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of properly nnl of personal relation, even In It piililieal nrg.nnitni.loii, were such only a each nnarhnnse to establish, wholly withnnl Interference from nny other. In the language of Ihn Owlnrntion of Independence, each State hud "full power to levy war, conclude pire, contract alliance, establish cnmnierce, iirul tn do nil other ncl and thing which In dependent States may of rluht do." The several colonic differed In climate, in Mill, In nntnrnl nrndni-thin. 1:1 roll 'Ion. in avalcin (1 education. In legislation, nd In the formfAJ political administration; and they jwJnl to differ in Ihene reaped when they volnntn rily allied themselves a Slate to carry on the war of the revolution. The object of lli"aJaws In disenthral' the U. Hi.ito ''rtrom lori'i'-tlf , which hnd orovJnrW-mw ono""""'' d to separate I bom permanently V hrr country; the political roaultV,. " Touiir? tion of a federal rcpublio of Wfrfe whit men of the colonies, conatitiitod-s they ttitntcL-M tl ocic were. In distinct, nnd reoiproc (1- ei.t, Stato government. . A "jjijBct rn-;e, whether Indian or ArW, fto wlae , nnd bravo statesmen of that day, being tcrf". gngrdin no extravagant cheine of social change, left them a they were, nnd thus pro- . served lharncrves nnd their posterity from the anarchy, nnd the ever recurting civil war, which- have prevailed In tttu revolutionized European colonic of America. When the confederated State found It convenient to modify thu condition of their association, by giving to the general govern, inelit direct ncci-aa, in aome reaped, to the ponplo of the State na audi, they proceeded to frama the existing- ronatilution, "'Vfjng steadily tn one guided thought, w hiMUC?i, to dulegatirly audi power aaviieeciary nml proper to tlie execution of specific, pnr- 'posos, nr,Tn uther words, to retain n much na poaaible, consistently with those purjyasr, of the independent powers of th imliulual State. For object of common defence and accuritv. they intrusted en the general gov. crnment certain carefully-defined functions. leaving nil other a the- undelegated right of the separate independent sovereignties. Such is thu cnnatitiitional theory of our government, the practical observance of which "a carried ua, mm na alone, nmong modern republic, through nearly threo gei erntions of timu without the cost of one drop of blood ahcil in civil war. With freedom nnd concert of nction, it ha enabled u to contend successfully nn the battle field against foreign foea, ha elevated the feeble colonies Into powerful Male, nnd haa raiacd our in dustrial production, and oiircommcree which transports them, to the level of the richest nnd tlio greatest nation of Europe. And tlie admirable adaptation of our political in stitutions to their object, combining local aclf government with aggregate atrength, haa established the practicability of a government Iil.o our to cover the continent with confcil e.u'e .Stnto. The Congress of the United State i, in effect, that congress of sovereignties, which good men in the Old World have sought for, hiiti-mi'd never alt.ii.-i, and which imparl to America 1111 exemption Ironi tlio war, tlie mutual invasions, and vague aspirations after t ie balanco of pnwer, which vonviilso from time to lime the poverunientaof Europe. Our co-operative action rests in the condition of permanent confederation preserved by the constitution. Our balance of power is in the sep irate reserved rights of the States, nnd , tiieir equal representation in tho Senate. Tliat independent sovereignty in every oneof the States, with it reserved rights of local self government assured to each by their co equal power in thu Senate, wa the funda ment il condition of the constitution. With out it the Union would never havo existed. However desirous the larger State might be to reorganize the government so as to give to their population it proportionate, weight in the common counsels, lliev knew it was impossible, unless they conceded to tlie smaller onca authority to exercise at least n negative influence on all the measures of the government, whether legislative or executive, tii rough their equal rcpcsciitatives in the Senate. Ittduud thu lrgcr Klntc themsclTPS Could hot havu fui'ed to perceive, that thu same power was equally necessary to them, for tho security of their own domestic interests against tho aggregate force of tlio general government. Jn a word, tho original States went into this permanent league on Ihcagrecd premises, of exerting their common strength for tho defence of tho w hole, and nil its parts'; but of utterly excluding all capability of re ciprocal aggression. Each solemnly bound itself to nil thu oilier, neither to under take, nor permit any cnirnaclimcnt upon, or intermeddling with another's reserved relit. Where it was deemed expedient, particular rights of tun Stales were expressly guaran teed by the constitution; but in all things be. sides, these right were guarded bv thu limi tation of the powers granted, and Ly express reservation, of all powers not granted, in thu eotnpaet of the union. Thus, the great pow er of taxation was limited to purposes of common ilelcnse anil general weltare,excluil ing objects appertaining to the local legisla tion of tho several. States; and Ihosc purposes of general wcllare and common defense were afterwards defined by specified enumeration, na being matters only of cn.reiatioii between tlio Slates themselves, or between them mid foreign governments, which because of their general and Common nature, could not be left for the separate control of each Stale. Of the circumstances of local condition, interest nnd rights, in which a portion of the Stale, 'constituting one great section, of the Union (littered from the rest, nnd fiom another great section, the most important was tho peculiarity of a larger relative colored population in tlie-southern than in the north ern States. A population of this class, held in subjec tion existed in nearly all the States, but was more numerous and of more serious concern ment in the South than in tho Ninth, on ac count of natural differences of climate and productions; and it was foreseen Unit, for thu same reasons, while this population would ' diminish, and sooner or later, cease to exist, in some Kin tea, it might increase in others. The