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The Athens post. [volume] (Athens, Tenn.) 1848-1917, January 25, 1856, Image 1

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"
BY SAM. P. IVINS.
ATHENS,- TENN., FRIDAY, JANUARY 25, 1856.
VOL. VIII. NO. 383.'
1;
5;"
TERNSi
THI POST li publlihert wrjr ftAj at $9 per yr
prM In sutram, or if payment la delayed until
tht expiration of tht year.
Advertlnnmentfl will b chnrjrcrt fl per iqur
f 13 Unci, or lent, (or the Brit Inwrtlon, and AO etnli for
acn continuance). A liberal tie-up Hon mule to lhoi
who advertise hy Hie year. IVFentom iendlnjrarWer
tUemenU must murk the number of timet they deiilre
hem Inierted, or they will bt eontlnaed until forbid and
harRd accord In el f-mf
For announcing the name of candidates for office, $0.
Cm.
Obituary notices orer It llnei, charged Hi the regular
idTertUtn rates.
All cominuitlcatlom Intended to promote the private
ends or Intercut, of Corporation! , Societies, Schools or
tndlvldunli, will be charged as advertlnenients.
Job Work such na Pamphlets, Minutes, Circulars,
Cards, Blanks, Handbills, Ac, will bt executed In good
tyle, and on reasonable terms.
AH letters addresned to tht Proprietor, post paid, will
tie promptly attended to.
Persons at a distance tending us the names of four
olrent subscribers, will be entitle,! to a fifth eopy gratis.
No communication Inierted unless accompanied by
the name of the author. . -v
a-rr 1 Office on Main street, next door to YhtNl! Jack
aim Hotel.
THE .POST.
KS, FHI
5
.(4N I85.
' FaaionT on tux Wsstsbn and Atlantic Rail
RoAih The Chattanooga Advertiser hat the
following; . 1 r '
' We were informed a few days si not that the
superintendent of this road had reduced tlie
high rates of freight over hit road, in juttiee
to Tennenee. Now, to be plain about the
matter there has been no reduction in justice
to Tennessee. The reverse is true. In an ad,
Vertisement by the superintendent in our pa
per, the public are informed, that except on
cotton, wheat, ton, flour and etoek, the charges'
would be those ot August, 1861 that is, ex
cept on the natural product of the country,
merchandise and the like will be carried at
old rater. Those exceptions make up the
great staples of Tennessee, which are charged
enormous rates on this road the like has nut
listed for years before.
Washington, Jan. IS.
Dispatches received in this city aniuiiiiK'e
tho nomination of Jefferson Uuvia for U. B.
Senator for six yearn, from the 4th of March,
1857t by the Democratic caucus of the Mis
sissippi Legislature.
Albany, Jan. 17.
, . The Governor of this State in his message
to the Legislature, shows a deficit in the rev
enue of the Stale of over 8500,000. He op
poses the Nebraska Bill, and recommends
further legislation on the liquor law, after the
question of its constitutionality has been de
cided by the Supreme Court
' Additional bt thk Canada. The mails
by the Canada have arrived here,nnd w e make
the following extracts of interest from the
files received.
Advices from St. Petersburg any that the
main tnrcL of the army at Odessa is to be re
moved to Niclmlireff. The Czar, has, it is
rumored, ordered a concentration of all his
forces upon all hia strung positions on the
Black and Baltic Seas.
. Prince Piiskiewitch is reported dead.
The fall of Kara will make no change in the
r pious of Mouravieff, who will make the city
J bis winter quarters.
There is some tulk about Austria laying
her resolution, iu relation to the Eastern
question, before the Frankfort Diet, and it ia
thought that the Diet will recommend to
Kussis to make peace. A correspondent of
the London Poat says that he ia assured that
the Ciur haa written to the King of Prussia
to the effect that he could not, even if he
wished it, agree witli the Western Powers on
a basis of peace.
The Rusinn loan had proved a failure in
the Berlin Bourse.
An American ship, lying off Copenhagen,
had caused some anxiety, as it was said to be
laden with arms for Russia.
The Portuguese hud seized an Important
position In Western Africa.
Ah Endorsement. The Know Nothing or
Americsn members of the Maryland Legisla
ture held a meeting oil Monday evening, at
Annpolis, and unanimously adopted a resolu.
tion endorsing the course of tiieir political
friends in the House of Representatives at
Washington city, in voting against a sec
tional organization of the House, and also
for so strenuously sustaining the Philadelphia
platform.
UP" The Groat Inner Sea of Africa, twice
as large as the Black Sea, including Azoff,
the existence of which Cooley, the African
geographer, argued for long ago, and the dis
covery of which lias been previously an
nounced, has been further verified by explo
rations; but the sen Is not so romnrkable as
the people ia its neighborhood, who are said
to read and write, have no idols, are generally
serious, solid, aensible people, and profesa to
believe In God, and have no tincture of Mn
liomednniam. From whom did they learn
these things, or is it a traveller's story t
tV Railroad collisions, which are ever
the terror of travellers, are about to be wholly
prevented, it is said by a recent Invention
lately tested on the Madrid Railroad, Spain.
