate and Crop Weekly Bulletin, with a record or the rainfall, temperature and sunshine, as effecting crops throughout the country; also charts showing the average rainfall for every section of the United States for the months of the year, and a chart showing normal temperatures for each month. From the lat ter anybody can learn what the weather ought to be. Another novelty is the chart which shows the snow area. This is printed weekly, and is consulted by Senators who are interested jn winter wheat and rail road afrairs. The station is supplied with the very rincst instruments known to tlie service. There are anemometers, anemometer regis ters, thermometers of all kinds and de scriptions, anemescopes, wind and rain registers, sunshine recorders, electrically recording rain guuge.au areiod barograph, a thermograph, and a thermograph record ing electrically at a distance. To these Senators pay but little-attention, except tlie gauge weighing rain and snow. This they seem never to growtired talkingabout. It is the results they are interested in. They use the weather station for personal uses. A Senator giving a reception is sure to be a most constant student of the weather maps for days ahead. They scan keenly the local forecast, and have learned to' rely on it. Especially is this true in the winter. Many a theater party depends on the forecast of a day. In the spring and summer the clouds possess the greatest interest, and Senator Gorman, by disregarding tlie local forecast the daj after the St. Louis cyclone, was stormbound in the country allot one night-' If.a Senator proposes to ta'ce a trip or send his ramily away he embraces the opportu nity of clear weather signs. The observer in, charge is called to committee rooms and consulted on the weather, and during the last session or Congress it- became neces sary to send his roreeast cards to each room. When he happens to miss it, as all Torecast ers do, he hears criticisms on all sides. It has become so much or a necessity to the members otthe upper house that they are' provoked when the system fails them. Mafce Their Own Forecasts,., .There are two Senators also who come in Tor their share or charring, and on whom the observer 'rails back in times of danger, Gen. Hawley and Mr, Piatt. ,These gentlemen are experts. They make their i'Own forecastsand keep tlie closest kind of a watch upon the orricial prediction. Their associates all know th'is, and have' great" run when the" Connecticut! 'Senators happen to get caught up Senator Squire, of wnsiilrigton'' rs'"the" member of the Scnatemost teased. He is. very ticklish on the rainfall ontin his State. -The1 climate', he claim it, Is 'tlfe befit in tlie Union. So when his frlenfls iu .the Senate, insisted that the annual rainfall in Wash-' 1 ngton " was som6fching Ifkea. liund red inches he, nearly went wlld.'i'TJieumore they in sisted the wilder he became. At last he had theTVeather'Bureau furnish him with, figures to show( that t'fie Average rainfall 'at Seattle 'fbr'th'e'past'ffvS years was only' -10 inches. Armed with this, he cornered every man iu the Senate, and proved to his own satisfaction, atleast.thatthere was no State like Washington. Senator Toller is alvaysone otthe most interesting visitors to the weather map. Colorado stands, rirst with him in every thing,- and he is more interested in the weather conditions in that State thanhcis ,ln ttie weather In Washington, llecan rind "silver" weather to his heart's content 'most every day. I n this respect he is very (different from that other great silver leader, Senator Stewart, of Nevada. Mr. 'Stewart never pays any attention at all to .his State. He is interested in Virginia weather, for he owns a princely planta tion in the Old Dominion. The same is true of Senator Quay. He in-more, interested in Florida weathjiEtjianthator Pennsylvania. , Senator Rill',( p'f New York, keeps the closest kind of, tab on Albany weather. ' Ills heart sceins to be centered there. Ha pays no attention to any other portions of his State. "llo reads the symbols himself and never wants Information volunteered. Senator Aljcu, who sits right in trout of 'Mr. Hill, is one or tho closest students the maps have. Ho Is a rarmer and Is up on all kinds or weather. Air. Gear, or Kan 'sas.is always interested in the winter time, jllc watchCs"" the reports with a sharp eye, and Is never satisfied until he is sure his 'Ice crop is in. Then the weather has but few charms ror him. Watching Rainfall. Senator George, ot Mississippi, keeps a sharp eye on the rainfall in the crop season, no is. an old farmer and knows how much depends on the rain. Strange as ltmiay seem, Senator Hale, of Maine, has the same interest and folio ws the precipitation during the critical periods in the crop 'ficasson with an