peculiar character and magnitude of this question ol local rights, not. in material rein lions only, but slili more in social ones, caua- .cd it to enter into the special stipulation of the Constitution. Hence, while the general government, as well by the enumerated powers granted to 'it lis by those not enumerated, and therefore refused to it, was forbidden to touch this matter in the senso of attack or offense, it was placed under the general safeguard of tho Union, in the senso of defense ngoinst either invasion or don.estio violence, like nil other focal Interests of the several States. Each Statu expressly stipulated, as well for iUtelf ii lor each State because solemnly bound by his nllegianco to the constitution,, that any person, held to service or labor in one State, escaping into another, should not, in eonse- aueiicu of any law or regulation- thereof be ischnrged limn such service or labor, tut eiouhl be delivered up on claim of the parly to whom such service or labor might be due by the laws-of hi Slate. Thus, and time only, .by the reciprocal guaranty of nil tlie rights of every State against interference on the part of another, was the present lorin of government estab lished by our lather nnd transmitted to us; nd by no other means is it possible for it to fist. If one Slate cease to respect the rights of another, and obtrusively intermed dles with it lend Interests if portion of the States assume to impose their institutions on the others, or refuse to fulfill their obliga tion to them we are no longer united, JLirndly SlaU'S, but distracted, hostile ones, with Utile capacity lelt of common advantage, but abundant means of reciprocal Injury and mischief. Practically, it Is Immaterial whether fig. greaaire Inti fcrclic between Hie State, or deliberate refusal on the part of anyone of them to comply with ennalilutinnni onnga tions, arise from erroneous conviction or blind prejudice, whether it be perpetrated by direction or indirection. In either case, ilia full of threat nnd danger to tho durability of the Union. Placed in the office of Chief Magistrate a the executive agent of the wbolo country, hound to tako care that the laws be faithful ly executed, nnd eapccially enjoined by the Constitution to give information to Congress on the state of tlie Union, it would be palpa ble g led of duty on my part to pas over a subject like this, which, beyond all thing at the present -time, virtually concern the individual nnd public mctiritv. It ha been matter of painful regret tn aee State conspicuous for their sevicea in found ing this Rcpublund equally sharing It ad vantage, disregard their constitutional obli gation to it. Although conscious of their inability to heaiiadmillcd and palpable social evils of their offr?', and which are completely within their jurisdiction, they engage in the offensive and hopeless undertaking of to forming the domestic institutions of other States wholly Beyond their control nnd authority. In thevaln pursuit of enda.by them entirely unnnttainable,nnd.'which they may not legnlly attempt to compass, they peril the very ex iatence of the Constitution, nnd all the count, leas benefits which, it has conferred. While tho people of the Southern States confine their attention to their own affairs, not pre suming ollcrsTy to intermeddle with the social inatjminn of the Northern States, tuo many of 4hu srnliabit ints of the latter ntc permanently flrganized in associations to in Hid injury on the foruu-r, by wrongful net, which would lie ciuae of war as between foreign powers, and only fail to be such ill our system because perpetrated undercover ol the Union. It is impossible tn present this subject n truth nnd the occasion require, without no ticingthe reiterated, but groundless allegation, that tho South haa persistently asserted claim nnd obtained advantages in the practi cal administration of tho general government tn the prejudice of the North, and In which the latter has acquiesced. That is', the Slates which either promote or tolerate attacks on the right of persons and proporty in other States, to disguise their own injustice, pretend or imagine, and constantly aver, that they, whose constitutional rights arc thus system atically assailed, aro themselves nggressor. At the present time, this imputed aggression, resting, a it does, only in the vague, declam atory charges of political agitators, resolves hself into misapprehension or misinterpreta tion of tho principles and facts of the political organization of the new Territories of the United States. What is the voico of history? When the ordinance which provided for Iho government of the territory northwest of the river Ohio, nnd for its eventual subdivision into new States, was adopted ill the Congress of the confederation, it is not to be supposed, that the question ol- lutuie relative power, as be tween the States which retained and those which did not retain a numerous colored pop illation, escaped notice, or failed to be consid ered. And yet the concession of that vast territory to the interest and opinions of the Northern States, a territory now tho seat of five among the largest members of the Union, was, in n great measure, the act ot the Mate Virginia. When Louisiana wa acquired by Iho Uni ted States, it was an acquisition not less to the North than the South, for while it wns important to Ihc country at thu mouth of the .Mississippi to hecomo tlio emporium ot the country above it, so also it was even more important to the whole Union tn havu that emporium, and although the new province, by reason ol its imported settlement was re garded as on the (iulf of Mexico, yet in fact it extended to thu opposite bwiintbriea of the United Slates, with li r greater breadth abovo than below and was ill territory, as in every thing else, equally nicro delusion and preju dice, therefore, to speak of Louisiana i.s an acquisition in tho special interest of the South, Tho patriotic nnd just men who participa ted ill that act, were influenced hy motives above nil sectional jealousies. It was in truth the great event, w hich, by completing for us the possession of the valley of the Mississippi, w ith commercial access to the Gulf of Mexi co, imparted unity and sticuglh to thu whole coiiteilerntioli, and nltaclieil together bv in. ! dissoluble ties E: st and West, 11s Well as