It ia done by a new application of electricity,
and la pronounced a perfect safuguaid against
all collisions in future two locomotives
Infallibly stopping one another before cowing
together.
Mori Backbohk Liniment Wanted It if,
reported from Washington that the fuslonists
upon Mr. Banks for Speaker, are beginning
to show signs of weakness in the backbone,
notwithstanding the dully lubrications of
Kansas nigger liniment by Weed and Greeley.
But this will never do. If the liniment fulls,
let them try the "poor man's plaster." Let
every humbug be exhausted before fusion is
confounded for the lack of backbone.
fST" Miller, the uian convicted of the mur.
derof Hadel and Frederick Graff, at Cumber,
land, Maryland, a few months since, was hung
at that place yesterday, at 1 o'clock, in the
presence of 6,000 persons. He died protest
ing his Innocence.
tdsT"The Ciuciiinuli Sun says that such Is
the stagnation of business In that city that
there are over ten thousand applications for
relief from the pnblic charities.
FROM WASHINGTON.
The telegraph brings the following expo
sition of ths views of the candidates for
Speaker upon the question of the day, ss
elicited by Gen. Zollicuffur's resolution. If
the telegraph reports correctly, Fuller Is as
sound as any man could be:
Washington, Jan 13.
House. Mr. Richardson said, in acting
for the Kansas and Nebraska hill, he Intend
ed that the people of the Territories should
decide the question themselves. He would
admit them with or without slaver)'. Me had
said slavery would not go there, but never
urged that ss a reason why he voted for the
bill.' As to the constitutionality of the Wil
mot Proviso, he voted fur the principle as np.
plieuble to the Mexico acquisition, in a spirit
of compromise; but it won'd be unjust to in
corporate it in territorial bills. In lii-judyinrrit,
the Constitution docs not carry slavus into
liiAjterrilories, but protects both sections of
me iThvon alike
.There .mint fuu, .r9qahblinjras to theJu"
order ol proceeding, and hnally ira.a-
eided that the candidates should answer
licuffer'a questions before others were pro
pounded. Mr. Banks was then called on, and num
bers drew up chairs around him. He did
not feel obliged, he said, to answer the ques
tions. He had not solicited the support of any
member. He distinctly remarked that he did
not regard the Kansas bill as promotive of
the formation of free States, nnd that ho be
lieved in the constitutionality of the Wiluiot
Proviso, lie did not believe that the Con
stitution carries slavery in the Territories nnd
that it recognized the protection of property
in the North and South alike, bul nut proper
ty in slaves. He believed the Constitution
to be instrument of freedom, and that Con
gresa was wrong in repealing tho Missouri
Compromise.
Mr. Fuller said he did not regard the Kan
sas bill as promotive of free or slave States,
and that he had ue"er advocated the conati
tutionality of the Wiiniot Proviso. Shivery
exists independently ul the Constitution, and
Congress hud no right to Legislate slavery
into or out of the Territories, nnd that it
only had the right to legislate so far as to
protect the citizens in the enjoy luctit of their
property.
Air. Burksdalo propnnnd-d questions which
Mr. Banks said was enacted by the Democrats
and Americans, the latter being the larger
portiun ot this district and by them elected.
As to the equality of tlie iiilc and black
races lie believed in the language of the De
claration of independence. "That all men
were created free and equal." He had adopt
ed the idea that the weaker race will be ub
aorbud in the stronger that was the univer
sal law of nations; but whether while or black
was superior and would absorb the cither, he
would wait the full developments of the I'u
tuie (Laughter and cries of "good") As to
the oilier questions propounded they were
subordinate to that of prohibiting slavery in
Kansua, and he would tiiiitu all interdict of
slavery in the Territories.
Mr. Fuller was not in favor of the restora
tion of the Missouri Compromise, and was
opposed to the ubo.Ttion of slavery in the
District of Columbia; he did not believe in the
equality of the while and black races, lie
thought with Washington, that to appoint
native born citizens to oftiee in preference to
that of foreign birth, was the first policy of
Government. He did not desire to exclude
foreigners from coming hither and would in
vite them to settle the public territory and
build up for themselves homes, but in nil mat
ters of legislation, and in the administration
of thM laws, Americans should govern Amer
ica. Richardson answered various questions
on the subject oi shivery propounded by King
man. Each party appeared euliruly satisfied
with the repuuses of its candidate. House
then took another vole for Speaker. Banks
94; Richardson 64; Fuller 33; Pennington
7; Scattering 4. Necessary to a choice 104.
Washington Rumors. The New York
Courier's Washington correspondent tele
graphs: It is rumored that the President is anxious
for an orgunizuiion, because he has a apeciul
war message to communicate.
The Journal of Commerce correspondent
also telegraphs:
If rumors prove true, things are taking n
shape in relation to our controversies wilh
Great Britain, thut looks a little more warlike
than even the message or Senatorial orations
would represent. ll ia said that since the
message wss written, advices have been re
ceived from Mr. Buchanan, with certain cor
respondents respecting the enlistment ques
tion, which puts the two parlies in a Very me
nacing sttilude toward each other.
These additional dispatches will not proba
bly be communicated to Congress until the
House shall organize, and they may not make
so serious nn impression ns has been made by
the facts already transpired.