anxious eye. Senator Mills, or Texas, too, is always in tensely interesd in the rainfall during the cotton season', , He likes to enlarge on the beauties ot a cotton crop to any friends standing by, and is still inclined to Uiink that "Cotton is King." Senator Cullom, of Illinois, is always watching for generalstormsoutin his State. Ills colleague, Gen. Palmer, on the other hand, pays the greatest attention to all kinds of weather. If he has a rad, it is watching the crop reports. He is always especially worried aboufchlnch bugs," and each season tells the story or the man who emigrated to Oklahoma. The old general says: "This settler had built a large wagon and covered it with canvas. Upon its sides he had painted his pa,t bitter experience and his ruture hopes as follows: 'Ku-kluxed in Kentucky; white-capped In Indiana; chinch bugged in Illinois; grass-hoppered In Kan sas; Oklahoma now or bust.' A year later lie, passed through my town and printed be low his former declaration was the word, 'busted.' " Senator Nelson, ot Minnesota, has to com pare the climate of St. Paul with that of Washington and makes a hit, but yet he manages to keep his health while at the Capitol. Seuator'-Pfeffer makes but few inquiries, but manages to be one of the best posted weather men in the Senate. Sena tor "Perkins or California, always knows what the conditions are in his State, and can usually find a story in his experience as a sailor to fit most any case. Senator Mor guiyilways wants to discuss conditions all over the country. As in the case of Cuba, he Ooes not conrine himseir to his own State. Senator Warren, or Wyoming, Is intense ly Interested iu cold waves and high winds, while his neighbor. Senator Shoup, or Idaho, pays'uttentiononiy to theconditions arret ing the rruit crop. Mr. McMillan, ot Michi gan, always watches the snowrall in De troit, and .Mr. Aldrich, or Rhode Island, takes particular Interest in snowfalls In general. The Florida Senators watch cold waves with anxiety, and the Louisiana Senators watch the sugar conditions. Senator Caffrey says it is like getting a letter rrom home to watch the weather reports. Senator Kyle's Story. Senator Kyle, or South Dakota, is one or the story tellers, and always makes a point. He says Dakota weather is so bad that the farmers are always glad to get rid of their land. "One of my neighbors,'' he tells the story sometimes, "saw a stranger leading a cow along one day. Tlie two men began to talk, and the first thing you know a trade was made. The farmer offered the stranger 200 acres of land for the cow. When the stranger, who could not read, took the deed to Aberdeen to be recorded he found it to contain 400 acres instead of 200. He went back to tlie farmer, expostulated and tried to get the deed changed, but the farmer held out. " 'I knew you couldn't read,' he said, 'so I took the opportunity of getting rid of the extra two hundred acres.' Nothing the stranger could say or do would move tlie rarmer, and lie was forced to take the four hundred acres." Senator Proctor, ot Vermont, ex-Secretary of War, is a daily visitor to the map. He has a deep, bass voice, which used to be the pride of the village choir in Ids youthful days. He likes to tell stories of Vermont lire, and loves to dwell on the beauties ot the maple sugar industry. Each year he has a box of Vermont maple sugar sent-to him. and itls passed around theSenate side. Senator Harris, of Tennessee, one of the most unique characters in the Senate, has but little to do with the weather maps. Once in a while he walks out, looks at it and asks the observer "What's this thing about anyhow?" But the old Senator is full of stories and tells one on Jackson which he claims has never been printed. "Some friends of mine," he said, "visited the Hermitage some years after Gen. Jack son's death. While there they met the old body servant of the President. They asked him if he thought his master had gone to heaven. The servant told them he couldn't .say for certain. " 'But I'm sure of one thing,' he contin ued, 'if Marse Juckson wanted to go there, he went.' " WEALTH OF ENGLISH BREWERS. .Despite Temperance Advocates the Liquor Business Thrives. Exchanye. The wealth ot the great brewers and dis tillers does not appear to have been materi ally affected by the labors of the temperance party. The immense amount of the person alty ot the late Sir Charles Booth, which has been declared at nearly 2,000,000, helps to prove that the prosperity or the trade is as great as when Dr. Johnson made arrangements for the sale of Mr. Thrnle's brewery. The "potentialities ot wealth beyond the dreams of avarice'' still seem within the reach of the manufacturer of beer or spirits. Although the amountof Sir Charles Booth's fortune was so great, it was largely ex