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The Athens post. [volume] (Athens, Tenn.) 1848-1917, January 11, 1856, Image 1

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T R R 31 A 1
THE POflT In pnblMhfMl cTrry Friday nl 2 per year
fnjritblln ntlrniK'e, or j:l, If pttyim-iit Is dvlayed iititll
the expiration of the j'tfiir,
Advrrllinifnli will he charged prr iquarc
of 1 Hues, or Ivan, fur the And Insertion, and fill rent for
vnrh continuance. A liberal deduction made to those
Who advertise by the year. IVmnnft endlnir d ver-
tlnetnenta muat mark th nntnlwr of ilniin thw desire
them Infer ted, or thry will h continued aiilil furbid and
charged rrordlnirly.aj
aiuionnctiif tlie uamet of candidates for office, .",
Obituary notices orer 18 llnea, charged lit the regular
advertising rntei.
All cnmmunlciMlon Intended to promote the private
ttidti or Interest! of Corporation ft, fiocletlea, flidiools or
Individual, will be charged an Advertisement!.
Job Work "uclifts Pamphlet. Minute, Circular.
Y7ardi, Matiki, HnndblllH, Ac, will be executed 111 Rood
Vtyle.aud nn reasonable term.
All lettert addrctd to the Proprietor, pott paid, will
he promptly attended to.
Person at a distance Rending tin tin tiamet of four
Solvent iuhfirrther, will he en tilled to a fifth copy grntli.
No communication in turfed unless accompanied by
lie nanie of the author.
ff Office on Main itreet, next door to the old Jack
nn Hotel.
A'riu:,s, tmniv, jak. 11, 1 n nn.
Capital in Railhoajs. Mr. Henry C.
Carey, the well known writer on Political
Economy, estimates the capital invented in
railroads in this country nt 8700,000,000.
Western I'eoi'LE. Mrs.K.O.Smilh likes
the people cf the Grcut West. She say in
the Rhudo Island Schoolmestcr: "The West
ern limn lias none of the rices of thrill, lie
carries on operations on so rust a scale tliat
lie casts out pettinessund meanness wherever
he goes. He does not higgle and barter in a
bargain. He measures distances by miles,
not feet. lie counts money by the dollar,
not pence. He seems ashamed to come down
to the pennies. He buys a dress for his wife,
and gets a few yards extra. His own coat,
and shoes are all too large and his hat slouch,
es Tor the same reason. It is as if the iuiugi
nation of the man was akin to the vustness
of the rivers and prairies of tho regions; the
soul gets quite outside of the body. He
must have elbow room hu must breath;
therefore his house is large, and sometimes
comfortable. The; bed is high and wide, the
ten cups ample and heavy and like tiie lakes
tilled to the brim."
3ff It is nut generally known that the
whole of the gold and silver coins of Eng
land are struck by atmospheric pressure, or,
in other words, that tho air we breathe coins
our money. By a beautiful yet complicated
arrangement of pneumatic valves, leavers,
springs, und other mechanical appliances,
the air is mndo to exert its vast weight in
rapid alternations upon a scries of pistons,
which, again connected with the presses,
cany down the dies upon the pieces of metal
to bo coined with unerring precision und
force, and thus create money.
D11. Stiles. Old Governor Hull (our first
Territorial Governor) used to relato with
great humor the peculiar manner in which old
President Stiles, of Connecticut, told him of
his only military adventure.
Speaking of the war (of tho revolution then
raging.) the sufferings of our people, and the
barbarity of the enemy, he would say, "When
they came up here, 1 saw our people all turn
ing nut under arms to meet and fight them,
but I hadn't fired 11 gun in twenty years. I
knew tho ed coats liul no right here, so I got
down my old gun, though I 'hadn't fired it
for twenty years. 1 cleaned it up and follow
ed our people to mark the enemy. We soon
came near them and the firing begun. I drew
up my gun though I liudu'l fired a guu in
twenty years, I drew 11 fine sight on a red coat,
tirayvd the Lord to take his soul riirht to
leaven, shut up my eyes and pulled trigger."
All Dead. The Parksburg Gazette ro
tates the following: "Mr. Grogan, and fam
ily, of this county, started for Texas last
spring, designing to settle somewhere in the
eastern section of that State. Having reach
ed the "ltaft" on Red River, Mr. Grogan left
his wife and four children there, and, accom
panied by only his eldest sun, went some,
three hundred miles further up the river, to
find nn eligible location. He soon found
and bought n place to suit him, when, leav
ing his son with a brother who was living in
that quarter, he returned to the "Raft" for the
rest of his family. On reaching their halting
place, he found them all down with the yel
low fever, of which, they soon died, lie,
ton, ere long sank beneath the same fell
scourge thus, father, mother und children,
perished, the victims of that deadly malaria
which infects the lowlands of the South.
t3Ef"Jolin Klda and his wife, in making
the round of the dry goods stores in Alba
ny one day last week, succeeded in purloin
ing and attaching to Mrs. K Ida's dress in
such a manner as to escape observation, over
live hundred dollars' worth of silk goods.
They were ufterwurds arrested, and un ex
animation of Mrs. Klda's u.person, against
which her husband protusted on account of
her delicate situation, resulted in the discov
ery of the stolen goods. Klda is a cigar
uierchuut in New York city. Aem York Sun.
ISf Why are the ladies of the present
day like the lilies of tho scriptures? lie
cause they toil not, neither do they spin; yet
Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed
like one of them.
Segar Business in California. A San
Francisco letter says: The extent of the
segnr business here is immense. A single
stand within n large Hotel has been rented
for 820 per day, payable daily. I know of
another of less note for which $ 1,000 per
annum hud been paid for the last two years.