Another step towards a move ia about to
be taken, by the ratification of the Nicara.
guan treaty, which recognizes the claims of
that Slate to the Mosquito const and coun
try; and in effect therefore is a guarantee of
the title to the limits by her churned. .
The Buenos Ayres Tribune, of the
second of November, announces in a extra
another desperate fight between tho Indians
and tlie government troops. The action look
place on tho 29lh of October, near Tapalque.
General Horuusbud under his command 1,000
cavalry, 380 infantry, and two pieces of artil
lery. The Indians numbered 3,000 men. Soon
after the buttle wus commenced, tho militia
composing a large part of the force under
General llurnos, became disorganized, and
all efforts to reduce them to reform were
useless. This occasioned a great loait fifty
men being killed and wounded, including a
chief and four officers. General Homos was
thereupon obliged to retire to a neighboring
fort.
English RAiLWAVs.-English railways rep
resent a capital of jC286.000.000. They ure
8,000 miles long, and have 3,300 stations.
Their working gives employment to 00,000
persons. They conveyed lust year 111,0 0,.
000 of passengers, and the trade in nierchan
diseaud minerals upon them will now amount
to 1,000,000 tons per week. To work them
6,000 locomotive engines, 100,000 wagons,
und 30,000 passenger Vehicles are required.
Their looomollvee represent s force equal to
that of 1,300,000 horses; and if all the vehi
cles working were put together, end to end,
they would reach from the Channel to the
Scottish border, or at least 400 miles.
INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UNITED
, STATES THE WHITE AND THE
RED RACES.
from tht If. T. timid.
Having given the interesting report of the
Commissioner of Indian Affairs to our readers,
it lias occurred to us that the occasion is an
appropriate one to make some observations
npon the past condition of the tribes in
this country in connection with the rapid
extension of our frontier limits. It is Im
possible not to see that the aborigines are
everywhere regarded ns something less than
men. We have sought to improve their con
dition by establishing missionary schools
amongst them; they have been pensioners
upon the public treasury wards of the ex
ecutive departments. They have always ex
cited a large share of public sympathy, nnd
strong hopes have been entertained Ibatttn-y
igtit be reclaimed flam barbarians, and ele-
vatetl to the spheres of social, moral and reli
gions enlightenment.
The Indians are certainly nn interesting
race, and it is agreeable to read the accounts
which tlie federal Commissioner has given of
the humane efforts of the government to pro
mote their welfare. He is sanguine of final
success in these labors. He reports the ex
istence, within otirextended Territorial limits,
of three hundred and fourteen thousand of
these red men of the forest these remarkable
links which seem to unite the brute with the
human species. Not a comment is made up
on the statement which the Commissioner
has published in regard to the number of his
wards. He sees nothing in this fact to influ
ence his opinions concerning the destiny of
his people. He encourages us with consider
able progress nniong the Chippewas of Mich
igan, und the combined Chippewas, Ottawa,
and Piittawiittsmies of Wisconsin, and a ma
jority of five.tiihes have also evinced no little
advancement in Texas! This is, with trifling
variations, thesiim total of Indian civilization,
after two hundred years of effort. From
many millions of men and the solo masters
of the continent from many hundred tribes
existing in the pridu of superiority the ac
knowledged chiefs of empire und of domain
in America they have been reduced to a
trifle over a quarter of million of men, and
to day give up scarcely a single hope that hu
man efforts lire capable of elevating them to
the scale of civilization and Christianity. It
would almoslsecni as if Providence had closed
the doorsof progress against them. Unknown
to the Christian age, to tlie Egyptians, to the
Chinese, to tlie Hebrews, to the Greeks and
to the Romans, they have steadily resisted
every effort to introduce amongst them the
arts of civilization which existed in those na
tions. This may seem to be a harsh judgment,
nnd one unsulted to the spirit of Christianity
and to the temper of the present nge; but we
prefer to look the mutter in the face nnd to
be rational and practical. We cannot ignore
the past if we would, nnd there is not in all
the variety of our relatione with tho red man,
in pence or in war, politically, religiously or
socially, a solitary sign of their regeneration
nnd enlightenment.
It is in vain to say they have been severely
and harshly treated it is in vain to refer to
their original strength and rights on this con
tinent, mid to their present weakness nnd de.
pendenee these things prove rather their
stubborn resistance to all the efforts of civil
ization, than the cruelty of the white races.
The sun gives his rnys to the white nnd red
alike; the earth is impartial in the fruit it
bears to those who npply the conditions of
production; and so it is with the conditions
of civilization tliey too, are fortunntely Im
partial, generous and communicative. Tlie
exnmples to the Indian hnvo been valueless
and it is precisely such causes which have
been foremost in leading the white race step
by step to its present condition of enlighten
ment. A stationary people can no longer hope for
a protracted existence and this is made ob
vious by the simplest comparison between
the Anglo Ameiicun and the aboriginal and
Mexican races on this continent. The former
have driven out the latter, just ns the English
ure driving out tlie natives of the East, and
as Russia is steadily advancing upon the Ot
toman empire. The same grand scheme of
operations is going on in every part of the
globe.