North I nnd South. As to Flurida, Ihnt was but the transfer by Spain to the United States of llie territory on the east side of the MiBitiidpji, in exchange for the large territory winch the United States transferred to Spain on the west, side of that river, as the entire diplomatic history of the transaction serves to demonstrate Moreover, it was an acquisition demanded by the commercial interests and the sceuii'y of the whole Union. In the meantime, the people of the United Slntes had grown up to a proper consciousness of their strength, and in a brief contest with France, nnd in a second serious war with flrent liiitain, they had shaken off all which remuined of undue reverence for Kuropc, nnd emerged from the atmosphere of those trans atlantic influences which surrounded the in fant Republic, and had begun to turn their attention to the full nnd systematic develop ment of the internal resources of the Union. Among the evanescent controversies of t hat period, the most conspicuous was the question f regulation by Congress of the social con dition of the future States to he founded in tlie territory of Louisiana. The ordinance for the government of the territory northwest of the river Ohio, had contained n provision which prohibited the uie of servile labor therein, subject to tho condition of the extradition of fugitives from service due in any other part of tlie United States. Subesequently to the adoption of the Constitution, this provision ceased to remain as a law; for lis operation as such was nhso lutely superceded by the Constitution. lint tlie recollection of the fact excited the zeal of social propagandism in some sections of the confederation, and when a social Slate, that of Missouri, ciiine to be formed in tin territo ry of Louisiana, a proposition was made, to extend to the intter territory the restriction originally applied to the country situated be tween the rivers Ohio and Mississippi Most, questionable, as was this proposition in all its constitutional relations, neverthe less, it received the sanction of Congress with some slight modifications of line, Co save the existing rights" of the new Stale. It was re luctantly acquiesced in by the Soul hern States as a sacrifice to the cause of peace and of the Union, not only of the right stipulated by the treaty of Louisiana, but of the princi 1s of equality among the States guarantied, by tlie Constitution. It was reoeived by the Northern States with angry and resentful condemnation and complaint, becifuse it did not concede all which they had exsetingly demanded. .Hating pas- ed through the forms of legislation, it took its place in Ihe statute book, standing open lo repeal, like any other act of doubtful constitutionality, subject to be pronounced null and void by the courts of lawP and possessing no poihle efficacy to control the rights of the States which miuht thereafter be tirganized out of any part of tue uriuioui tiribuijr ui jouisiaaa lu all this, it any aggression there were, any innovation upon pre-txiating rights, to which portion of the Union ore tuoy juslW chargeable I - This controversy passed away with the oo casion, nothing surviving it sav the dormant letter of the statute. - Hut long afterwards, when, by the propoa ed accession of the ltipublie of Texas, the United State were lu take their nest step in Teiritorial greatness, a similar contingency occurred and become tho occasion for system atir.ed attempts to intervene in the dorocslia affairs ot one section of ths Union, in deft anee of their rights as States and of the slip illations of ths Constitution. These attempts assumed a prnoliesl direction, in the shape of persevering endeavors by some of the repre sentntives in both houses of Congress lo de prive the Southern States of the supposed benefit of the provisions of the act author izlng the organization of the State of Mis souri, Dot the good sense of ths people nnd the vital force of the Constitution triumphed over sectional prejudice and the political errors of the day, and the State of Texas rcTurned to the Union as she was, with socinl institutioni which her people had chosen for themselves, and with express agreement, by the re annex ing net, that she should be iiisceptibleof sub division into a plurality of Statea. vt natever auvnntagea tne Interest, of the Southern States, aa such, trained by this, were far inferior in results, as thev unfolded in the progress of time, to those which sprang from previous concessions made Jiy the Sooth. To every thoughtful friend of the Union, to the true lovers of their country, to all who longed nnd labored for the full success of this great experiment of republican institutions, it was cause of gratulation that such nn op portunity bad occurred lo illustrate our d vancing power on this continent, and to fur nish to the world additional assurance of the strength and stnbilitj of the Constitution. Who would wish to see Florida still a Eu ropean colony? Who would rejoice to hnii Texas as a lone star instead of one in the gnl axy of Slates? Who does not appreciate the incalculable benefits of the acquisition of Louisiana? And yet narrow views nnd see-, tionnl purposes would inevitably have ex cluded them all from the Union. Hut, another struggle on the samspoint ensued when our victorious nrmies reTtirned from Mexico, and it devolved on Congress to provide for the territories acquired by the treaty of Oundaliipe Hidalgo. The great re lations of ths suhjeet had now become dis. tinct nnd clear to the perception of the pub lic mind, which appreciated the evils of sea tionnl s-ontrnversy upon the question of the admission of new Slates. In that crisis in tense solicitude pervaded the nation. But the patriotic impulses of the popular heart. guided by tho admonitory advice of the Father of bis Country, rose s'upcrior to all the ditlicultics of the incorporation of a new em pire into the Union. In tiie counsels of Con gress there was manifested extreme antniro nism of opinion nnd action between some rep resentatives, who sought, by the abusivo and unconstitutional employment of (be legisla tive powers of the Covernment, to interfere in tlie condition of the inchoate Slates, and to impose their own socinl theories upon the latter, and other representatives, who repell ed the interposition of the (tcnernl Govern ment in this respect, nnd