The consumption of "the weed" in California
is awful.
t3yLn,rd Bacon, in nn essay on study,
said "some books are to be tasted, other to
be swallowed, and snino few to be chewed
mid digested." Hud he lived in our day and
generation, he would have been likely to add
"and there are some to be c lowed und pro
scribed as not fit to be red at all!"
t2f"" Amon discovered America, but a wo
man equipped the voyage." So everywhere;
man executes the performance, but woinun
trains the man. Every effectual person, leav
ing his mark on the world, is but another
Columbus, for whose furnishing some Isabel,
la, In' the form of his mother, lays down her
jewelry, her vanities, her comfort.
(3jT A nun by the name of White was
eonvieted of perjury, in haviug sworn thst
the liquor with wliiuli he became intoxicated
was purchased of a Mr. Shelly, the latter
having proved conclusively that ha was not
in New liaveu at the time I This is said to
be the first conviction by verdiot for perjury
which has been had in this county lor the
last twenty ysars. A'eu Mavtn Regiiter,
Felloie Citizens of the Senate ami
of the J hum of llepresentaliret:
The constitution of .the United Slates pro
vides that Congress shall assemble annually
on the first Monday of December, and it has
been usual for the President to make nn com
munication of a public character to the Sen
ate and House of Representatives until nil
vised of their readiness to receive it. I have
deferred this usage until the close ot the
first month of the session, but my convictions
of duty will not permit me longer to post
pone the discharge of the obligation enjoin,
ed by the constitution upon the l'rcsidetit"to
give to Congress information of the stuto of
tho Union, and recommend to their consid
eration Hiieh measures as he shall judge ne.
cessary and expedient"
It is a matter of congratulation tli.it the
Republic is tranquilly advancing ill n cured
of prosperity and peace.
Whilst relations of nnitty continue to ox
ist between the United States and all foreign
powers, with some of them grave questions
nro depending, which may require the consid
eration of Congr.-sK
OF finch questions, the most important is
that which has arisen out of tho negotiations
with Great Britain in reference to Central
By the convention concluded between the
two governments on the 10th day of April,
1850, both parties covenanted, that "neither
will ever occupy or fortify, or colonize, or as
sume, or exercise any dominion over Nicara
gua, Costn Rica, the Mosquito coast, or any
part of Central America."
It was the undoubted understanding of
the United States in making this treaty, that
all the present States of the former republic
of Central America, and thu entire territory
of each, would thenceforth enjoy complete
Independence, and that both contracting par
tits engaged equally, and to tho same extent,
for tho present and for the future, that if
either then had any claim of right in Central
America, such claim, and all occupation or
authority under it, were unreservedly relin
quished by the stipulations of the conven
tion, and that no dominion was thereafter to
he exercised or assumed in any part of
Central America, by Great Britaiu or the Uni
ted States.
The government consented to restrictions
in regard to a region of country, wherein we
had specilia and peculiar interests, only upon
the conviction that the like restrictions were
in the same sense obligatory on Great llritain.
Hut for this understanding of the force and
effect of the conviction, it would never had
been concluded by us.
So clear was this understanding on the part
of thu United States, that, in correspondence
contemporaneous with the ratification of tho
convention, it was distinctly expressed, that
tho mutual covenants of non-occupation
were not intended to apply to tho British cs.
tnblishmciit at the Balize. This qualification
is to be ascribed to the fact, that, in virtue of
successive treaties with previous sovereigns
of the country, Great Britain had obtained a
concession of Ihuj'ight to cut mahogany or
dye-woods nt the Balize hut with positive
exclusion of all domain or sovereignty; and
thus it cnulirms the natural construction and
understood import of the the treaty as to all
tho rest of the region to which thu stipula
tions applied.
It, however, became apparent, nt nn early
day after entering upon the discharge of my
present functions, that Great Britain still con
tinued in the exercise or assertion of a large
authority in all that part of Central Amciicu
commonly called the Mosquito coast, and cov
ering the entire length of the Statu of Nica
ragua, anil part of Costa Rica; that she re
garded thu llalize as her absolute domain,
and was gradually extending her limits st
the expense of tho State of Honduras; und
that sho iiad formally; colonized 11 consid
erable insular groupe known as the Day
Islands, and belonging of right to that
All these act or pretensions of Great Brit
ain being contrary to the rights of the States
of Central America, and to the manifest tenor
ol her stipulations with the United States, as
understood by this government, have been
thesubjeet of negotiation through the Amer
ican Minister in Loudon. I transmit herewith
instructions to him on thu subject, mid the
correspondence between him and the British
Secretary for Foreign Affairs, by which yon
will perceive that the two governments dill'er
widely and irroconcllenbly as to the construe
tion,and its effect on their respective relations
hi Central America.
Great Britain so construes the Convention
as to maintain all her previous pretensions
over the Mosquito cusst, and in thu different
parts of Cemral America. These pretensions,
us to the Mosquito coast, are founded un the
assumption of political relation between
Great Britain and the remnant of n tribo of
Indians on Mint coast, entered into at n time
when the whole country was n colonial pos
session of Spain. It cannot be successfully
controverted, that, by the public law of
Europe and America, no possible uct of
such Indians or their predecessors could
confer on Great Britain uny political rights.
Great Britain does not allege the assent of
Spain as thu origin of hei claims on the Mos
quito coast. Shu has on the contrary by re
peated and successive treaties, renounced and
relinquished all pretensions of her own, and
recognized the full and sovereign rights
of Spain in the must cqiiivoc.il terms.