Judged by the standards of experience and
philosophy, it is not difficult to come to the
conclusion that the native barbarous races of
both the Eastern nnd Western continents are
working out their destiny precisely as nn
overruling Providence intended they should.
On this side of the water the Indians never
held more than u mere right of passage a
higjiway privilege of the country. They nev
er turned the earth to uses of production.
They lidded nothing to the wealth or the
civilization of mankind. While population
was crowding on production in tlie Old
World, they occupied the Nuw, nnd withhold
it from the uses of the human family.
Their expulsion wus a high Christian duty
a work of humanity and what is now
exhibited Is sufficient proof of the justice of
this idea.
The chronic efforts of the government to
eduuate.civilize and Cliristiunizu them, con
stitute one of those stubborn features of
policy transmitted to us from our ancestors,
which, like the Indians themselves, is capable
of resisting the force of experience and the
teachings of common sense and justice.
They are actually degraded by contact with
the white race. They show a capability for
engraf ting upon themselves nil our vices, and
for successfully resisting all our virtues.
Benevolence and philanthropy in this way
have been the bane of their people the ourse
of their intercourse wilh us. It Is very kind
ly, very clever, and very Christian-like to set
on foot projects for the enlightenmeut of the
Ignorant and the reformation of the depraved;
but there ought to be an end to aucn efforts
when their fruits sre seen to be Increased
vice and depravity in the objects sought to be
benefitted. ' ' ' '
Notwithstanding, then, ths patornnl nnd
earnest spirit of the Commissioner of Indian
Affairs, and his humane suggestions looking
to the civilization of the Indians, we submit
to Congress whether there should not be an
entire change in our federal policy toward
them Thoy should be regarded as a perma
nent tax upon the United States they
should be protected, eared for, arid, as far as
possible, provided against want, and especial
ly against the too hsrsh encroachments of
our people; but this silly effort to false them
to the dignity of American ntiatrOfy'.o intro
duce them to thearUof l.vrliiaA.ii. to imbue
them with the spirit or Christianity jftgmjd
cesse. We should regard them sef tltev are
as mors than IwttTOhftran' year of inter.
course with them hnve proved them to be
belter off, more virtuous and, If possibte.more
humane when utterly separated from us thnn
when brought into contact with us. Our sin
is not half so great in relieving them of their
lands, as through the corrupting influence of
annual annuities, in degrading and prostitut
ing them by our contact wilh them. Money
is their great curse it is the buit which inva
riably draws to them a swarm of selfish, hid
eous robbers and low debased villains, who
with poison in head, heart and hand, infcjjt
the pour Indians; steal from litem, debauch
their women, nnd sow the seeds of permanent
evil wherever they go. Wo are quite tired of
these iinniial bulletins from Washington ex.
pressingstrong hopesof the future.nnd remark
able only for neglecting tostato tht true causes
of the degradation of Die Indian races.H liich
in truth nre In be found in the cruel policy of
the federal Union itself.
What tub Russians think of Peace. A
letter from St. Petersburg to tlie Viennn
Press says:
"Do not allow yourself to be led astray by
tho rumors ot peace which still find their way
into tlie newspapers, the war will be carried
on next spring with great energy. No secret
is made of it in government circles here, nnd
the diplomatic agents of Russia, nt neutral
courts have been instructed totakecaru and
prevent those courts from mixing themselves
up in the war. Notwithstanding the undis
posed success of Gen. Canrohert's mission,
Russia has not abandoned nil hope of gaining
tier end nt Stockholm.
"Sweden nnd Denmark hnve merely pledged
themselves to the Western Powers to oh
serve n friendly neutrality, nnd not until
France and Kor'lnnd shall have achieved He.
cisive results in tlie Baltic can they expect
miirn from the Scandinavian powers. Here
we nre thoroughly prepared for a fresli expo
ilition of tho Baltic fieri, nor do we dread it
in the least, being contbwod thai Cronsljuilk.
stronger lhan Sebastopol. The Uiuperur Im
oreii very iicuve siucu ins return irotn me
Crimen, and thero is talk of great reforms
wnicn lie intends to make In the army and the
State, in order to remedy the disorders of the
past." '
IW The Lexington (Missouri) Citizen of
the 3d ult says:
It seldom happens nt any time during the
winter we have ns mnny cold days and nights
in succession. From Sunday lieforo last' up
to day before yesterday the weather lias been
intensely cold. Tho mercury in the ther
mometer seldom being moro than two or
three degrees above zero, and nt times as low
as 20 degrees below. The sleighing during
the last ten days has bejn very fine, and
many of our citizens have enjoyed the pleas
ure of a merry rido.
The St. Paul (Minesotn) Pioneer, of the
27th ult. says:
On Monday morning, tho mercury In the
thermometer indicated colder weather than
we hnve experienced in St. Paul for two or
three yenra. It Tell to thirty-eight degrees
below zero,nt 6 A. M., nnd nt 9 o'clock slood
at thirty degrees below. At noon, it rose to
ten below.
During tho dny the sun shone brightly, nnd
nt midnight the finest print could be rend in
tlie street with ease, such wus the brilliancy
of the moonlight.