maintained the self coustituting lights of the Stntes. In truth the thing attempted was, in form alone, no tion of lite (icnernl Government, while in re ality it was the endeavor, by Ihe nbuse of legislative power, to force the ideas of inler mil policy entertained in particulnrStatcsup on allied independent Stntes. Once more tlie Constitution and the Union triumphed signal ly. The new Territories were organized with out restrictions on the disputed point, nnd were thus left to judge ill that particular for themselves; nnd the sense of constitutional failh proved vigorous enough in Congress not. only to accomplish this primary object, but nlso the incidental mid hardly less important one of so amending the provisions of the Btaltile for extradition of fugitives from ser vice as to place that publie duty under the safegnnrd of the General Government, and thus relieve it from obstacles raised up hy the legislation of some of the Slates. Vain declamation regarding the provisions of low for the extradition of fugitives from service, with occasional episodes of frantic ef fort to obstruct their execution by riot and murder, continued, fora brief lime, to ngitatc certain locnlitie. Dot the true principle, of leaving each Slate and Territory to regulate ilsown laws of labor according to its own sense of right and expodiency, had acquired fast hold of public jiulgmeiit to such a degree that, by common consent, it. was observed in the organization of the Territory of Washing ton. , 1 ' 'When, more recently, it beenme requisite tn organize the Territories of ftchrnsku and Knmns, it was tho natural and legitimate, if not the jnevilahlo consequence of previous cveiitsand legislation that the same great and sound principle which had already been ap plied to Utah and ew Mexico Bhould lie ap plied to them; that they should stand exempt from t ho restrictions proposed in the act rela tive to the Slate of Missouri. These restrictions were, in the estimation of many excellent men, null from the begin ning, unauthorized by tho Constitution, con? trary to the treaty stipulations for thecession of Louisiana, and inconsistent with the equal ity of tlie States. They had been stripped of nil moral a tbority by persistent efforts lo procure their indirect repeal through contradictory enact ments. They had been practically abrogated by the legislation attending tlio organiza tion of Utah, New Mexico, and Washington. If any vitality remained in them it would have 'been taken away in effect by tho new Territorial nets in tlie form origlnnlly pro- Iioscd to the Scnnto nt the first session of tlie ait Congress. It was manly ami ingenuous as well as patriotic nnd just to do this di rectly and plninly, and thus relie.ve tlie slut iife-book of an net which might be tif possible future injury, and of 110 possible fu ture benefit; and the measure of its repeal was the final consummation and complete re cognition of the principle that no portion of the United States shall undertake, through assumption of the powers of tlie General Gov ernment, to dictate tlie socinl institutions of any oilier portion. The scope nnd effect of the language of re peal were not left in doubt. It was declared, in terms, to be Mthe true intent and meaning of this act not to legislate slavery into any Territory or State, nor to exclude it therefrom, but to leave the people thereof perfectly free to form nnd regulate their domestic insti u tions in their own way, subject only to the Constitution of the United Statos." The measure could not be withstood upon it merits alone. It whs attacked with vio lence, 011 the false or delusive pretext that it constituted breach of faitl. Never was objection more utterly destitute of substan tial justification. When before was it imagin ed by sensible men that a regulative or de clarative statute, whether enacted ten or (or- ty years ago, if iriepcnlable that an net of l ongrers la anovcyiie constitution I Jl, in deed, there were in tlie fnots anycnii9cto im pute bad faith, it would attach to those only who had never ceased, from the time of the enactment of the restrictive provision to tlie present day, to denounce aud coudemn it; who have constantly refuted to complete it by necdlul supplementary legislation; who have spared no exertion to deprive it of mor al force; whohavethemselvesagiiiu and again attempted its repeal by the enactment of in compatible provisious; aud who, by the inevi table reactionary etfect of their own violence on the subject, awakened the country to pre emption of the true constitutional principle of leaving the matter involved to the discre tion of the people of the respective existing or iiicipieut Slates. It is not pretended that this principle, or any other, precludes the possibility of evils in practice, .disturbed aa political aotion is liable to be by human passions. No form of government is exempt from inoonvenieiiees, but in tills case they are the result of the abuse, and not of the legitimate exeroise, of the powers reserved or conferred ill ths or Ksuizu'.ion of a Territory. They are not to be charged to the great priuciple of popu lar sovereignty; on the contrary, they disap pear before the intelligence aud patriotism of the people; exerting through the ballot-box their peaceful and silent but irresistible pow er. If the friends of the Constitution are to have another struggle, its enemies could not present a more acceptaole issue than that of a State, whose constitution clearly embraces "a republican form, of government," being ex eluded from the Union beeause it domestic institutions may not in nil respects comport with the bless of what is wise aud expedient entcrtninedin aome other Slnte. Fresh from groundless- imputation of breach of faith against others, men Srill commence the agita tion of this nsw question with indubitable violation of an expt compact bet ween the independent sovereign powers of the United Stales nnd ths Itepublic of Texas, as well as of the older and squally solemn compacts which assure tiie equality of all the States, But, deplorable a,wonld be such a viola tion of the compact in itself and in all its di rect consequences, that is Ihe very least of the evils involved. When sectional ogilntura shall have succeeded In forcing on this issue, can their pretensions fail to be met by conn tor pretensions? Will not