Vet these pretensions, so without solid foun
dation in the beginning, and thus repeatedly
abjured, were at a recent period revived by
Great Britain, against the Central American
States, tho legitimate successors to all the
ancient jurisdiction of Spain in that region.
They were first applied only to n defined part
of the const of Nicaragua, afterwards tu the
whole of its Atlantic coast, and lastly to a
part of the coast of Costa Kicu; and they
are now re-usserted to this extent, notwit'h
standing engagements of the United States.
On the eastern coast of Nicaragua and
Costa Rica, the interference of Great Britain,
though exerted at ono time in the form of
military occupation of the port of Sail Juan
del Norte, then in the peaceful possession of
tho appropriate authorities of tho Central
American States, is now presented by her us
the rightful exercise of n protectorship over
the Mosquito tribo ot Indians.
But the establishment at the Balize, now
reaching far bevond its trenty limits into the
State of Honduras, and that of the Bay is
lands, appertaining of right to the same Slate,
uru as colonial govern incuts us those of Ja
maica or Canada, and Ihorcforo contrary to
the very letter us well us the spirit of the
convention with the United States, as it was
nt the time of ratification, and now is, under
stood by the Guvernuient.
Tliejrtirpretutiou which the British gov
erning Vis in ussertiou and act, persists in
nseribh Jl the convention, entirely changes
its character. While it holds us to all obliga
tions, It in a great measure releases Great
llrituiu.from those, which Constituted the
consideration with this government for enter,
ing into convention. It is iuitojsible,in my
judgment, for the United Stales to acquiesce
in such n construction of tho respective re
lations of thu two government to Central
To 0 renewed call by this government up
on Great Britain, to abide by, nnd carry into
effect, the stipulations of the convention ac
cording to Its obvious import, by withdraw.
Ing from tho possession nr. colonization
of portions of the Central American Statce
ol Honduras, Nicaragua, nnd Costa Rica, the
British government has at length replied, af
firming that the operation of the treaty is
prospective only, did not require Gernt Brit
ain to abandon or contract any possession
held by her In Central America at lue date of
its conclusion.
This reply substitutes n partial issue, in
thico of the general one presented by tho
'nitcd States. The llrilish government
passes over tho rights of Great llritain, real
or supposed in Central America, and iissumcs
that she had such rights nt thu date of the
treaty, and that those rights comprehended
the protectorship of thu Mosquito Indians,
the extended jurisdiction and limits of the
llalize, nnd the colony of the Bay Islands, and
thereupon proceeds by implication to infer,
that if the ntipulationsnf the treaty be lucre
ly future in effect, Great Britain mny still con
tinue to hold the contested portions of Cen
tral America. The United States cannot ad
mit either the inference or the premises. Wo
steadily deny that at the (late of tho treaty,
Groat Britain had any possession there other
than thu limited and peculiar establishment
ut the Uulizu, and maintain that if she had
any, they were surrendered by the conven
tion. The government, recognizing the obliga
tion of ihntn-nty, has of course desired to
see it executed in good faith by both parties,
and ill thu discussion therefore, has not look
ed to rights, which wu might assert inde
pendently ot thu the treaty, in consideration
of our geographical position and of other
circumstances, which create for us relations
to the Central American States different
from those of any other government of Eu
rope. The British government in its last commu
nication, although well knowing the views
of the United States, still declares it sees no
reason why a conciliatory spirit may not
enable the two governments to overcome all
obstacles to n satisfactory adjustment of the
Assured of the correctness of tho con
constniiclion of tho treaty constantly adhered
to by this government, and resolved to insist
011 the rights of the United States, yet netu
utedalso by Hie same desire, which is avowed
by thu British government, to remove all
causes of serious misunderstanding between
two nations associated by so ninny ties of
interest and kindred, It has appeared to me
proper not to consider an amiciiblu solution ed on tho trial of their agents as were appre
of ( tho controversy hopeless. bended and convicted. Sonic of the ollicers
There is, however reason to apprehend that J thus implicated were men of high ollicial po.
, mi vjic.ii iiruaiii in me ueiuai occupation ol
the disputed territories, nnd the treaty Iheru
fore practically null and, so far us regards
our rights, this iiitenational dilliculty cannot
long remain undetermined, without involving
in serious danger the friendly relations,
which it is the interest as well us the duly
of buth countries to cherish and preserve
It will afford mu sincere gratification, if fu
turu efforts shall result in thu success, antici
pated heretofore with more confidence than
the aspect of the case permit mu now to en
tertain. Ono other subject of discussion between
the United States and Great Britain lias
grown out of tho attempt, which thu exigeu
cies of thu war in which shu is engaged with
Russia, Induced her to make, to draw re
cruits from the United Stales.
t It is traditional and settled policy of tho
United States to maintain impartial neutrality
during the wars, which from time to time oe
curred among the great powers of the woild.
Performing all the duties of neutrality to.
wards the respective belligerent States, we
may reasonably expect them not to interfere
with our lawful enjoyment of its benefits.