ceeded by that of Sir Andrew Barclay Walker, the Liverpool brewer, whose per sonalty was declared three years ago at 2,876,781. Other large fortunes of re cent years, which may be mentioned in the same connection, are those of Sir Gilbert Grenall, of Warrington, who died in 1891, leaving 1,018,375; Robert Courage, the Godalming brewer, who, dying in 1893 was worth 801, 5Q8, and Henry Page, the mal8ter ot Ware, whose personalty was declared iu 18!M at 1,01 8,375. It would be interesting to know what proportion of these colossal sums was devoted to char ituble bequests. The Londonjiospitels are nearly all In sjjre need, and occasionally, no doubt, tiie,iijen employcdbythese mlllion ' aires have bc'cn.treated in them. And yet, to take the latest instance, Sir Charley Booth, although a bachelor, left notbiiig to the liondon hospitals. - INSIDE OF A HOLLOW GLOBEj 1 i That Is Where Everybody Is Living Says Dr. Teed Founder! of the Korsshaniter Tells All About His Belief Started Ten Years Ago. Dr. Cyrus It. Teed, founder of the New Jerusalem on earth, was in the city within tlie past few days. He- stopped off here while on his way to Chicago. On several occasions lie was present at social gather ings, and, on invitation, spoke at one of them. The Koreshanltcr, the new creed of which Dr. Teed is the founder, proposes to build a New Jerusalem in the South, capable of containing 10,000,000 people,' has aroused much interest and directed attention anew to this sect- This New Jerusalem, which has already had its inception a colony'of some :J00 Koreshanites having settled there Is on Estnro Bay and the Guir or Mexico, embracing the mainland and islands or that locality. The situation is on the natural line or commerce from North to South America. The ground plan for the New Jerusalem Is a square containing thirty-six square miles. Tlie site for the construction of the temple is 1,000 feet in diameter, surround ed by a circular sea, '100 feet wide, the water to be supplied rrom Estero Bay and Estero River. Dr. Teed (Koresh) still hits the hcadqujr ters ot his sect in Chicago, where about seventy-five members now live. The col ony has been depleted because of the de partures for the New Jerusalem, and Dr. Teed says it will not be long before he and the remaining members will shake the dust of Chicago from their shoes, and go to the new city. Ten "STearH Old. Dr. Teed entered upon the. active prop aganda othissystem here Justten years ago, although he was "illuminated," as it is termed, twenty-six years ago at Utica,N. Y. "Koreshanity," said the founder, "is a system embracing every department of science, and includes every form and qual ity of creation and life. The theological doctrines of Koresh are founded upon a. sys tem of cosmogony, which I make the basis of theological conviction, as well as social organization, and are so radically in con trast with the orthodoxy of the day as to bring upon me the anathema of modern Christianity. I have often been held up to public ridicule by the press, and charges of the most serious nature have been made against me, but I do not care for rha'. "I am establishing an industro-social sys tem of an organic character Jthe form and function of the physical universe comprising thepatternforitsinauguration, development and perpetuity. This can only be compre hended by something of a knowledge of the Korestian astronomical system, which. in Koreshanity is designated as the Cellular Cosmogony, or the concave theory of the earth. I teach that we do not live on the earth asaconvex surface, butthattheworld is a concave sphere, all material life exist ing upon its inner surrace. The Koreshan system describes theearth as curvatingcon cavely about elghtluche.s to themile. which would constitute a shell or eight thousand miles in diameter and a circumference of twenty-five thousand miles. Reasoning by the law of analogy Is applied as one of the methods of proof ot this entirely new and unique theory. "Koreshanity maintains thatall life Inthe process of development progresses in the cell, and that the principle of universal pro duction Is no exception to the great lawot growth; thereforeitnecessarilyroilows that the evolution ot the perfect race must, in obedience to the principles of development, proceed in this great cell." Proved His Own Theory. Dr. Teed some time ago suggested tlie invention of a mechanical device called the rectilineator, by which the measurement or survey or the earth's surface is accom plished, and, in the opinion of the doctor, this geodetic apparatus, or, rather, the work it has done, places the doctor's theory, in his own mind at least, upon the basis of a positive science, from the fact, as he main tains, that the subsequent process of reason ing and experimentation are related