dilferent St'ites be compelled respectively to meet extremes with extremes? And if either extreme carry its point, what is thstao far forth but, dissolution of the Union? If a ivew Stale, former! from the territory of the United States he abso lutely exoluded from admission therein, that fact of itself constitutes the disruption of union between it nnd the other States, nut the process of dissolution could not stop there. Would not a sectional decision, producing such result by a majority of votes, cither Northern or Southern, of necessity drive out the oppressed nnd aggrieved minority, and place in presence of each other two irrecon cilably hostile confederations? It is neccssarv to sneak thus plainly of pro- jects, the offspring ol that sectional agitation now prevailing in some of mo Mates, wmeii are as impracticable as I hey arc unconstitu tional, nnd which, if persevered in. must and will end calamitously. It is either disunion and civil war, or it is mere angry, idle, aim less disturbance of public peace and tranquil ity. Disunion for wiintt If the passionals rage of fanaticism and-pnrtisnn spirit did not force the fact upon oilTst ten tion, it would be difficult to believe that any considerable por tion of Ihe people of l!icn1ightened country could have so sitrreni'ered tben.selves to a fanatical devotion tn .the supposed interest 01 me relatively lew .lO'iuii in tlio i n ten Slates as tol.ullv to lihmidon And Hisreonrd Iho interests of the twenty five millions of Aiuericnns to trample under foot, the Injunc tions of moral and constitutional obligation, and to ei gage in plans of vindictive hostility ntrainst those who are associated witli them in the enjoyment of tho common heritage of UUI IIMlllMIIII I lit, 1 1 111 IUIIS. Nor is it hos'ilily against their fellow-citizens of one section of the Union alone. The interests, the bouor, the duty, tho pence, and tho prosperity of the people of nil sections are equally involved and imperilled in this question. Ard are patriotic men in any part of the Union prepared, on such an issue, thus madly to invite all the consequences of the forfeit urc of their const itutionnl engagements? It is impossible. Tlio storm of phrenzy and faction must inevitably dash itself in vain against tlie unshaken rock of the Constitution. 1 shall nerir doubt it. I know that the Union is stronger a thousand times than nil the wild and chimerical scheme of social change which are generated, one after anoth er, in the unstable minds of visionary sophists and interested agitators. 1 rely confidently on the patriotism of tho people! nnd 011 th'e dignity nnd self-respect of Ihe States, on the wisdom of Congress, and, above all, on the continued gracious favor of Almighty GoJ, to maintain, agiinst nil enemies, whether nt home or abroad, the sanctity of the Constitu tion and Ihc integrity of the Union. KltANKLIN riKKCn. IVatliiiigfor, Iiecenibcr til, lsfi5. Plain Talk ron tub Ladiks. The Wis tern editors arc certainly very free speaking individuals, and their rhetoric, like tho bowie knives of some of them, is sharp and to the point. One of them, speaking of low neck ed dresses and short slocv, says: Tho providing fashion ninong ihu ladies, I winch transpose an impel into a model ar tist, is universally detested by every gentle man whose good opinion a lady should desire. II blunts the finer feelings of both sexes, and is a disadvantage to the other. A round, plump while arm is beautiful, and may be ad mired w ith all propriety; but an arm" shaped liku n three cornered liie, with red elbows, is not beautiful, nnd in isrpelilion with a Spanish garrole would nund no chnnco of being elected to one's neck. A whilo round neck, with an alabaster baVu liall'coiiccalcd by acoquelisli collar, is the most bewitching sight in tlio world; but a largo oxp.insu of bony shoulders, painted liku a patent linm, with its contiguous unprotected territory, has about us many attractions as a newly painted W indsor chair. Hon. Mji. Valk An American represen tative in Congress from ore of tho New York District, has published a eomniunicalinii in the National Organ, which closes with tho follow ing declaration: "Had I been in tho last Congress, I should not have voted for thu Kansas Nebraska bill. III this Congress, if iho question is brought to n voto 1 shall answer No, on n proposi lion to restore the Missouri lino. Upon tlio question ol slavery, I have nothing to say. It is recognised in thu Constitution as an existing institution, and tho rights of the owners nro protected. It i represented in Ihe popular branch of tho National legisla ture, and where it is I leave it, w ith n firm conviction that Congress has no rightful au thority whatever to make it a subject of log islatioii. It haa thus far only proved n net tlu to sting those who handle it and, in snipe cases, a stepping stone to ambitious but un scrupulous demagogues. "It must need bo that oflenccs come, but wo to those by w hom they do come." Jff" Wc find the following amusing sketch in Oliphant'a "Minnesota," in tho London Times, of nn American's opinion of Eng. land: Wal, you Britishers are cute, you go on Iho high moral ticket. Yon cull annexn tion robbery nnd territorial aggression; but their ain't n power in crenlii n that has swal lowed more of olhcr people 'acountry without choking than you have, when nobody was looking in particular. And now you nro go ing to light for civilization by protecting the most barbarous power in Europe, and for liberty by allying yourself- with n French despot and a Mahuniedan tyrant; but chaw me, if liberty ain't a lung i-y-hotter oif in (ho hands oi' that old possum Nicholas, than such mealy mouthed hypocrites. You under stand Blabbing great principle in the dark; you do! Liberty is all buncui:.D with you. If it ain't, whut do you go crying nnd scraping to nil despots in Eurupu fur, when you could raise the hull continent in thu cnuao of free dom if you had n mind to.. Why don't you choko off her privileged classes, nnd sut your oppressed white negroes free, and give Lack the black niggers in tho Indies, the country you've robbed them of", instead of screeching nt ub, and coming over here with your long face nnd almighty jaw and unremitting lies about slavery and Cuba! There is no sin in creation, your no.souled, panling, bellows, winded Parliament won't submit to if they can iniike n darned cent by it. , Pbeskntmests, The News ridicule tho idoii of presentments, nnd ghost seeing, and holds all parsons accountable 'who report ghost seeing stories. Will the New please to take in hand "John of Piitmos," John Wesley, Juan Stilling, Sweedenhorg, &0. all ghost-seera, accord ing to their Qivu accounts and then dispose of them smaller fry. N. Y. Mirror, J5fA claim of Lieut, (ion, Scott, for Ji7, 000, which had been pending several years, has recently been allowed him by the admin istration. New York, Jan. 3. The steamer Black Warrior has arrived from Havana, with dates to Ihe :18th ult. The news brought by her i unimportant. The legislature of Maine hnd nrirntiixed bv a fusion of n,.uin.fu old Hue Whigs." ATHENS POST. S. P. 1VINS, KPlTOtl AND proprietor. Terms ! 