Vert Dry Doctrine On bonrd the Cu-
nard steamers divine service is rend every Sun
day morning. A passenger one Sunday asked
one of the crew, "Aro you oblige to attend to
public worshlpl" "Not exactly obliged, sir,"
replied Jack, "but we would loose our grog
If we didn't,
A Live Dkposit A child was found on
Buffalo street, Rochester, a few nights since.
A paper was found in the basket, in which
the child lay, which reads thus: "A stranger
a child of sorrow, but not of infamy.
Heed its cries and take good rare of it. No
one will ever cnH tr,i "St.". It way takjr, in
nnd adopted by the family, nt whose door it
wns I eft.
A Coql Falsehood. The Dover (Del.)
Reporter, having published a pretended para
graph from an Ohio paper, editing that the
negroes in Ohio voted the American ticket ot
the recent election. The Delaware Sentinel
quietly nails the falsehood to the counter
by showing, from tho constitution of Ohio,
that no colored person can vote at all In that
State.
Ballooning Extraordinary. Mr. Ilnrvey
Moore, of Lawrence county, Ohio, claims to
have discovered a principle by which direction
can be given to an air-car nnd its speed no
celernted or retarded at the will of the engi
neer or pilot who may take charge of It, and
without the uso of ballast or waste of gas in
the ascent or descent.
False Mosalitt. There is wisdom in the
following sdvioa of ths Rev. Sydney Smith:
"Never tesoh false morality. How exquisite
ly absurd to tell girls that beauty is of bo
value, and dress of no use. Beauty is of val
ue her whole prospects and happiness of life
may often depend upon a new gown or be
coming bonnet; and if she has a grain of
common sense she will find this out. Ths
greatest thing is to teach their just value; and
that there must be something better under
ths bonnet than a pretty face for real happi
ness. But never sserifiee truth;?
WAR WITH ENGLANDLTaN ENGLISH.
MAN'S VIEWS.
At a public meeting of the Mardon Me.
chanic's Institution, ai Manchester, England,
on me I4lh December, Mr. Bright, M. P. In
the course of a speech, deprecating the war,
said: '
"Mnny ofvou have relatives or friends in
America. That young nation has a popula.
tlen about equal to ours in these Islands.
It has a great internal and external com
merce. It hns more tonnage in shipping than
w have. It hns more railroads than we have.
It hns more newspapers than we have. It
hna institutions more free thsn we have
that horrid slsvery nt the South excepted
and which is no fruit of its institutions, but
an unhappy legacy or the past It hns also a
Btent manufacturing Interest In different
brunches. That Is the young giant whose
shadow ever grows, and there is the true rival
of thfcsuuntry-. How do we stand or start
iirthe race? The United Btiitta
including sll the Govwamsnts-of ll the sov.
ereign Mtntes, raises in taxes probably from
12,000.000 to 16,000,000 sterling in the
year. England this year will raise in taxes
nnd loans, nnd will expand, nearly 100,
000,000. This population must raise, nnd
will spend, probably 80,000,000 in the year
more than that population will raise and
spend, and in America there ia far less pover
ty nnd pnuerism than in England.
Can we run this race on these terms nnd
against these odds! Can wo hope to be ns
well off us America, if tlie products of our
industry nre thus swept away by the tux
gatherer, in the vain scheme of saving Eng
land from imaginary dangers! Con poverty
be lessened among us can education spread,
Jan the brutality of so many of our popula
tion be uprooted can nil or anything that
good men look for come to us while the
fruits of our industry, the foundation of nil
social and moral good, are squandered in this
manner? Pursue tho phantom of military
glory for fen years, and expend in Hint time
a sum equal to all the visilde property of
Yorkshire nnd Lancashire, and then compare
yourselves with the United States of America,
and wheru will you be? Pauperism, crime,
and political anarchy, are the legacies wo nre
preparing for .our children, and there is no
escape for us unless we change our course
and resolve to disconnect ourselves from the
policy which tends incessantly to embroil us
with the nations of the continent of Europe."
The Arctic Region. It is impossible,
from anything we are yet in possession of,
to form un opinion ns to ' what exists be
yond the parallel of 83 degrees 30 north,
or beyond that of eighty degrees of latitude
south.
The north magnetic nole has been dlscov-
ered and examined it is elevated but a little
above tide, in Int. about 70 deg. N., long,
about 98 (leg. W. The magnetic pole of the
Antnrtio has not been reached, for it is
walled In by ice nnd is situated in lofty
mountains not yet explored; its position,
however is further from tho equator than
the north magnetic pule, nnd is in the vi
cinity of two lofty mountains, in which vol.
canoes are in nn netlve state nt nn elevation
, of more than ten thousand feet nbovu the
sen. , , .' .
The atmosphere of tlfe Arctic is unlike our
atmosphere. Lieut. Parry, when on Melville
island in me winter ot 1819.20, Int. about 75
deg. N., long, about 111 deg. W., says: "We
had frequent occasion, in our walks on shore,
to mark the deception which takes place in
estimating the distance and magnitude of ob
jects when viewed over nn unvaried Bnrfaco
of snow. It was not unusual for us to direct
our steps towards what was taken to be n
large mass of stone at the distance of a half
a mile, but which we were able to lako up in
our hand niter one minute's walk. This was
mure particularly the case when ascending
the brow of a hill, nor did we find that the
decepton became less 011 account of the fre
quency with which we experienced its effect."