Notwithstanding the existence of such hos
tilities, our citizens retain the individual right
to continue nil their accustomed pursuits, by
land or by sou, ut I u or abroad, subject
only to such restrictions in this relation, as
the laws of war, the usage of nations, or spe
cial treaties, may impose, and it is our sove
reign right that our territory and jurisdiction
ahull not be invaded by cither of the bellig
erent parties, for thu transit of thoir armies,
thu operations of their fleets, the levy of
troops for their service, the fitting nut of
cruisers by or against either, or niiy other act
of neutrality, individual and nntionul, the
United Stule under no circumstances can
In pursuance of this policy, tho laws of
the United States do not forbid their citizens
to sell to either of thu belligerent powers nr.
tides, contraband of war, or to take muni
tion of war or soldiers on board their pri
yato ships for transportation; and although
in so doing, the Individual citizen exposes
his property or person to some of the hazards
of war, his acts do not involve uny breach of
national neutrality, nor of themselves impli
cate the government. Thus during the pro.
gress of the present war in Europe, our cili
zens have, without naliunal responsibility
therefor, sold gunpowder and arms to ail
buyers, regardless of the destination of those
articles. Our merchantmen havo been and
still continue to be, largely employed by
Great Britain and by Prance, in transporting
troops, provisions und munitions of war to
the principal seat of military operations mid
in bringing home their sick and wounded
soldiers; but such use of our mercantile ma
rino is not interdicted by the international, or
by our municipal law, and therefoie docs not
cuinpromit our nuutral relations with Russia.
But our municipal law, in accordance with
the law of nations, peremptorily forbids, not
oi.ly foreigners, but our citizens, to lit out,
within the limits of the United States, a ves
sel to connnit hostilities ugaiust any Statu
with which tho United States are at peace, or
to increase the force of any foreign armed
vessel intended for such hostilities ugaiust n
friendly State,
W'hatever concern may have bcon felt by
either of the boligeront power lest privute
aruied cruisers, or oilier vessels, in thu ser.
vice of one, might be fitted out in the ports
of this country to depredate oil the property
of the other, nil such fears have proved to be.
utterly groundless. Our citizens havo been
withheld from any such uct or purpose by
good faith, and by respect for the law.
While thu laws of thu Onion are thu
peremptory in thuir prohibition of the equip
ment or armament ol belligerent cruisers In
our ports, they provide not less absolutely
that nu person shall, within tho territory or
jurisdiction of the United States, enlist or
enter himself, or hire or retain another person
tu enlist or enter himself, or to go bevond
the limit or jurisdiction of tho United Slates
to be enlisted or entered, in the aervico of any
loruign State, either a a soldier, or a a mu
rine or seaman on board of any vusael of war,
letter of marque, or privateer. And these
enactments aro also in strict conformity with
the luw of uutions, which declares, that uo
State has the right Co raise for land or sea
service in another State without Its consent,
nnd that, whether forbidden by tho municipal
law or not, the very attempt to do it, without
such consent, is un nttuck on the national
Such being the public rights and the mu
nicipal law of the United States no solid,
lude on the subject wss entertained by this
government, when, ajenr since, tho llrilish
Parliament passed nn act to provide for the
enlistment of foreigners in the military ser
vice of Great Britain.' Nothing on thu face
of the act, or in it poblio history, Indicated
that the British Government proposed to at
tempt recruitment in die United St iles'; nor
did it ever give intimation of such intention
to this governmet. llwjis matter of surprise,
therefore, to find, subsequently, that the
engagement of person within tho United
States to proceed to Halifax, in the British
province of Novn Settin, nd there enlist in
the service of GreuVUrilain, was going on
extensively, with little or no disguise. Ordi.
nary legal steps wcru taken to arrest and
punish parties conofcned, nnd so put nn end
to nets infringing the municipal hiw find de
rogatory 16 our sovereignty. Meanwhile
suitable representations on the subjeet were
addressed to the British Government.
Thereupon it became known by the ad
mission of the British government itself, that
the attempts to draw recruits originated with
it, or at least had Its approval and sanction;
but it also appeared that tho public agents
had "stringent instructions" not to violate the
municipal laws of thu United States.
It is difficult to understand how it should
hnvo been supposed that troops could be
raised hero by Great llritain, without viola
lion of the municipal law. The unmistakable
object of the law was to prevent any such uct,
men 11 perioimeo 111 all mnsi tie cither 111
violation of the law, or ill studied evasions of
it; and in either alternative, the net done
would ho alike injurious to the sovereignty
of thu United States.
In the meantime, the matter acquired ad
ditional importance, by tho recruitment in
the United States not being discontinued, und
the disclosure of the fact that they wero
prosecuted upon a systematic plan, devised by
official authority: that recruiting rendezvous
had been opened in our principal cities and
depots for thu reception of recruits establish
ed on our frontier; and the wbolu business
conducted under the supervision and by the
regular co-operation of Uriiisli officers, some
in the North American provinces, nnd soma
in the United States. Thu complicity of
these ollicers in an undertaking, which could
only bo accomplished by defying our Inws,
throwing suspicion over our attitude of neu
trality, and disregarding our territorial rights,
is conclusively proved bv the evidence ..lieil.
anion, una many ot them beyond
our juris.
diction, so that leg.il proceeding could nut
reach the source of this mischief.
These considerations, and the fact, that the
causu of complaint was not n niero casual
occurrence, but a deliberate design, entered
upon with full knowledge of our laws and
national policy.and conducted by responsible
public functionaries, impelled 1110 to present
thu case to the British Government, in order
to secure, not only7 cassation n( the wron,-
nul its reparation. . J he snliject is still under
discussion, the result of which will be com
municated to you in due lime.
I repeat tho recommendation submitted
to the last Congress, that provision be Hindu
for thu appointment of n Commissioner, in
connection with Great Britain, to survey und
csiaimsu mu ooiiuuary line wnicli ilmUcs j
1 un lerritnryoi Wasliiiigton troiu the con
tiginus British possession. By reason of the
extent and importance nl thu country in dis
pute, thure has been imminent danger of col.
lision between the Biibjects of Great Britain
and the citizens of the United States, inclu
ding their respective authorities in that quar.