12 s rear. Davabls In silvsnes. or SS st Uie expiration or the year. lr No paper discontinue until sit arrearages art paid, except nt Uie oplton or the Publisher. For announcing the names of camllilates for office 9ft, Cnsli. 111. Unary Notices over 19 lines. charted at Ihe regular auvertlnlns; rates. All commiititrsllon Intended to promote the private ens or Interests ot Corporations, Societies, Schools or Individuals, will bs ohsrfted a advertisements. fW drralntlnii ,400.: A'I'lll'.SiM, tltlll.tV, JAN. lis 18.10. J-ff"Circuit Com I lor Mon roe conntv, con venes nt Madisnnville next Monday the 1-lth. fjyTho Southern Mail failed on Wfdnea. day night. Our lnlesl ndvicr from Wash, ingtonnre trt the 4th Inclusive, at which timo tho House was still without n Speaker. Candipatks. Win. llurk is announced in today's paper ns a candidate for Sheriff of McMinn county; Jno, P. Slovcr for Circuit Court Clerk, and Nullum Kelley, and Benja min Wells, fur County Trustee. I'nr.siDENT's Message. The larger por tion of our paper today ia occupied with the President' Message. Presuming that all will give it an attentive perusal, il is unne cessary to indulge In comment or direct the render's mind to particular portion. Wc may remark, however, that It is a good statu paper, nnd that its position upon the Central American question, nnd adherence tn the pro vision of the Chiyton-Bulwc'r treaty, mnt command the approbation of nil patriotic minds. Tlio concluding part of tho message is devoted to n theoretical discussion of our government and the relations existing among tho States. The President's views as here enunciated nro eminently Southern, nnd it would be illiberal nnd unjust to doubt his sincerity nt n timo when his public career is about to close. Tho entire paper 1 worthy the attention of nil who feel nn interest in the affair of tho country. Weather. Il is presumed that the ma- jority of our readers in Ihia aection nro not iiiseusitilc ot t li o lael '.tint tlio weather has been remarkably cold for scvernl days. On Wednesday morning nt sunrise the mercury in Ihe thermometer wns found reposing nt one degree nhovo rem, nnd Thursday morn ing still worse. Famous timo for matri monial enterprises! Tax Collector. Tne County Court of McMinn, on Monday last, elected A.Ci. Small Tax Collector for the current year. Indibkation Meetino. A telegraphic dis patch from Knoxville, state that tho friends of tho "Transfer Bill" held nn "indignation meoting"nt the Court House, in that place, on Saturday night last. There is said to have been a very fairturn out, and a resolution, offered by the gentleman who made Me speech of the occasion, resolving that they were d d mad generally, wns carried by neclama tion. Rumor a.ij that tlio "Athens Post" and the "Cleveland Brunch" suffered sonic. Surry we didn't receive notice in lime tn be present, ns a full report of the proceedings could not fail to Interest. Wo regret, too, having to spoil tho calculation of our very particular friend in that direction, but some pork will boil so, ffjf' Thcro is n proposition before the Georgia Legislature to lease the Stato Uoad for a number of year. Pork. The Savannah papers nre com plaining of tho high prico of pork in that market. It is selling thcro.it 11 nnd 12 cents hog round. Voluminous. We have heard of a "cop per anit"in which tho ovidonco already bjien occupies some twenty live hundred pages of closely written foolscap. When that suit is decided, it is thought thu "good time coming," spoken of somewhere between tho com mencement of Ihc book of Genesis and the end of Revelations, will be closo at hand. LfAr Year. Single ladies who maybe anxious to escape, from a state of "single mis ery," will remember that the present is leap your, nnd "pilch in." Tho "peculiar privilege" only come once in every forty.cight months. In the language of an intelligent coteuipnrnry, don't be prudish, Indie, any longer. Matri mony is the best condition for us brutes of men as well ns for your charming selves; nnd yoft will really be doing a service by seizing all stray bachelor of this lenp year and im pounding them ill matrimony. Some old rogue once said that marriage was like those wire rat-traps, where n hollow cone, tho big end out, invites the victim to enter, by tho smell nnd sight of toasted cheeso within, but where, when he attempts to leave, the sharp wires of tlio little end of the cone hint point edly nt the Impossibility. Tho story Is a wicked libel on matrimony, ladies, which, is not a rat trap, any more than you nre toasted cheeso. The man who don't know that mat rimony is good for him is so far forth de. mcnted, nnd tho sooner he is put in the hus band's straight jacket tlio butter for him. You have a prescriptive right to civilize our rougher natures. Franklin nptly said that the sexes were halves of a pair of scissors, and neither wns good for much without the other. Children don't know what ia good fur them, neither do wo men always. So, as leap -year is here, make an onslaught, one nnd nil, on the bachelors, and let it be ns fierce ns n larni -wife makes on her poultry nt Christmas, It's the destiny of turkeys to be eaten, and of men to marry tho girls. For ward march! Cleveland. Wo had thu pleasure of spending Monday nnd 1 ucsdny nt the thrifty county scut of Bradley. There appears to be A healthy public spirit at work nt Cleveland manifesting itself iu Ihe erection of new buildings and tlie improvement of business generally. We found our friend, G. W. Mayo, Ksq., recently of the Leuty Hotel, Loudon, nt the Ococo