Scientific American,
3?" London is now the greatest city in tlie
world, and fur surpasses all the great cities
of antiquity. According to Gibbon, the pop
ulation of ancient Rome in thu height of its
magnificence, wns 1,200,000; Ninevah is esti
mated to have had 600,000; nnd Dr.Medhurst
supposes that the population of Pckin Is
about 2,1100,000. The pnpu lation of London,
according to recent statistics, amounts to
2,500,000114,722 having boen added to it
during the Inst ten years. The census shows
that it contains about 307,723 inhabited, and
16,389 unmbaited houses.
38Tho "Monroe Doctrine" is compressed
in the sentence of one of Mr. Monroe's mes
sages, "Unit the American continents, by tlie
free and independent condition which they
have assumed and maintained, are henceforth
not to be considered ns subjects for future
colonization by any European powers."
A Reply. Judge Williamson, or throe-
legged Willie, as ho wns familiarly called,
was one of the early jtidgers of Texas. On
a certain occasion tlie judge concluded the
trial of a man for murder by sentencing him
to be hung that very dny. A petition wus
immediately signed by the bar, jury nnd peo
ple, praying that longer time might be grant
ed to tlie poor prisoner. The judge replied
to the petition that thu man had been found
guilt), tho jail was unsafe, nnd besides the
jail was so uncomforluble that the man ought
not to be required to stay there any lunger
than was necessary. The man was hung.
fry Samuel Rogers, banker nnd poet, has
at Inst yielded the life on which he had so
strong a hold; he died on the morning of the
18th of December last, aged ninety six years.
Rogers had probably a larger experience of
lifo than any man of modern times; for, ns
long ns his life was, he lived every day of it.
He published his first volume of poems iu
1787, and thus made his debut before the
great grandfathers of the present generation,
SnAEsraASKS Gentleman. In "Periolei,"
III of act II, we find this tsrss definition of a
gentleman 1
"He Is a rntlemsn,
Who neither Id hit heart, nor outwsrd eyee.
Envies the great, nur doth the low det4M."
Surrender or Kaiis. Hamburg, Friday,
The Invalids Russe contains a dispatch
from Gen. Muravielf. He reports that he hns
taken possesstou of 130 cannon, large stores
of ammunition and standards, with 10,000
prisoners beside those already reported S000
being Turkish regulars and 4,000 Redics.
LOXOAOO.
- When et eve I sst alone, .
Thinking on ths Pstt and Gone
While the olook, with drowsy finger,
Marks how long the minntes linger
And lbs embers, dimly burniug,
Tell of Life to Duet returning
Then my lonely chair around
With a quiet, mournful eoood
, With a murmur soft and low,.
Corns the Ghosts of Long Ago.
. One by one I oount thsm o'er, '
Voioss that are heard no more, , 1 1
Tears that loving cheeks have wet.
Words, whose musle lingers yet
Holy faces pale and fair,
Shadowy looks of wsving hsir .
Happy sighs and whispers dear.
Songs forgotten many a year
Lips of dewy fragrance eyes
" Brighter, bluer than ths skies
Odors breathed from Paradise.
And the gentle shadows gTtde '
Softly murmuring: nt my tide,
, Till the )on;niei,l4-dar, '. .
All forgotten, fAdeS away.
Thus, when I am all alone, "
Dreaming o'er the Past and Gone,. : -:
All around me,sad and slow, .
Come the Ghotj of Long Ago. .
The Dead Men's Train on the Old .Co-
toNT Road. The Old Colony Memorial
published at Plymouth Muss., narrates sn
incident which is sufficiently marvelous to
please the most ardent bulievers In "signs
and wonders:
It states, ns a matter of common notortetv
in Plymouth that during the last summer
months, between three and four o'clock in
tlie morning, there waa regularly and dis
tinctly heard upon tho railroad the whistle as
of an approaching train. As it was well
known, however, that no train passed .over
the rood at such a time in the morning, four
gentlemen at the Samoset House determined
to investigate the mvsterv. Accordinnlv. un
known to nuy one, they one mornig about
two o'clock stationed themselves on the
railroad track about n mile from town, and
awaited the arrival of the supernatural visiter.
1 hey did not watch long, nor wait in vain
for immediately thoy distinctly heard, fur off
in me norm, me sound ol a railway whistle,
and presently "tne distant clatter nt wheels
was henrd louder, nearcr,neurcr still it came
tlie click or the rails: tho rush of steam
was as plain in their ears as if tlie lantern
glared before them the shriek of a demon
whistle close nt hand made lueni leap from
the track, as the train thundered down the
grade tlie hot brcatli of the panting steed
wns in their very faces as it passed as the
unearthly scream ceased they heard the brake-
mer. screwing up their brakes, the tinkle of
a bell and a sound of meeting enrs, ns il the
invisible spectre monster of the rond had
reached his journey s end.