to a first step that is absolutely demonstrated in the eyes of Koresh. Dr. Teed's theory is certainly an in genious one. The earth, according to the Koreshan system, has an astral or star center, around which are atmosphere, the outermost being our own, which rests upon the earth and water surface of the earth. There are three atmospheres namely, oxy gen, nitrogen and, possibly, "argon" and immediately above and rtsting upon this one, an atmosphere of hydrogen, andbeyond and above that one of aboron- This latter is in tlie very center of the earth. Outside of these atmospheres is the water and land surface of the earth. The shell, according to Koresh, is about one hundred miles in thickness, and is composed of the various geological strata, under which are five mineral strata, and under these seven metallic strata, the outermost being gold. This is the outermost environment of the shell or cmst of the earth. The Koreshan scientific, geodetic and civil engineering staff will make an ex hibit ot the modus operandi of the new geodesy, and to this end an expedition will soon go to Florida. The staff of the ex pedition will consist of Ulysses G. Mor row, astronomer and geodctist of the Ko reshan Unity; Lucius M. Boomer, general di HERHlLOfX AMONG HIS FRIENDS. Some of the Clever TrleliS Played by the Magician Off tlie Stage. Often the tricks which Herrmann prac tised on his companions seemed more mar velous to them than those he presented on the stage. A number of them are de scribed in the New York Journal. One of his of r-the-stage specialties was reserved for use in the care at Delmonico's. Neces sary adjuncts were a bottle of champagne and n stranger. The Introduction or the stranger was the signal ror all the disen gaged waiters and guests to constitute themselves an impromptu audience. Ttie stranger and the magician would clink glasses rilled to the brim. "Your health, and here goes," Herr mann would say. And, as the brim of the glass was touching his lips, wine and glass together disappeared before the as tonished stranger's gaze. The equally mysterious reappearance of the glass a moment later, still briming rull of champagne, was the astonishing climax ot a trick of which no one ever explained the secret. Herrmann always carried a number ot gold coins in his pockets bearing his pri vate mark. He was one of themostexpert palmists that ever lived. There is a story of how Abe Hummel was victimized, with apt elaborations, in this wise: They were seated in a Broadway cafe in company with halt a dozen others. A newsboy entered the cafe opportunely. Herrmann wanted a newjsnjAjr. He took a handful of coins from ihis!pTCket, among which were two $20 gojddrfeces-. -which he laid on Mr. Hummel's corner of the table while making change with the boy out of a silver quarter. Then he tailed the at tention of those present to the fact that one of his gold pieces had disappeared. "I am sorry, gentlemen,' said the magician, "but I shall have to search yOU." - Mr. Hummel had.no objection, and when I Herrmann, found the missing coin iu tne rector; Harrison Boomer, secretary, and George W. nunt. The investigations will be made on the Gulf coast, near Eatero, Fla., where the New Jerusalem is to be located, and will probably require at least rive months. The land surface or the earth, is too uneven ror experiment, and it 13 agreed the seas must follow the curvature of the globe. Uence the experiment along; the Gulf coast. Sun and Planets. " According to the Koreshan system, tho sun is supposed to be about one hundred miles in diameter, and located in the center or the hollow globe, 4,000 miles from tho earth's surface. The Koreshan system teaches,, however, that the sun is hidden from sight by three atmospheres, and that what human beings .see as the sun is the focalization of the true sun's energies at a distance of 1,300 miles from the earth's surface. The sun anfl the world are supposed to constitute a mighty galvanic battery, which, develops millions of cathode rays that are projected back and Torth on the inside of the globe and Hash out here and there aa stars. Each or the planets is supposed to be not a real material globe, but really the en ergy or one of the minerals in the earth's rind focalized in space and made luminous as light. Dr. Teed, in speaking of his belief and plans Tor the future, says: The exact knowledge of the form and function of the physical universe is the basis for the religious system of Kore shanity, and from this develops the gov ernmental and social lite ot the order. Mental and physical Industry is classified in the system, and the products or industry as well, and the relation ot the one to the other is so adjusted as to provide for an equitable distribution of all the products ot industry. "Itis the