House, doing things up in the right way, and rendering his guests comfortablo and happy. If there is any one tlnng we like to see about a hotel, it is an ef. fort on Ihe part of the proprietor to make his guests feel that there is somebody round caring for their comfort, and that's just the sort of landlord Mayo is. May he live a thousand years. Our friends visiting Clove. land nre commended to the Ocoee House for good fare and comfortable quarters. , & tf" There is some valuable Real Estate advertised fur sale un the, next page. ' Till'! CI,()Vi:S LOOT. "Protestantism l dangerous lo thecountrv. All who lovo triilh and sustain right must seek thr coiintetb dancing power to disunion In the Catholic population of the country." Frretniu'i Jmirmit. To which the New York Mirror replica: "Romnniam grim daily bolder. It I always meek and quid until it gain sufficient atrength to put on n brazen front, nnd show the cloven foot. It is the naturo of evil to develop itself warily. ' By stealthy approach es, It make il fatal spiing in nn unguarded moment, nnd then mock at tho misfortune of 11 victim. Tint Romanism has taken ndvantngu of our hospitality, and requites with the basest ingratitude the generous wel come it hns received tn Protestant America. It i not longsince Bishop Hughes advised tl to "pack up and bo off," and leave tlio Innd which wn wrested by our ancestors from the tyrnnr.y of the old world, to the future dom inntion of Catholic nlicns. Now wc arc told tint tho only safety to tho Union lies in our Catholic population that Protestantism Is dangerous to the country, nnd can no longer bo trusted with the freo government which wns founded by tho patriotism of our fathers. All our tradition, our nnlcccdcnts, our his. tory, from tho landing of the Pilgrim on Plymouth Rock in 1G20, proceed from the free spirit which Protestantism introduced Into the world; nnd our -Institutions, o nd mired, so cherished, so sought after by the oppressed of all laipU are deeply imbued Willi the religion to much they owe their origin. What mockery, then, to chnrgo that "Protestantism is dangerous to tliccniin. try !" Are we to bo taught tho rudiments of re. piiblic.'iiiism by Iho ignorant slaves of the Pope? Are we to be admonished of the value of the Union by the minions of n hierarchical tyranny which haa no parallel In tho history of the world? Romanism injure its own cause, nnd only hastens the day of its signal downfall, by presuming to dictate tn the de scendants of tho American revolution by striving to impose its illiberal tenets' on the freo institutions of the only Republic worthy of tho name, on tho face of tho eai Hi. Wu have little to fear, however, from this enemy or our liberties. Protestantism will be nble to hold its ow n in (his country, against all Ihe wiles of Popery. Freedom, civil nnd religions, haa n permanent homo beneath the alar and stripes, and neither the machinations of the Papacy, or the cnmily of foreign des potism, can supplant il in tho hearts of the American pcoplo. Protestantism isonly dan geroua to tho pretensions of that crippled hierarchy, which blasphemously arrogates to Itself tho holy attributes of Deity, and binds in Ihe grossest darkness the minds of its worshippers. Washington, Dec. 31. In thu U. S. Senate today, thu President's Message was read. Mr. Clayton expressed ins approbation ot iho ground taken in re gard to our relations with Great Brilain con. cerning Central America, and said that he was in favor of insisting upon the American construction of the Clayton Bulwer treaty. ilr. i.nssaairt the honor of the country de manded that we should insist upon our interpretation of the treaty. Messrs. Wellcr and Seward took the same ground, and all were ready to support Iho Monroe doc trine, should nn emergency require such a course ol nction. Matters look rather hostile. The receipt of the Jlessago by Ihc Senate fell liko nn earthquake upon Ihe IIoiise,iionc having the least suspicion that it would be sent. A very exciting delate ensued, which terminated in a refusal to receivo it on part of the House. There was a ballot for Speaker, and the House adjourned until Thursday. St. Louis, Jon. -1. The Democrat has a Idler from Leaven worth dated December 241b, which says that the Territorial Register, nn administration paper, hnd been mobbed, type thrown in tho rivor ami a lot of paper burnt. The mob was composed of Missourians. The Freo State part had nominated Chas. Robinson for Governor, O. Y. Roberts for Lieut. Governor, nnd M. J. Delnney for Con gress. t The eleotion is to be held on tlie third Tues day in January. . Washington, Dec. 31. Mr. Banks lust week on one or two oeen siona, obtained precisely voles enough fur tho election ot n npenker, but beforu Die result could be announced several cenilemen uh D " hud been sent forhurriedly entered Ihe Huuso ana cast ineirsuilrngea tor another, thus turn ing the scale. Bottstor President Mr. John Minor Bolts, the man who slept with John Tyle has written n letter in answer to tho letter and resolutions of the American Union Le gion, of Brooklyn, N. Y., recommending him as a suiiatite candidate of the Know Noth ings ior the f resiliency in 1856. Jn answer he says that the American party has nothing to do to insure success in ISofi but to t-... steadily in view their great original object, viz: -mai ot restoring the direction of Anier iron affairs to the hands of those born noon the soil. He refers to his pnBt lifo in the puuno servico, and various recent speeches nnd letters ns nn indication of the policy of Ihe administration in the "contingency" of his election. I3T By a statement in tho New York Her ald, it appears that tho total amount of trcas uro landed at that onrt IVnm r..iir...:. -i... - - --- ...... -niitwillin UU' ring the year has been upwards of forty uuw oiiu u nun unmous oi aoiiars, ol which ncnrly twenty-nine millions wns brought by the mail Mt.-illlira via I,m.,n,n i.. , . . '. "oo nearly thirteen millions enruo by the Nicaragua t3T Tho Iuly Hotel, Loudon, has been reopened under Iho proprietorship of Win. M. Alexander. Mr. Alexander we know to be a gentleman, nnd have no doubt he will keep the right kind of house. tW We ueglected Inst week lo notice the auvertiseruent or Messrs. Wootton &JV way, Commission aud Traduce Mo Macon, Go. This house liashsun in A llo- sits, - - vpii,, some time, nnd, we believe, has given gerTeral iue satiiiaoiion. ttJ A. lust advices the New York Legls. lature KaoTbeen bSlotting for scvernl days for Speaker, without nn election. Kansas TuaniTonv. Rv ihn follotvlnn-. ' v. Which wo copy from Ihe Kniisns F.ntcrpriso of the 15th, It will bo seen that the disturbances havo subsided In that region: We nre gratified in being nble to nnnouncs that Ihn eloiiHs u-lil.