The Boston Journal says tliat in that city
a spiritual circl, while sitting, held a conver
sation with the spirit ol an engineer who
while living, ran n train on the Old Colony
Railrond. The spirit said that the train was
fur the purpose of conveying the spirits of
me ueau. -
Sleep. A high medical authority, Pro
fessor llumpland, says that, so far as exter
nal life is concerned, sleep is no less neces
sary for its duration than its health. With
out tho proper amount of sleep, the vital
energy is dxied up and withered, nnd we
waste uwuy as a tree would, deprived of the
sap that nurishes iU Tlie physical effects
of .sleep arc, that it rctnrds all the vital
movements, collects tho vital power, nnd
restores what has been lost in thu course of
thu day, and separates us from what is use
less nnd pernicious. It is, as it were, a dai
ly crisis, during which all tho secretions nre
performed in the greatest tranquility and per.
fection.
A Paragraph on Cats. Bayard Taylor,
in his "New Volume of Travels," gives tho
following humorous description of tho cats
of Aleppo:
"The other remarkable thins here is the
hospital for cats. This was founded long
ago by a rich ent-ioving Mnssclmnn, and is
one of tho best endowed institutions in that
city. An old Mosque is appropriated to that
purpose, under the charge ol several directors,
and here sick cats ure nursed, homeless cnts
find shelter, nnd decrepit cats gracefully purr
away their declining years.
"fhu whole cargory embraces several
hundreds, nnd it is quite a sight to behold the
corridors and terraces of the mosque swarm
ing with them. Here, one with bruised limbs
is receiving a cataplasm; there, a cataleptic
patient is tenderly cared for; nnd so on
through the lor.g concatenation of feline dis
eases. Aleppo, moreover, rejoices In a greater
number of eats than wen Jerusalem. At a
rough guess, I should thus slate thu popula
tion of the city, Turks and Arabs, 70,000;
Christians, of all denominations, 15,000; Jews,
19,000; dogs, 12,000; cats, 8,000."
Thk Assistant Treasury. The Jour
nal of Commerce says, in speaking of the
arrangements for paying the January interest
on tlie national debt: "The sub Treasury,
much as it was denounced by politicians and
a certain class of political economists,
hns been a great blessing lo this country.
In Nuw York, where the bulk of the dis
bursements are made, the administration of
this department is the theme of universal
praise."
l-fPortsinouth, Vo., on the breaking out
of the recent pestilence contained a popula
tion of 14,000, of which 1,200, nt least have
died, and about 4,800 among the missing hnve
not returned. The population of Norfolk
at the some period was 18,000,nf which 3,700
have died, and there are at least 0,000 not
returned. A desolation, nil things considered,
far exceeding in its results the great plague
of London.
Slipper T Times in Boston. The streets
were very slippery in Boston on Christmas
day. The wag of the Post says that one
gentleman in particular, who has long been
very anxious to obtain a seat in the Legisla.
ture, finally found one un the sidewalk with
out any exertion. Ice Is treacherous.
r$rOn Thursday while an old lady named
Boyd wus attending the funeral of her de
ceased husband, nt J rinity Church, New
York, a pickpocket managed to extract from
her pocket 9G5. Ho wue subsequently ar
rested, however, aud compelled to disgorge.
CALIFORNIA HUMORS. ... . ,
We select from Vhoenixiana a volume of
most fatal nnd irresistible fun, a few samples
and passages of life in California, which may
be interesting to ninny renders. We begin
with the"Innugurntlon of the New Collector,"
and append a few apecimena of the epistolary
favors received by that important personage.
It will be seen that there Is "a great sisal of -human
nature in men," even in California, j
LETTSnS TO THE NEW COLLtCTON. ,
. NO. I. . "
"My Dear Tritnd: presume you wfll be
perfectly surrounded this morning, aa Usaal,
by a crowd of heartless offiensscckers. I
therefore take this method of addressing yon.
I thank God I wnnt no office for myself or
others. Yon hnve known me for years, and
hnve never known me to do a mean or dis
honorable action. I saw W np, at
Stockton the other day, and he is very anxious
Hint I should be appointed 'Inspector of
Steamboats.- He snid thntlneeded it, and
deserved it, und that he-tmprol fu wnBiaffi.
it to me; hut I told him I was nnnffiea.spolfar
I should never ask you for nny office. He
snid he would write to you about it. Plenso
write tii me ns soon ns vou receive this, mm
of Parry &. Batten. "
"Tour altectionatc friend."
"P. S.--MV friend John Kmifh. who
knowisatrne Pierce and King man, in
anxious to get Iho appointment of Weigher
nou uiiugrr 01 maccarom. He is nn excellent
teiiow, nnd n true friend of yours. I hope,
whether you can spare nn Inspectorship for
me or not, you will give Smith a chance.
no. 11.
"My Dear Sir: Allow me to congratulate
you on your success in obtniningynur wishes.
I have called twice to see you, but hnve not
been nble to Hud you in. You were kind
.enough to assure me, before leaving for
Washington, that I might depend upon your
friendship. 1 think it very improbable that I
shall be renominated. The Water-front Ex
tension project has not been received with
that favor that I expected, nnd what with
Roman and the Whigs and that d d Her-
aid, I reel very donimiil. You will oblige me
by retaining in your possession, until alter the
Convention, the olliee of to the Custom
House. I must look nbout nm to commnnd
the means of subsistence. I will see you again
on this subject. Very truly vours.