The prospect of a speedy arrangement '
has contributed hitherto to iniluco on both j
sides fnrburunco to assert by force what each j
..L.in.u ..a .. -I..!.. II.. I tl... ..i'.l . 1
claims us a right. Delay on thu part of the
two Governments to act in the nutter will
Increaso tho danger und difficulties of the
Misunderstanding exists to the extent,
character and vsluu of thu possessory rights
of tho lludson'sBay Company, the property
of tho Puget' Sound Agricultural Company,
reserved in our treaty with Great Britain,
relative to the Territory of Oregon, I havu
reason to believe that the cession of the
rights of both companies to the United States,
which would be the readiest means of ter
minating nil questions could be had on rea
sonable Uirms; nnd with a view to this end, I
present the subject to the attention of Con
gress. The Coloney of New Foitndland, having
enacted the laws required by the treaty of
the 5th of June, 1854, is now placed on thu
same footing, in respect to commercial in
tercourse with the United States, as the other
British North American provinces.
The commission, which that treaty con
templated, for determining the rights of fish-
cry in river nnd mouths of rivers on the
coasts of thu United States and tlie British
North America provinces, has been organized,
and has commenced its labors; to complete
which there is needed further appropriations
for the service of another season.
In pursuance, of the utithority, conferred
by a resolution oT the Senut i of thu United
States passed on thu 3rd of March lust, no.
lice was given -Iq Denmark on the Hill
Apr. of tho intention of this government to
avail itself of the stipulation of the sub
sisting convention of friendship, cimniurce
and navigation between that kingdom nnd
the United Slates, hereby either party might
ni ter ton year, turmiuatu the same tit 'the ex
piration of one year from the dutu of notice
lor that purpose.
The considerations, which lead me to call
the uttention of Congress to that Conven
tion, nnd induced tho Semite to adopt the
resolution referred to, still continue in full
force. The convention contain nn article,
which, although it does not engage tho Uni-
ten Bluies. 10 submit to tho imposition of
ions on tue vessels una eurgoe of Amur,
leans passing into or from tho Baltic sen, du.
ring the coiitiniiiinco of the treaty, yet may,
by possibility, bo construud as implying sub.
mission. The exaction of those toil not
being justified by any .principle of interna
tioiial law, it became the right und duty of
the United Stutes to release themselves from
the implication of uugngemeiit on thu sub.
juct, so a to bo perfectly free tu nut in the
preuiisu in such awny ua their public inter,
estsand honor shall demand.
I roinuin of the opinion that the United
Slates ought not to submit to the payment
of the Sound dues, u much becuuso of their
uinuuut, which is it secondary matter, but
because it is in effect the recognition of the
right of Denmark to treat one of the great
maritime highway of imtiuns ns a close sea,
und the navigation of it a n privilege for trib.
ulo which inuy bo imposed iipuu those who
have occusiou to us it.
The Government, on n former occasion
not unlike the present, signalized its deter
mination to maintain tho freedom of the sens;
nun 01 me great niiiurin cnunnel or naviga
tion. The Burbary State hud, for a lone
nine, enrecea me payment of tribute from all
nntions, whose ship frequented the Mediter
ranean. To the Inst demand of such pay.
ment made by them the United State, al.
though differing less by their depredations
thun many other nations, returned the explic
it answer, Hint wo preferred war to tribute,
and thus opened the woy to the relief nf the
commerce of tho world from nn Ingenious
tax, so long submitted to by tho more pow
erful nations of Europe,
If the manner of payment of tho Sound
due differ from that of the tribute fonnorly
conceded to the Barbary States, still their
exaction by Denmark ha no bettor found
ntion in right. Each was in its origin, noth
ing bntn tax on a common natural right, ex
torted by those who were at that time nlile
to obstruct the sea nnd secure enjoyment of
It, lull Who no longer possess that power.
Denmark, while resisting our assertion of
the freedom of the Baltic Solid Belts, has
Indicated n readiness to make some new nr.
rungementon the subject, and has invited the
governments interested, including the United
States, to he represented in a convention to
nssemble for the purpose of receiving nnd
considering a proposition, which she intends
to submit, for the capitalization of the Sound
dues, nnd the distribution of the sum to be
paid ns commutation among the governments,
according to the respeetivo proportions of
their maritime commerce to nnd from the Bat.
tie. I have declined in behalf of the United
States to accept this invitation for tho most
cogent reason. One is, that Denmark doe
not otfer to submit to the convention the
question of her right to levy the Sound dues.
A second is, that, il thu convention wero nl.
lowed to take cognizance nf that particular
question, still it would not be competent to
deal with thu great international principle in
volved which affects tho right in other cases
of navigation and commercial freedom ns
well ns that of access to the italtin. Ah,,....
i all, by the express terms of thu proposition
11 is eontenijilated, that the consideration of
the Sound dues shall bo commingled with,
and made subordinate to, n matter wholly
extraneous, the balance of power umomr the
governments of Europe. "
While, however rejecting tho proposition
and insisting on thu right, of free transit in
to and from the Ballc, I have expressed to
Denmark n willingness on the part of the
United Slates to shuro liberally with other
Powers in compensating her for any advan
tages which commerce shall hereafter de
rive from expenditure made bv her for the
improvement nnd safety of the navigation of
the Sound or Belts.
I lay before you herewith sundry docu
ments on the subject, in which my views nro
more fully disclosed. Should nn satisl'acto.
ry arrangements bo soon concluded, I shall
again call your attention to the subject, with
recommendation of such measures as may ap.
peare to be required in order to assert and
secure the rights of the United States, so far
as they nre affected by tho pretentions of
Den murk,
I announce, with much gratification, that
since lljo adjournment of the last Congress,
tho question tliea existing tnitwuen this Gov
ernment nnd that of France, lias been satis,
factorially determined, nnd that tho relations
of the two Governments couliuuu to bo of
tho most friendly nature.