purpose of Koreshanity to plant the branches ot the order in ever city and town in the United States and the world, and to provide for the employment of every person now idle in such manner as to supply every individual with the entire proceeds or his application to the creatioa ot products. "There is a division or the social sys tem Into two distinct general orders, the prime and superior order being celibate, the inferior being marital. The object of the celibate order is the conservation of the sex energies for the higher spiritual, mental and physical regeneration. Ko reshans maintain that the dissipation of the sex Torcos is the cause of mortality, and that immortality will come only through th purification of the mind and body in obedience to the principles ot celibacy and chastity instituted by Kore shanity. "The marital order is monogamic, gov erned and protected by the laws regulating: that relationship. No law of the country is violated or interfered with; the relig ious and moral standing of the marital or der, however, Is under a scientific and moral culture, which places it above the common plain to which propogative ia stinct the human race has fallen. What Man ls. "Man is the habitation and permanent dwelling place ot Deity. The perfect human ity, regenerated in spirit, soul and body, so as to render it i mnforal and incomiptlole.Js the Temple of Grxl, Je.-us, the Christ and Saviou of the world, was one of the billions of manifestations of the infinite, appearing at regular intervals and epochs of the world's progressand perpetuity. Ttie Son ot God was produced rrom man.andthererore He was the Son of man. He was not only the resurrection reincarnation of David and Abraham, but ot the millions of spirits of those who bed died during the Jewish age, looking forward to II is cominc as their Mes siah and resurrection. After his resurrec tion from Joseph's tomb, which was typical or the resurrection of the general humanity. He appeared materially to Hi disciples. In the presenceof many His material form was dissolved; His body was reduced byaspirit ual cbtiibfstiontoHolySpirit Hohlj Ghost and wasabsorbedbytheChurch. ThisSpirit was the seminal essenceof Jehovahand the vitalizer of the Church. as the germs of re generation reproduction. From this plant ing will mature theSonsotGod.ofrsprimrof Jesus the Lord, and therefore sons ot God. Immortality will come tothe race as apro cedure from Him whois thecreator andper petuator of the universe. "This dispensation is coming to its close: tlie old heavens and earth (Church and State) are about to pass away, and new heavens and earth, whereind welleth righte ousness, will form thebegiuning of the new dispensation. "Theusheringin of this new kJBgdoraot righteousness will be in the practical proot to the world of the Cellular Cosmogony: ic will overthrow all so-called scientific be liefs and establish a true astronomy aa the basis of a true theology." Just whenthedoctorand his few remain In? disciples -will depart for the new Jeru salem in Florida, he was not prepared to say. He hopes that downthere he will be free from the harsh criticisms that have at times been visited upon him. lawyer's pocket, the latter brazenly de clared that it was his own. 'But it bears my private mark," re torted the magician; "now let us hear you defend the criminal." The prisoner is declared to have pleaded guilty and thrown himself upon the mercy of the court. In London, where they are very serious minded, Herrmann was arrested while playing his coin trick on a woman. At the police station he stoutly denied, his guilt. "How much did you lose?" he asked ot i bis accuser- Two bob," said the woman. "Search tho policeman's boots," said the magician. In snite of the policeman's protests this was done and the "two bob" recovered, much to the court's amazement and Herr mann's advertlsenient- At a hotel in Turkey the magician was much annoyed by the noise created by a guest in the next room. He knocked oa tlie Turk's door, and when tlie latter appeared drew a dagger and stabbed him self in his own wrist, what appeared to be his own life blood spurting out In a stream. The unspeakable Turk was so scared that he Iert the hotel, without waiting tog his baggage- I Snre of That. Facetious Customer Waiter, I suffer from sharp teeth and a sharp appetite. What would you recommend as a remedy for the complaint? : Waiter (under notice to leave) Well, sir, you might try a steak. i Facetious Customer Do you think that would take the edge off my appetite? ; Waiter I daresay itwould.slr. Anyway way.it would take the edgcoff your teeth. Fun. His Revenge. "If Dingblttts is such an enemy ot your why diil you call on him for a speech? "I wanted to see him make a fool ot him. Belf." Philadelphia North, American. -- i i