"P. S. My young friend, Sir. John Brown,
a ishes to be made Inspector of Vermicelli.
He is s pure Democrat dyed in the wool, and
I trust in m iking ynnr appointment you will
not overlook hisciaiius. Brown tells mo he
considers himself almost a relative of yours.
His aunt used to go to school with your
father. She frequently writes to him, nnd
nl-.vays speaks of you with great esteem.
no. m.
".Von Amie: I uve been vcr mnlado since
that I hnv arrive, I vcr muche thank you for 1
you rivillte on In vnpor which we come ici,
juntos. The peoples here do any to me, you
si pued give to me the littel offices in your
customs house, I wish if si ustcd gtistnn vou
me shall make lo be Inspectors do cigarritos.
Je I' cntends muy bien. Come to me sec.
Countesde
"Mister Jose Jones he say wish lo be entree
clvrky. You muchtf me oblige by make him -do
it.
so. IV.
"The following wns evidently dictated by
some belligerent old Democrat to nn niiinn.
uenais, who appears not to have got precisely
the ideas intended:
"Sin: I have been a dilnomit of tho Jack
son School thank God for twenty years. If
you sir had been erected to nn orilice by the
pusillanimous sull'eiings of the people ns I
was onst I would hnv no clam but sir you
are appointed by Pierce for whom I voted and
King who is dend ns Julia's sister nnd I ex.
pectornte the olliee for w hich my friends will
usk you sir I am n plane man and wont the
orifice of Prover nnd taster of Brandy and
wish you write to me nt the Niantic where I
sick three days and hnve lo write by a young
gentleman or come to ace me beforu eleven
o'clock when I generally get sick. Yours.
"P. S. .My young man mr. Peter Stokes I
request may be mado inspector of pipes.
The Difference in Men. We often seo
nn old nnd well-beaten man who never had a
success in his life, who always knew more nnd
accomplished less than his associates, who
took the quartz and dirt of enterprise, while
they took the gold; and yet, in old nge, he is
the hnppjer man, and all his life long ho was
the happier man. Ho had n sum of nope, nnd
they of oVri're and greed nnd nmi i ull this
misfortune nnd his mysterious providences he
hud that w ithin him w hich rose up nnd carried
his heart abuve nil troubles, and upon their
world wide waters bore him up like the old
Am upon 1110 iJuiugc. It was tlie Deluge
that gavu out not tho Ark. God has dislri.
butcd bis gifts. It takes a score of them to
make one man. One supplies the swift sngaci.
ty; nnnlher the cautious logic; another the
impelling lorce; another the hope, another the
practical met one supplies general princi.
pies, ontither tlie working plans. Men seldom
unite by the (ron print. It is men's weak,
nesses thnt bind them together. Hy distiibut
ing gifts, God makes one innn dependent
upon nnollier, nnd welds society together by
making every man necessitous, iu some nlaee.
ns regards other men II. IV. litecher.
IsTEI'.F.ST.-lleverend llenrv Ward TWehm
In his last letter in the New York Indctien.
dent, thus gives his opinion upon farminir
upon borrowed capital:
UV l.tlulu- .I.,...-.. ..I.-..... ,1 UT..I .
.-w ....... a nn.,, j.i-i ,11,111 "iiiicrcai
does. Of nil industries, none is comparable
10 nun 01 interest. 11 works day and night,
in fair weather nnrl in I'onl It l ,.n
ir. its footsteps but travels fast. It gnaws at
....... ., i . . -.1 . . . .
11. in n Biiuniiiiit-u w 1111 loviaioiu tcetll. it OlnOS
IndllMlru U'itli lis 111 in nu n llu iu I........1 ........
.' - 1 - - ... "VUI.W UIUII
a spider's web. Debt rolls n man over and
1. :...:.. i.i ... 1 ..a 1 r..... 1 ...
uti-i, uuiuoi mill imnu liuu Itlili auu letting
him hang upon the fatal mesh until the long -legged
interest devours him. There ia no
crop that can afford to pay interest money on
a farm. There ia but one thing raised on a
farm like It, and that is the Canadian thistle,
wnicn swarms new plants every time you
break its roots. U'hnHH blnuanina ma Mnl:i:
' fiwiiui;,
and every flower the father of a million seeds.
uver; ivai isuu un 1, every urancn a spear and
every sintrlo iilant is ULu nn nr,,,..A l.nu.
o I ...... .... ... iitvn iii.ni.H
The whole plant ia a torment and a vegetable
curse. And vet a man bad better nuiL. Lis
bed of Canadian thistles, than utlemut In lis
at ease upon interest.
An Unlucky Kick. J. W. Gillman. of
Jonesborough, Me., while at work In a saw
mill, in attempting to kick a dog from the end
of a log, accidentally brought hia foot In eon.
tact with tho descending saw, which severed
the loot Irom the leg In a twinkling,
According to the report of the New
Orleuns Chief of Police, during tho last six
months, one tenth of the entire population of
that city has beeu placed under arrest.

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