A question also which has been pending
for several years between tho United Slates
and the kingdom of Greece, growing out of
thu sequestration by liiihlicau'liorities of that
jvcoimtry, improperly belonging to the present
.iwii,tii vuiiaui 111 ,ii 11 is. nun v iinoi im
uecn the sulijeet of
h. ,. , - . ;
eretolore, has recently been settled to the
Very earnest, i iMi.ticmn
satisfaction of the party interested and of
uuui vioveromenis.
.With Spain, peaceful relations nre still
maintaincd.und some iiroirrpxs Ion l,.m ... ..1..
in seeming tho redress of wrongs complained
of by this Government. Spaiifhns not oulv
.1! - 1 1 1! . , .. J
uis.ivoMeii iiuu uisapprnveii 01 tlie ollicers
who illegally seized and detained tlie steamer
Black Warrior nt Havana, but has also paid
the sum claimed ns indemnity for thu loss
thereby indicted on citizens of the United
Ill consequence of a destructive hurricane
which visited Cuba in 1844, the supreme
authority of that island issued a decree per
mitted the importation, for the period of six
months, of certain building materials and
provisions, free of duty, but revoked it when
half the period only hud elapsed, to the injury
ol citizens of thu United States, who had
proceuded to net 011 the faith of the derrce.
The Spanish Government refused hidcmiiili.
cation to tho parties aggrieved until recently.
when it was ussented to, payment being
promised to be madu so soon us the amount
due can be ascertained.
Satisfaction claimed for the nrrest nnd
search of the steamer El Dorado has not yet
been accorded, but there is reason to believe
that it will be, and that case, with others,
continues to be urged upon the uttentiun of
the Spanish Government. I do not abandon
the hopo of concluding with Spain some
geueral arrangement, if it do not wholly pre.'
vent the recurrence of difficulties in Cuba,
will render them less frequent; and tvhctietur
they shall occur, facilitate their luoro speedy
The Interposition of tho Government has
been invoked by many of its citizens, on.nc.
count of injuries done to their persons and
properly, for which the Mexican Republic is
responsible. Tho unhappy situation of that
country, for some time past, has not allowed
us government to give due consideration to
chums of private reparation, and hu appeared
to call lor nnd justify some forbearance in
such mutter on thu part of this guvernuient.
But, if tho revolutionary movement, which
havo lately occurred in that republic, end in
thu organization of a stable government, ur
gent appeals to its justice will then bo made,
and, it may be hoped, with success, for Hie re
dress of all complaints of our citizens.
In regard to the Aiiiericin republics, whi.-li,
from their proximity und other consideration,
hnvo peculinr relation to this guvernuient,
while it ha been my constant aim strictly to
observe nil the obligation of political friend
ship nnd of good neighborhood, obstacle to
Hu have arisen in some of them, from their
own insullicient power to cheek lawless ir
mptions, which in effect throws most of tho
tusk on the United Stuto. Tim. 11,.
traded internnl condition of the Stnto of
mcuragiui ua mane 11 incumbent on me to
appeal tu (he good faith of our citizens tu
ubstnin from nny unluwful intervention in
it alfairn, and to ndopt preventive men,
tire to the ame end, which, on a similar oc
casion, had the best results in reassuring the
pence of the Mexican Suite of Sonoru und
Lower California.
Since the last session of Congress a treaty
of amity, commerce, and nnvigalion, and- for
tho aurrender of fugitive criminals, with the
kingdom of tho Two Sicilies; a treaty of
friendship, commerce, and navigation with
Nicaragua; nnd a convention nf comnrnrdhl'
reciprocity with the Hawaiian kingdom- huve
been negotiated. The latter kingdom and
the State of Nicaragua hnvo nlso acceded to
n deelsration, recognizing as international
rights the principles eoisaiined in the conven
tion between the United States nnd Russi'aJ
01 me siiM or July, 1855." These trcMlei
and conventions will be hal before the Sen-
nte lor ratihcotion.
The statements msie, In nry Inst annual
message, respecting the anticpiitedf .receipts
nnd expenditures of Ihe'l'reasury, have been
mibstiintinlly verified.
It appears from the report of the ficcretnry
of the Treasury, that the receipts flaring the
last financial vcur ondiniiJuno 3a Isss from
nil sources, were sixty-tivemillion three thou
sand nine hundred nnd thirty dollars; and
that tho public expenditure for the lame pe
riod, exclusive of payments on account, of
public debt, amounted to-fifly-six million
three hundred nnd sixty.tfvlisNoiisnnd three
hundred nnd ninety-three oV4(S. During
tho sumo period, the pavmorr -'nude in re
demptinn of the mil, lie il,.,t. il.l;n ;i...
est and premium, nnuointed to nine million
eight hundred and rFMy-four thousand fivo
hundred nnd twenty-eight dollars.
Tire balance in the Treasury nt thu nnrfin
ning of the present year, July 1, 1855, wn
eighteen million nino hundred and thirty-one
thousand nine hundred nnd seventy-six' dol
lars, the receipts for the first quarter, and the
estimated receipts for the remaining three
quarters, amount, together, to sixty-scven
million nine hundred and eighteen thousand
seven hundred nnd thirty-four dollars; thus
affording In all, ns the available resources of
the current year, the sum of eighty-six million
eight hundred nnd fifty-six tnousand seven
hundred nnd ten dollars.