-li Iu,a1 rt. ..!!.. ....... ... .. v.. n ti.iinij u,cr thu hor'itnn of Kansas Territory, ono week ago, nave licen happily dispelled, and nil . 1 again bright and cheerful ns before. We tdo nol think tlin iiroa.nit m fliiii.n- Hm. r.. - L ............. r.....v ....... , ,,,, extended history of Ihe ditlicultics to be writ. en. iv require a calmer stale ol reeling than exists on either side to Investigate the Btlhicct Willi that ratlntuiaa r,.,tiHll.. I'... un Important a mailer. Indeed, we are not sure o ' ion, me least saiu. tne uctior lor all. T here lire fliflionlltua il...t ...t.!., ....I.. 1... ... .... , infill ,ihiv oe ex aggerated by a discussion, unit n tlie great mass of the People seem to understand tho leois, o oeem u nest lo wall until pulilio opinion is quieted, and the citizen of both parties are im-oared to nivo i.vnral.,n their conviction. " h""-' "fe conservative men In tlioTcrrlth. ry sufficient to control their iiflaira, nnd we uwoit the indications of their course in the premises. . IS'" The Baltimore Clipper favors the postponement of the Americnn Nominating Convention lo some day in June: The 11th for Instance, it says, when ConurcBa nnnoint. cd Jefferson, J. Adams, Franklin, Slii-rmnn nnd Livingston, a committee to prepare a de claration of Independence, on the 15lh, (which, however, falls upon Sunday, but, might, like oilier anniversaries fulling upon that day, he pnstponvd to the day ensuing,) when George Washington was. unon motion of Mr. J. Adams, ot Massashnsdts, appointed Commander-in-Chief of tho American. The latter day would awaken recollection cheer. Ing to the heart of every true Americnn, nnd urge hun to buckle on In armor nnd only Iny down his arms like Wnshlnn-ton. when victo ry perched upon Ins glorious standard nnd the oojeci in view Had been accomplished." Retort or the Postmaster Generai . The Postmaster General (Judge Campbell) suggests that the franking privilege be re. strieted to public documents and letters on public business merely, nlso, tho chargo of full rates upon newspapers in nil crscs, in stead of half rates, when paid nuarterlv in advance. He recommends compulsory pre payment by stumps ol postage on books, pamphlets, circulars and nil other transient matters, j lu again urges the six months' notice to the Collins steamers in discontinu. nnce of the extra pay voted them in July, 1 83a. 1 Je presses this subject at some length. Till! Legislature or New Yoaic Them seems lo be considerable trouldo in tho or. gnnizntion of tho New York Legislature 1 here are rmtr parlies, and each has met in caucus and made nominations for officers. The "Soft Shells" adopted, with slwht verbal alterations, the resolution of tlie National Democracy in Washington, nnd proposed, through n committee, n union on principle with the "Hard Shells." Tho union was sternly refused on that occasion by thu latter parly. Wo ace it stated that' Ihc Softs passed resolutions repudiating the Nebraska act, and that wa the cause of the disagreement of the W bigs. Affair appear to be getting in quite n tangled condition. Montgomery, Jan. 1st. For three weeks and five days it lias rained hero almost continuously. Several mails from New Orlean and Mobile are now due. The railroiidsnrc submerged; bridges carriial away, and the wholo country inundated. Nearly nil intercommunication is suspended. Richmond, Jan. 1st. Henry A. Wiso was, to-day, sworn into office as Governor of Virginia, in the Execu. live Chamber, and immediately took posses sion of the Gubernatorial mansion, whero a largo ciowd assembled. PirrsBURO, Jan. 1st. A terrible accident is reported ns having occurred last evening on the Ohio and Penn sylvania Railroad, near Darlington, Beaver'' county, iu which many lives were lost. Washington, Jan. 1st. The course of the President in sending in his message before the organization of the House is generally approved. Charleston, Jan. 4. Mr. Robert Witherspoun, un extensive Cot ton nnd Rice Factor, died suddenly in this city today from nppoplexy. rfT" Thirty. five slaves were recently lib. crated by their masters in Kentucky, nnd placed by them In tho Oberlin School, Ohio. tlETThe National Kra, the Washington organ of the abolitionists, speaking of Mr. Fuller, the candidate of the National Amer icans for Speaker, says, he was former ly in Congress," but "if he had any on(i rlatery unlimenlt about him, we never found it out." Washington, Jm. 4 The financial re port was received in the Sonale to dy, nnd ten thousand copiea ordered lo be printed. Mr. Halo has attacked the President's view of the Kansas iiHairs. The Senate udjourn. cd. House A resolution wns offered to-day, making Boyce Speaker. Amendments were oflorcd substituting the names of Bunks nnd Pcnnigton all tabled by n majority of 66. Four unefi'eetual ballots were taken to dy. Columbia, Jan. 4. A despatch from Bos ton says that tho Governor of Massachusetts urge tho repeal of tho peisonal liberty bill. Nxw York, Jan 4. The following is the vote in the two Houses of Maine for Governor; Reed, Whig, IIous 90; Senate 7; Wells, Dem., House, 88; Senate 21; Murrell, Republican, House 80; Morse, Republican, House 48; Holmes, Republican, House 9. Judge Wells was then Inaugurated and sent in his message. He acquiesces in the Nebraska bill, take strong grounds against the Liquor Law, recommends a li eenae system, aud condemns the Alien and Naturalization Laws, and the Personal Liber ly act. 7" Said a distinguished city pastor lo young member of his flock: "Brother , we nro always pleased to hear you speak iu the prayer meetings, and we hope you will continue to do so; bai I Would advise you lo be as brief as possible, and if the brethren think you are too triethey will tell you of It." This was spoken In love, nnd had thedesir ed effect. VW It Is reported that the Government is in possession of documents that will lead to the arrest of Col. Parker 11. Freueb, of Nicaragua celebrity.