If, to the actual expenditures, of the first
quarter of the current fiscal year, bo added
tho probable expenditures of the remaining
three quarters, as estimated by the Secretary
of the Treasury, the sum total will be seven tv
ono million two hundred and twenty-six
thousand eight hundred nnd forty-six dollars,
thereby leuiingnn estimated balance in tho
treasury on July 1, 1851!, or fifteen million
six hundred twenty-three thousand eight
hundred and sixty-tliree dollars nnd forty-one
In the above estimated expenditures of the
present fiscal year arc included three million
dollars to meet the last instalment of the ten
millions provided for in the late treaty with
Mexico, nnd seven million seven hundred and
fifty thousand dollar appropriated on account
of the debt due to Texas, which two Bums
inako an aggregate amount of ten mil lion seven
hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and reduce
thu expenditure, actual or estimated, for or
dinnry objects of tho year, to the sum of sixty
million four hundred and seventy-six thousand
The amount of the public debt, nt the
commencement of the present fiscal year,
was forty million fivu hundred and eighty,
three thousand six hundred nnd thirty one
dollars, and, deduction being made of subse
quent payments, the whole public debt nf tho
federal government remaining ut this time is
less than forty million dollars.
Thu remnant of certain other government
stocks amounting to two hundred and forty
three thousand dollars, referred to in my last
message ns flut standing, hu since been paid.
I mil fully persuaded that it would be dilli
cult to devise a system superior to Hint, by
which thu fiscal business of the government
is now conducted. Notwithstanding thu
great number of public ngents of collection
und disbursement, il Is believed that the checks
and guai ds proved including the requirement
01 mommy returns, rendered it scarcely pos
sioie lor any considerable traiid nn thu part
01 mose agenis, or neglect mvo vin" inzaril
to 1 iuiii, iiuuiic 10ns, 10 escape ocieellon.
! I renew, howe er. Il. .,:,. I...V. ... . 1 "
..l'..,,.. i.i: i . .
lolore made by me. ot the enactment .,l n
law declaring it felony on the part of public
ollicers to insert false entries in their books
of record or account, or to make false re
turns, nnd also requiring them 011 tho termi
nation of their service 10 deliver to their sue
cessorsnll books, records, and other objects
of a public nature in their eustoday.
Derived ns pulic revenue is, in chief part,
from duties on imports, itsmagnitudenffords
gratifying evidence of the prosperity, not
only of our commerce, but of the other great
interests upon which that depends.
The principle Hint all money not required
for the current expense of thu government
should remain for uctive employment in the
hands of the people, und the conspicuous fact
that tho annual revenue from all sources ex
ceeds, by many millions dollars, the amount
needed for a prudent and economical ndminis.
traliou of public affairs, cannot fail to suggest
the propriety of nn early revision, and reduc
tion ol the tariff of duties on imports. Itisnow
so generally coticeedcd that the purpose of
reveiieuu alone can justify the imposition of
duties on imports, that, in re-adjusting tho,
impoit tallies und schedules, which unqiics
tiiuiubly require essential modifications, n de.
parturu from thu principles of the present
tariff is not anticipated.
The army, during the past year, has been
actively engaged ill defending the Indian
troll tier, 11 10 slate ol the servico permitting
but few nnd small garrisons ill uur permanent
loriiucnuuns. j lie additional regiments all.
thorized at thu last session of Congress have
been recruited und organized, nnd n largo
portion of the troops have already been sent
to thu field. All the duties, which devolve
011 tho military establishment, have been
satisfactorily performed, and tho daggers of
I mid privations incident to the character of the
service renuired of uur Ironna havu I'uriiUI.Mrf
I additional evidence of their courage, zeal, und
capacity to meet any requisition, wbich their
I country may make upon them. Fur thu details
of the military operations, the distributions of
the troops, und additional provisions required
lur thu military service, I reler to the report
01 me nccrciury 01 ur una the accompany
ing documents.
Experience, gathered from event which
havo transpired since my lust annual niussage,
l as but served to confirm thu opinion then
expressed of the propriety of making provis
ion, by a retired list, for disabled ollicers, and
for increased compensation to the ollicers re
tained nn Hie list lor uctive duty. All thu
reasons which existed, when these measures
were recommended on former occasions, con
tinue wilhout modification, except su far as
circumstances havo given to them additional
The rei'omm?ndntions, heretofore ninde for
a partial reorganization of thu army, are also
renewed. The thorough elementary educu.
lion given tu those ollicers, who commence
their service with the grade of cadet, qualifies
them, to a considerable extent, to perform the
duties of every arm of sen Ice; but to give the
highest efficiency to the artillery requires the
practice nnd apeciul atudy of muny yeurs, and
Its not, therelore, behoved to be advisable to
maintain, in lime of Jience, a lurger force of
that arm than can be usually employed in tho
duties appertaining to the service of field und
sicgu artillery. Tne duties of the stuff in all
its various blanches, belong to the niuveuieiiti
rfd the efficiency of nn armv In
mntA.i..tlu A ...A
" f ,JT i.-'.-nu upon kite
(Vw.rtll Which thnsf. dlltiua arn ti-nl,.,rral
11 3T'iiiln 11,8 cn"e of the artillery, a
"P- t reunites, also, sn Inlttnnta
I the-dutic of n officer for
cit icrtiiMgiRst or the general taff, it i desir
0e Hint he shall have served in bob. With '
Ihw-tiew, it was recommended on a former '
occasion that the duties of the staff shoiTW be
mainly performed by details from the llnem
nd, with the. conviction of the advantage
which would reVult from such a change, it is
again presented for the consideration of
The report of the Secretary of the Nvy,
herewith submitted, exhibits in full the naval
operations of the past year, together with the,
preaept condition of the service, nnd it make 1
"JE5io" of further legislation, lo "Which j
nMtuOcntion Is ioviinH .
The eVufstruction of thrf iifilhm fricrf. -
for which appropriation were iiyide by'the
Inst Congress, has nrocee.le.l in tha mnt i.n
Wll'itf.tory manner, and with such expedition
1118 oi,ict thai they will be .
rcimV tOf Service Cnrlv tlin imminir anriniT
Important ns this addition to our Clival InrpM
is, it sl ill remains inadequate In the contingent
exigencies of tho protection of the extensive
sen coast and vast commercial interest of tho
United State. In view of this (net, nnd of
the ncknowlrdi4 wisdom of the noliev nf
11 gradual and systematic increase of the navy,
no iipiropriaiion is recommended lor the con
struction of six sloops. of-war.
In regard to the steps taken in execution
of tho act of Congress to promote the effi
ciency of the navy, it is unnecessary for me
10 say more man 10 express entire concur
rence in tho observations on Hint subjeet pre
sented by the Secretary in his report.
It will bu perceived, by Hie report of tho
Post Mnnter General, that tho gross expend!.
mres 01 me ueparimenl tor the last fiscal
year, was gU'JG8,34!2, and tho gross receipt
$7,34'J,1 3b', milking un execs of expendi
tures over receipt of 8a,0i5,200; that the
cost of mail transportation during the year
was $074,05:! greater than the previous year.
Much of thu heavy expenditure, to which the
Treasury is thus subjected, is to bo ascribed
to tho large qunntity of printed mailer con
veyed by tho mails, either frunked, or liable
to no postage by Inw, or to very low rate of
postage compared with that charged on let.
tors; and to the great cost of mail servico on
railroads nnd by ocean steamers. The sug
gestions of the Postmaster General on the
subject deserve the consideration of Congress.
The report of tho Secretary of the Interior
will ongngu your nttention, as well for useful
suggestions it, contains, ns for the interest
nnd importance' of tho subject to which they
Tho aggregate amount of public land sold
during the last fiscal year, located with mili
tary scrip or land warrant, taken up under
grants for roads, nnd selected as swamp
lands by Slates, is 24,557,4119 acres; of which
the portion sold was 15,729,5-4 acre, yield
ing in receipt the sum of 5(11,485,380. Ir.
the sauia period of time, 8,73,854 ncreshavo
been surveyed; but, in considernlion of the
qunntity already subject to entry no nddi
tionul tnicls have been brought into mar
ket. The peculiar relation of Hie general gov
ernment to tho District of Columbia render
it proper to commend to your cure not only
its material, but also its moral interests,
including education, more especially in those
parts of the district outside of the cities of
Washington and Georgetown.
The commissioners appointed to revise
nnd codify thu laws of the District have made
such progress in the performance of their
task, as to insure its completion in the tluio
prescribed by the net of Congress.
Information has recently been received,
that the peace of the settlements in the Ter
ritories of Oregon nnd Washington is dis
till bed by hostilities on the part of the Indi
ans, with indications of extensive, combina
tions among tho tiibcs in that quarter,
the more serious in their possible eflect by
reason of flic undetermined foreign interests
existing in those Territories, to which your
.it t on I inn has already been especially invited.
Efficient measures have been taken, liich, it
is believed, will restore quiet, und afford pro
tection to our citizens.
Ill the Territory of Kansas there have been
acts prejudicial to good order, but us yet none
have occurred under circumstnnces to justify
the interposition of Hie federal Executive.
That could only be in easo of obstruction to
federal law, or of organized resistance to
territorial law, assuming the character of in
surrection, which, if it should occur, it would
be my duty promptly tu overcome nnd sup
press. I cherish the hope, however, Hint the
occurrence of any such untoward event will be
prevented by the Bound sense of the people
of the Territory, who by its organic luw,
possessing the right to determine, their own
domestic institutions, nre entitled while de
porting themselves peacefully, to tlie free
exercise of that right, mid must bo protected
in the enjoyment of it, without interference
on the part of tlio citizens of nny of the
States. '
The southern boundary lino of this terri
tory has never been surveyed and established.
Hie rapidly extending settlements in Hint
region, and the fact that tho main route be
tween Independence, in thu Stale of .Missouri,
and New Alcxico, is conlingious to this line,
suggest the probability that embarrassing
questions of jurisdiction may consequently
arise. For these and other consideration,
I commend the subject to your early atten
tion. I have thus passed in review the general
state of the Union, including such particular
concerns of tho fedvrnl government, whether
of domestic or foreign relation, ns it appeared
to me desirable nnd useful to bring to the
special notice of Congress. Unlike the great
States of Europe and Asia, and muny of those
of America, these United States nre wasting
their strength neitlur in foreign war nor do
mestic still,-. Whatever of discontent or
public dissatisfaction exists, is attributable to
the imperfections of human nature, or is inci
dent lo nil governments, however perfect,
which human wisdom run devise. Such sub.
jicts of political agitation ns occupy the
public mind, consist, to a great extent, of ex
aggeration of inevilnblo evils, or over zral in
social improvement, or mere imagination of
grievance, having but remote connection with
nny of thu constitutional function or duties
of the federal government. To whatever
extent these question exhibit a tendency
menacing to the stability of the Constitution,
or the integrity of the Union, nnd no further,
they demand the consideration of the Ex.
eculive, und require to be presented by him to
Bcforu the Thirteen Colonies became a
confederation of independent Stales, they
associated only by a community of trans
atlantic origin, by geographical position, and
by Hie mutual tie of common dependence on
Grout Uiitaln. When Hint tie was sundered,
they severally assumed Hie powers and rights
of absolute self Government. The munici
pal und social institution of each, its luw

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